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A Sustainable Future for Energy

Presentation to SPCC Conference Richard Lancaster 1 July 2008


Electricity in our daily lives

“Electricity is fundamental to the way we live. Without electricity the whole fabric of society would start to break down.� Les Moseley Centre for Disaster Management, UK

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Electricity Supply Chain Fuel

Generation

is imported from overseas

Power stations convert fuel into electricity

Customer Services Electricity is enjoyed by 5.5 million people

System Operations Monitor the system and ensure that supply and demand of electricity remain in balance

Transmission Electricity is transmitted through high voltage lines and converted to lower voltage at substations

Distribution It is then distributed through lower voltage distribution lines “We believe that electricity exists because the electric company keeps sending us bills for it, but we cannot figureout how it travels inside wires.� Dave Barry American Humourist

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Electricity is different from other commodities

• Electricity is fundamental to modern life • Electricity has no readily available substitute • Electricity cannot be stored economically • Electricity supply and demand must be kept in balance at all times or the system will fail and there will be blackouts • Investments in electricity assets are costly and need to be continually maintained • Electricity investments can take a decade to build and have lives of several decades 3


Hong Kong’s Electricity Industry is Unique • Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with 6,300 people per square km. Small disruptions to the power supply affect large numbers of people • Hong Kong is 100% dependent on imported energy • Hong Kong is an international finance centre with 50% of the population living or working above 15th floor

Highest Net Energy Importers* % of commercial energy use, 2004

1

Hong Kong

100

2

Singapore

99

3

Moldova

98

4

Jordan

96

5

Lebanon

96

6

Morocco

94

7

Israel

92

8

Jamaica

88

9

Ireland

87

10

Belarus

86

11

Portugal

85

* Source: The Economist Pocket World in Figures 2008 Edition

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Hong Kong’s Primary Energy Needs Electricity Production

48% 7% Coal

Nuclear

16%

Natural Gas

Oil / Naphtha / Natural Gas Source: Hong Kong Energy Statistics 2006 Annual Report

29%

Fuel for transportation, towngas, industrial and other uses

Fuel for electricity generation and electricity imports account for almost 70% of all energy consumed in Hong Kong

Hong Kong’s total energy requirement is higher than that of Demark, New Zealand, Ireland or Peru

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Energy Sources and their Characteristics Coal

Nuclear

* Abundant supply

* Lower-emitting fuel than coal and gas

* Comparatively lower cost * High initial capital cost

* Higher-emitting fossil fuel

* Low fuel cost

Natural gas/ LNG

* Waste and decommissioning need careful management

* Lowest-emitting fossil fuel

Renewable (eg wind, solar etc) * Emissions free * Requires significant natural resources and land area * Inconsistent availability – requiring back-up generation from fossil-fuel

* Needs infrastructure to transport – pipeline or carrier

Oil * Relatively recent technology developments have increased demand

* Relatively lower emissions than coal but more than natural gas * Comparatively higher cost * Increasingly scarce supply throughout the world 6


Global Energy Challenge How to provide energy necessary for social and economic development, yet avoid serious environmental impacts?

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Reliability of Electricity Supply

• Hong Kong has one of the most reliable electricity systems in the world

Supply interruption duration (Average minutes of interruptions per customer per year)

Supply interruption frequency (Average number of interruptions per customer per year) 8


Overseas Blackout Experiences – 2003

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China - January 2008 Half of China 31 provinces suffered from their worst even power crisis caused by heavy snow

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Affordability of Electricity in Hong Kong • Electricity tariffs account for 1.9% of monthly household expenditure • Hong Kong’s electricity tariffs among the lowest in major metropolitan cities Residential Tariff, HK cents/kWh (as of July 2007) 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Regulated market Competitive market

Berlin

Rome

New York

Amsterdam

Brussels

Luxembourg

London

Madrid

Lisbon

Wellington

Paris

Tokyo

Sydney

Singapore

Seoul

CLP Power

Shenzhen

Vancouver

Jakarta

Shanghai

Taipei

Kuala Lumpur

Remarks: Comparison based on annual domestic consumption of 3,300 kWh.

