Issuu on Google+

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR SII 2012

JOURNAL

Antonia Cabez贸n O. Student Number: 586288


CONTENTS 1. CASE FOR INNOVATION

p. 4

1.1 Architecture as a Discourse

p. 5 - About me p. 6 - Previous Studios p. 7 - Experience with Digital Architecture p. 8 - Favorite Architects p. 9

1.2 Computational and Parametric Architecure p. 12 - “Architeture’s New Media” p. 14 - “Architecure in Digital Age” p. 15 - Expresive Precedents p. 16 - Folding Architecrure p. 17 - “Lets the war of Style Begin” p. 19 - Reflection p. 21

2. THE CUT PROJECT p. 22 2.1 More Precedents p. 23

- Eladio Dieste p. 24 - Frei Otto p. 25 2.2 Case Study 1 p. 26 -Crater Lake, Studio 24 p. 27 -Exploration of Technique p. 30 2.3 Case Study 2 p. 33 - National Stadium of Beijing, Herzog and d Mouron p. 34 - Exploration of Technique p. 36


2.4 Technique development p. 40 - A.Pattern p. 42 - B. Shape p. 44 - Matrix p. 46 - C. Combination p. 48 - D. Construction p. 49

3. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

p. 52 - Conclusions p. 55

4. THE GATEWAY PROYECT 4.1 Construction, Joints and Materials

p. 58

p. 60 - Precedents p. 61 - Joints p. 63 - Label system p. 64 - Double Vault p. 64 -Construction sequence p. 65 4.3 The site p. 67 -The You Yangs p. 69 -The wild life p. 70 4.4 A New Landscape p. 71 - Poryect p. 72 - Conclusions p. 73

3


1. CASE FOR INNOVATION

4


1.1 Architecture as a Discourse 5


ABOUT ME My name is Antonia. I am 23 years old, and I study Architecture in Pontificia Universidad Cat贸lica de Chile. I came from Chile to University of Melbourne as an exchange student. I am really interested in how architecture is taught in Australia and in such a large university. I think thats the aim of an exchange program, to learn how a different system works. 6

How there can be different approachs and points of view and how I can learn from this. I hope I would learn this from this Studio, besides all what I expect to learn about grasshopper and parametric design.


PREVIOUS STUDIOS

Studio 1

was about exploring with different materials (paper, wood, concrete, metal) and architectural elements (walls, ground and cover).

Studio 2

We focused in light studies on which we based our final project: a dressing room. It had to be a private space naturally illuminated.

In Studio 3

They asked to design a house for a family. Special emphasis in observation of how a house works and how you walk through it (architectural promenade. We had to observe our own houses and research about some famous houses and take those observations to project.

In Studio 4

We had to study an old mechanic washing machine and developed a mechanism that could change the space. I design a building that was an open space and worked as a bicycle-center during the day and that could be closed at night and works as a bar. 7


EXPERIENCE WITH DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

I´ve heard about digital architecture and have done some digital designs.

About Grasshopper, the tutor showed us how it works, but I have never done any parametric design before. Although I’m really interested about this type of design, I want to understand how it works and be capable of making my own parametric designs. I think is very interesting how many things you can do with this kind of programs. In my opinion parametric design gives to architect a new perspective of architecture. Its a new tool that should give multiple, different and unexpected results that we, as architects, must explore.

Last semester I took a subject called “Digital Design” where they taught us how to use Rhino for modeling and 3ds Max for rendering. We also learn how to model a developable complex surface and make the physic model with paper (cutting with the laser printer). You can visit the blog in http:// fa.arqdgtluc.cl/about-2/ Basically it was about 3D modeling, component production, creation of developable models and rendering. However, I feel much comfortable modeling and rendering in AutoCad than in Rhino.

8


FAVORITE ARCHITECTS THE EXPRESSIVENESS OF THE MATERIAL AND THE STRUCTURE AS THE ESSENCE OF THE PROJECT

SOLANO BENITEZ

I like the work of this paraguayan architect because of the unexpected way he uses the bricks in his designs. He creates new structures that seem that wont work, but they actually do. And always in a very aesthetic form, respecting and standing out the honesty of the material. Its amazing. I also like it because his buildings integrate with the surroundings.

Cede Central Teleton, Source: www.arquinauta.com

B贸veda Caten茅rica Source: http://farq.edu.uy

9


PETER ZUMTHOR I like his discourse about the honesty of the materials and its expressivity. I like that he uses the local materials and how he plays with them to create really special atmosphere. I think he is an example in how he takes care of every single detail along the design process and the construction: the light, the color, the joints, the views, etc. And manages to immerse the total as one thing into the landscape.

