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The European penitentiary system work is essential as a means of re-socialization, as well as a source of legal support, provides a strong starting point for a prisoner or ex-prisoner, who fails to find where it is to be in a position to commit new crimes. Culture at work is important lever for the rehabilitation of prisoners, and should be supported by action at different levels: first, by providing information, and involving them in the redesign of the self with a view of the law, including in the process all the operators that can accompany the person in the various stages. These stages may be few or many, depending on the needs of the subject: a housing, a support person and / or family, the places of socialization and meeting. 1

This topic examines the employability and labour market aspirations of prisoners . The objective of this paper is to examine the employability of prisoners before they were incarcerated and their labour market aspirations after leaving prison. In particular, we are interested in whether repeat prisoners are disadvantaged in the labour market. The labour market outcomes of ex-prisoners are important for a number of reasons. From an economic perspective, the lack of labour market success implies hat ex-prisoners will be more reliant on social welfare such as benefit payments and health, housing, community care and labour market programs, all of which increase the financial burden on society.The results suggest that repeat prisoners are less likely to be employed than non repeat prisoners. However, a large proportion of the employment differential between repeat and non-repeat prisoners is due to differences in coefficients. There is no evidence to suggest that the frequency of incarceration affects individual characteristics which may limit prisoners’ labour market aspirations after their release from prison The process that leads to job search by people without freedom is the same as that affects people free and it can be as follows. Moreover, the existing literature focuses on qualitative or bivariate analyses of the economic and social outcomes of ex-prisoners. This paper attempts to predict the choices that prisoners may make after leaving prison using a multivariate approach. Finally, this paper offers some information on the likelihood of ex-prisoners being active labour market participants after their release. Literature Most literature suggests that crime incidence and recidivism are inversely related to the educational 2 attainment and employment of the individual . That is, offenders are more likely to be less educated and/or to have less stable employment histories than non-offenders. Corrections Victoria estimates that about two-thirds 3 of repeat offenders are unemployed at the time they re-offend . Whilst the correlation between criminality and labour market success is under no doubt, the direction of causation has been the subject of much debate. For example, many macroeconomic studies of the link between criminality and labour markets suggest that 4 imprisonment is a functional response to labour surplus . Two prominent reasons for this are the erosion of human capital during incarceration and the stigma of a criminal record affecting employment prospects. An alternative explanation for the existence of a correlation between criminality and unemployment is that crime and unemployment are fuelled by factors commonly identified in both literatures. 1

Margaret Giles, Anh T. Le, Prisoners’ Labour Market History and Aspirations: A Focus on Western Australia 2 Batchelder and Pippert 2002; Kling and Krueger 2001 3 Victorian Department of Justice 2000-2001 cited in Graffam et al. 2004. 4 Chiricos and DeLone 1992; Rusche and Kirchheimer 1968.


