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Grammar Rules and Proper Usage Manual (With Spanish Music Based Examples)

By: Anthony Mendoza

I believe in books that do not go to a ready-made public. I'm looking for readers I would like to make. To win them, to create readers rather than to give something that readers are expecting. That would bore me to death. - Carlos Fuentes

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Table of Contents Table of Contents

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Section 1: Parts of Speech

Page 5

Section 2: Phrases

Page 21

Section 3: Clauses

Page 25

Section 4: Sentences

Page 30

Section 5: Paragraphs

Page 35

Section 6: Essays

Page 40

Section 7: Capitalization

Page 45

Section 8: Punctuation

Page 51

Section 9: Commonly Confused Words

Page 55

About the Author

Page 60

Glossary

Page 61

Citations

Page 65

Dedication

Page 66

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Introduction This is a book that helps you know proper grammar executions with grammatical tips while incorporating Mexican music topics into the examples. This book will help anyone looking for help or seeking to improve their way of communicating.

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GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 1 PARTS OF SPEECH 5|Page


A. Parts of Speech Legend: Adjective Adverb Conjunction Determiner Noun Number Preposition Pronoun Verb 1.) Nouns a.) Types of Nouns: 1. Common Nouns: Used to name people, places, things, or ideas in generality. Not used to specify a single person, place, thing or idea. Ex.] Rapper, Artist, Studio. 2. Proper Nouns: Used to refer to a particular place, person, thing, idea. Ex.] CKAN, Van Gogh, Project Mayhem Studios VISUAL AID: CKAN (Particular Person)

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3. Compound Nouns: A noun constructed of two or more words in which each word is significant to the meaning of the noun. (Single Word, Two Words or Hyphenated) Ex.] Underworld, Water Bottle, Jack-in-the-box. 4. Concrete Nouns: Things which you can familiarize through your five senses: smell, sight, hearing, touch and taste. Ex.] Brother, Band, Sadness. 5. Abstract Nouns: A type of noun that denotes something a person cannot physically interact with. Ex.] Justice, Sorrow, Philosophy. b.) Noun Identifiers: 1. Noun Endings: Rudeness, Retaliation, Nationalism, Capitalist, Adventure, Habitude, Movement, Importance, Abhorrence, Complexity, Gangster, Accessory, Jageer, Neighborhood. 2. Following a Noun Marker: a, all, an, both, each, every, her, his, my, our, our, several, some, that, their, these, this, those, one, two, three, etc. Emboldened Words are pronouns that function as noun markers only when they act as adjectives, i.e., some boxes are square. (“Some” acts as an adjective, i.e., so it’s a noun marker). Some are square. (“Some” acts as a noun so it’ not a noun marker). Ex] The rapper is Mexican. Ex.] The widely known Mexican rapper is lyrically hip. 3. Plural Form: Ex] Rappers or Lyrics. 4. Possessive form: Ex.] Rapper’s lyrics or Rappers’ lyrics. 5. Following a Preposition: Ex.] The band angrily left off the elegant stage. (Preposition) These are some common prepositions: aboard, about, above, according to, across, across from, after, against, along, alongside, alongside of, along with, amid, among, apart from, around, as, as far as, aside from, at, away from, back of, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but )except), by, by means of, concerning, despite, down, down from, except, except for, excluding, for, from, among, from between, from under, in, in addition to, in behalf of, including, in front of, in place of, in regard to, inside, inside of, in spite of, instead of, into, like, near, near to, notwithstanding, of, off, on, on account of, on behalf of, onto, on top of, opposite, out, out of, outside of, over, over to, owing to, past, prior to, to, toward. Under, underneath, until, unto, upon, up to, versus, via, within, without. Side note: Sometimes the above words can be used as adverbs. Ex.] The rapper instantaneously fell down. 7|Page


c.) Functions (How Nouns Are Used): 1. Subject (comes before the verb) Ex.] MC Davon arrived at the Omni life Stadium promptly. Ex.]Santa RM addressed to his fans the oppression placed upon the Mexican populationby bar baric cartels and corrupt government. 2. Direct Object (comes after the verb and answer what or whom) Ex.] Voz De Mando gave autographs to their fans. Ex.]Vicente Fernandez tossed lyrics that had deep meanings at the crowd making muchof the a udience deeply infatuated. 3. Indirect Object (answers to who or to whom) Ex.] Members in Los Tigres Del Norte gave t-shirts to their mothers for Mother’s Day. Ex.]Calibre 50 presented a new song to their audience in the 2016 Whittier Cinco De Mayo concert festival.

Visual Aid (Calibre 50 in Whittier Narrows at Cinco de Mayo Festival):

4. Adverbial Object (comes after the verb and answers when) Ex.] La Septima Banda work nights to accommodate their fans ' schedules. 8|Page


Ex.]Espinoza Paz bartered his time for a rate of $ 1 million per hour at the StubHubCenter in Carson. 5. Object of the Preposition (follows a preposition) Ex.]Juan Gabriel went to heaven as he transcended from his current life. Ex.]Cartel de Santa stood atop a pedestal to make him look s = taller than he reallyis to seem in timidating to rival CKAN 6. Subject Complement (Following a linking verb) Ex.] Banda MS is the king of all Mexican Banda music billboards. Ex.]El Daza is evidently happy because he acquired a benefiting deal with Charter Spectrum for 5 years. 7. Object Complement Follows a direct object and renames it) Ex.]The Septima Banda as a whole chose Juan lead singer because of his strong vocalskills that he has displayed in all 34 concerts. Ex.]N.W.A. members named Jerry Heller Manager as he was the one with prior musicindustry knowledge. 8. Appositives (renames nouns, separated by commas) Ex.]Julio Preciado, a complete stranger, proved to me he has the potential tomake it big as an ar tist. Ex.]CKAN, my idol, showed me exactly how corrupt the Mexican government reallyis and what it imposes on its people making everyday life a struggle. 9. Adjectival (describes noun following it) Ex.]The Banda MS crew traveled happily to the Banda dance.