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Affordable and Accessible Electricity for Asia INDIA Population – 1,079 million Electricity access (2005) – 55.5% GDP per head (PPP) – $2,800

China

CHINESE MAINLAND – Population – 1,296 million Electricity access (2005) – 99.4% GDP per head (PPP) – $5,400

Taiwan India India

Hong Kong Thailand

AUSTRALIA – Population – 20 million Electricity access (2005) – 100% GDP per head (PPP) - $29,600

HONG KONG – Population – 6.8 milion Electricity access (2005)– 100% GDP per head (PPP) – $24,400

Australia

Energy prices are international. Affordability and access to electricity are key issues for many Asian countries.

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Environmental Performance in Hong Kong Total Emissions Reduction 1990-2007

Natural Gas at Black Point

74%

SO2

57%

PM

76%

Total Electricity Demand

82%

200.0 150.0

Secured EnviroCoal supply

Fast Depleting Gas Reserve

Completion of LNG Terminal & Castle Peak Retrofit

100.0 50.0 0.0

Projects Completion

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

Year

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

Total Emissions (kilotonne

Nuclear at Daya Bay

NOx

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Fuel Diversification – Fundamental for Energy Security Others 2%

CLP (2007)

Others 3%

Hydro 10%

Hydro 13%

Coal 27%

Nuclear 29%

Coal 44%

Nuclear 18%

Nuclear 26%

Coal 48%

Oil 12%

Gas 23%

Gas 17%

Oil 5%

North America*

Japan*

Others Others 4%

Gas 23%

Hydro, 15%

Hydro 16%

Oil 3%

Nuclear 29%

• A balanced fuel mix is important for supply reliability, stable prices and environmental performance

Nuclear 2% Gas 1%

Coal 29%

Gas 19%

Coal 78%

Oil 4%

Europe*

Mainland China*

* Percentages quoted for fuel combination are 2004 figures Source: International Energy Agency

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CLP’s Current Environmental Initiatives • Promoting Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency • Meeting 2010 emissions reduction targets set by Hong Kong – Guangdong governments • Increasing use of ultra-low sulphur coal • Installing additional emissions control equipment • Bringing in liquefied natural gas (LNG) • Renewable Energy Development • Voluntary target of 5% of generating capacity from renewable energy sources by 2010 • Climate Vision 2050 • Comprehensive set of Initiatives and targets to reduce CO2 intensity

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Energy Efficiency and Conservation • Making our own operations energy efficient • Electricity tariff designed to promote energy conservation • Community-wide energy conservation programmes: • Sharing expertise in energy efficiency and conservation with customers: • Energy audits • Promoting energy efficient equipment

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Ultra Low Sulphur Coal Annual World Coal Production ~ 4,200 million tonnes Ultra Low Sulphur Coal 0.1 - 0.2% Sulphur

99%

In 2006, CLP consumed ~10% of the world’s entire production of ultra low sulphur coal to meet 2/3 of its total coal requirement

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Controlling Emissions from Castle Peak Power Station

• Essentially installing a 12-storey vacuum cleaner into an operating power station • Some work can only take place during low demand season (i.e. winter) • After several years progress, phased completion starts in 2009 • Upon completion, emissions of SO2 and NOx will reduce significantly 18


Natural Gas is Crucial to Reliable Electricity Supply and Clean Air •

Black Point Power Station (2,500MW) is one of the largest gas-fired power stations in the world, using natural gas for a decade

Natural gas contributes 25% of Hong Kong’s electricity supply, addressing electricity needs of about 2 million people

The existing gas supply to Black Point is from the Yacheng gas field near Hainan Island

Yacheng gas field will deplete early next decade at the rate needed to meet 2010 emissions targets

A safe, secure, reliable and robust long-term replacement is urgently needed to refuel Black Point and increase the use of natural gas

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Environmental Benefits of LNG Further Annual Reduction in Emissions Achievable*

1. Air Quality Improvement 2. LNG is also the fastest and the most economic way to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in Hong Kong

SO2

NOx

Particulates

CO2

20,000 tonnes (43%)

10,000 tonnes (35%)

748 tonnes (40%)

3 million tonnes (17%)

* The emissions estimation is calculated based on the 2005 average coal results.