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That is, unemployment and concomitant poor economic circumstances, and lack of meaningful and productive activity, lead to criminal behaviour. More recent studies, however, suggest that the direction of causation is contraire d'au; that it is criminality, including imprisonment that contributes to high unemployment 5 rates, low wages and low labour force participation rates, particularly of males . For example, lack of stability in people’s private lives can affect employment stability and re-entry into employment. Many ex-prisoners find that support from family and friends is withdrawn during their period of incarceration and that they commence parole with no fixed abode and fractured or depleted social capital (through loss of networks). These influences impact on employment opportunities as a large proportion of jobs are found through social networks. For example, around one in five jobs in 1996 were obtained through information from friends and relatives. Prisoner networks and correctional authority job placement services help, to some extent, to replace these missing social networks, but it is not clear how successful these alternatives might be. Periods of incarceration and homelessness send signals to employers on important ‘soft skills’, such as trustworthiness and reliability, and this can diminish employment prospects for ex-prisoners. In their 2001 survey of employers’ preferences regarding job applicants with criminal histories, (Holzer et al. (2002) found that employer’s willingness to hire ex-prisoners is quite limited. This is exacerbated by low labour market demand in areas with similar demographics to the exprisoner population. In the absence of background checks, employers tend to resort to excluding applicants with profiles similar to, inter alia, ex-prisoner groups. Moreover, returning to the labour market with a gap in their employment record also signals a decay of human capital. This is compounded by ex-prisoners being less skilled and less attuned to the social cues that might arise within interviews. 6 Prisoners and ex-prisoners are particularly prone to poor health, both physical and mental and low 7 self-esteem and/or motivation and these are positively correlated with low participation rates, employment levels and wages. For example, many prisoners suffer depression and are on medication. This illness can take place when they are first sentenced and realise the immediate impacts of incarceration on their lives. It can also emerge during long sentences as marriages fail, children and other family members stop visiting, and family crises, such as illness or death, occur. As a result of deinstitutionalisation (this applies to Australia as well as many overseas countries), the rate of incarceration of the mentally ill has risen substantially. In Europe other psychological problems are exacerbated by prison procedures including solitary confinement. Overcrowding in prisons also contributes to mental and physical ‘ill-health’. For example of Italy in many prisons have reported bed capacity limits which are regularly exceeded (generally, single cell accommodation being converted to double, and, in some instances, old accommodation blocks being recommissioned). 8 In addition to labour market repercussions, group dynamics (including the existence of gangs and knowledge transfers in prisons can flow over into the outside world promoting anti-social behaviours such as incivility and disorder (Moore 1996), transience and loitering (Petersilia 2000) and recidivism. In the Europe, most re-arrests occur within six 6 months of release with two thirds of all parolees being rearrested within three years. For example, in Europe highly disadvantaged job seekers are typically characterised as being more likely to: have limited English language skills; be an indigenous job seeker; be homeless or live in short-term emergency accommodation; have a low level of educational attainment; have personal factors or matters affecting their ability to gain employment; or be an ex-prisoner. For our research work particularly interesting is

Sutton 2002 for a summary of these influences Dutrex 2000 and Hirsch et al. 2002 cited in Graffam et al. 2004. 7 Fletcher 2001 cited in Graffam et al. 2004 and Helfgott 1997. 8 Moore 1996; Petersilia 2000. 5



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the Australian experience , carried out by the “Job Seeker Classification Instrument (JSCI)” . The Job Seeker 11 Classification Instrument (JSCI) has been used by government agenciessuch as Centrelink to measure a job 12 seeker’s relative labour market disadvantage. The JSCI . can identify job seekers who are likely to be longterm unemployed. Highlydisadvantaged job seekers are typically characterised as being more likely to: havelimited English language skills; be an indigenous job seeker; be homeless or live inshort-term emergency accommodation; have a low level of educational attainment;have personal factors or matters affecting their ability to gain employment; or be anex-prisoner. This type of information is collected by Centrelink. Points are assigned to each of the 14 question responses on a number of characteristics such as age, educational attainment, birthplace and English proficiency. The score is derived by adding the points for each job seeker’s question responses. The higher the JSCI score the higher the probability of a job seeker becoming long-term unemployed. For example, an indigenous job seeker is allocated 11 points while an Australian-born non-indigenous job seeker is allocated zero points. With regard to educational attainment, a job seeker who has completed less than 10 years of school or attended a special school is given six points. A job seeker who has a custodial period of one month or longer is given eight points compared to three points for those who have a custodial period of one month or less. It can be seen that ex-prisoners who served more than one month are deemed to be more disadvantaged in the labour market than those with a low level of education.

Content 1. Ways of finding placement. 2. Main rules and requirements in job search. 3. Guidelines for the job interview 4. Practical work. CV construction and filling of other documents.


Margaret Giles, Anh T. Le, Prisoners’ Labour Market History and Aspirations: A Focus on Western Australia. 10 11 Department of Employment Education Training and Youth Affairs 1998. 12


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You could look for a job in several ways. None is best for all kinds of work. It is important that you should not forget ways which proved to be valuable. Main search methods: Job advertisement in press Recruiting agencies National labour exchange Social network / acquaintances Direct application to desirable employers Job listings on internet