S

V

Ex.]The famed rappers went eagerly to rappers ' con in Jalisco to display their skillsthrough rap battles with flow and meaning. 10. Noun in Direct Address Ex.]Tigrillo Palma, when are you going to release your final album featuring Ramon Ayala? Ex.]Is the song "El Proximo Viernes�, Espinoza Paz, ready to be inputted to yournext album an d distributed to every single radio station in Mexico? 11. Object of the gerund (noun that follows a gerund) G= Gerund O=Object G

OG

Losing the rap battle made Cartel de Santa feel sadder than a dog without a tail. 9|Page


G

OG

Gaining extreme amounts of weight made Jenny Rivera feel fat and fall in an extreme depression that only therapy could cure. 12. Object of the Participle (noun that follows a participle) P= Participle O=Object PART OPART After the Banda carnival, the bands all went to the local Outback Steakhouse and ordered a Blooming Onion as an appetizer. PART OPART Before the fashion show, all models made sure that their hair looked luscious and their face seemed to be that of one even skin tone. 13. Object of the Infinitive (noun that follows an infinitive) _INF_= Infinitive

O=Object _INF_

OLNF

Ramon Ayala proudly accepted to receive the world’s prize for best accordion player in the whole world. _INF_

OLNF

Santa RM decided to grant the national scholar award to the young boy dressed in blue because of his impeccable grades. 2.) Pronouns a.) Personal: (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, and them) I feel that we can all be personally impacted with the lyrics CKAN and other rappers hand to us. With the knowledge they give us you too should be able to understand the cruel oppression the government of Mexico places upon its very own people making him the middle man to get the word known. Visual Aid: (CKAN Symbolic Picture)

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b.) Relative: (Casted off to intertwine a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun) Who is Cartel de Santa that he believes he has the right to seem greater than any other rapper. Whom have the rap audience created that we allow to speak freely whose words seem like the most demeaning thing the world has ever heard. c.) Interrogative: (Pronoun used to ask questions) Whoever is criticizing Santa RM and MC Davos rap skill would ask themselves who and what they believe produces good lyricism. Whatever the case maybe it is evident these viewers have no real taste for lyrical meaning but seem to be bias towards inflated egos. d.) Reflexive: (Personal pronouns plus the suffix -self or -selves) Jenny Rivera became a diva herself before she even died. Simply those who compare themselves to her cannot possibly view themselves as Banda prodigies. e.) Demonstrative: (Used for demonstrative adjectives and takes the place of the noun phrase.) Those romantic songs that were produced by Banda MS can be heard in many Music Festivals. These songs are becoming mainstream and this is unacceptable because none of these new supporters helped them from the start and seem to be getting the same benefits as those who have traced them since their beginnings. f.) Indefinite (A pronoun that is not directed) All bands are great but to be honest La Septima Banda and Banda MS both show that either can be eligible for winning several awards. Anyone else that is close, very few of course, do not need to step it up much but they must try to lose nobody. 3. Verbs A. How are Verbs Identified? a.) Verb Endings: -s, -ed, -ing 11 | P a g e


1). Songs, Performed, Playing b.)Tense: (Indicate time via tenses) 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)

Simple past- MC Davo walked last night to the stadium to perform. Past- Last year I went to the Omni life Concert in Guadalajara, Mexico. Past Perfect- When I got to the concert, CKAN had already started performing. Past Progressive- I listened to Julion Alvarez all day yesterday. Simple Present – CKAN waits everyday there at the same time each day to contemplate his beautiful neighborhood. 6.) Present- Santa RM is one of the fastest rising stars in Mexico at the moment and will perform today at 8:00 p.m. 7.) Present-Perfect – To have good flow 8.) Present Progressive- to be a rapper 9.) Present Perfect Progressive- He had been singing and his vocal chords are still trembling. 10.) Future- Tomorrow I will go see Voz de Mando for the first time at the Forum. 11.) Future Perfect- Los Tigres Del Norte Will have done 43 albums in before they retire. 3.) Forms: a.) Forms of “to be”: am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being. b.) Forms of “to do”: do, does, did, done, doing. c.) Forms of “to have”: have, had, has, having. 4.) Types a.) Auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) b.) linking verbs (verbs that do not describe action, but connect the subject of a sentence to other parts of the sentence- usually the predicate) c.) lexical verbs (main verbs) d.) dynamic verbs (indicate action) e.) stative verbs (describe a condition) f.) finitive verbs (indicate tense) g.) nonfinitive verbs (infinitives or participles) h.) regular verbs (weak verbs) i.) irregular verbs (strong verbs) j.) transitive verbs (verbs followed by a direct object) 5.) Voice: Form of the verb that indicates how it relates or interacts with the action. The English language has two voices: Active and Passive. 12 | P a g e


6.) Verbals : a.) Gerund: word ending in “ing” used as noun. i. Gerardo Ortiz likes performing in the Rodeo de Texcoco. Visual Aid: (Gerard Ortiz at Rodeo de Texcoco)

b.) Participle: word ending in “ing or “ed” used as an adjective. i. Espinoza Paz is concealing his family’s identities and has left us perplexed. c.) Infinitive: verb preceded by the word “to” use as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs i.CKAN likes to go visit his hometown in Jalisco and help the less fortunate inspi te of his previous conditions.