Kolumba Museum Source: www.plataformaarquitectura.cl

Therme Vals Source: www.plataformaarquitectura.cl

10


... in relation with the foregoing... MORE EXPRESSIVE MATERIAL AND STRUCTURE... GRAMAZIO & KHOLER ARCHITECTS Structural Oscillations, Venice, 2007-2008 Installation at the 11th Venice Architectural Biennale

Source images and text: http://dfab.arch.ethz.ch/ web/e/forschung/142.html

“The design of the wall followed algorithmic rules and was built on site at the Giardini, the grounds of the Biennale, by the R-O-B mobile robotic fabrication unit (...) The wall’s design was conceived as a system with open parameters. The course of a single, continuous curve carried all the generative information necessary to determine the design (...) As each group’s requirements were modified, the three-dimensional, undulating wall could be automatically regenerated. Its complex shape was determined by the constructive requirement that each single, four meter long segment should stand firmly on its own”.

This project make me understand how a complex surface can be parameterized and how this is related with it construction. The robot just follows the instruction predetermined in the design. And the design is the result of the adaptation or response to a series of parameters established by the architect: the requires of the material, the structure, de length of the unit, etc. And because of this relation between the parameters (or requirements) and the form, when one o more parameters change, the form changes to, it readapts to what is require.

11


1.1 Computational & Parametric Architecture 12


With Leon Battista Alberti, for the first time the conception of the building was separated from its construction.

This made necessary to create modeling tools, such as scale drawings and scale models, so the designer could communicate with the constructor. And as more precise this tools were, the better was the communication, so the better the construct result meets the designer conception.

Computers are every day more accurate, they let us do very precise models and plans. But they are not just a representation tool. They can also be used as a designing tool. This is the door that parametric design opens to the architecture: a new method for the designn process. Thanks to computers, the design information is the construction information. They are not longer separate. This allows us to conceive and construct buildings never imagined before.

13


“ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA” YEHUDA E. KALAY Before Renaissance buildings were undesign o unplanned. It was Leon Battista Alberti the first one to differentiate the conception of the building from its construction (p.8). It was a complete new method, the beginning of design as a new discipline. This method Leon Battista Alberti, (plan the entire building www.canalsocial.net before construction) allows the designer to PREVIEW any problem that may occur during the construction, and so, it helps to prevent or anticipate them. As result, designing the building before its construction helps to avoid a waste of time and money. But it isn’t perfect, many times what the architect designs is very different from what is finally build. For planning and designing we use tools. As more precise this tools are, the better the architect can design and the more easier is for the constructor to understand what the architect wants. And the final result is more similar to how was conceive. Today’s principal tool for designing is the computer. It permits to create very precise models and drawings, and to calculate every detail. But it also helps during the designing method. “Design is a process of discovery” (p.15). When you start designing something, whatever it is, you don’t know with certainty what you are looking for. Is a feedback process, each new discovery makes you to rethink your initial methods and goals and discover new opportunities that you never imagined. This is why

design is about experimentation and tryout. “One solution leads to another, better developed solution, until one that satisfies all the goals” (p.18) Computers plays an important role in this exploration. They allow you to do and undo with no effort, to try and prove the different solutions and to avoid error during the process. And this is only if we use the computer as a “more precise hand and faster calculator” tool. If we just do the design in the computer instead of doing by hand. But if we move into the parametric design, a new group of opportunities opens. The experimentation is even faster and the calculation automatic. However, this doesn’t mean that the computer do everything. The designer role is the same: has to make the decision, give the instructions, etc. Parametric design or computers, only give a new method to affront the design process. The “unpredictability of the process” and the aguish before the blank page keeps the same.

ENIAC, first succesful electronic digital computer. www.crowl.org/lawrence/history/

14


“ARCHITECTURE IN DIGITAL AGE” BRANKO KOLAREVIC

“Digital architecture are changing architectural practice (...) Digitally driven design processes, characterized by dynamic, open-ended and unpredictable bu consistent transformations of the three dimensional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities”. (p.3)

EMBLEMATIC BOLD BUILDINGS (BEYOND THE USUAL LIMITS) Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace and Eiffel‘s Tower in their time showed the world the new opportunities that innovation in technology gave to architecture. Today we can say the same about Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum. Is the principal referent of digital design in architecture, besides the personal opinion that anyone can have. After this building, highly complex curvilinear structures are no longer seen as impossible for the architecture. But contributions are not purely formal. Thanks to the digital design, “the design information is the construction information” (p.7). This means that the main problem of design, of how conception was separated from the construction and so the constructed result was different from the design, is solve. In the computer you can model the complete building, even the most little detail, and prove that everything works. Namely, the computer builds a 4D model, a

