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GRADUATION PROJECT UNDRIVEN INDIA: Approches to India-inspired autonomous mobility and design Sponsor : Self

Volume : 1 STUDENT : ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN PROGRAMME : Master of Design (M.Des)

GUIDE : PRAVEEN NAHAR

2015 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN (TRANSPORTATION AND AUTOMOBILE DESIGN)

National Institute of Design Ahmedabad


The Evaluation Jury recommends ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN for the Master of Design of the National Institute of Design

IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN (TRANSPORTATION AND AUTOMOBILE DESIGN)

herewith, for the project titled " UNDRIVEN INDIA: Approches to India-inspired autonomous mobility and design " on fulfilling the further requirements by

Chairman Members :

*Subsequent remarks regarding fulfilling the requirements :

Registrar(Academics)

*


UNDRIVEN INDIA: Approches to India-inspired autonomous mobility and design.

Project by Anoop Balakrishnan In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Design (Mdes), Transportation and Automobile Design National Institute of design August 2015

Project Guide Dr Praveen Nahar Senior Faculty in Industrial Design National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad


AKNOWLEDGEMENT

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

EXTEND MY SINCERE GRATITUDE TO. My Parents for believing in me My brother for supportiing me at each and every phase of the project.

Prof. Praveen Nahar, ( Guide ) Without your guidance and support i would not have been able to widen and deepen my thinking proces, thanks for being open to all my ideas. Vipul Vinzuda for being an awesome co-ordinator for helping out in all kind of issues. Balaji Rengarajan for valuable suggestions and honest feedbacks. TAD 2012 batch for being with me all the time and all those who supported me for completing this project.


GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DESIGN AHMEDABAD. The National Institute of Design (NID) is India’s premier design school in Ahmedabad, India. The institute functions as an autonomous body under the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, government of India. NID is recognised by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research under Ministry of Science and Technology, government of India, as a scientific and industrial design research organisation. On the 17th July 2014, National Institute of Design, India’s premier and first design institute was declared ‘Institution of National Importance’ by the Act of Parliament, by virtue of the National Institute of Design Act. The National Institute of design has been acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design, education and research. The Business week USA has listed NID as one of the top 25 European and Asian programs in the world.


source: ŠPranshu Dubey


GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

POST GRADUATE CAMPUS GANDHINAGAR.

TRANSPORTATION AND AUTOMOBILE DESIGN.

Post Graduate Campus is situated in the city of Gandhinagar, in Gujarat. As part of expansion plan, NID has built a new postgraduate campus at Gandhinagar, the capital of Gujarat State. Commerce and Industry Minister Kamal Nath laid the foundation stone for this campus. The campus is spread over 11,362 square meters.

Two and a half years Masters programme in design (MDes) aims to develop highly creative individuals to resolve the prevailing/ future challenges around ‘mobility’, through imparting relevant skills and knowledge.

Campus consists of Lifestyle Accessory Design, Apparel Design & Merchandising, New media design, Toy and Game Design, Strategic Design Management, Transportation Design disciplines.

With a learning curve that sets off with understanding automobiles (aesthetics (exterior/interior), human factors/ vehicle packaging, display & controls etc.) at product level, it escalates to tackle the broader aspects and complexities around personal/ public transportation, at system and service levels, through specific design projects.


CONTENTS

01/

introduction

07/

Causes

02/

Project Brief

08/

Impacts

03/

Why this brief ?

09/

Chaos : Diversity of patterns

04/ 05/ 06/

02-03

04-05

76-83

84-91

92-105

06-07

Methodology

Cultural

Social

Linguistic

96-97

98-101

102-105

08-11

10/

106-107

11/

108-119

Concept of personal space

Driverless future India

12-15

Why Indians don't follow rules

Primary Research

18-71 Data Collection

Data Analysis

18-35

36-71

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN


CONTENTS

12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/

17/

120-127

18/

Technology

Indian traffic Priority chart

19/

Sense Making

20/

Vehicle Design

Horn OK Please

128-129

Road accidents

130-135

158-181

182-193

196-221

inspiration

ideation

design

196-201

202-211

212-221

Indian traffic positives

136-137

Self driving cars

140-155

Past-Present-Future

Milestones

140-141

142-143

Forecast

156-157

21/

Speculative Design

22/

Conclusion

222-229

230-231

Age old dream

144-155

23/

Bibliography

232-235

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN


GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

INTRODUCTION. Autonomous cars are no longer science fiction, considering number of major companies realistically aiming to release autonomous vehicles in coming years. Twenty years from now about 9% of cars to be driverless cars. India as a land of a billion possibilities with a billion plus population, Very dynamic country with all sorts of challenges for an autonomous car need to face. Vehicles would need to be able to handle the extreme conditions on Indian roads such as avoiding major potholes, animals that share the roads with cars, other cars that do not always obey traffic signals, and dealing with the vast number of cars on the roads. But if we look carefully into Indian traffic chaos, there are some kind of real time negotiations happening between the people who are driving those vehicles. But due to the cultural and socioeconomic diversity we can see different type of traffic patterns in cities across India. In some way these patterns are the reflection of people’s culture, education and attitude. In an autonomous connected car environment, cars are supposed to perform multisensory and multimodal negotiations with each other.