Job advertisement in press Most widely used traditional employee search method. Statistics show that many people find placements through advertisements in newspapers. This is quite popular method. One should only buy newspaper and open a “Job listings” page. Before that you should know what you are looking for. Should you be induced by advertisements, offering complimentary job with unrealistically high pay, do not expect something serious. Most chances that you’ll be offered a product distribution manager job. Call and inquire, if only the telephone number is given. Avoid discussion on placement over the phone. Your goal is to schedule an appointment. You could place advertisement yourself, too. Recruiting agencies You are not sure which to choose? Pick the best-known. It is placing more advertisements, it’s known in the market, higher probability that they attract more employers. You’ll have more chances if your data resides in several agencies. Yet, none of those companies could guarantee absolute success. Agencies don’t create workplaces. They offer only what employers require. Interview at the agency is similar to other interviews. Dress appropriately, take several copies of your CV, and communicate lively and enthusiastically. Try to make an impression as if you were talking to the president of the company. Most important instant in many people’s career – interview for the job. Not always does a higher qualification people take the job. Priority is often given to those who sell themselves for maximal price, and who were able in shortest time to convince that they are best suited for the vacancy. National labour exchange Major role of the labour exchange – to help disadvantaged people find jobs, and solve social problems of the labour market. This is obvious if you look at the offered job opportunities. Yet, if you look for a job desperately, you could refer to labour exchange. Normally those exchanges have national funds, granted for employers, who recruit staff via the exchange, and hence you could be lucky to find a good job if employer was smart enough to avail of those funds. Social network / personal contacts Around half of the placements are found thanks to their personal contacts. Many consider this as most efficient method. If you look for a job, make sure your acquaintances know it. You’ll have more chances to discover vacancies. The more so, many employers prefer recommended people. Try yourself weaving the network, and you’ll sure catch the golden fish. Make a list of friends and people you know, who work in areas you prefer. Don’t hesitate to refer to them to ask for a little favour.


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Starting conversation by something like “I need a job, do you know some vacancy?” is worthless. You should be specific. For example: “Do you know someone who works at a printing house” (if you are editor or journalist). If your acquaintance knows such a person, make sure you contact him – he could introduce you to someone even if he couldn’t help himself. Moreover, informal discussion with person, working at the printing house, could help you prepare for an official interview with potential employer. Job listings on internet Today more and more people are being employed through specialised internet sites. Firstly, it’s simple and fast method to find suitable employee. On the other hand, employee could passively wait for a golden offer from a dream employer, or actively send his proposals to a large number of employers. If you want this method to be efficient, use all the possibilities which Internet provides to inform about yourself, and prepare much of material, which will distinguish you from others looking for a job. Use opportunity to check your professional and technical skills with the help of Internet tests. You could also find there language knowledge tests. Submit them to your employer. You could prepare your own web page, where you could put much of personal information – this will make impact on potential employers, who are interested not only in vocational skills, but also personalities.

MAIN RULES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR JOB HUNTERS CV (curriculum vitae) Nowadays employers have little time for interviews with all looking for a vacancy. Most commonly they ask for the CV, according to which they have first impression about employee, and short-list possible employees. So well and professionally prepared CV – direct way to success. CV preparation Description of your background is very important way to present yourself to employer. Start from who you are, what’s your education and experience, and what kind of work you would like to do. Describe your last job indicating things that you liked the most and the least. What knowledge and skills you received, think of what job would suit you best, what company you’d like to work most – large or small. Preparing for presentation think why you pursue a career, what you’d like to do, what are your plans for 1, 2, 3 or 5 years. Curriculum Vitae comprises several parts: biographical data, former professional experience, skills and education. Key part being description of your professional background. Biographical data Your name, surname, home address and telephone number. Even though your current employer might know that you are looking for another job, you better give your home phone number. If you don’t have an answering machine at home, you’d better obtain one, so that potential employer could leave you a message. Do not provide your physical data: age, height or weight. These are not needed. If you raised children and have gaps in your career, please notify that separately. Service and experience Former employers should be presented in chronological order, starting from most recent place. Mention name of the company, title held, and duration. Describe areas of activity and achievements. You could also mention volunteer experience and any other work that you carried out. Reveal your knowledge of languages, PC and other office equipment skills.