“single cohesive, complete model that contains all the information necessary for designing and producing a building. This facilitates precast construction, decreasing the cost and time of the 15


EXPRESSIVE PRECEDENTS TOPOLOGICAL SURFACES s.XX Antonio Gaudi G端ell Park, 1914 Batllo House 1906

Alvar Aalto Finnish Pavillion, 1939

Vitorio Giorgini Liberti Center, 1962

Frei Otto Munich Olimpic Stadium, 1972; Mannheim Multihall, 1976 16


FOLDING ARCHITECTURE You can give structure to a thin layer by floding it. And use the form that results to create new and interesting spaces.

DEEP GROUND, GROUNDLAB. International Contest for Longcheng Square, China. “Thickened Ground� is the space strategy that this project develops. It treats the ground as a layer and generates new spaces by folding it. The fold permits the light and air to come in to spaces that were unused before.

Source: http://www.plataformaurbana.cl/archive/2008/06/02/deep-ground-competencia-internacional-paraciudad-de-longgang-y-longcheng-square-china/

Other works by Groundlab Xian Expo

Source:http://aa-landscape-urbanism.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/xian-expo-by-plasmastudio-andgrounue.html

17


PARAMETRIC PERSPECTIVE “For the purposes of this project, a relational urban model has been created which can control simultaneously built mass quantities as well as 3D model of the built fabric. The model is based in sets of urban relationships which connect one another, hence the name of relational. One of the advantages of this working methodology is that it enables the generation of different options with a relative minor effort, as most of the drawing gets automatically produced, while there is potentially the chance to evaluate the overall built volume before the volume is even generated. It also enables the combination of variables related to density with variables related to typology. This can be used to produce varied and diverse urban patterns with simple controls. The volumetry of the proposed built fabric shown in the final drawing and renderings has been modelled to suit the quantity of land use calculated in the Transport Chapter (around 9,000,000 m2).

“The result of this work is a series of options which allow us to study simultaneously the effects of different massing options in terms of GFA (m2) and spatial arrangement as well. The image shows the type of iterations that the model allows to do, evaluating options where the centre of intensity of the model as well as the overall quantity of buildings are modified in order to get a totally different, yet related, urban configuration. This leads to the concept of ADAPTABLE DESIGN applied for the Longgang masterplan, where changes on different variables (location and number of density nodes, particularities in building catalogue, etc) can be added into the design almost in real time so that further discussion on the urban fabric and architectural qualities can be put forward during the decision making process�. http://www.groundlab.org/

18


“LETS STYLE WARS BEGIN” PATRIK SCHUMACHER

“Parametricism is the great new style after modernism”.

Ville Savoye, Le Corbusier. es.wikiarquitectura.com

Nordpark, Innsbruck -Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha-hadid.com

In General, people understand style as a mere matter of appearance and is through this how the judge architecture. I think style is not just about aesthetic and form, but about a way of conceiving the building and its construction. Is the result of the use

of certain design tools, of a certain cosntruction method and system and a certain lifestyle. Its a response to the time According to this, Parametricism is a new architectural style, in despite of the curvilinear forms to wich is usually associated.

people who design in section make complex sections and people who design with models tend to privilege the building as an object. But this is only true if the design is generated through this representational medium. So if I was to make a Grasshopper model of Villa Savoye, it does not make Villa Savoye parametric architecture, the generator of Villa Savoye is still very much the set square”. “Which begs the question, is ZHA a parametric firm? In my opinion no. ZHA belongs in a group, with the likes of Gehry, who are second generation digital architects(...) is still traditional”.

NEIL LEACH, in Digital Morphogenesis, 2009 makes a harsh criticism to Schumacher essay. “I would personally define parametric, within the context of digital architecture, as a type of geometric model whose geometry is a function of a finite set of parameters. While a parametric model is a representation tool, I think that it does privilege a certain type (style?) of building simply by making some operations easier than others; you see the same thing in other representational modes, especially in student projects, people who design in plan tend make complex plans,

19


NORDPARK CABLE RAIL WAY, INNSBRUCK Zaha Hadid Architects “No other style could have achieved this coincidence of adaptive variation to the different site conditions with genotypical coherence across those phenotypical variants” (Patrik Schumacher in “Lets Style wars begin”)

20


REFLECTION

Talking about “Parametric Architecture” might seem like all the precedent architecture wasn’t parametric at all. But this is not true. All the architecture, old and new, is a response to some parameters (that were defined along the designing process) and the shape is a result of the designer’s EXPLORATION to find the way that matches the best this parameters or precedents.