3


INITIAL BRIEF

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

INDIA INSPIRES SELF DRIVING CARS. The project aims to understand the traffic in india and to find out how this can inspire the autonomous technology and connected cars of the future.

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WHY THIS BRIEF 1. PREVIOUS PROJECTS

2. I ME MYSELF

VOLVO JARVIZ.

THANKS TO ROBOTICS BACKGROUND

Design project II was Futuristic Autonomous truck for Volvo. Research for DP II made clear that how driverless technology all set to revolutionise the automotive sector. Things are going to change than never before. Since then i was following the technology devlopment in this field. And the development happened for driverless technology in past one year is unbeleivable. Its always exciting to be part of the future

Studied computer science engineering for my graduation, then specialized in robotics founded a company focusing on artificial intelligence and natural language processing As a techie, it was obvious that I had more inclination towards robotic cars. Due to my keen interest in this, I joined online classes in Udacity.com to study how to program driverless cars. Now I can comprehend the algorithms used in driverless cars and its working

PACE EMERGING MARKET MOBILITY PROJECT. Design project III was a rural transportation project in which we designed a rural mobility system and vehicle which won global GM-PACE award for 2014. DPIII has given an insight that how important is systems thinking and design thinkingwhile doing mobility design. DPIII also gave an oppurtunity to understand the power of India ,the country with billion plus population and billions of possibilities To utilize the learning obtained from these proects was one of the reason behind this brief

My pasion towards robotics started at my school days and by the end of my engineering graguation i have been part of a team which developed India’s first Humanoid robot with Artificial intelligence. We got provisional patent for developing the same. So autonomous cars are basically a robot which can carry humans Driverless cars should be seen as entirely different object something more than a car, because the cars before that are developed around a driver, which was obviously a human. Since driver is absent in autonomous cars gives more room for designers to think Hopefully, this project will connect all my knowledge across diverse fields


PROCESS.

Understand Question and Gather information

Visualization and Modelling

Analysis and Making sense of data

Design Phase Concuptulization and exploration


METHODOLOGY

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Initial brainstorming given an insight that the two main direction for the project would be Indian traffic and autonomous technology. In depth study about the technology and algorithms along with Indian traffic pattern was one option to move forward. The predicted challenge was to find the right balance of research and coming up with solutions.

LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS The first step was to analyse the current landscape of Indian traffic and Autonomous vehicles. Noting trends and technologies in this space and predictions of where they might lead. The secondary data sources for landscape analysis were Journals, articles, web articles, articles from Government/Non government organizations, patents filed and previous works on related object. The next step was ‘Research and Analysis’, in which primary research was carried out to find out things which drives the current system.

PRIMARY RESEARCH The major part of primary research was done by travelling through major Indian cities and observing traffic along with interacting with people. Visiting major intersections in the city, being inside the traffic and experiencing traffic with a different viewpoint was part of the activity. Data collected through direct observations, personalised interviews, videos of city traffic and photographs. In later stages these videos and photographs were analysed to obtain the cues of real time negotiations and positive gestures in the traffic chaos. Tried live social experiments to study people reactions towards compliance of traffic laws. Again few questions from primary research was taken forward and asked on online forums like Quora.com to get more specific answers. Few cities were revisited again to refine the findings at later stages. Prepared a mind map with the data acquired and taken forward for the rest of the project.


LOOK. PERCEIVE. ACT.


STRATEGY

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

Driverless cars follows look-perceive-act approach on road, initially looking at surroundings then will undestand what is happening around it, decide what to do and finally action are taken to move the car forward Same approach has been followed in this project as well

LOOK.

PERCEIVE.

ACT.

Traffic Intersection Chaos Movement of people and vehicles Chaos in daily life Driving patterns Urban Scenario Driving Behaviour Cultural Influences Language Influence Vehicle maneuverbility Adherence to laws Technology

Causes Effects of traffic culture Reason behind these kind of traffic Methology Psycology behind Beliefs Thoughts Why not following rules Diversity Pre crash situations Challenges Feasibility

Design vehicle Design sytem around vehicle Define solutions Mapping the informations Define user

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DRIVERLESS. FUTURE. INDIA.


AUTONOMOUS CARS IN INDIA

A LOT TO BE DONE. Driverless car will be on road in developed markets by 2020, every large carmaker are Into it and few cars are autonomous already. In India considering the speed of Infrastructure development and people’s willingness to spend money on vehicles with new technologies will have to wait longer. But driverless car can work well in India. One reason is acceptability, recent survey conducted by IHS Global on driverless technology says that more than 50% of Indians are welcoming it. People believe that the robots will be much better than Indian drivers on road.