IV. ADJECTIVES Adjectives modify, describe, limit, and identify nouns and pronouns, 1. Kinds: a.) Demonstrative - adjectives employed to alternate a noun so that we understand which specific place, person, or thing is stated. Ex.] This rapper, that composer, those bands

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b.) Common – an expressive adjective that is not an adequate adjective. Ex.] New album, Long song, Young artist c.) Proper - an adjective, habitually capitalized, consequent from a proper noun. Ex.] Mexican composer, Creative artist, Friday night rap bars 2. Endings: -able/-ible: achievable, reversible, invincible, capable -al: magical, functional, and graphical -ful: beautiful, meaningful, and colorful -ic: terrific, rustic, music -ive: attractive, persuasive, and absorptive -less: tasteless, affectionless, and ageless -ous: dangerous, prosperous, and fabulous 3. Conversions: Add one of many endings to the word. a.) danger – dangerous

(noun)

b.) enjoy- enjoyable

(verb)

c.) sick – sickly

(adjective)

4. Articles: in generality they are adjectives because they label the nouns that they lead. a.) the rapper b.) a fanatic c.) an obsessionist 5. Comparatives/Superlatives: A comparative is an adjective or adverb. Superlative adjectives are used to detail an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a class. a.) CKAN is the greatest rapper of all time. b.) Los Tigres Del Norte have the sickest lyrics. c.) Santa RM is not cooler. V. ADVERBS Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. A.) Endings: i. aboriginally, abruptly, acceleratingly 14 | P a g e


ii. Outwards, towards, backwards iii. Coastwise, endwise, clockwise B.) Conversions: i. quick - quickly ii. Economic – economically iii. gentle- gently C.) Types: Manner, Frequency, Degree, Place, Time D.) Conjunctive E.) Intensifiers: i. very lyrical ii. quite lovely iii. So recklessly F.) Comparatives/Superlatives: a.) Comparative: greater, cooler, sicker b.) Superlative: greatest, coolest, and sickest Example Types: Manner a.)CKAN executes his bars quickly but at the same time made each lyric worth1, 000 bullets. b.)MC Davo produced albums rapidly and people became disinterested in him because they began to believe that he produces only for the quick buck rather thaninspiration to his fans. Time a.)Los Tigres Del Norte were confronted by Mexican cartels and they decided toleave i mmediately. b.)Voz de Mando’s vocalist decided he was not being sufficiently and decided toleave pr omptly. Place a.) Rigo Tovar was amongst those around the top in the music charts during his time. b.)All the rappers that were supposed to appear at the Estadio Azteca were all willingly here to fundraise money that will go towards cancer research. 15 | P a g e


Degree a.)El Cartel de Santa’s ' songs are consistently resulting in nothing but complete failures. b.) Pinche Mara has an underrated voice and is exceptionally bad in the eyes of others. Frequency a.) La Septima Banda is repeatedly producing hits. b.)Vicente Fernandez in his prime consistently produced pleasing all of his fans all the time.

Visual Aid: (Vicente Fernandez Fills Stadium)

VI. Conjunctions Coordinating: A conjunction placed between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences of equal rank. Ex.]As for CKAN he is the definition of skills when it comes to rapping, but he isamong many of his category that have no previous experience nor large funding. Ex.]Santa RM is so amazing and yet he manages to keep his image low, so as hemaintains himse lf humble he does n't get hated on or is as praised as thoseinflated egoistic rappers.

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Correlative: A conjunction that connects two balanced clauses, phrases, or words. Ex.] Either the main vocalist of Los Tigres Del Norte got shorter or I became taller. Ex.]Neither Voz de Mando nor Calibre 50 has had the ability to impress me not onlybecause th ey reduced production but also because they have reduced the qualityof their songs. Subordinate: A conjunction that introduces a dependent clause, joining it to a main clause. Ex.]After I saw the scores given to La Arroloadora I felt as if they were misjudgingso that they se em worse than of what they really are. Ex.]Provided that statistically speaking CKAN is better than Pinche Mara since it isevident beca use CKAN raps as if he speaks for his community and always says hewants to get his communit y noticed before he dies and he has achieved that.

Relative Pronouns: A clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. Ex.] Who really believes that Ramon Ayala can be defeated at accordion playing? Ex.]Who believes that policemen in Mexico detain people by which social class theyappear to b e in, and that they specifically target the poor? VII. PREPOSITIONS Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of the sentence. Prepositions are NEVER followed by verbs. There are one-word prepositions and complex prepositions. These are some common prepositions: aboard, about, above, according to, across, across from, after, against, along, alongside, alongside of, along with, amid, among, apart from, around, as, as far as, aside from, at, away from, back of, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but (except), by, by means of, concerning, despite, down, down from, except, except excluding for, for, from, from among, from between, from under, in, in addition to, in behalf of, including, in front of, in place of, in regard to, inside, inside of, in spite of, instead of, into, like, near, near to, notwithstanding, of, off, on, on account of, on behalf of, onto, on top of, opposite, out, out of, outside, outside of, over, over to, owing to, past, prior to, to, toward, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, up to, versus, with, within, without. Ex.] Aboard a train I went about to a Banda MS concert across all 8 oceans from and to all 7 continents. As I went off of the train I looked underneath me and inside of my shoe I had a CKAN concert flyer prior to the concert I was going to. I decided to ditch the Banda MS concert and by means of an airplane traveled to Antarctica from between France and Spain and in front of me there he sat, CKAN, I was mesmerized and in spite of being very emotional I maintained my posture.