Computation is just a new way to face the design process, to confront and play with the parameters/variables. But is still the designer who define this parameters and the relation between them. I think parametricism is the essence of design: a response to parameters defined by the precedents. “Parametricism itself does not interest me particularly, especially as ‘parametric design’ is tantamount to a sine qua non; WHAT EXACTLY IS NONPARAMETRIC DESIGN?” Michael Meredith “Parametric design is such that it is the parameters of a design that are declared, not the shape... Equations are used to represent the relationships between objects. The ability to define, determine and reconfigure geometrical relationships is of particular value.” Mark Burry, ‘Paramorph’, 1999

“Parametric approaches aim at representing change. Rather than the designer creating the design solution (by direct manipulation) as in conventional design tool, the idea is that the designer first establishes the relationships by which parts connect, builds up a design using these relationships and modifies the relationships by observing and selecting from the results produced. The system takes care of the job of keeping the design consistent with the relationships and thus increases designer ability to explore ideas by reducing the tedium of rework”. Lecture week 4 21


2. THE CUT PROYECT

22


2.1 More Precedents

Parametric is the essence of architecture 23


ELADIO DIESTE

Church Of Crhist The Worker (1955) Cadyl Horizontal Silo (1975)

Church Of Christ The Worker 1955-60

“The resistant virtues of the structure that we seek depend on their form; it is through their form that they are stable, not because of an awkward accumulation of material. There is nothing more noble and elegant from an intellectual viewpoint than this: to resist through form.� (Eladio Dieste, 1996)

Cadyl Horizontal Silo Source: http://ibois.epfl.ch/webdav/site/ibois2/shared/ eladiodieste.pdf

24


FREI OTTO MANNHEIM

Is not just about the shape he builds, is the whole process behind it: the exploration, th calculation, the references, the models and the design of new tools and of theconstruction system. He thinks everything as one thing. For him the proyect involves everything. The design is much more than just the fancy shape. Olimpic Stadium Munich Source: http://bobbarton.tumblr.com/post/20925220300/olympic-stadium-munich-

Mannheim Source: http://www.fourthdoor.org/annular/?page_id=453

25


2.2 Case Study 1 26


CRATER LAKE 24 STUDIO (Fumio Hirakaw & Marina Topunova)

Source Text and Images: http://www.24d-studio.com (seen 22/08/2012)

“Design Multiple ideas and materials were tested to realize the complexity of smooth and undulating form. Wood was chosen for its strong structural capacity, ease of work with, and natural qualities. One of the main issues was to express continuous and smooth surface without using costly techniques of wood steaming, bending or digital fabrication. The solution was to divide the circular surface into a number of radial parts, with optimal number of 20 parts. Factors that determined this optimal number were, overall surface expression, production schedule, and transportation method (vehicle bedsize). The structure of radial parts consists of series of free-form ribs composed in segmentations with horizontal support and cross bracing for rigidity. Each radial segment has 64 surface planks that are attached to three structural ribs that are rigidly connected between each other with horizontal supports.� 27


Factors Sun Situations Wind Playing Meeting Observe Surroundings Cheap and easy fabrication Material

Parameters

Result Shape/Form

Slopes

360째 Preassembled wood radial parts

28

Smooth undulating form. Circular base. 20 radial parts. Wood studs surface


“The surfaces with the most anticipated traffic flow have narrow spacing between each plank. And as the mount becomes higher, the spacing distance of surface planks increases, allowing users to climb the mount. The rising mount resulted from understanding the site and seasonal conditions, functioning as a sun shading and wind protection from the bay winds when sitting at inner area.�

29


EXPLORATION OF TECHNIQUE GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION: IMAGE SAMPLER

Variation 1: BASIC

I just follow the instructions to build the definition and understand how it works.

Variation 2: EXTRUSION

I tried to see if it was possible to add an extrusion as a new parameter. If the image can define the extrusion height of the circles. For this I add an extrude component connected to: -What I wanted to extrude: the Circles as the Basic definition -A Z Vector to define the direction of the extrusion. And this vector is defined by the image sample. The result was this extruded surfaces with a different height ranging depending on the image information. However, although I get a result in Rhino, the last component in Grasshopper appears as an error.