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

But fully autonomous cars are lot more complex, it’s not just a car but the system in which car is functioning is also needs to build accordingly. It will be an amalgamation of technologies like car to car communication, lane tracing , adaptive cruise control and many more.

In India there are two basic things to be taken care of • DENSELY POPULATED CITIES, i.e. huge Number of people per square feet in our cities.

Many things related to driverless technology is already available in Indian market like active parking is seen in the Volkswagen Passat, Volvo V40 and Mercedes GL and E-class .This parking system picks a parking spot and directs human into the spot while the car will be taking control of steering and all the drivers has to do is to press accelerator and brake according to the car’s instruction.

• ATTITUDE OF PEOPLE, People in general especially pedestrian, wont wait for the traffic to clear and cross, they are not very careful when dealing with traffic.

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AUTONOMOUS CARS IN INDIA

WHY DRIVERLESS CAR WOULD WORK WELL IN INDIA. • Driverless car runs so close in traffic just like drivers in India do in bumper to bumper city traffic. Driving close in traffic greatly reduce tailback experience in peak hour traffic caused by inconsistent braking and acceleration, which will help to bring up average speeds thereby reducing travel time. • Indians loved chauffeur driven cars, just because its status symbol in India. But now chauffeurs are expensive to maintain as well. • Family isn’t at others mercy to get around, especially children and old aged. And typical Indian family likes shopping and this saves the hassle of finding parking space in crowded market.

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

DEVELOPING CHALLENGE. India, among most others is far from introducing autonomous car. Many challenges are there in India for development of the driverless vehicles and the low data coverage in the country has really affected the enablement of connected car infrastructure. But its just not the vehicle that needs to be considered , vehicle infrastructure would have to be in place first. Vehicle infrastructure outside the car will need to deal with the vast amount of information provided by the car and the cater to its demands . Cars need to be able to handle the extreme situations on Indian roads such as animals that share the roads with cars, avoiding major potholes, other cars that do not always obey traffic rules, and dealing with the large number of vehicles on the roads.

Driverless cars in India might need lot more adaptation and may be completely new thinking altogether compared to autonomous cars elsewhere in the world. SLOW MOVING LEGISLATION India’s slow moving legislation is another bottleneck, India is quite behind in imposing expected traffic rules, and autonomous cars need special legislation as well. Even if the technology becomes ready in India, according to the trend, legislation might follow couple of years later. The government should step up and do lot more actions to understand the technology and create laws to support the development.

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INDIAN TRAFFIC.


" IT HAS BEEN SAID THAT MANY AN ATHEIST HAS CAME TO INDIA. AFTER HAVING DRIVEN ON THE INDIAN ROADS, HE HAS RETURNED AS A BELIEVER OF GOD . "

WHICH COUNTRY, THEN, HAS A MORE POWERFUL SPIRITUAL PRESENCE??


PRIMARY RESEARCH

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

INDIA TRAFFIC STUDY. Indian traffic is complex, unordered, undisciplined and difficult to comprehend. Its easy to find all negative things about Indian traffic, but finding positives and feasible solutions will not be that easy. Major plan for the field research was to visit main cities in India. Did a background study on cities in India to find out places to be visited and data collection to be done. In India cities are categorized as METRO, A-CLASS, B-CLASS and C-CLASS. Metros are the prominent and crowded cities in India followed by classes A, B and C. So the prime focus was given to the prominent cities. The cultural difference in people and how that affects the driving behavior was also a part of the research. Studying in detail about all major cities will take lot of time so decided to select few cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Kochi for the initial phase. Each of these cities have its own identity and distinct stories to share. Peoples mentality is also unique and different which have many influences on their driving as well.

19


TRAVEL OBSERVE

EXPERIENCE TRAFFIC.


delhi

ahmedabad

mumbai

bangalore kochi

kolkata


v

National Capital of India and has population of about 11 million and a metropolitan population of India a second most populous city in India. Delhi has largest area of paved roads in India, and there are about 16.6 million vehicles in the city, 11.2 million in NCR, [NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION]. 420 million man hours is lost in Delhi traffic every month. Delhi metro is back bone of public transport and its biggest in India and 13th largest among the world. Delhi Ring railway and 5 major metro lines connects to major parts of the city. Some major roads in Delhi have 1,10,00 cars on a single moment, which is huge. Apparently Delhi is the most populated city in the world, the public transport primarily runs on CNG, Vehicles older than 15 years are banned in Delhi to reduce pollution and congestion.