Nuclear 25% CO2 emissions without the use of LNG

Coal 75%

CO2 % of 1990 level

150%

100% 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

CO2 emissions with the use of LNG Nuclear 25% 50%

Coal 25%

LNG 50%

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What is LNG? o

LNG is natural gas cooled to -162 C • Changes to a liquid, colorless, odorless and non-toxic • Reduced to 1/600th of its former volume • Transported at atmospheric pressure in insulated tanks on ships • Natural gas is an abundant resource found all over the world and the cleanest fossil fuel available for power generation CO2 (carbon dioxide) Natural gas produces no particulates & SO2

Coal 100

Oil 80

Natural Gas 57

NOx (nitrogen oxide)

Coal 100

Oil 71

Natural Gas 20-37

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Worldwide Gas Reserves

White: where the lights are on, satellite imagery Blue Æ Red : Gas resources, with increasing size (USGS)

Source: Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University

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How to Transport the Gas

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The LNG Supply Chain Natural Gas Field

Liquefaction Terminal

Marine Transportation

Natural gas via pipeline

Sendout LNG by pump

LNG Storage Tank (for temporary storage)

Receiving Terminal

Regasification

Black Point Power Station (for power generation) 24


The LNG Receiving Terminal Project 2 LNG Storage Tanks (with provision for a third tank if needed)

Vaporisers to warm LNG back to its gaseous form Marine facilities including a berth, jetty and unloading arms

Project lead time : 4 years for construction from time of Government approval

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Nuclear Energy CO2 emissions (g of CO 2/kWh)

1200

Life Cycle CO2 Emissions analysis

1000 800

47%

600 400 200 0 Coal Thermal

LNG CCGT

Wind

Nuclear

Data Sources: Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

• Nuclear power offers the potential for very significant emissions reductions • Technical development could substantially address many of the current concerns with nuclear power • Nuclear programmes of the future need not be judged in terms of the past 26


Renewable Energy Resources in Hong Kong Opportunities • Little hydro and biomass resource • Some reasonably good wind resource available but mainly at hilltops

Constraints • Country Park Ordinance • Urban areas • Hong Kong Aviation Height Restrictions • Wild Animal Protection Areas • Sites of Special Scientific Interest • Gazetted Bathing Beaches • Seawater Intake Points • Residential and Commercial Premises • Disneyland Resort Height Restrictions

One big challenge: lack of land resource 27


Proposed Offshore Wind Farm Feasibility Study Location • South Eastern Waters of Hong Kong • ~9 km east of Clearwater Bay peninsula Capacity • Up to 200MW offshore wind farm (~1.5% of Hong Kong’s electricity capacity)

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CLP’s Regional Renewable Energy Portfolio

Shandong Changdao, 27.2MW (45%) Shangdong Weihai I, 19.5MW (45%) Jilin Shuangliao, 49.3MW (24.5%) Guangdong Nan’ao, 45MW (25%) Shandong Rongcheng, 48.8MW (24.5%) Australia Woolnorth Bluff Point, 65MW (50%) Australia Woolnorth Studland Bay, 75MW (50%) Australia Cathedral Rocks, 66MW (25%) Shangdong Weihai II, 49.5MW (45%) Jilin Datong, 49.5MW (24.5%) Shandong Guohua, 6 x 50MW (24.5%) Guangdong Hailing Island, 22.1MW (32%) India Khandke, 50.4MW (50%) India Samana, 100.8MW (100%) India Saundatti, 82.4MW (100%) Hong Kong offshore wind feasibility study