30


Variation 3: EXTRUSION WITH NORMAL DIRECTION a) I got the extrusion with normal direction

by using a “Plane Components” component and connecting the Z result to the Direction plug in of the “Extrude” Component. However, with this definition I cant define the extrusion height with the image.

b) Finally, with a multiplication between the Z normal plane and the image sampler I could get the extrusion in Normal Direction. But first I had to multiply the “Image Sampler” result to be able to control the height of the extrusion. I also had to multiply by (-1) because the shapes went to the other side of the surface.

31


Variation 4: LINES a) Default

b)Multiplication: x(-1)

32


2.3 Case Study 2 33


NATIONAL STADIUM, BEIJING HERZOG & DE MEURON

Image Source: http://www.chinese-architecture.info

The building was conceived as a bowl covered by a steel shell. The shell was parametrically designed. Is structured by 24 columns, each one different from the other, connected by steel frames continuing with this random appearance This Stadium was inspired in bird’s nest, not only in its aesthetic but also its structure. Facade and structure were conceived as the same thing. As the creators said about this project: “Structure = façade = roof = space The spatial effect of the stadium is novel and radical, and yet simple and of an almost archaic immediacy. Its appearance is pure structure. Façade and structure are identical. The structural elements mutually support each other and converge into a spatial grid-like formation, in which façades, stairs, bowl structure and roof are integrated.”

Source: http://www.herzogdemeuron.com

34


For this project a parametric model of the steel system and stadium seating was used for rapid design modifications and for a more eficient use of the materials. “The parametric modeling approach allowed rapid development of steel design, engineering and fabrication instructions early in design development, and allowed this information to be automatically updated over design

changes. Late in design development, significant value engineering changes were initiated, including the removal of a previously designed retractable roof. Working with GT and the parametric modeling approach, the design, model and drawings were revised to reflect the new strategy in less than three weeks.� (Gherys Technologies, at http://www.gehrytechnologies.com)

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Source: http://www.gehrytechnologies.com/sites/default/files/webform/

35


EXPLORATION OF TECHNIQUE RECREATION OF THE BIRD’S NEST

A. PROCESS 1. Our first approach was a random pattern of lines. For this we needed random

points and planes in a surface. For this we created a surface in Rhino, used a “Populated 2d” component and connected the points to a XZ plane. We rotated this planes with random angles and looked for the section planes between the first planes and the rotated ones.

The problem was that, eventhough we could rotate in random angles, we couldnt rotate the planes in 3D spaces.

2.

We found a GrassHopper definition that generated pipes along curves in a surface. To understand how it worked, we started from the end of the diagram a figure out where we have to change things to create our own definition

36


3.

Definition decomposition

Creates a Pipe

Around a Curve

This could be any surface we wanted. We changed it for a torus and set it into grasshopper as a “Brep�

generated by

Afterwards we set here the surface of the Stadium

a Base Plane and

a Section Plane generated

This section plane is the one we want random

between

The centroid of the figure

a Z axis:

is a line created between 2 points: the centroid and the random points of the population 3D

Here was the key to generate our random pattern.

Or any other point: we wanted to change the centroid as the direction point, because we wanted a random pattern and not radial one. We had to figure out how to change this, how to generate section planes in random directions.

We realized it was much simpler to generate lines between 2 sets of random points than between rotated planes unlike as we were doing at the beginning.

37


B. OUR OWN DEFINITION

Paramater 1 Loft Surface to represent the shape of the National Stadium. We can change the curves in Rhino as much as we want and everything will be automatically readapted.

Parameter 2 With the “Divide Surface” and “Populate 3D” components we created our 2 set of random points. We can change this parameters (n°of points/n° of section planes) with sliders.

C. RESULT

38


The pipes go along the curve generated by the intersection of the base surface and the plane

The planes are formed between the points of the surface and the lines created betwen the 2 sets of random points.

Parameter 3 The radio of the pipe can be modify with a slider.

Image Source: http://www.chinese-architecture.info

39


II. Ideas - Geometry-structure, shelling I. Referents

- Frei Otto (Structured Shells)

- Continuous surface,

- Eladio Dieste

continuity of the space and

- Solano Benitez

different uses

- Bird´s Nest Stadium

- Negative spaces, created

- Crater Lake - Shoal Fly By, SIAL

SHAPE = STRUCTURE

by the bends and curves of the surface/shell - Space conditioned by the structure and its pattern. - Permeability

2.4 Technique Development 40

II. Tools - Grass Hopper - Rhino-Vault


- Bird´s Nest Stadium - Grass Hopper exploration

A. PATTERN Conditionates the space C. COMBINATION Decision: Wich option is the best for our project B. SHAPE As the same thing as the structure