v

23


v

Mumbai also known as Bombay, the official name of until 1995 is the capital city of the Indian state Maharashtra. Mumbai is one of the most populated urban region in the world, and also wealthiest city in India . Mumbai is the financial, commercial and entertainment capital of India. Mumbai sub urban railway is also known as local trains act as back bone of public transport. 6.99 million Peoples are Mumbai local daily. Mumbai is 8th most populous city in world. BEST, Brihanmumbai electric supply and transport carries 4.5 million passengers daily. Apart from BEST, Maharashtra state transport corporation [MSRTC] .Navi transport Mumbai municipal Transport, [NMMT], Thane municipal transport also operates bus transports in Mumbai. 88% of city commutes uses public transport one way or other but still Mumbai transport system is one of most congested in the world.


v

25


Kolkata, formally Calcutta is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal; Located on the east bank of Hooghly river, As of 2011, the city has 4.5 million residents and home to 14.1 million, making the fourth-most population metropolitan area in India. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Transport in Kolkata is a mix of modern man rapid transport and old modalities like rickshaws. 47% of people use cars in Kolkata; Kolkata has less parked roads and more dense streets but take less time to move than Delhi. Kolkata have the oldest underground metro in the country and only city in the country to have established TRAM network in India. Kolkata roads have all kind of multimodal transport. Bus, tram, rickshaw, car, taxi, Autorickshaw, truck everything is sharing same city spaces. Human pulled rickshaws are banned in major junctions of the city.


Bangalore officially known as Bengaluru is the capital of Indian state Karnataka. It has a population of about 8.42 million. Bangalore is known for pleasant climate throughout the year. Bangalore also is known for its public transport facilities. 45% of commuters use public bus in Bangalore, Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation [BMTC] AND Karnataka state road transport corporation [KSRTC]. There are about 46 lakh registered vehicles and 31.7 lakh two wheelers Bangalore city and about 1250 vehicles are registered daily as per RTO data. 70% of vehicles constitute two wheelers, 15% cars, 4% are Autorickshaws, 8% other vehicles. Bangalore is one of the fastest growing populations in India and Bangalore issues largest number of tickets for illegal parking in India. New age taxi services are booming in Bangalore, taxi aggregators like UBER, OLA and TAXI-FOR-SURE have best service in Bangalore.


Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat with a population of more than 5.5millionand an extended population of 6.3 million, it is the 6th largest city and 7th largest metropolitan area of India. Flap ship public transport in Ahmedabad is, Bus rapid transport system, [BRTS]. Ahmedabad was one of the early adopters of BRTS system and has best and well maintained BRTS in the country. Ahmedabad municipal bus transport service [AMTS] Gujarat state road transport corporation [GSRTC] provides bus service in Ahmedabad city. Ahmedabad has around 16 lakh registered vehicles on road. Ahmedabad has one of the craziest traffic in India, only less than 20% of people follow traffic rules but Ahmedabad is going implement the first intelligent traffic signal in India.


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PRIMARY RESEARCH

35

DATA ANALYSIS. Data collected in forms of video and photographs were huge in numbers . After visiting three major cities, realised that there should be some kind of mechanisms to analyse those data, it took four weeks just for structuring data and two weeks of trimming video footages. Finding and removing redundant data was a difficult task. Set of two thousand images were selected and printed. From those set the final images for the document were selected.


ANALYSIS Chaos is the word that best describes Indian roads! A trip in a taxi can be a hair-raising experience , let alone trying to cross a road as a pedestrian. There's a system in place whereby smaller vehicles usually give way to larger vehicles, and the largest vehicles rule the road. Drivers weave all over the road, and overtake from both sides.

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CHAOS

IS ONE WORD

THAT DESCRIBES INDIAN TRAFFIC


38

ANALYSIS

People from outside cannot digest the movement of vehicles in small and congested streets in India. But Indians on the otherhand are extremely skilled to manoeuvre through this busy chaoitic traffic. People are eposed to these chaos since their childhood and pretty used to it.

CHAOS

IS ONE WORD

THAT DESCRIBES INDIAN TRAFFIC


DRIVING SO CLOSE IS

CHILDS

PLAY


ANALYSIS

India is a developing country and the infrastructure is also going through the same phase. There are quite a lot issues with infrastructure throughout the country. Bad roads and potholes exists even in the heart of the city. Adding to that construction works for future transportation systems also creates lots of hassile

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INFRA

STRUCTURE

ISSUES


44

ANALYSIS

INTERSECTIONS ARE SCARY PLACES

Intersection is the epicentre of collisions. Most of chaos happens at cross road intersections. Need to have 360 degree vision to overcome intersections. Lots of negotiations and interactions happening at intersections.


NEGOTIATED

SPACES NEGOTIATED BOUNDARIES Lanes on the road doesn't serve their purpose, because people doesn't follow those lanes. In many places those lanes doesn't exist either. Even the road boundaries also not fixed. Two wheelers often take footpath space to bypass traffic.


ANALYSIS

Pedestrians on road are so fearless they don't care much about things happening on road. Concept of zebra lane crossing is rare, and drivers doesn't respect zebra crossing at all. Zebra crossing at intersections are often occupied by vehicles.

