A01 LOGBOOK CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS (ENVS10003)

ANTIGONE GOUGOUSSIS (641138)

ENVS10003 LOG BOOK

ANTIGONE GOUGOUSSIS (641138)

WEEK 1: Introduction to Construction E-LEARNING AND READINGS The e-learning and Ching readings this week introduced the concepts of loads and load paths (including static, dynamic, wind and earthquake loads), basic structural forces and materiality. Diagram 1.1 (below) shows the interrelatedness of loads, forces and materiality.

LOADS Structural Systems of buildings need to support 2 types of loads: 1. Static â&#x20AC;&#x201C; applied slowly to a structure without fluctuating rapidly in magnitude or position, where structure responds slowly to deformation 2. Dynamic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; applied suddenly to a structure, usually with rapid changes in magnitude and developing inertial forces in relation to mass

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Load Paths  applied loads take the most direct route in order to reach the ground, where the reaction force is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction in order for a structure to remain stable.

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALITY When deciding which material to use in construction, things to consider include strength, stiffness, material behaviours, shape, economy/budget and sustainability.  STEEL – Strong in both tension and compression, but more expensive than timber.  WOOD – Much weaker in tension and compression than steel, but more readily available in Australia.  BRICK/CONCRETE – Very strong under compression, but weak under tension (needs steel reinforcement if it going to be used in construction and put under tension forces).

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TENSION AND COMPRESSION Tension –

forces that stretch/elongate a material (when an external load pulls on a structural member) depends on stiffness of material, C.S.A. (cross sectional area) and magnitude of the load

Compression – –

forces that push/compress a material opposes tension force

STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY REPORT: ‘COMPRESSION’ TASK: In the first studio session, we were places into groups and asked to construct a tower from wooden building blocks in order to help us understand the behaviour of mass construction and the ways in which loads are transferred through the structural members in compression structures.

PROCESS AND DISCUSSION: 1. My group decided on our first layout of placing the blocks vertically as columns to help achieve height with our tower. Soon we discovered that this structure was extremely unstable as the loads of the applied blocks were being unevenly distributed through the structural members.

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2. Structural members placed in different ways as tower construction was rushed while attempting to curve the walls of the structure. This led to loads being unevenly distributed through the structure and instability of the tower. Therefore, we changed our design concept.

3. New attempt was made with curved walls and new design layout of blocks in order to distribute the applied load of the blocks as equally as possible through the structural members.

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4. Our final tower design allowed for all loads to be distributed equally through structural members. Although our final tower attempt wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t as high as we had hoped for, we managed to create a tower able to withstand compressive forces created by applied loads. We tested the strength and sturdiness of our tower by placing heavy objects on top of its roof, which it was easily able to carry.

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5. By applying loads on top of the structure, this allowed for structural members to be under compression and tension forces. The roof of our structure was hurried and did not follow the base and main body of our towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure. 6. However, the layout of our tower allowed for the loads causing these forces to be transferred equally throughout the structural members, therefore reducing the magnitude of the compressive forces on each block. This allowed for a strong and sturdy final structure.

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WEEK 2: Structural Loads and Forces E-LEARNINGS AND READINGS This week, the e-learning modules and Ching readings introduced the concepts of structural form and structural joints. The concepts mentioned throughout the e-learning classroom included the different types of structural systems, the 3 main structural joints used in construction and building, and construction strategies (including ESD strategies and selecting materials).

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CONSIDERATIONS WHEN CONSTRUCTING SYSTEMS:

PERFORMANCE  

Need to be easily maintained building needs to resist wear and tear

AESTHETICS  

Polished finishes, aesthetic materials e.g. surfaces for hospitals

ECONOMICS   

Affordability Cost of materials, labour, etc. life cycling costing

ENVIRONMENT  

Embodied energy in materials artificial lighting or natural lighting

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ESD (ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DESIGN)

STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY REPORT: ‘FRAME’ TASK: In this week’s studio, we were placed into groups and required to cut up a piece of balsa wood into thin strips in order to create a structure as tall as possible. PROCESS AND DISCUSSION: 1. The balsa wood was cut into thin pieces. We decided we wanted the pieces to be as thin as possible so we could get as many strips as we could to build our tower to a maximum height. At the same time, we wanted the strips to be strong enough during the construction process so these structural frame members would not break under the tension forces.