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VII. Interjections Final Part of Speech

Ex.] Yeah I really do like CKANs’ rapping, most other rappers, well, just don’t come close. There is a difference between capitalism and symbolical rapping, and dang many rappers have fallen for the big buck. Oh well! I guess the value of the people in your community has become obsolete and yippee to CKAN for always remembering his place of origin. Key associated terms to know for Parts of Speech: viii. Antecedents- a thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another. ix. Complements- a thing that completes or brings to perfection. x. Objects 18 | P a g e


1. Direct- a noun phrase denoting a person or thing that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb, for example the dog in Jimmy fed the dog. 2. Indirect- a noun phrase referring to someone or something that is affected by the action of a transitive verb (typically as a recipient), but is not the primary object (e.g., him in give him the book). xi. Modifiers- a person or thing that makes partial or minor changes to something. xii. Transitions (INCLUDE A TRANSITION CHART) - words or phrases that link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

xiii. Expletives- an oath or swear word. xiv. Agreements 1. Subject-Verb - Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number 2. Noun-Pronoun - Every pronoun must agree with its antecedent

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer to Attached Manual 20 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 2 PHRASES 21 | P a g e


Section 2 B. Phrases Legend: Adjective Adverb Conjunction Determiner Noun Number Preposition Pronoun Verb 1.) Prepositional- A modifying phrase consisting of a preposition and its object. Will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition. Ex.) The song on the artists ' website is blocked in countries from Guatemala to Brazil. Ex.) The song from Cartel De Santa had strong lyrics not adept for minors. Visual Aid: (Cartel de Santa Parental Advisory)

2.) Appositive- A noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Ex.) The song, a Ranchero, is growing popularity across the globe.

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Ex.)During the music festival, CKAN, the most talented rapper there, spewed lyricsfaster than MC Davo and Cartel de Santa combined. 3.) Verbal- Verbal’s and any of the verb form's modifiers, objects, or complements. a.) He was rapping quickly to the opponent rapper. b.) You CA not sing every day! You’ll strain your vocal cords.

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 24 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 3 CLAUSES

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Section 3 3.) Clauses Legend: Adjective Adverb Conjunction Determiner Noun Number Preposition Pronoun Verb

A.) Independent- A clause that can stand alone as a sentence, therefore, it finishes a complete thought. a.) I enjoy singing by the lake and eating. b.) Mexican rappers are the fastest rappers. Visual Aid: (Fast Influential Rapper)

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B.) Subordinate- A clause, typically introduced by a conjunction that forms part of and is dependent on a main clause. A.)Noun: Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, an object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive. I.) Whoever is the last one to perform brings the house down. ii.) Tell me who dropped the mic floor. b.) Adjective: Used to modify a noun in an independent clause. A. Some adjective clauses begin with an introductory word: I.) The rapper who lives up the street is my favorite composer. Ii.)The reason why I stood and clapped is to show how happy I was with their performance on stage. c.) Adverb: Used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to indicate time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or concession. I.) I will walk to the concert after you eat. ii.) I will walk to the concert before it gets dark. d.) Relative: Dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun I.)To calm his infuriated rivals, MC Davo offered a retaliatory song which only worsened relations. Ii.)Pedro Fernandez said goodnight to his home Guadalajara, who has supported him since day 1. e . ) E l l i p t i c a l C l a u s e s - Adverb clauses in which part of the clause is omitted. i.) ii.)

Edwin is just as excited about seeing Vicente Fernandez as I. No one works harder and produces greater songs than she.

f.) Essential Clauses: Clauses necessary to the meaning of the sentence. I.) The Stadium which CKAN most adores is in Jalisco. ii.) The Song which is most engaging is up next. 27 | P a g e


g.) Nonessential Clauses: Clauses that are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. I.) CKAN the rapper, which was born in Jalisco, always gives back to his community. Visual Aid: (CKAN in his hometown giving shirts)

ii.) Adan Chalino Sanchez, whose dad was also a vocalist, made good corridos.

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 29 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 4 SENTENCES

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GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 4 Adjective Adverb Conjunction Determiner Noun Number Preposition Pronoun Verb SENTENCES 4. Sentences – a. Sentence Parts I. Subject (3) 1. Complete- who or what is doing the verb plus all of the modifiers [descriptive words] that go with it. A.) Mexican rappers put on a good show. Visual Aid: (Santa RM in a Concert)

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B.) Talented Mexican rappers put on a good show at every performance they attend. 2. Simple- the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about. A.) My favorite rapper is performing this week. B.) My favorite rapper is performing here this week. 3. Compound- two or more subjects for a verb. A.) The mariachi or the rappers have to go. B.) The mariachi or the rappers have to leave in an hour. ii. Predicate (3) 1. Complete- the action of the sentence and all its modifiers. A.) The Banda finished their last song. B.) The Banda finished their last song just about an hour ago. 2. Simple- it's always a word that shows action A.) The new song featured the rappers brother. B.) The new song featured the rappers brother and his sister. 3. Compound- two or more verbs or verb phrases that share the same subject and are joined by a conjunction. A.) The artist tried to hit a high note but croaked. B.) The artist tried to hit a high note rapidly but croaked as he was barely reaching it. b. Sentence Types (4) I. Declarative- a sentence that is making a statement. A.) If I had to choose, I’d say my favorite rapper is CKAN. B.) If I had to choose between CKAN and Santa RM, I’d say my favorite rapper is CKAN. ii. Interrogative- one which asks a question. A.) Are you ready to leave? B.) Will you be ready to leave to the concert at 6:00 p.m.? iii. Imperative- a type of sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or command. A.) Let us enjoy some lyrical rappers. B.) Let us enjoy some Mexican vocalist rappers. 32 | P a g e