- Crater Lake, 24 Studio

- Shell Strucutres: Frei Otto - Compressed Structures: E.Dieste, S. Benitez - Rhino-Vault exploration

41

D. CONSTRUCTION labels, templates, material, joints

- Shoal Fly By, SIAL


A. PATTERN REFERENT: National Stadium of Beijing

In this building, the pattern of the facade and the structure are the same thing. And is this patternstructure what makes this space so attractive. When the people visit the stadium, they are amazed by the uncommon shape and the “in-sight” structured in the facade. The pattern creates a permeable negative space by leaving an undefined gap between the “bird´s nest structure” and the concrete bowl. And it also produce a special game of shadows and lights that add more interest to the space.

Image Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ kukkaibkk/5050293674/

Paramater 1 Loft Surface to represent the shape of the National Stadium. We can change the curves in Rhino as much as we want and everything will be automatically readapted.

Parameter 2 With the “Divide Surface” and “Populate 3D” components we created our 2 set of random points. We can change this parameters (n°of points/n° of section planes) with sliders.

42


TOOL: GrassHopper definitions

After the Case Study 2, trying to recreate the National Stadium of Beijing, we create our own definition adapting the definition created by Angel Quintana (at http://www.grasshopper3d.com/forum/topics/bird-nesting-definition?page=2&comm entId=2985220%3AComment%3A629150&x=1#2985220Comment629150). What this definition does is create random curves on a surface produced by the intersection of planes and the surface itself. And the planes in turn are produced between 2 groups of points (see the definition in p. 34). With the variation of the parameters and the generation of the points we produce a series of different patterns to be analyzed. The first group of patterns was generated by 2 sets of points, and we varied the density of each group to get different results. The second group of curves was generated by a group of random points and the centroid of the figure. In the third experimentation, instead of creating pipes along the curves, we divided the curves and obtained a different set of points arround wich we construct circles that could be modify by different tools such as Attractor points and Image Sampler. Here there were lots of posibilities (with normal plane, without normal plane, with pipes, etc). The pipes go along the curve generated by the intersection of the base surface and the plane

The planes are formed between the points of the surface and the lines created betwen the 2 sets of random points.

Parameter 3 The radio of the pipe can be modify with a slider.

43


B. SHAPE

REFERENTS: Frei Otto He developed this structured-shells

where is the shape what gives the resistance: is amazing how just by generating a doublecurved surface the hole shell is structured. He only uses the geometry to generate light self-supporting structure. The continuity of the space and the sensation of lightness that this produces is really interesting. Beside this, is also very interesting the method he used to construct the shells: first the structure is flat, then is raised and finally the joints are fixed.

Image Source: http://gridshell-comalle.blogspot. com.au/p/estructura.html

Eladio Dieste “The resistant virtues of the

structure that we seek depend on their form; it is through their form that they are stable, not because of an awkward accumulation of material. There is nothing more noble and elegant from an intellectual viewpoint than this: to resist through form.” (Eladio Dieste, 1996) Every time I see Dieste’s work I’m amazed. The double-curved shapes he construct WITH BRICKS! It seems impossible, but it is not. The structure is given by the form, not by the material.

Image Source: http://arqytec.blogspot.com.au/2011/03/ eladio-diesteiglesia-de-atlantida.html

Solano Benitez The unorthodox way this architect uses

the materials to create this surprising structures makes us think (or rethink) what can be done. Playing with the form and the materials he creates amazing spaces with a low budget. The permeability of the structure is also interesting, how it creates a relation between the inside and the outside. Image Source: Leonardo Finotti, architectural photography at http://leonardofinotti.com/projects/teleton

44


TOOL: RhinoVAULT

Whats is Rhino-Vault? Is a plug-in for Rhinoceros, created by Matthias Rippmann, Lorenz Lachauer and Prof. Dr. Philippe Block, that creates and explores compression-only structures. (more info at http://block.arch.ethz.ch). As a group, after analyzing our referents, we decided that compressed structures were a good approach to our project. And this parametric plug in was a great complement for our exploration with Grass Hopper since the definition we had developed allows to insert any kind of surface to be populated. 2. With this button of the toolbar the plug in generates the dual graph. This shows how the forces are working in a structure with the predefine shape.

3. Then is necessary to calculate the horizontal equilibrium. With the “Relax� button the shape and the force diagram can be modify till it gets the horizontal equilibrium.

1. First you have to create the plan of you structure. Then, R-Vault generates a first Form Diagram

5. As is a parametrical program, the result shape can be modify. If you change the shape, it will recalculate the structure to adapt to the new conditions. If you change the force diagram, it will readapt the shape. And in the settings the height can be redefine as well.