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2. We made the base an equilateral triangle for support and stability while building upwards.

3. The balsa wood strips were found to be very thin and began to bend and break easily when put under small amounts of stress. 4. As we built our tower further, it began to lean to one side as a result of uneven lengths of the structural members. This began to cause problems in stabilising our tower and put certain members under greater stress than other, meaning certain sticks were carrying greater loads. This made certain parts of our frame structure more fragile than others.

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5. We decided to add more triangulated frames in our structure as we built upwards, so that the vertical structural members were less prone to snapping under tension forces. All the joints of our structure were fixed joints, and this caused much stress in the supporting structural members as it prevented all horizontal, vertical and rotational movements.

6. The top of our structure consisted of a pyramid frame structure, in order for all loads to be transferred and equally distributed down members of our towersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; structure.

7. Our final tower was very fragile and easy to fall over. I think the frame structure could have been stabilised more by building a much larger base, whilst allowing the tower to become smaller in its cross sectional area as we built upwards. Due to the lightness of the balsa wood material, the structure was easily pushed over.

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8. The structure could have been made more stable by using slightly thicker strips of balsa wood and by measuring our structural member more carefully to create a more symmetrical, stable structure.

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WEEK 3: Footing and Foundations E-LEARNING AND READINGS The focus for the week 3 e-learning and readings from Ching focused on the concepts of structural elements, moments, equilibrium and stability, footings and foundations, and mass and masonry materials. Materials for Mass Construction: 1. stone (e.g. rubble, slabs) 2. earth (e.g. mud brick, low heat in sun) 3. clay (e.g. manufactured bricks, high heat in oven) 4. concrete (e.g. blocks, chem. reaction that sets)

Modular – clay brick, mud brick etc. Non-Modular – concrete, monolithic stones etc. Properties of mass materials:   

strong in compression hard, resist abrasion hold thermal mass, insulated

CLAY VS. CONCRETE

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS, FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS

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MOMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM

ANTIGONE GOUGOUSSIS (641138)

RETAINING & FOUNDATION WALLS

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STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY: ‘ON SITE (TAKE 1)’ UNDERGROUND CAR PARK & SOUTH LAWN  

The structural system used at this location was a solid structure, as the car park is being supported through the use of columns and arches under compression. These columns are made from reinforced concrete. Expansion joints are evident in order to allow for movement and prevent cracking (as concrete shrinks as cement loses moisture, expands when gains moisture from the water in the South Lawn soils, above the car park). The concrete columns are strategically placed underneath the south lawn trees, possibly for the moisture from the soil to drain out and assist in keeping a certain amount of moisture in the concrete to reduce shrinkage.

Columns are connected through arches which assist in resolving all compressive forces created from the live and dead loads above the car park.

ARTS WEST STUDENT CENTRE     

The structural system here consisted of trusses (steel) and supporting columns (which also could be part of the enclosure system). The horizontal timber structural members (beams) were joined through fixed joints at the top corners, as no vertical, horizontal or rotational movement is wanted here. Movement at these top corners would allow for the structure to become extremely unstable and possibly fall. Trusses are supported by large concrete blocks. The trusses themselves are supporting the horizontal timber beam members, rather than vice versa. All structural members appear to be in equilibrium, with the sum of all horizontal and vertical forces equalling zero. This allows the structure to remain stationary and balanced. 17

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STAIRS ON WEST END OF UNION HOUSE    

The stairs at this location were held up through horizontal galvanised steel beam members. The galvanised steel beams were attached to the brick wall via fixed joints, as rotational and other forces would cause the structure to collapse (cantilever) 2 main steel beams use steel wire to connect to lower beams supporting staircase May be a suspension structure (uses tension), although cantilevers and steel ropes used may not be structural at all (not necessarily in tension )