Iv. Exclamatory- a sentence that expresses great emotion such as excitement, surprise, happiness and anger, and ends with an exclamation point. A.) Today I 'm going to go see Banda’s perform in Pico Rivera! B.) Today I 'm going to go see Banda’s perform in Pico Riveras ' Sports Arena! c. Sentence Errors (Incomplete/Incorrect Types) (with correction guidelines) I. Fragment- fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself. A.) Incorrect: I need to go to more concerts. Because I hardly go. B.)Correct: I need to go to more concerts because I hardly go to any. Ii. Run-on/Rambling- occurs when two sentences are joined without punctuation or a connecting word. A.)Incorrect: I love to go to lots of concert venues I would go to one very day if I could. B.)Correct: I love to go to lots of concert venues. I would go to one very day if I could. iii. Fused Sentence- also called a run-on, occurs when a writer has connected two main clauses with no punctuation. Same As Above iv. Misplaced Modifier- a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies / describes. A.) Incorrect: He served lyrical bombs to his fans on large speakers. B.) Correct: He served his fans lyrical bombs through large speakers .v. Comma Splice vi. Double Negative- two negative words used in the same sentence. A.) You are in a large debt and buying concert tickets WO n't do you no good. B.) You are in a large debt and buying concert tickets WO n't do you any good.

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 34 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 5 PARAGRAPHS

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Grammar Section 5 1. Introductory Paragraphs (Introductions) a. Hook (Lead) i. Anecdotal (brief Story to set the mood and intro the topic) 1. Ex.) When CKAN performs in his beloved city of Jalisco he cashes out a huge check. There he will not just be paid with money, but with the respect among his people. The better he performs at the Estacio Jalisco the more infatuates his fans become. ii. Query Based (Questions that bring the reader to the Topic) 1. Ex.) Does listening to music with no purpose lower ones knowledge on what’s going on in the real world by creating a fictitious mindset? b. Thesis Statements (The purpose of a piece of writing – usually one sentence in length – and something that is arguable) i. Assertion (claim 1. Ex.) Mariachi Concerts are very entertaining and should be purposefully attended. ii. Fact (empirically verifiable) 1. Ex.) Mariachi Concerts are generally underrates iii. Opinion (personal position on a topic) 1. Ex.) Mariachi is genuinely the true representation of Mexican culture through music.

iv. Belief (social, religious, or political in nature – an opinion held by many to be a fact, though it is not necessarily)

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1. Ex.) Buying tickets to a CKAN concert and not going is generally wrong. v. Generalization (uses absolute or statistical pronouns: all, always, every, never, none, most, half – avoid using this type of thesis statement) 1. Ex.) Every Song of CKAN is amazing to listen too. vi. Document Based (cites a specific source and its position on a topic) 1. Ex.) In billboards official webpage, CKAN is said to have been inspires by Cypress Hill. vii. Theory (a statement that can be tested and potentially proven) 1. Ex. Singing can systematically lead to health problems as one progress in age. 2. Body Paragraphs (must have echoes of the thesis in each and present evidence to support or expand on the thesis) a. a. Topic Sentences (must specifically indicate the topic of the paragraph and focus on one subject and area of evidence or support) i. Ex. Multiple sources additionally indicate that mariachi music truly represents Mexican culture through music. (Now every sentence in this paragraph must be related to the connection between mariachi music and Mexican Culture) b. Evidence from Quotations (quotes should NEVER be used as individual sentences – quotes should be embedded within sentences) i. Ex. Several Researchers agree, “Mariachi music relates Mexican culture through music”. ii. Ex. “Mariachi Music shows the essence of Mexican Culture embedded into its songs” according to several researchers. iii. Ex. Fortunately for patrons, “There are sever artists that pursue to globalize Mariachi music and make the Mexican culture popular,” according to several researchers. iv. Fortunately for Patrons, there are several {talented} artists that pursue to globalize Mariachi Music and Make the Mexican culture popular”. v. Unfortunately for patrons, “There are several {talented artists that … make the Mexican culture popular”. vi. Paraphrase (rewording of a quote into other words of the same length without quotation marks, but still citing the source) 1. ORIGINAL QUOTE – “There are several artists that pursue to globalize Mariachi Music and make the Mexican culture popular” (Schlosser 73). 2. PARAPHRASE – There are many people who sing Mariachi music to globalize Mexican culture. 1. ORIGINAL QUOTE – “There are several {talented} artists that pursue to globalize Mariachi music and make the Mexican culture popular” (Schlosser 73) 2. SUMMARY – There are many Mariachi artists.

vii. Abstract examples (hypothetical, “what if” examples – AVOID) 37 | P a g e


1. Ex. People would love mariachi music if they went to concerts with good artists. viii. Concrete Examples (actual, reference-able examples) 1. Ex. A study in the November 2011 New England Journal of Music showed that those who went to Mariachi Concerts of highly respected concerts said they enjoyed abstract methods of music. c. Closing Sentences (must end the discussion of the topic within the paragraph with a transitional or culminating word – possibly an adverb – and should echo the thesis of the essay) i. Ex. Clearly, valid authorities on music agree Mariachi music directly represents the Mexican Culture. 3. Closing Paragraphs (Conclusions – should not be mere summaries of the previous paragraphs of your essay) a. Consequences of Disregarding the Thesis (establishing the potential consequences of disregarding the implications of the thesis – CREATING A COUNTERARGUMENT) I. Ex. If there wasn’t such a finite number of Mariachis, then the Mexican culture would’ve been popular by now. b. Statement(s) of Extension (extending the consequences of disregarding the implications of the thesis – could be one or more sentences) I. Ex. As such, Mariachi music can be directly associated with a representation of Mexican culture. c. Establishing the Significance of the Thesis I. Ex. Thus, as the preponderance of research indicates, Mariachi music relates a lot more than love for someone- they carry the Mexican culture and express it through lyrics. D. Final Sentence (connects to the hook) I. Ex. So given all the Mariachi songs associates with the Mexican culture, maybe the Mexican culture is a lot grander than we believe…

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 39 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 6 ESSAYS 40 | P a g e