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Education If you have graduated from secondary school, state its name and address. If you have higher degree, do not mention secondary education, start from degree and academic work done. The list could be complemented with education and any title received later on. You could mention dates or omit them. Some elderly people are afraid that dates reveal their age and might harm at the interview. If you graduated from secondary school recently, you could reveal you education in more detail, proving average scores received, disciplines attended, awards and citations, as well as additional trainings received.If you just graduated from university and have a short professional record, describe your education first. Career goals If you are determined with your career goals, indicate them shortly beginning of your CV. On the other hand, those might restrict you. Key rule is that you should not talk about your goals vaguely, e.g. “Apply my managerial skills” or “deepen my knowledge (…) and (…)”. Recommendations. If your employer agrees to write a recommendation, do not hesitate. Recommendation could also be written by someone who knows you altogether: former teacher, colleague or attorney. Sending CV Very often employers ask to submit CVs by fax or post. You should chose post for better result. By sending CV by post you could choose good quality paper and could include a colour photo. Envelope should be such size that you don’t have to fold your CV 4 times. Less folded CV will look better than folded many times. This is making better impression. Do not forget to print your return address on the envelope. If you don’t have a sticker with your address, write it in black. Motivational letter You would be noticed if you attach application to your CV (so call motivational letter). It should indicate your motivation to take this job and why you think you are appropriate candidate. This letter should be short. It’s goal is to show that you are the one employer is looking for. This is not a place for long stories. Writing this letter you should indicate your skills and knowledge useful for this new job. Motivational letter should include: • Short introduction • Short explanation why you’re interested in position and company • Your suitability for the specific job • Hint how you would contribute to successful activity of the company • Statement in which you undertake to call and inquire whether employer needs more information Letter of motivation is good when: It sounds trustworthy. If you don’t believe that you are able to do this job, others won’t believe, neither. Letter should be filled with enthusiasm, energy, friendliness and professionalism. Demonstrate your suitability for the position. List all skills and abilities that match this position. Yet, statements should be based on facts, otherwise your letter will look unprofessional and vainglorious. Avoid negatives. If there’s possibility, find out surname of the person you’re referring to. Do not repeat what you already put to CV. Letter of motivation gives possibility to explain CV facts and provide more information about yourself. Don’t miss that opportunity.


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Letter should fit onto one A4 list of paper. Recommendations Recommendations are just equally important. They could be submitted to employer both ways: 1. At the bottom of CV you write that recommendations could be provided upon request. So when you go to interview, don’t forget to take recommendation letters with you, which you will hand over (if employer asks). 2. Another option, more often used – to include recommendations together with CV. It’s not advisable to send more than 2 recommendations. Do not overload employer with information about yourself. Surely, when you send recommendations, do not forget that copies rather than originals should be sent.

The order which sheets should be put to envelope: Recommendation letter goes first; CV follows on top; Then request goes on top of them. Remember that CV made in a professional way is a powerful sales weapon, which enables you to reach your desired goal. Make sure it is not coming late and reaches employer by the deadline. Preparation for the interview People often complain telling that "there have been many times I was invited for interview, but all goes wrong. Nobody calls me when, and when I do – answer is negative”. First of all, it doesn’t matter how many times you go for interview, what matters most is how you behave and talk during the interview. Therefore to reach positive result you should first do your homework – prepare for interview very well. Here’s some advice how to do that. Advice No.1: Plan in advance. Try to find out as much as possible about the company and offered position. Explore your professional background. Be ready to talk about recent employer and experience gained, which reflect the requirements for the new job. Advice No.2: Reiterate. Try to come up with all questions which employer could ask. Put them down to the paper, should it help you reiterate. Answers should match questions asked. Below you’ll find the most frequent questions asked (they could vary from job to job): Tell me about yourself. (this question usually goes first, as it “breaks the ice” at the beginning. Try to hold employer’s attention for up to 2 minutes. Answer to the question should relate to the new position and company) What do you know about our company? (answer to this question will show employer whether you are really interested in the job) Why should we hire you? (answer like "I need a job badly" will ruin any hope to receive it. Try to mention your strengths and positive features which would fit new job. Employer wants to hear your motivation in pursuing this opportunity) What would you strive for in this position, what would you implement, what would you change? Why are you looking for a new job? What would friends and former colleagues tell about you? How would you describe yourself? Tell us about your last company? What were your achievements at the last employer? Why would you like to work for our company? What do you expect from a new job?