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NORTH COURT UNION HOUSE      

Membrane structure (like a tent) wind loads can cause uplift of the structure (this causes tension in the cables) when no wind, there is compression in most elements, mainly the steel hollow poles/columns ropes mostly under tension pin joints in steel cables allow for rotational movement from the cables swaying due to wind steel used in all structural columns and cable members, because it can easily withstand all tension forces

BEAUREPAIRE CENTRE POOL     

Brickwork is only part of the enclosure system, they carry self-loads but not any other loads from structural members aluminium used for framing of the glazing, this is also part of the enclosure systems primary loads caused by the weight of the roof window frame is self-supporting, also part of the secondary/enclosure system Possible issues include corrosion resulting from the water and chlorine from the swimming pool 19

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 

ANTIGONE GOUGOUSSIS (641138)

drainage pipes allow for water to leave the roof to reduce loads on structural members steel columns carry all roof loads and transfer them to the ground

OVAL PAVILION     

Heritage building, therefore only certain parts of the pavilion are being restored, allows for saving on materials and budget Stumps in ground go down to pad or strip footings which transfer all live and dead loads from the superstructure above to the ground timber stud framing used waterproofing used to prevent water from entering the building expansion joints in brickwork to allow for movement (when bricks expand or shrink due to thermal stresses or the water absorption or loss)

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FRANK TATE PAVILION (WEST OF SIDNEY MYER ASIA CENTRE)  

steel beams mainly used in order to carry loads of timber roof beams cantilevered timber and steel beamed roof resolves all horizontal and vertical structural forces by remaining in equilibrium in order for the entire structure to remain stationary

LOT 6 CAFÉ   

windows are not part of the structural system, they only form part of the enclosure system reinforced concrete columns and beams form the structural system of the building all applied and dead loads are transferred to the ground through these structural members, where pile foundations may be used in order to transfer these loads to the stable bedrock (if the above soil conditions are not stable enough) concrete structural members may have been cast in situ, as it may have been difficult to use trucks to transport pre cast concrete beams and columns (would be even more difficult to fit a crane in such a small space to position pre cast concrete)

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WEEK 4: Floor Systems and Horizontal Elements E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY: ‘SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING SCALE DRAWING CONVENTIONS’ In this week’s activity, our group questioned the reasons for scale being used in building projects. We were also introduced to the main drawing conventions use within architectural drawings, including site and floor plans. Scale is used represent building elevations, plans, sections and details on a piece paper. This means a building can be represented on an A3, A2 or A1 paper in order to assist professionals (engineers and architects) and even clients to understand the details, materials and structural elements used in the construction of a building. The main drawing conventions shown to us on the Old Pavilion Drawing Set included: 1. TITLE BLOCK - shows the titles of the drawing, the number of the drawing, the scale of the drawings on the paper, the consultants (structural and civil engineers, architects, etc.) and the clients.

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2. PLAN DRAWINGS - names/uses of the rooms, entry points - paths leading to the site - materials used, types of walls - fire rating - Grid system used to identify grid lines, provides reference point for the builders and shows where certain rooms are placed in relation to the grid - FLOOR PLAN  shows dimensions of rooms (e.g. 6.0m²) - LEGEND – shows the meanings of symbols on the drawing - SYMBOLS used to make references to other drawings showing sections or details of a specific feature or area of the building. - WINDOWS AND DOORS –window/door specified on plans and show which room they are a part of through the use of numbers

- LEVELS are shown - CLOUDED areas show areas that have been REVISED – these show new changes that have been made to the building on the architectural drawings - SMALLER scales used e.g. 1:100

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3. ELEVATION DRAWINGS - show the façade of the building and enclosure system, SMALLER scale 1:100 - e.g. may show north elevation i.e. view of the building’s exterior from the north side

- GRID is shown through vertical dotted lines, these cut the building into sections/parts which can referred to later on other floor plans - Doors and windows are shown again through the same symbols used on the floor plans - CLOUDS are used again to show revisions to be made e.g. “existing light to be removed and reinstated to new level”