Essays A.Types 1. Persuasive- attempt to get the reader to agree with your point of view. a.) Present arguments, research, and ideas in order to sway the reader one way or the other 2. Expository - genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expand on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. a.) Definition or Description b.) Process (How-To) – i. Select a topic ii. Write a thesis sentence iii. Select a method of development iv. Organize the essay v. Write the Topic Sentences for the body paragraph vi. Write the body paragraphs of the essay vii. Furnish a Paragraph of Intro. viii. Write a paragraph of Conclusion. c.) Compare and Contrast – The comparison concentrates on similar points and contrast points out the differences. d.) Cause and Effect- concerned with why things happen (causes) and what happens thus (effects). Common Method of organizing and discussing ideas. 3. Analytical / Critical – To evaluate somebodies work (a book, an essay, a movie, a painting…) in order to increase the readers understanding of it. a. Evaluative- a type of argument that includes evidence to justify a writer’s opinion about a subject. b. Interpretive- another common writing assignment that asks you to closely read and write about your understanding of a text. 4. Narrative (Tells a story) - a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. a. Personal Anecdote- a short account of a particular incident or event, especially of an interesting or amusing nature. 5. Research

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a. MLA Citation Format

b. APA Citation Format

6. Times a. Document Based Questions (DBQ) - an essay or series of short answer questions that are constructed by using one’s own knowledge combined with support from several provided sources. b. Synthesis – something that is made by combining different things. c. Prompt Based- statements that focus on a topic or an issue, followed by questions. B. Strategies/Planning Tips/Steps i. Pre-writing/Prompt Analysis/Outlining When in this process, the writer should brainstorm to progress flow of ideas on paper. To help you write your ideas use a chart such as a Venn diagram, bubble map, or a tree chart. When Reading a prompt make sure to not just read but to actually learn the information. A good way to review key ideas at the end of reading is to annotate, keeping nothing but key 42 | P a g e


features highlighted. Organize your argument with the main ideas in an efficient transitional way.

ii. Research/Evaluation of Sources For this you need useful and plentiful evidence grabbed from a database that is credible. Research the given topic and use strong evidence such as books, articles of universities, current scientific events etc. Remember to cite your work, format is given above. C. Work Cited Page i. MLA Format Refer To Picture Above ii. APA Format Refer To Page 44

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 44 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 7 CAPITALIZATION

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Rule 1: Capitalize the initial word, the final word, and all imperative words in a title. a.) Always capitalize verbs. Example(s): I Want to Hold Your Hand (Beatles) b.) Capitalize prepositions of five or more letters. Rule 2: Capitalize Mother, Dad, and other labels when they serve as a substitute for the person’s name. a.) Capitalize the title if it appears with a name. Example(s): Uncle Ben Rule 3: Capitalize the name of organizations Example(s): Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), National Academy of Music, Texas Talent Musicians Association (TTMA) Rule 4: Capitalize names of day, month, holidays, and special days Example(s): Veterans Day, December, Christmas Rule 5: Capitalize a proper adjective but not the noun it modifies unless the nouns are part of a title. Example(s): a Christmas Day parade, our Wednesday ritual, Christmas Celebration, the California Coast Specific titles are capitalized following the rule: Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in any title. Do not capitalize a, an, the, and, but, or, nor, or prepositions of four or less letters unless those words are the first or last word. Example(s): Immigration Days in the United States, Coast Tournament of Bands Rule 6: Capitalize brand names but not the product(s). 46 | P a g e


Example(s): Del Records Entertainment Rule 7: Capitalize business names. Example(s): The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., Packaging Corp. of America Rule 8: Capitalize institution names. Example(s): Kingdom Hospital Rule 9: Capitalize names of geographic places. Example(s): Bridger Pass Overland Trail, Scotts Bluff National Monument Rule 10: Capitalize historical events, periods of time, and historical documents. Example(s): Chernobyl Disaster, Baroque, Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges Rule 11: Capitalize religions, religious denominations, religious documents, names of churches, and names of a supreme being. Example(s)s: Italo-Roman Neopaganism Rule 12: Capitalize languages Example(s)s: English, Spanish, Dutch Rule 13: Capitalize specific names of structures. Example(s): Oriental Pearl Tower, Brooklyn Bridge

Rule 14: Capitalize names, initials, and titles appearing with names. 47 | P a g e


Example(s): (James Dr No From Russia with Love Gold finger Thunder ball You Only Live Twice On Her Majesty's Secret Service Diamonds Are Forever Live and Let Die The Man with the Golden Gun The Spy Who Loved Me Moonraker For Your Eyes Only Octopussy A View to a Kill The Living Daylights License to Kill Golden Eye Tomorrow Never Dies The World Is Not Enough Die Another Day Casino Royale Bond) Actual name of a Scotsman. Rule 15: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence. Example(s): The Anonymous group is planning an intricate plan to take down Trump on the deep web that would in fact lead to his egos demise. Rule 16: Capitalize the pronoun I. Example(s): I am a complete badass. Rule 17: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in most lines of poetry. Example: Trump the orange wrinkled turd, Funnier than Star Wars The Gathering of the Third. (Star Wars Parody) Rule 18: Capitalize Roman numerals and the letters for the first major topics in an outline. Capitalize the first letter of the first word in an outline. Examples: I. Physics A. Quantum 1. Atoms 2. Photons Rule 19: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a direct quotation. Examples: Trump asked, “Where is America’s self-respect?” “In the gutter,” replied his father. In a split quotation, do not capitalize the first letter of the word in the second part