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Your strengths. Your weaknesses. What do you see yourself in 5 years? What you didn’t like in your last job? Do you have recommendations from former employers (please note that recommendations are given only if the employer asks for) What salary do you expect? What questions that you expected I didn’t ask? Do you have questions for me? At the interview try to relax and fell free. If you are a very good professional, but your answers are only “yes” or “no”, your chance of landing this job equals winning a enormous lottery. Advice No.3: Eye contact. When you speak with employer, try to keep an eye contact. Do not look around, do not lower your eyes – show that you’re really concerned about this job. Advice No.4: At the interview avoid negative comments and interpretation about your former job. Advice No.5: Adapt yourself. Listen and adapt. At the interview pay attention to the interior of the office, where interview takes places, dress code of the staff, manager’s behaviour and character. This information will help you faster adapt to the style of new company, and will guide you to the right direction in communication with employer. Advice No.6: Give them associations. Try to relate your answers to the interviewer and the company. Pay attention to escalation of your achievements and qualities required for the position. Advice No.7: Prompt. Prompt the manager to share information about his company. Show your curiosity in the company. Employer could be asked the following questions:  Why is this position vacant?  Why the former employee left this job?  What do you see that new employee should do differently that the former employee?  What are the short term and long term plans in this job?  What are major challenges in this job?  What freedom of activity and methods would I have upon receiving this job?

Advice for invited for interview We’ll give some advice, useful for those looking for a job:  Your outfit should respond to the job’s style and specifics.  Note the address, telephone and name of the person that you’ll be discussing.  Never turn late for the interview. Plan your time in such a way that you arrive 10-15 minutes before an interview.  Request applications and other documents should be filled in clearly, orderly and in black.  Take with you notebook, black pen, business card, several copies of your CV.  Take with you copies of recommendation letters, driver’s license, education certificates and other required documents.  Consider questions which you could ask at the interview. Prepare answer to the question why you are the most appropriate specialist for this vacancy.  More than 50% of communication is non-verbal. Your posture, expression on your face, gestures, eye contact, outfit – all are parts of non-verbal communication. Be natural when greeting, strongly shake a hand, but only when it’s offered.  Let interviewer begin the dialogue. Listen carefully.


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Make sure that the job matches your needs, beliefs and competence. Tell about your capabilities. Nobody else will do that for you. Be flexible. Employers are looking for such employees who adapt shortly to the new environment, work well in a team without notable complains or special needs. Tell some story from the past which reflects your flexibility.  All questions should be received with smile. Answer straight and honestly. Before answering, frame your answer in head. If you didn’t understand it, ask to repeat. Or explain. Do not hurry, but be determined. By answering sophisticated question, which could influence your image, use “sandwich principle”: positive information is followed by negative part, and then – positive conclusion. Positive close leaves good impression. (Question: I guess you have not worked for the last 5 years? Answer: I studied, raised a child and took care of household. I am now absolutely ready to work, and have the qualification that matches your proposed job)  Finishing discussion reiterate why you’re the most appropriate candidate. Mention your strengths, which you missed at the interview. If you want this job, you should say so!  Ask when the decision is taken as to the recruited person; is there a supplementary interview; when you should call to find out results etc.  After interview evaluate what went well, and what could be improved upon. Within 24 hours of the interview, send the interviewer a gratitude letter. Your actions with the employer after interview People after the interview with employer tend to relax, lower their hands and wait for a call. There’s not usual to behave in a different way in Lithuania. Yet, determined to find a job should utilize all possible measures. After the interview you could send a gratitude letter. That could sound oddly, but this would distinguish you from competition. With this you would turn employer’s attention once again. You should continuously raise questions like: “what would usually do each person looking for a job?”, “what could I do in a different way trying to convince employer I am the one?” Don’t be afraid to take unusual activity and show employer that you are the best for that job. Gratitude letter in a job hunt is not only a good decision, but also an effective job search strategy. The gratitude is an additional possibility to sell your qualifications, knowledge and create positive impact to the reader. In a job hunt you should show your persistence. Do not wait for possibilities of employment - create them yourself. Gratitude letter is sent within one day from the interview. Notify the position to whichyou applied and time interview took place. Letter should be sent for personal attention of the interviewer. Referred by name, surname and title. Letter should indicate that you are interested in a job and the company. You would also state that you are ready for consequent discussion or you could send further information, if required. Main sections of gratitude letter:  Reason for referral  Interest in the job  Short presentation of your qualities, knowledge and qualifications.  Possibility to supplement information which was not referenced at the interview  Gratitude  Mention the time agreed at the meeting on when employer should inform his decision

Why employers say “No” Reasons for which employers most often refuse to recruit a person.