4. SECTION DRAWINGS - Section drawings show more of the interior - they slice through the building to show the inside details and rooms - section drawings show the inner rooms and some structural systems e.g. on a SMALLER scale of 1:100, so details of how structural members are connected is NOT shown - SYMBOLS ON PLANS show WHERE the section has been drawn from (i.e. where the building has been cut through (right)

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5. DETAIL DRAWINGS - Detail drawings show the connections and details used in order for the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural systems to be able to WORK (i.e. more detail than plans and elevations!) - these are sections shown at LARGER scales (e.g. 1:5) - MATERIALS are shown using certain pattern symbols - details, such as flashing and weep holes which prevent water from entering the building and allow for enhanced insulation, explain how certain parts of the structure work

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WEEK 5: Floor Systems and Horizontal Elements E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY: ‘STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS’ X

GHJ FGHJ GFYJ HGFYTHJ GF

This week’s studio activity involved making a 1:20 scaled model of one of the structural systems in the Old Pavilion. The structural system my group attempted to make was the retaining wall and footing system in the basement of the Old Pavilion.

Essentially, the retaining wall’s purpose is to act as a load bearing wall which transfers the above loads (from the above ground level) to the pile foundations so that the structure can remain stable. It also withstands the soil and water pressures from the surrounding earth, including all the horizontal loads acting upon the basement. The pile foundations transfer all the live and dead loads to the earth beneath, ensuring the entire structure remains stable and strong. This structural system consisted of concrete pile foundations and concrete block walls. Balsa wood was chosen as the main material to be used for the concrete blocks walls as well as the pile foundations. The balsa wood was used quite effectively, as it was easy to cut into the block and rectangular shapes need for this structural system. Also, small pins were useful in showing the joint connections of the structural members. These connections were easy to make, as the pins could easily be placed into the soft balsa wood. The

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balsa wood was also slightly flexible, making it easier to work with as there was a smaller chance of it snapping.

Other groups used Styrofoam to represent their strip footings system. This may have been a more effective way to show our structural system (pile foundations), as the Styrofoam comes in thicker pieces than balsa wood and is much easier to cut into blocks for footings, although it is more prone to snapping as it is less flexible than balsa wood.

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CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP REPORT (4th April 2014) In the Construction Workshop, we were placed into groups of 2 to design and construct a structure that spanned 1000mm. The focus was to create a strong structure using chosen joints and materials. The finished structure would be tested under an applied load to find the maximum load that could be applied before the structure failed. Our group was given 3 pieces of pine wood (1200 x 42 x 18 mm) and 1 piece of ply wood (1200 x 3.2 x 90 mm). We decided that the most efficient way to fix our timber members together would be to place the pieces of pine wood in the direction which the timber would perform strongly. By placing the timber on the side of its thickness, our beam structure would be less prone to deflection and bending under the applied loads, as the thicker sides (42 mm) allow for strength.

4 nails were used at each end to join the members together by creating rigid, fixed points that would not allow for any rotational movement once the structure was tested under an applied load (above picture).

When tested, our structure proved to be extremely successful. If the pine wood beams had been placed on their width sides, the structure would have been more likely to snap and break under the load. The applied failure load (before our structure began to snap due to deflection) was 600kg. The first appearance of cracks on the bottom show the weakest points were on the bottom, centre part of the beam, as this part was subject to the most tension (above pictures). 32

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However, the structure could have been stronger if the grain of the timber had been parallel to the grain rather than perpendicular, as this would have allowed for more stiffness due to the structural nature of timber. This group decided to place their pieces of ply and pine wood on its width. The ply wood material shows much flexibility and elasticity, as its maximum deflection without snapping was quite large. However, the applied load was only 265kg.

By placing the ply wood members on their thick sides rather than their widths, this timber beam structure could have performed much more effectively.

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WEEK 6: Spanning & Enclosing Space E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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STUDIO SESSION: A02: FULL SIZE INTERIM SUBMISSIONS In the studio session we were required to observe and analyse other groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; site visits and A02 interim submissions. Below are mind maps for 2 of the groups.