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FEAR

LESS PEOPLE


50

ANALYSIS

Vehicles in traffic will be driving so close and pedestrians will be squeezing their bodies to move through the narrow spaces between vehicles. Pedestrians using mobilephones while crossing have became one of the major reason behind accidents.

FEAR

LESS PEOPLE


PRE CRASH SITUATIONS


ANALYSIS There are so many rash drivers in Indian roads, some are really stupid and those people are the reasons behind major percentage accidents happening in indian roads. Bus drivers do rash driving quite often like a competition on road. When the buses are going to same destination the bus ahead will get more customers, so they always race on road.

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RASH DRIVING


56

ANALYSIS

REALTIME NEGOTIATIONS

Indian traffic is full of negotiations. People give way each others and its a matter of give and take. Concept of lane traffic doesn't exist here, especially in cities. Vehicle occupy each and every part of the road. Vehicles even take space outside road if its a drivable surface.


ONROAD INTERACTIONS People interact a lot in Indian roads, Frequent drivers like autorickshaw drivers and taxi drivers spend their whole day on road and they talk to their friends on road casually during their trips. Eye to contact is another major thing which is really important for a collision less drive in city streets.


ANALYSIS Sense of negotiations are inbuilt into the subconcious mind of Indian drivers. They can easily predict what the vehicle infront of them going to do. So they mostly drive accordingly which reduces the number of collisions. Interactions actually supports the negociations on road. One small hand signal of nodding head can give sense of aknowledment to other drivers.

61

NEGOTIATIONS AND INTERACTIONS


62

ANALYSIS Cows are sacred living being which is been everywhere on road. Those animals are so confident that human will slow down or stop their vehicle once they are on road. Apart from cows, all other animals from cats to elephants are cammon in Indian roads. People driving in India quite aware of these things and they drive accordingly but there are many cases of animals killed on road.

ANIMALS ON ROAD


ANALYSIS There are lot of life happening in Indian roads. People do lot of jobs on road in order to sustain their life. People like street vendors rickshaw pullers spend almost their entire lifetime in traffic. They won't complain about traffic instead they carry on their work all day. They won't follow rules, because they are uneducated and doesn't know any rules.

65

PRIORITIES IN

LIFE


DANGER EVERYWHERE Roads in India are filled with dangerous objects, any point of time anyone can end up in a collision and lose their life, maybe by mistake of someone else. Goods protruding from trucks mostly steel rods, concrete posts, iron pipes creates lot of accidents in nights. There are many cases where two wheelers end up hitting into it and losing their lives.


ANALYSIS Redlight jumping is so cammon sight in India. Especially in Ahmedabad, where people doesn't care about traffic signal at all. And people at Ahmedabad are so confident in ignoring signal, If anyone tries to follow, vehicles behind him will discourage him for doing the same. Vehicles behind will honk until the guy infront moves and breaks signal.

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MEANING LESS

RED SIGNALS


SKIN COLOUR IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN HEAD OR MAYBE DUPPATTA IS STRONGER THAN HELMET


CAUSES.


IMPACTS.


RESPIRATORY / BREATHING PROBLEMS

DUST / SUSPENDED PARTICLES

HEAD ACHE

CO2,SO2,NO2 AND OTHER EMISSIONS

AIR

POLLUTION

MENTAL STRESS

NOISE

HONKING HEARING PROBLEMS VEHICLE / ENGINE SOUND

SWEATING

TIREDNESS

HEALTH

EYE / VISION PROBLEMS

SUFFOCATION AND VOMITING

VALUABLE MAN HOURS LOST

HEART PROBLEMS

EXTRA TRANSPORTATION COST

ALLERGY AND SKIN RASHES

FUEL BURNING COST

BODY PAIN

VEHICLE MAINTANANCE COST

economy


CAUSES AND IMPACT OF TRAFFIC CHAOS IN INDIA. Through the research, questionaire was asked amoung the people to understand possible causes for a traffic jam. General public and frequent drivers had a different point of view on causes of traffic in India. So, according to general public, who apparently are the main victims of traffic

chaos, think that ignoring traffic rules is the main cause of traffic jam. After that excess number of vehicles in the cities, inadequate road space, unplanned parking, different speed vehicle in the same road, over population, etc. are responsible for causing traffic jam in Indian. The impact of traffic jam can be viewed in Impact on Economy, Impact on health, and Impact on environment.