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unless a new sentence is begun. Examples: “Did you,” asked Joe, “vote for a racist, orang-faced politician?” “I’m done with this country,” yelled Chris. “Let’s go to Canada.” Rule 20: Capitalize government bodies and departments. Examples: State, Congress, Supreme Court Rule 21: Capitalize races and ethnic groups. Examples: Hispanic, White Americans Rule 22: Capitalize North, South, East, West, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest when they refer to a region of the country or world. Examples: Did Tupac and Biggie originate in the East coast? Rule 23: Capitalize political parties and their members. Examples: The American Vegetarian Party Rule 24: Capitalize the first letter only in most hyphenated words that being a sentence. Example: Twenty-two bands will perform at the Veterans Day event at Whittier Narrows.. Capitalize both parts of a hyphenated word in titles. Example: Did you know that Vice-President Mike Pence is even worse than Trump for President? Rule 25: Capitalize President when it refers to the leader of the United States. Example: The President has called for the end of a beautiful nation as he deals oppressive laws that destroy Americas’ original image. Rule 26: Capitalize a specific, well-known area or event. Example: Did President Obama play basketball or foosball in the Oval Office?

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Rule 27: Capitalize the first word of the greeting and closing of a letter. Examples: Dear Mary Jane, Love,

(Rules 1-27 retrieved from Clark County School District)

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 51 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 8 PUNCTUATION

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8. Punctuation – Define and create one (1) example sentence of the uses for each mark. a. [ ] ( ) .,-–:;?!‘“… a.) [

]- punctuation marks used within a sentence to include information that is not essential

to the main point. i.) He was rapping 30 (words per minute) at the underground function. b.) (

)- use parentheses to enclose information that can be left out. i.) CKAN (the rapper from Jalisco) sang at the Estadio Jalisco.

c.) . - a punctuation mark (.) at the end of a sentence. i.) Ploys to unite brown gangs in order to get rid of Trump is becoming viral in the streets as I hear different leaders speaking of one big blow to the “anaranjado”. d.) , - used to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. 2. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. i.) We heard a smooth, voluble rapper tonight. e.) - - used to join words to indicate that they have a combined meaning or that they are linked in the grammar of a sentence (as in pick-me-up, rock-forming ), to indicate the division of a word at the end of a line, or to indicate a missing or implied element (as in short- and long-term ). i.) The Vice-President is Mike Pence. f.) — - use the em dash to create a strong break in the structure of a sentence. i.) To become a Mexican Rapper you have to master “Barrio” Knowledge—in effect, learn every gang, live in poverty, be personally affected by corruption, and speak about your struggles. g.): - punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. i.) Mexican Rappers that begin with C: CKAN and Cartel de Santa.

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h.); - used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction. i.) Going to a Mariachi festival isn’t just something you hear; it’s something you feel emotionally. i.)? - used to end a direct question i.) “Why is it that in such a powerful nation people think racism is still a thing?”, said CKAN,” Is society not aware that the only superior and monarchal color is green?” j.)! - used when indicating an exclamation i.) OMG! Is CKAN going to be our next president? k.) ‘- a punctuation mark used to mark omissions and possessives of nouns and pronouns. i.) ‘Hello Darkness my old Friend’ (Paul Simon)

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 55 | P a g e


GRAMMAR BOOK SECTION 9: COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS

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9. Commonly Confused/Misused Word Choices a. Connotation/Denotationi.) Connotation- represents the various social overtones, cultural implications, or emotional meanings associated with a sign. Example: CKAN’s music has received various connotations from the different regions of Mexico. ii.) Denotation- represents the explicit or referential meaning of a sign. Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the 'dictionary definition.' Example: The word “rapper” has the denotation of “a person who performs rap music” b. Who/Whom i.) Who- is the subject of a verb (i.e. the one doing the action). Example: MC Davo, who is also a rapper, lives along the Sinaloan Coast. ii.) Whom- the object of a verb (i.e. the one being acted upon). Example: CKAN saw the faces of whom he adored. c. Their/There/They’re i.) Their- belonging to or associated with the people or things previously mentioned or easily identified. Example: Its not Cartel de Santa’s prime but it is their down point. ii.) There- n, at, or to that place or position Example: CKAN was standing right there! iii.) They’re- they are Example: Anti-Trump protesters are correct in ideology but they’re incorrect in the method hey express, according to the Government at least. d. Lie/Lay 57 | P a g e


i.)Lie- to deceive or trick Example: Who would’ve known that CKAN’s death was all but a Lie? Oh that’s right everyone! ii.) Lay- to rest upon Example: No one could lie that the title if “champion of rap” belongs too CKAN and he will lay on it until he dies. e. Laid/Lain i.) Laid- past and past participle of lay. Example: Cartel de Santa laid knowledge on all those who thought he was nothing but a drug addict in his song “La Pelotona”. ii.) Lain- past participle of lie. f. Affect/Effect i.) Affect- have an effect on; make a difference to. Example: Los Tucanes’s new song is said to affect all voting polls by increasing chances to El Pri. ii.) Effect- a change that is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. Example: Calibre 50 has a direct effect on the lives of all those that listen to them. g. Accept/Except i.) Accept- to embrace something Example: I am not willing to accept Juan Gabriels death. ii.) Except- exclusion Example: Everyone except “Pinche Mara” raps in a non-aggressive manner. h. C/W/Should have vs. C/W/Should of i.) Should have-something that would have been beneficial to do.

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Example: You should have gone to Voz de Mando’s concert on Tuesday. ii.) Should of- incorrect manner of should’ve Example: You should of gone to Voz de Mando’s concert on Tuesday. i. Loath/Loathe i.) loath- reluctant; unwilling. Example: I’m very loath to going to an underground concert alone. ii.) loathe- feel intense dislike or disgust for. Example: I loathe having to do a grammar assignment during the presidential election that CKAN rapped about.