4. Once the horizontal equilibrium is ready, the vertical equilibrium can be calculated and the shape is generated.

We tried different shapes to see how they work with the previous GrassHopper definition. 45


46

AN D

A N D

P O I N T S

A X I S

PO I N T

A N D

G R I D

AT T R AC TO R

SU RFACE

AT T R AC TO R

N O R M A L

SA M PLE R

CI RCLE,

I M AG E

ATT. PT. TO PIPE´S RADIUS

CI RCLE

CI RCLE

S E T

C E N T R O I D

2

PO I N T

A. PATTERN


B. SHAPE

C. COMBINATION

47


C. COMBITATION We obtained very interesting combinations, but some of them are imposible to construct. For example, the ones with the circles patterns, they look like a net, but actually the circles don´t touch to each other since everyone is in a different plane (normal plane). And other patterns were very interesting with some shapes but not with the other. And as we don’t have the final project defined yet, we prefer a pattern that cna fit different shapes without loosing structure.

Finally, we chose this combination between the third shape of the matrix and the first pattern because: - The shape was REPRESENTATIVE of what we were looking for (surfaces, shells) - The pattern Worked with the other shapes as well as with this one. - Generated DIFFERENT DENSITIES AND PERMEABILITIES, which has a great potential for a future exploration. - Was CONSTRUCTABLE: this definition generates PLANAR CURVES, so the can be built easily. - The combination was a STRUCTURE itself, shape and pattern worked together as the same thing.

48


D. CONSTRUCTION We decided to build the model with wire and a soldering iron. But first, we needed to design the building process.

1. A label System for our model in Rhino: every arch had a label on each end.

2. Base Template: A base surface with dots and labels where each curve touches the floor. So once we had the arcs, we knew exactly were they should go. 3. Rotate each curve so all of them were contained in the same plane. Once we had this, we printed the matrix and bent the wire to build each arch. And, of course, we label each arch as it was supossed to be. 4. When all the archs were ready, it was very simple to fit them in the Base template and sold them between each other following the labels and the model in the computer. 49


50


51


3. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

52


We are interested in a building where the shape and the pattern are the same as the structure. A unique permeable shape that dialogues with the landscape and defines the area within and around the strucuture. 53


54


CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that the technique we developed has a big potencial:

- Is very flexible which will allow us to adapt to the site and will facilitate the design task. We can play with the density of the pattern, the height of the vaults, the shape, etc. - The diference between the physic model and the one on the computer showed us new opportunities: the physic model, unlike the computer one, isn’t a single surface but has a space inside it. The gap that occurs in between the wires can be used to receive the flora and fauna of the place. So the “Bird’s Nest Structure” may became a real Bird’s Nest. -As stated above, the structure can be use to hold life, so we have to explore the option of creating a NEW LANDSCAPE FROM THE WIRE STRUCTURE We still have many things to figure out: the material, the joints, what do birds and plants require to inhabit the strucuture. To achieve this, we have to study some new referents such as “Shoal Fly By, SIAL”

55


56


57


4. THE GATEWAY PROJECT

58


Our structure creates a unique and visible landmark, a NEW LANDSCAPE for the west end gateway into the City of Wyndham that intertwines with the environment by becoming a habitat for native wildlife.

59


4.1 Construction, Joints and Materials 60


Our proyect has hundreds of joints between the different arcs. And how is the net formed by the arcs what gives the structure to the shape, the joints in our proyect play an essential role: They have to be strong enough to give the structure and also as flexible as possible to allow the construction.

We also were interested in producing a light structure, so here the material selection was very important aswell: it had to be strong enough to resist the arrow of the arcs, give the posibility to join them and at the same time keep the lightness of the shape.

PRECEDENTS FREI OTTO - MANNHEIM. This griddshell was assembled in the ground, then lifted and carefully put in place. The design of the joint system was very important: the lattice was constructed in a plane, but the joints had

to allow the surface to curve before the hole stucture reached the “double curve structure-shape� and then the joints where fixed. From this, we thought we could raise the arcs and hold them between each other. and once they

ImagesSource: SMD Architects @ http://www.smdarq.net/case-study-mannheim-multihalle/

61


EDWARD CULLEN ARCHITECTS - WEALD AND DOWNLAND GRIDSHELL Inspired in Frei Otto’s Mannheim., uses the same system: “The gridshell was formed from a flat lattice of green oak that was lowered into a three-dimensional shape with the use of gravity” (http://www.edwardcullinanarchitects.com/ projects/gridshell.html) But we wanted continuos arcs, and if they were timber arcs, they would have to be too thick, and this added to the joints would creat a very heavy structure.