IGNORING RULES

LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE

NO RIGHT OF WAY

UNPLANNED PARKING

DIFFERENT SPEED TRAFFIC

IMPACT

TRAFFIC CHAOS CAUSES IN INDIA

GENERAL PUBLIC UNAUTHORISED PARKING

EXCESS VEHICLES ON ROAD

FREQUENT DRIVERS

PRESENCE OF RICKSHAWS

RECKLESS DRIVING

INEFFICIENT AND CORRUPT TRAFFIC POLICE

TRAFFIC RULE VIOLATION

RASH PUBLIC BUS DRIVERS

POPULATION

LACK OF LAW IMPLIMENATTION

LESS USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT

NO PROPER DRIVER TRAINING

LACK OF TRAFFIC AWARENESS

STREET HAWKERS

POOR SIGNALING SYSTEM

NOT ENOUGH TRAFFIC POLICE


CAUSES

75

FREQUENT DRIVERS. • Inefficient traffic police Taxi drivers in Ahmedabad says that traffic police is the main reason for chaotic traffic in the city.

• Excess vehicles on road Autodrivers suggested that number of vehicle inside should be limited inside the city. Frequest drivers had a different view on traffic than by general public. they were also mentioning reasons like.

> Unauthorised parking > Presence of Rickshaw > Public Bus > Reckless driving > Traffic rule violation


CAUSES

77

GENERAL PUBLIC. • Traffic rule Violation

Major percentage of people are unaware of traffic rules, People knows doesn't follow.

'Chaltha hai' (don't care) attitude of people one major reason behind this.

• No right of way

• Unplanned parking

• Lack of Infrastructure

Right of way system is rarely followed in the country, and bigger vehicles have more dominance on road.

People park their vehicle wherever there is space available, even at non parking areas.

Vehicle is growing on road day by day , but roads are not growing.


CAUSES

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GENERAL PUBLIC. • Over population

• Different speed traffic

• Lack of planning

• Lack of law implementation

Heavy population in city automatically makes city crowded,

Multimodel traffic, where rickshaws, cars, bus, truck and even trams share same space

When cities need road authority keeps building it. Without no proper pre plan

No strict law enforcement in most of the cities due to corruption and bad bureaucracy.


CAUSES

81

GENERAL PUBLIC. • Less use of public transport People use private cars takes lots of road space increases congestion.

• Lack of proper driver training Multimodel traffic, where rickshaws, cars, bus, truck and even trams share same space Apart from these general public were also raised reasons like.

> Footpath occupied by halkers > Lack of traffic awareness > No space for U turn > Not enough police > Poor signalling system


IMPACTS ON


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ECONOMY. HEALTH. ENVIORMENT.


IMPACT OF ROAD TRAFFIC

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ON ECONOMY. TRANSPORTATION COST. OPPORTUNITY COST.

FUEL COST.

The cost of travelling depends on various things, like fuel costs, the opportunity cost of time spent in a queue as against working, costs of delayed/early arrival at destination etc. if their staying time in the traffic is less then definitely the cost will be lower. This is called VOT, value of travel time savings.

The fuel burned while waiting at signals and traffic jam is quite huge in a country like india where the oil is mostly imported from abroad which have a direct impact on growth and inflation. Delhi wastes Rs 11.5cr in traffic jams daily. Four-wheelers lose 2.5L fuel every day in snarls.

The fewer the number of vehicles, the higher the speed a vehicle can travel at. This speed declines with the number of vehicles, but if congestion is excessive, speeds may even increase, as more travellers opt away (termed “hypercongestion�). Travel costs then use the time cost interpretation (while also adding other costs like fuel and maintenance), and are derived from the speed-flow curve.

MAINTANANCE COST. Vehicles running through congested city spaces has more wear and tear than vehicles in less congested semi urban spaces, The clutch plate and brake have less life in city enviorment due to frequent start and stop.

VALUABLE MAN HOURS LOST. In sectors like Information technology the work of an individual is often measured in man hours. that means amount of work a person does in an hour. The man hours lost in road have great impact in the GDP of a country. Cities with better transportation facilities have better growth rate. In a city like a Bangalore, a driver spends approx. 533 hours/year just waiting /stuck in the traffic. i.e Almost a month. Six years. That is what a typical executive spends in traffic jams in gridlocked Delhi during an average 30year career.

data source: CTI - Centre for Transforming India


IMPACT OF ROAD TRAFFIC

87

ON HEALTH. RESPIRATORY / BREATHING PROBLEMS. People suffer from breathing problem due to traffic jam. It happens that people due to smoke people cannot breathe or they have to breathe polluted gas. Frequent inhaling of polluted gas causes asthma.

HEAD ACHE. Longer stay in traffic cause headache to many people. Continuous horn creates headache. And if same thing keep happening 5 days a week, anyone will have a chronic headache. weak hearts

MENTAL STRESS. Due to traffic jam, people get late in their appointments. This gives people a continuous mental stress. And taking this mental stress day by day, people get heart diseases.

HEARING PROBLEMS.

EYE / VISION PROBLEMS.

Due to heavy horn at the time of traffic jam, people suffer problem in hearing. Staying in the traffic for a long time makes a people unable to hear clearly for a few minutes. If this continues, the hearing problem might be permanent.