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Before you go for the interview, pay attention to what predominantly stimulates employer to tell the potential candidate “No”:  Scanty person’s outlook  Being too active  Inability to clearly express yourself  Lack of interest and enthusiasm  No career planning, no apparent goals and objectives  Nervous and lacking confidence  Major focus on potential amount of money  Lack of good manners, tact and patience  Negative response about former employer  Missing eye contact with collocutor  Being late for interview Hence try to avoid mentioned mistakes, have more confidence in yourself and we wish you direct way to success!

Principles of work success. Behaviour upon receiving a job After a long search phase, if you did things the right way, you had luck and you received a job. It seems that this is exactly what you have striven for. Yet, bear in mind that retain a job is as much critical as to receive it. We’ll provide you with some advice what not to forget at the new job. You could use these hints for the job hunt as well. Please note that first impression which you will effect on your colleagues will determine your further success. “First impression will not recur”. Primarily employers are not content with new employee’s attitude toward job and job practices, even though they could perform the job. Employers expect from you:  Positive emotions. Positive attitude is one of major factors striving for success at work. Do not go to work gloomy, with negative emotions, your own problems, - leave them at home, in the bar or on the street.  Never be late. Determine how much it takes for you to get to the new work place. Add a few minutes for traffic jams and other unpredicted situations. Being on time you’ll receive employer’s respect and trust.  Inform your boss in advance if you are going to be late, fell ill or for any other reason cannot come to work.  Obey rules and principles, traditions and procedures of the new company.  Justify the expectations of the boss. Communication  When you need to talk to your boss, set the time in advance.  Be part of a team. Try to be courteous. Avoid situations like "I know everything", consult your colleagues.  Ask for help if you need it. Do not hide your mistakes, try to fix them instead.  Leave your problems at home. Don’t use office equipment (telephone, copier, fax etc.) to solve your personal problems.


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Be patient to yourself and to colleagues. Some time should pass until you will adapt in the new job and new team. Welcome criticism. Do not resist or fight back when you are being criticized by your colleagues. Explore the essence of the critics, and take measures to change should that be reasoned. Respect each colleague. Bear in mind that you’ll meet the same people whether you are ascending or descending in your career.

Outfit One of most important elements of first impression is your outfit. Employers often conclude your attitude toward job according to your outfit. It’s essential that your dress is neat and tidy and not striking. Avoid vanguard apparel, strong perfumes etc.

12 STEPS TO SUCCESS FOR JOB HUNTERS 1. You should constantly look for a job even though the current job is pretty good. Tomorrow or later you could loose it for a reason beyond your control. If you decided what kind of job you are looking for, inform others around you. The more eyes and ears, the better. 2. If you were fired mistakenly, try to dispose your reasoned anger, as it could ruin your efforts to find new job. 3. Do not expect to find the same kind of job you had. Be ready to change activity in such a way that you could manage your new job and feel happy. 4. If you want your efforts to be successful, think a while what could be done to ruin them. Yes, that they would collapse. In one column you should write what could not be done, in another – reverse activities and you’ll have a list of measures that will guarantee your success. 5. Nobody owes you anything, so you’ll have to struggle to get a job. 6. Look for a job intensively: two thirds will spend no more than 5 hours a week, and you compel yourself to devote 6 times more. Employer is referred to 6 times a month on average, and you do it 2 times a day. 7. The way you look for a job shows employers the way you would work when you receive a job. So by hunting for it sluggishly, demonstrating recklessness to this process, you will doom yourself to failure. 8. The more you will spend time defining what distinguishes you from others, capable of performing this job, the better chances you’ll have. 9. Take care of yourself, be clean and dress neatly, remember good manners wherever you go. You never know who watches you. Every meeting may be unexpected and could help land a job. 10. Try to make the best impression possible on the employer, even though it could be obvious that there’s nothing there for you. If you behave decently, you could receive valuable advice, or they might recommend you to their partners. 11. Politely but persistently remind them about yourself, inquire whether something has changed – they might be looking for a new employee. 12. Enterprises search for winners: present yourself as a gift of fortune for their organization. In no way should you look like a whiner that somebody would have a mercy upon you!