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To Go Over the Section Just Read Refer To Attached Manual 60 | P a g e


About the Author: Anthony Mendoza goes to Francisco Bravo Medical Magnet High School as a junior. At age sixteen he will be able to graduate from Bravo in the Summer of 2018. Anthony never has been and never will be a fan of writing or grammar but due to an inconvenient turn of events this book has come to publication. Anthony was not inspired, but rather required to publish this book. The Author has an abstract view of the world and has great interest in Spanish Music, thus represented in the Grammar Book .

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Glossary of English grammar and Usage Terms A Adjective: a word, phrase, or clause that describes a noun or pronoun. Top Searches

Adverb: a word, phrase, or clause that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Antecedent: the noun or noun phrase to which a pronoun refers. Appositive: a noun or noun phrase that identifies or modifies the noun or pronoun that comes immediately before it—e.g., Joey, my boyfriend, wanted pizza. Article: a type of adjective used to indicate specificity. In English, the only articles are the, a, and an. Auxiliary verb: an irregular verb that provides information about another verb. The main ones are to have and to be.

B C Case: the property of a noun or pronoun that indicates how it relates to other parts of a sentence. The three cases in English are nominative, possessive, and objective. Collective noun: a count noun referring to a group—e.g., staff, band, group. Comparative: indicating that something has a quality to a greater or lesser degree than something else. For example, faster, prettier, and more equitable are comparative adjectives. Comparative adverbs usually take more. Complement: a word or phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. The main types are objects, predicate nouns, and predicate adjectives. Conjunction: a word or phrase that links words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Conjunctive adverb: an adverb that functions as a conjunction—for example, however, therefore, hence. Contraction: an abbreviation of a word or phrase formed by omitting letters, usually replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe—e.g., can’t, we’ll, he’d. Conventional: significantly more common than alternative forms. Count noun: a noun that can be singular or plural.

D Dangler (or dangling modifier): a modifier, especially at the beginning of a sentence, positioned to modify the wrong word or no word at all—e.g., Leaving home, the weather was nice. Direct object: the noun or pronoun referring to a person or thing acted upon directly by the action of a verb—e.g., I’m writing a book.

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F First person: the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of himself or herself.

G Gerund: an –ing verb form that functions as a noun—e.g., Running is fun. Gerunds are identical to present participles, which usually function as adjectives. Grammar: the set of rules one needs to know in order to competently form sentences in a language.

H I Imperative mood: the mood of a verb when its clause makes a command or a request—e.g., Read me that book. Indicative mood: the mood of a verb when its clause states a fact or opinion or asks a question— e.g., Grammar is easy. Indirect object: a noun or pronoun denoting a person or thing acted upon indirectly by the action of a verb—e.g., I gave the book to him. Infinitive: the uninflected form of a verb, usually preceded by to. Infinitives are usually nouns— e.g., To write well is not easy. Intensifier: an adverb that amplifies the meaning of the adjective it modifies—e.g., very, quite, rather. Interjection: a short word or phrase that suddenly and briefly expresses an emotion or reaction— e.g., oh, wow, ahem.

J K L M Modifier: a word or phrase, especially an adjective or adverb, that modifies the meaning of another word or phrase. Mood: the quality of a verb that expresses the speaker’s attitude toward the likelihood, existence, or desirability of the verb’s action. In English, the three moods are indicative, imperative, and subjunctive. Advertisement

N Nominative case: a noun’s or pronoun’s case when it is the subject or complement of a verb.

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Noun: a word denoting anything that can be named, usually an object, person, place, idea, or action. Number: the quality of a noun, pronoun, or verb that indicates whether it refers to a single person or thing or more than one.

O Object: a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb. Objective case: a noun’s or pronoun’s case when it is the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive.

P Participle: an -ed or -ing verb form used as an adjective or to form the progressive aspect or perfect tense. Past participle: the participial form of a verb usually identical to the past-tense form (ending in -ed)— though there are many irregular past participles. Perfect participle: a participle taking the form of having plus the past participle—e.g., having had, having gone. Person: the quality of a clause that indicates whom the speaker is speaking about. Phrase: a group of two or more words that function together yet have no subject or predicate. Possessive case: a noun’s or pronoun’s case when its relationship to another element in the sentence is one of ownership, association, or belonging. Predicate: the part of a clause that tells what the subject does, what is done to the subject, or what is being said about the subject. Prefix: a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word or word element to change its meaning. Preposition: a word that links a noun or pronoun to another type of word. Present participle: a participle ending in -ing. Pronoun: a word that stands in for a noun.

Q R S Second person: the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of the person spoken to. Sentence: a group of words expressing a complete thought and containing at least one independent clause. Subject: the person, place, or thing about which something is said in a clause. Suffix: a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word or word element to change its meaning. 64 | P a g e


Style: a conventional or customary manner of presenting language. Different publishers, publications, editors, and authors may have different style preferences. Subjunctive mood: the mood of a verb when its clause, which is necessarily dependent, addresses conditions that are contrary to fact—e.g., If I were good at grammar, I’d be a better writer. Superlative: indicating that something, when compared with two or more other things, has a quality to the greatest or least degree. For example, fastest, prettiest, and most equitable are superlative adjectives. Superlative adverbs usually take most.

T Tense: the quality of a verb that expresses when the action occurred, occurs, or will occur. Third person: the person of a clause when the speaker is speaking of someone who is neither the speaker nor the one spoken to.

U Usage: the way in which words and phrases are used by speakers of a language.

V Verb: a word or phrase denoting an action.

W X Y Z

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Citations  https://padlet.com/rmr5754/grammar  http://www.chompchomp.com/terms.ht m

 http://www.english-grammarrevolution.com/sitemap.html  http://www.esldesk.com/grammar/prono uns

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Dedicated To: My Friends and Family, Stay thirsty my amigos.

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Grammar Book: Mexican Music Themed