Due to staying in traffic jam, people’s eyes come to contact of smoke. And this smoke cause pain in the eyes. Sometimes people tear in the jam automatically. People get burning eyes.

SWEATING. Due to staying in the traffic people sometime suffer from excessive sweating. As in the traffic there is smoke everywhere, the situation gets hotter. Some people who cannot bear hot, they start sweating heavily. And this heavy sweating some time causes heart attack.

TIREDNESS. Getting home from the office by passing through heavy traffic makes everyone tired. And due to this tiredness, no one can concentrate well in his family life.

Apart from these problems people also suffer from,

BODY PAIN. SUFFOCATION AND VOMITING. HEART PROBLEMS. ALLERGY AND SKIN RASHES.


IMPACT OF ROAD TRAFFIC

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ON ENVIORMENT. SOUND POLLUTION.

AIR POLLUTION.

Traffic noise is probably the most rigorous and pervasive type of noise pollution. Traffic noise has become a serious problem because of inadequate urban planning of the city in the past. Schools, offices, hospitals, commercial business centers, and other community buildings were routinely built close to the main roads of the municipality without buffer zones or adequate sound proofing.

A growing demand of passenger and public transport has led to more air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A study conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board (New Delhi, India) in six indian cities concluded that the transport sector contributes to more than 30 percent of the ambient air quality in these cities – either directly from the vehicle exhaust or indirectly via the re-suspension of dust on roads due to vehicular movement.

HONKING. There are two main type of air pollution. Honking is one major source of noise pollution in India. Indian drivers love honking. they believe that that somehow they will mitigate the risk of a collision VEHICLE / ENGINE SOUND. Vehicle are sound insulated from inside, but people outside the vehicle are affected the most.

DUST / SUSPENDED PARTICLES. SPM(Suspended Particle Matter) which are normally emitted from exhaust tail. Due to less burning some unburnt particle gets out from the exhaust tail which causes cancer.

CO2,SO2,NO2 AND OTHER EMISSIONS Traffic jam introduces air pollution through SOx, NOx, COx (SO2, CO, CO2, N2O, NO2). And in the traffic jam, when vehicles stop for a longer periods of time and their engine is on, they emit SOx, NOx much which are lighter than air but very dangerous for our health and they even can cause death.


CHAOS.


91


THINK CHAOS IN TERMS OF PATTERNS


93

CONSIDER A TRADITIONALLY INDIAN PATTERN. Its called Rangoli or Kolam in south india. Its basically a pattern that women create outside their house every morning. Its a simple pattern there are dots and lines around dots. A good pattern includes the dots and its preferably radially symmetric. There is no problem in understanding the simple pattern.


MYLAPORE KOLAM FESTIVAL.

source: www.flickr.com/photos/rajagopalan_sarangapani/6657881933


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MYLAPORE KOLAM FESTIVAL. CO-EXISTANCE OF MULTIPLE PATTERNS. Imagine a street with multiple kolams. is it Chaos or Diversity. ?

More the dots more complex patterns. Same dots can be connected differently. And different women joins it differently.

Should we call it as Chaos just because we can’t handle the diversity of patterns.


CULTURAL DIFFERENCE Indian culture is inheratly chaotic. Look into ancient culture, the classic music that indians follow, games like snake and ladder indians invented everything shows unordered and unorganised beauty. Its an innate culture of indians doesn't let to be so organised like west.

WEST. V/S EAST.


97

ORDER VS CHAOS

WEST.

EAST.

One Ideology One System One God

Many Ideologies Many Gods Many Systems

Central Order

Peripheral Order


98

ORDER VS CHAOS FOREST.

GARDEN.

WESTERN MEAL.

starter

main

dessert

INDIAN THALI MEAL.

Eat as you wish


99

CULTURAL DIFFERENCE West everything is ordered, Mostly there are seperate lanes for bicycles, cars and commercial vehicle. So its more like a curated garden where someone decides what all should be permitted in and what all not. But in India its all about convenience and requirement. Everyone is allowed on road, even a person with elephant is freely allowed on road, because no one can deny elephant on road because the man might be doing that for his living.

EXCLUSIVE. V/S INCLUSIVE.

West most of the time something is excluded, because many things are not allowed on road, but in india everything is included. Order always have a sense of efficency than chaos.


1.252 BILLION

POPULATION

17.86 % MEN 34.54 % WOMEN ARE ILLITERATE source: 2011 census

THERE ARE 22 MAJOR LANGUAGES IN INDIA, WRITTEN IN 13 DIFFERENT SCRIPTS, WITH OVER 780 DIALECTS.

INDIAN RUPEE NOTE HAVE 17 LANGUAGES.

< 40% SPEAKS THE SAME LANGUAGE REMAINING

60% SPEAKS IN 15 DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. source: People’s Linguistic Survey of India


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LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY. India is home to variety of languages. There are times where two indians meet where both knows four different languages but no cammon language to communicate. India is the world largest english speaking population. When we travel across india after each 100km there will be change in dialect or language. This lingustic diversity also affects traffic in India.


