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Discovering Flight


his type of engine has cy row. It typically has an even there are instances of threeThe greatest advantage of an in the aircraft to be designed with mise drag. If the engine crankshaf it is called an inverted inline engine mounted high up to increase ground ing gear. The disadvantages of an inlin weight ratio, because the crankcase and An in-line engine may be either air-coole more common because it is difficult to ge ders directly. Inline engines were common in Flyer, the aircraft that made the first controll disadvantagesa of the design soon became app becoming a rarity in

Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in apart from each other and driving a common are water-cooled. The V design provides inline engine, while still providing a small example of this design is the legendary (1649 in3) 60째 V12 engine used in, am

Reaction engines generate the thrus the exhaust gases at high velocit ant reaction of forces driving th common reaction propulsion e turbofans and rockets. Othe ramjets, scramjets and Pulse also flown. In jet engines

ng Engines

ylinders lined up in one n number of cylinders, but and five- cylinder engines. nline engine is that it allows h a low frontal area to minift is located above the cylinders, e: this allows the propeller to be d clearance, enabling shorter landne engine include a poor power-tod crankshaft are long and thus heavy. ed or liquid-cooled, but liuid-cooling is et enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinn early aircraft; one was used in the Wright led powered flight. However, the inherent parent, and the inline design was abandoned, n modern aviation.

n-line banks, typically tilted 60-90 degrees n crankshaft. The vast majority of V engines a higher power-to-weight ratio than an l frontal area. Perhaps the most famous y Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre mong others, the Spitfires that Britain.

st to propel an aircraft by ejecting ty from the engine, the resulthe aircraft forwards. The most engines flown are turbojets, er types such as pulsejets, e Detonation Engines have s the oxygen necessary

In modern day aviation, in August 1989, a Qantas Boeing 747-400 set a record for flying non-stop between Sydney and London at a distance of 18,001 kilometres (11,185 mi). However, this is only a delivery flight. This is followed more recently by Singapore Airlines introducing ultra long-haul flights on 3 February 2004 to Los Angeles, and on 28 June 2004[3] to Newark from Singapore Changi Airport (Flight SIA 22). These two flights held the record for the longest commercial passenger non-stop flights in the world based on both time and distance, until both routes were cancelled on October and November 2013, respectively. The route from New York City (JFK or Newark) to Hong Kong is the longest non-stop route in the world to be served by more than one airline (three daily non-stop and one via Vancouver by Cathay Pacific[4] and 1 daily by United Airlines). The routes served between Los Angeles and Sydney have the maximum number of airlines operating non-stop flights in the ultra-long-haul category: 4 airlines—Delta Air Lines, Qantas, Virgin Australia, and United Airlines. In terms of flight frequency, Emirates tops the list of ultra-long-haul flight operators, Six flights operating from its Dubai base to Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, Los Angeles, São Paulo, San Francisco, and Seattle. An ultra long-haul non-stop flight is a flight by a commercially operated airliner with: No scheduled intermediate stop of any kind A route length over 7,500 miles (12,100 km) These flights usually follow a great circle route, often passing over polar regions. As of February 2014, the longest non-stop scheduled airline flight only operates non-stop in one direction—from Australia to North America— and the return flight has a scheduled intermediate stop for refueling. However, this is the only ultra long-haul flight to operate as such, with all others being

Fly Away

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port n locatio where h as t suc aircraf irwing a , and d e ix f ters elicop nd land. h , t f a r c ff a take o ored or s p im l t b iry be s a m rt. An a ace t f o a p r ir c a ir A t an surf ined a t least one a t in a ake m ts of a a plane to t keis s n o r ta port c unway for ater fo uildings r w r a o s , b such a d, a helipad n includes al lan ofte ermin off and ndings, and ngars and t d la s, ha offs an ntrol tower s co s, seae ic v r such a e or s ies gs. operat enger facilit e s a ilibuildin b fixed l, pass services. A m e o r v t a n h o ay y fic c ergenc tation. ports m ps, air traf ir m a e r d r to e m Larg ges, an base or air s used to refe por and ra n s u k o c l o ir ir d d e plane staurants an own as an a may also b ort refer to a in e n p r ip k L tr land s O such a t, in the US, is ield, and airs base, and ST ake-off and ne por ort t , airf tary air aerodrome liport, seapla lanes, or sh he eap rms The te d the terms elicopters, s . Howe n h d a e o , g t s t n r y fa ivel rcha airpo exclus en inte the aviation t f d o e t e a r o ea pon dedic al term odrom in stature u g r e e l a . a t d f nat rt is rt an certa aircra s, airpo the relevant s airpo or confer a n m io r t e ic t by risd ly the l use, ort may imp . In some ju irports a ia u s a q o d l irp se ved In col term a have achie ified or licen e h t , l t t a gener me may no dromes cer odro aero an aer y for those ivel exclus

rts ng

ever, in at th acility erved res of art n. aviatio l a n io t

Miles away London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport serving London, England, known as London Airport from 1946 until 1965. Located in the London Borough of Hillingdon, in West London, Heathrow is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world (as of 2012) in total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe.[4] It is also the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic and the third busiest by traffic movements, with a figure surpassed only by Charles de Gaulle Airport and Frankfurt Airport.[5] Heathrow is London's main airport, having replaced RAF Northolt and the earlier Croydon Airport. The airport sustains 76,600 jobs directly and around 116,000 indirectly in the immediate area,[6] and this, together with the large number of global corporations with offices close to the airport, makes Heathrow a modern aerotropolis which contributes an estimated 2.7% to London's total GVA. Along with the chosen cruising air speed, the time taken by a flight depends mainly on: The speed and direction of the winds at flight level, which can result in a tailwind, headwind, or crosswind at various points of the flight ATC route Flights crossing the middle latitudes often encounter the jet stream, which typically flows in a general eastward direction. As a result, flights traveling from west to east often experience a tailwind and have flight times that are considerably shorter than for flights traveling from east to west, which

The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which also owns and operates three other UK airports, and is itself owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group that includes Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation.[7] Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. Heathrow lies 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) west[2] of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.14 square kilometres (4.69 sq mi). A consultation process for the building of a third runway and a sixth terminal began in November 2007, and the project was controversially[8] approved on 15 January 2009 by Labour government ministers.[9] It was subsequently cancelled on 12 May 2010 by the Cameron Government.[10] The first phase of a new Terminal 2 complex which replaces the old terminal and adjacent Queen's Building is due to open in June 2014.[11][12] The airport holds a Civil Aviation Authority Public Use Aerodrome Licence (Number P527), which allows flights for public transportation of passengers or for flying instruction In April 1976 Pan Am set a new record for longest non-stop scheduled flight with its New York–Tokyo route (10,854 kilometres (6,744 mi)). In December the airline set another record


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