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WEEK 7: Detailing Strategies 1 E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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WEEK 8: Strategies for Openings E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY: ‘IN DETAIL’ The section I was given to complete at a scale of 1:1 was the section of the function room roof and ceiling, where the double glazing window met the roof. When drawing, some essential factors to remember where:  line thicknesses are used to show parts cute through in the section  different symbols and various hatches are required to show materials and/or material types e.g. plywood  must be understood CERTAIN PARTS/DETAILS are NOT SHOWN AT A SCALE OF 1:5  this means great care must be taken to include crucial details which affect the structure and connecting structural elements.

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ď&#x201A;ˇ

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Also, materials had to be researched or found in order to understand certain thicknesses (or at least the average thickness of a particular type of material.

E.G. GL-04 is a particular type of glazing, from the 1:5 section if can be seen that this window is actually double glazed. Therefore, the average thicknesses used for double glazing within Australia were research. It was found that most double glazing for roofs are: 4 mm glass, 16mm air space, 4 mm glass (as seen in the picture below). This was shown in the 1:1 drawing.

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WEEK 9: Detailing Strategies E-LEARNING AND READINGS CONSTRUCTION DETAILING -

Decisions about the details of how a building should be constructed, what materials to use and how they are put together (make be made by contractor or builder) a lot of questions need to be considered multi-disciplinary expertise: the designer, builder, trade person or manufacturer of the material make decisions together

1. Construction Detailing: Movement Joints 1. compressed 2. as installed 3. elongated (stretched) Materials can be joined using foam strip for example (in brick walls) to allow for movement in joint to prevent cracking 2. Construction Detailing: Health and Safety -

Helping people within dangerous situations (e.g. fire) Stairs made safe (by using specific width for the treads, etc.)

3. Construction Detailing: Ageing Gracefully -

Materials deteriorate over time, especially at harsh environments (e.g. near the sea salty water, near polluted industrial areas) glossy paints lose their lustre, glazed tiles take decades longer copper and timber can be aged but considered aesthetic

4. Construction Detailing: Repairable Surfaces & Resistance to Damage -

plasterboard â&#x20AC;&#x201C; cheap material which can be patched and painted when necessary skirting board â&#x20AC;&#x201C; prevent hitting on plasterboard walls

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5. Construction Detailing: Cleanable Surfaces -

surfaces in HOSPITALS need to be easily cleaned and the surfaces of materials used should NOT be able to trap dirt or germs easily Bathrooms have materials that are solid and shiny i.e. easy to clean

6. Construction Detailing: Maintenance Access -

Roof and underfloor surfaces may need to be accessed to complete repairs or cleaning tiles can be removed to fix any damages to electrical or plumbing systems OR for cleaning purposes

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7. Construction Detailing: Constructability -

if detail is difficult to construct, detail should be easy to assemble small inaccuracies can be forgiven, inaccuracies can be fixed or are negotiable

Other considerations >>>>  Off the shelf items at the shop (cheaper because they don’t need to be deigned, constructed and built… remember labour costs money!)  Get detailing to suit construction expertise (detailing that does not suit the construction expertise will be a waste a money and may not be suitable in providing what is NEEDED e.g. Steel is too expensive to use when it is not required. Therefore, other materials would be much more suitable. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite materials are being used INCREASINGLY within the built environment MATERIALS: MONOLITHIC OR COMPOSITE? Monolithic -

a single material materials COULD BE COMBINED BUT the individual components cannot be distinguished E.g. metal alloys

Composite -

2 or more materials combined in such a way that the individual materials can STILL BE DISTINGUISHED Materials combined are bonded together materials and different in form and composition act together to produce improved overall characteristics of the material

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E.G. fibrous, laminar (sandwich panels), particulate gravel and resins) hybrid (combos of 2 or more composite types, as shown below).