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You can find templates for a Europass CV below.


Replace with First name(s) Surname(s) [All CV headings are optional. Remove any empty headings.]

Replace with house number, street name, city, postcode, country Replace with telephone number

Replace with mobile number

State e-mail address State personal website(s) Replace with type of IM service Replace with messaging account(s) Sex Enter sex | Date of birth dd/mm/yyyy | Nationality Enter nationality/-ies JOB APPLIED FOR POSITION PREFERRED JOB STUDIES APPLIED FOR

Replace with job applied for / position / preferred job / studies applied for (delete non relevant headings in left column)

WORK EXPERIENCE [Add separate entries for each experience. Start from the most recent.]

Replace with dates (from - to)

Replace with occupation or position held Replace with employer’s name and locality (if relevant, full address and website) ▪ Replace with main activities and responsibilities Business or sector Replace with type of business or sector

EDUCATION AND TRAINING [Add separate entries for each course. Start from the most recent.]

Replace with dates (from - to)

Replace with qualification awarded

Replace with EQF (or other) level if relevant

Replace with education or training organisation’s name and locality (if relevant, country) ▪ Replace with a list of principal subjects covered or skills acquired PERSONAL SKILLS [Remove any headings left empty.]

Mother tongue(s)

Replace with mother tongue(s)


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Other language(s)

Replace with language






Spoken interaction

Spoken production

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known.

Replace with language

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Enter level

Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known. Levels: A1/2: Basic user - B1/2: Independent user - C1/2 Proficient user Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Communication skills

Organisational / managerial skills

Job-related skills

Computer skills

Other skills

Driving licence

Replace with your communication skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: ▪ good communication skills gained through my experience as sales manager Replace with your organisational / managerial skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: ▪ leadership (currently responsible for a team of 10 people) Replace with any job-related skills not listed elsewhere. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: ▪ good command of quality control processes (currently responsible for quality audit) Replace with your computer skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: ▪ good command of Microsoft Office™ tools Replace with other relevant skills not already mentioned. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: ▪ carpentry

Replace with driving licence category/-ies. Example: ▪B

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Publications Presentations Projects Conferences Seminars Honours and awards Memberships References

Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact persons, references, etc. (Remove heading if not relevant, see instructions) Example of publication: ▪ How to write a successful CV, New Associated Publishers, London, 2002. Example of project: ▪ Devon new public library. Principal architect in charge of design, production, bidding and construction supervision (2008-2012).

ANNEXES Replace with list of documents annexed to your CV. Examples: ▪ copies of degrees and qualifications; ▪ testimonial of employment or work placement; ▪ publications or research.


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CONCLUSION In this relation prisoners’ employability before incarceration and their labour market aspirations after release are examined. A number of important implications can be suggested from the results. First, a number of personal characteristics (e.g.,gender, age) that reduce the employability of prisoners before their current incarcerations also reduce their labour market aspirations after release. This suggests that certain prisoners may be long-term disadvantaged in the labour market. Second, part of the lack of labour market success among ex-prisoners may be the stigma attached to criminality. Employers may be reluctant to employ individuals who have a criminal record. It appears that if ex-prisoners were treated in the same way in the labour market as the general population, they would have higher employment success. However, it is problematic to attribute the difference in employability between prisoners who are first time offenders and those who are repeat offenders to a specific factor. Hence, further work is needed in order to confirm that the lack of employment among prisoners is due to employers’ hiring preference and not due to other factors. In order to increase the predictability of the labour market activity of prisoners after their release, information on employers’ attitudes to prisoners and what prisoners actually do after their release is needed. Importantly, the immediate post-release period is critical in confirming labour market choices for exprisoners. While we cannot directly observe labour market activities after incarceration with the current data set, we have shown possible diverse labour market aspirations among prisoners. Therefore, it would be useful to obtain data which allows researchers to directly observe labour market activities of prisoners after incarceration. In addition, it would be useful to gauge the impact of correctional authority job placement services on the employability of exprisoners, including duration of job search and job turnover of first job in the immediate postrelease period.


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Job hunting hints, orientation in changing labour market