Wind

Hydro

Guangdong Huaiji, 105.6MW (84.9%) Sichuan Jiangbian, 330MW (65%)

In operations Under construction

Biomass

Solar

Shangdong Boxing, equivalent to 14MW (79%) Australia concentrated solar photovoltaic 29 pilot, 2MW (100%)


Biomass in Northern China Boxing Biomass Combined Heat and Power Plant in Shandong (equivalent to 14 MW) CLP’s first greenfield biomass project Straw-fired combined heat and power generator • Electricity – supplies to provincial grid (renewable energy supply) • Steam – supplies to local paper mills (replaces small coal-fired steam boilers) • Fuel: cotton stalk • Fuel to be collected from local farmers (new source of income for farmers)

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Concentrated Solar Technology in Australia Development phase • 2MW pilot plant by 2009 • 154MW by 2013 CLP investment • HK$49 million for a 2MW pilot plant • HK$1.9 billion for the complete 154MW project in northern Victoria, providing electricity for 45,000 families Development potential • deploy the technology into the Asia-Pacific Region in next 10 years

Sunlight concentration by the heliostatreceiver tower (central receiver) set up [Source: SolarPACES] 31


Climate Change – A Global Problem z

z

z

z

Increasing global average temperature Rising sea levels More frequent and severe storms and heat waves

Rising sea levels

Drought

Droughts in some places and flooding in others

These threaten the basic elements of life for people around the world – access to water, food production, health and use of land and the environment.

Melting ice cover

Extreme Weather

3 32

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Climate Change – A Global Challenge The weight of scientific opinion tells us that the world faces the challenge of adapting to serious and irreversible climate change if global average temperature rises exceed 2 to 3 degrees.

Rise in world’s temperature Current level of GHG 430ppm CO2 equivalent

• >0.5oC until now • at least another 0.5oC expected in coming decades

Scenario: > 550ppm CO2 equivalent

Rise in world’s temperature >2-3oC 33

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Stabilising CO2 Emissions in Hong Kong 25.000

Other Hong Kong*

Million Ton CO2

20.000

CLP

15.000

10.000

5.000

Fuel Switch Coal -> Nuclear

Limited Gas Supply, Fuel Switch Gas -> Coal

Fuel Switch Coal -> Gas

Fuel Switch Coal -> Gas

0.000 1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

Beyond 2010+

Remarks: * CO2 from other Hong Kong sector reported by EPD was updated to 2005 only + For data beyond 2010, emission factor of 2007is used for reference and the gas consumption in fuel mix is assumed to be 50% Data Source: EPD and Company data

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Stabilising CO2 Emissions Globally Calls for Changes in our Way of Doing Business A number of technological solutions can be implemented in parallel to achieve emissions reductions in the electricity sector. Each wedges represents 1 billion tons per year reduction in carbon emissions Energy Efficiency & Conservation z Shifting to Low Carbon Fuels z Carbon Capture & Storage z Nuclear Power z Renewable Energy z Forestry & Agricultural Practices z Alternative Transportation z

There is no single solution. Combination of all “wedges� is required

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35


CLP’s Climate Vision 2050

75% reduction in order to help stabilise CO2 concentrations below 550ppm, a goal to be achieved internationally by all parties concerned 36

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CLP’s Initiatives To Achieve Vision 2050

Energy Efficiency Renewable & Conservation Energy

Natural Gas

Nuclear

Clean Coal

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Meeting energy needs and having a better environment requires sustained and collective effort from every sector of the community • We need to keep all energy options open – there is no single solution to the world’s energy and climate change challenges • All countries are different – no single approach will work equally well in every region • Long term stability, predictability and a clear energy policy will help encourage the investment needed for cleaner energy solutions • Considerable time will be needed to reduce carbon emissions globally. A sense of urgency must be applied • Energy conservation and efficiency is an area we can all contribute

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