E.G. FIBRE REINFORCED CEMENT (glass fibres, cement, sand and water) -

instead of asbestos cheap resistant to water and termite damage, doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t burn used in pipes and roof tiles, interior and exterior cladding (wet areas) and floor panels (under tiles)

E.G. FIBRE GLASS (glass fibres and epoxy resins) -

Showers, baths and basins Fire resistant, weatherproof, lightweight and reasonably strong

E.G. ALUMINIUM SHEET COMPOSITES (aluminium and plastic) -

Interior and exterior feature cladding Lightweight Shock and water resistant less expensive sheets can be used

E.G. TIMBER COMPOSITES (solid and engineered timber) -

Plywood webs, steel or engineered board (these are its different forms) Minimum amount of material can be used for maximum efficiency, easy to install to accommodate services

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E.G. FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS (polymers/plastics mixed with timber, glass or carbon fibres) -

Associated with moulded products Used for decking, and external cladding, structural elements such as beams and columns BENEFITS: - high-strength materials can be stronger than steel! - Corrosion resistant

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WEEK 10: When Things Go Wrong E-LEARNING AND READINGS

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STUDIO SESSION ACTIVITY: ‘IN DETAIL’ (PART 2) MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE 1:1 DETAIL DRAWING: 1. GAPS may cause problems in this roof part of the Old Pavilion buildings 2. FLASHING surrounds these gaps, these detail strategies deter water from entering the building via gaps as they force any water to go vertical i.e. water will stop travelling horizontally 3. SEALANT is also used for water proofing, any relatively small gaps are filled with a rubber type sealant to prevent water entering the building and causing any steel members (including joints) to corrode and timber members to deteriorate 4. ACOUSTIC INSULATION used to reduce the transmission of noise from the exterior to the interior of the building, as this improves the quality of living 5. THERMAL INSULATION allows for heat to stay inside during the winter, cooler interior during the summer – SAVES ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION, as heating and cooling systems are required to be used less 6. DOUBLE GLAZING WINDOW SKYLIGHT  this allows for an “air space” to be included between 2 glass window planes, air spaces reduce heat transfer 7. TIMBER WALL LINING hides all these details to allow for an aesthetic finish, hides all the details as this is ideal for aesthetic purposes 8. CORRUGATED METAL DECK ROOF allows for stiff and strong roof to prevent water entering the building AND uses minimal materials due to its form 9. STEEL ANGLE fixed to the structural frame, stop all rotational movements so that skylight can remain in its place, as it not ideal for this to move out of place and fall out

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Slab on ground: a foundation slab laid directly on the ground without a basement Soffit: under part of a structure e.g. arch or eaves (overhanging) Soft storey: the level/storey of a building that cannot cope under earthquake loads (lateral loads), making a building extremely dangerous, can cause a building to collapse Spacing: “centre to centre”, length from centre to centre of joist ends Span: length of joist or beam Stability: being stable, resistant to falling over Static load: loads applied slowly to a structure until it reaches peak value, allowing the structure to respond slowly to deformation Steel decking: corrugated metal sheet used in formwork for concrete or for builders to walk on during the construction of a building (for its stiffness) Stress: the pressure or tension placed upon an object Strips footing: linear footing for a row of many columns, for extra strength and stability Structural Joint: join structural members at a point Stud: vertical wooden member (usually frame) Stud wall framing: vertical wooden member in building wall to create frame (load and non-load bearing), hold windows and doors in place and give shape to building Substructure: structural elements below ground (footings and foundations) Superstructure: structural elements above ground (in building, columns and beams) Tension: forces that stretch/elongate a material (pulls on structural member) Top Chord: top member in a roof (rafter) connected to web members (structural angled studs) Truss: a framework, usually consisting of rafters, posts and struts, supporting a roof, bridge, or other structure Underpinning: process of rebuilding/strengthening the foundation of an existing building Vapour Barrier: a waterproof barrier Veneer: a covering or façade, similar to the enclosure system Wind loads: the forces exerted by kinetic energy of a moving mass of air (assumed to come from any horizontal direction) Window sash: the framework holding the window panes, allows windows to slide opened and closed

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ENVS10003 LOG BOOK

ANTIGONE GOUGOUSSIS (641138)