BELLEMO & CAT - FLY SHOAL BY SCULPTURE This referent was a very good approach for what we wanted for our proyect specially the lightness of the strucure and the curved pipes. We decided to use steel and designed flexible joints between the pipes. However, after teh final presentation we found out that the system they used to produce was very expensive. That the machine that fabricated the curves worked based on the radius of circles, so they had to generate the curves with the minimum number of different radius as possible to reduce cost.

62


JOINTS We decided to use a joint between the arcs that allowed the rotation to facilitate the construction. Thus, the pipes would be movable and easy to put in place till the whole structure is assembled. The joints between the arc’s segments also help the construction: they can be sequentially assembled while they are attached to the other pipes supporting one to each other. Thereby, there would not be necessary any other support beside the ones for the main arcs. The foundations play an important role too. They have to be in the exact position and with the exact angle so all the arcs fit correctly. All of this will be easier to understand with the construction process.

TESTING MODELS

1. Interpipe joint Because of the lenght of the arcs, we thought to devide them into manageable segments that dovetail to each other.

2. Arc-arc joint This joint gave as enough flexibility to facilitate the constructuction, while beeing simple and clean.

Discarded 1 Was too ugly and visible and all the effort was lying in the braces.

63

Discarded 2 Discarded 1 Too weak. The It worked as a flexibility of the double joy-stick. joint was inversily It was the most proportional to its flexible one, strength (the longerallowing rotation the joint stick, the un many axis. more flexible but Butit was too the more weak. complex.


LABEL SYSTEM We labled each arc with a system that allowed us to locate them in te correct position. Each label referred to a foundation or/ and to a point in the main arcs. This way, once the foundations and main arcs were set, it was quite easy to put all the other curves.

DOUBLE VAULT To give more structure and to improve the “inter space� between the arcs we decided to do a double vault. Thus, the main arcs were strong enough to support the light of the vault and to be use as scaffolding during the construction.

64


CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE 1. Foundations

4. Bottom Vault: between main arcs

2. Main arcs

5. Top Vault: from main arcs to the ground

3. Bottom Vault: from main arcs to the ground

4. Bottom Vault: between main arcs

65


66


4.3 The Site 67


Our proyect aims to build a new landscape, a new landmark that will change the sight of this place. The landscape of the site is pretty flat. But at the distance you can catch a glimpse of th You Yang mountains. This is what we took as a refferent. The shape of our structure seeks to emulate this topography creating not just an sculpture to mark the entrance to Wyndham but also make of this entrance an unforgettable experience.

68


THE YOU YANGS

69


THE WILD LIFE

Handerbergia

Billardiera

Cematis Microphylla

To create our new landscape we had to look for plants that would be able to grow in this place. As we found out, not much indigenous species (those which grow naturally in the local region) grow in Werribee. Just grass and low plants. So we searched for natives (plants are indigenous to Australia, not necessarily region-specific). climber plants that would be able to grow in Werribe climate and soil. We choose this three species (Handerbergia, Billardiera, Clematis Microphylla) because, beside their beauty, they are good climbers, drought (resit extreme climates) and grow very good with lots of sun. 70


4.4 A New Landscape 71


Our structure creates a unique and visible landmark, a new landscape for the west end gateway into the City of Wyndham that intertwines with the environment by becoming a habitat for native wildlife. Is not just an sculpture to mark the entrance to Wyndham. It also makes of this entrance an unforgettable experience:

72


the cars passing by will go through this green vault, were the pattern of the structure will mix with the pattern of the plants creating a unique game of shadows. Also the temperature will be differnt and people would feel the smell and the humidity of the vegetation. In addition, the plants change with the time and along the different seasons, and people would experiment this as well.

73


74


CONCLUSIONS

It would be nice to have a more interactive program, as we thought at the begining: people going through the structure, resting points, an habitable negative space. Maybe it was better to do the estructure with timber instead of steel: -Fabricate steel arcs is really expensive, specially if we wanted to use the same method than the Fly Shoal By. - Steel overheat: this would be a problem for the joints (delatation) and also for the plants (they would get burned). - The timber wouldn’t overheat and it would be easier and cheaper to build laminated wood arcs. Also we have to improve our images. The presentation of the proyect is as important as it conception. If I am not able to show my ideas in an attractive way, if I am not able to sell my proyects, they will never be construcuted.

75


76


JOURNAL