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LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY. Two images showing signages from western country and India. In the left it's a typical monolinguistic signage which clearly potrays its intent. Whereas in the right, its a signage at Pathanamthitta, place in sothern Kerala, India showing directions to famous pilgrim place sabarimala. This signage is very relevent, where people from different parts of country comes to sabarimala for doing pilgrimage. So imagine how much time it would take if government wants to do changes on traffic system or rules. Placing these big multilingual boards everywhere in the city won't be a good idea, so when people enters a city for first time without knowing looking for signage which he/she can understand creates chaos in the city.


source: http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/traveler-magazine/real-travel/what-about-my-space

sour


rce: http://www.themetrognome.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/crossing-the-road-in-Mumbai-1.jpg

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SENSE OF PERSONAL SPACE. There is no sense of personal space in heavily populated country like India, People used to be inside crowd since their childwood. But in place like US there are more space and people maintains his/her personal space.People won't bother rubbing their sholders each other and moving through cramped spaces. This concept reflects on road as well, Indian people have a tendency to occupy each and every inch of road and they try to squeeze themselves or their vehicles into narrow spaces available. People also tend to drive very close just to make sure someone else not taking the space between vehicle infront of him so that he is not left behind in the traffic.


RULES DOESN’T MATTER, CONVENIENCE MATTERS.


IGNORING RULES

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RULES NOT INTERESTED. Indian drivers, though educated, tend not to follow the traffic rules. The main offenders are bus, auto and cab drivers. They do stuff like blocking turning spots, overlooking signals, or speeding up. Another main problem is the switching of lanes all of a sudden. More than half the drivers gets away by bribing officials. But not all fault lies with the drivers. Pedestrians randomly cross the streets and risk their lives too. In India rules doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t matter, convenience matters. The bigger your vehicle, the more right you are. There will be underage drivers, overload passengers, helmetless riders and so on. The thing is that there are no traffic rules in India. Another main sight would be the animals searching and eating food on the roadsides. One could see animals from dogs to monkeys in some states. Indian traffic rules are considered as jokes by its citizens. Still, no matter how bad the system, it still works.


WHY DON'T INDIANS FOLLOW TRAFFIC RULES?


IGNORING TRAFFIC RULES

109

CHALTA HAI ATTITUDE. BRANDED AS BORING PERSON.

INHERITED IGNORANCE. People learn things from their parents, Kids in their small age doesn’t think that much and they likely to imbibe those traits even if it’s a wrong driving practice. Since children are officially taught road safety and traffic rules at most schools, they try to mimic whatever they see on road and they are unable to distinguish between right and wrong.

Indians are easily influenced by their peers, as a social experiment I tried to follow all traffic rules whenever I’m on road, I tried to drive under speed limit, I stopped behind pedestrian crossing allowed people to cross, Always tried not to drive on wrong side. But people reactions are shocking, they branded me as a shocking person. Many told me that “ don’t be so upright person, try to learn having some fun in breaking rules ”.

A lady crossing road ignoring zebra crossing (fig1) is actually teaching that kid in their subconsious mind that ignoring zebra lines aren't a big deal. When the kid grew up, she will be doing the same .

Ignoring traffic rules is people's concept of having fun. If you doesn't want to be branded as boring person then you will be forced to ignore rules.

Sometimes, people may be willing to follow rules but they just don't know what they are..

1.

So its like instead of discouraging rash driving people are encouraging each other to ignore traffic rules.


THE PUNISHMENT AND FINE ARE SO LESS, THAT EVEN A BURGER SOMETIME COST HIGHER THEN JUMPING RED LIGHT.


IGNORING TRAFFIC RULES

111

SAB LOG KARTA HAI ATTITUDE. NO DETERRENTS FOR RASH DRIVING.

NOTHING WILL HAPPEN TO ME PSYCHOLOGY. India is such a populated country the percentage of people who have been in accident could be relatively low and this had created a false sense of security in people’s mind that nothing will happen to them. Others may get into accident and not us psycology pushes people to ignore rules. (fig2)

2.

I'M IN A HURRY ATTITUDE

EVERYONE ELSE DO IT MENTALITY If others are doing it there is nothing wrong in aping that blindly. Like the gentleman in the bike (fig3) following the same like the guy in front of him and taking an entry into no entry zone.

There is no standardized methods or mechanisms to identify traffic offenders like license plate recognition and image recognition CCTV’s. And there is no penalties for rash driving, no driving license suspension, no imprisonment.

3.

Globally Indians don’t have a good reputation for punctuality. People tend to leave late and try to make up on the time by rash driving on the roads. In process these people will drive through a few red lights and may drive through wrong side of the road.


ignoring rules SCENARIO 1. The signal is red and you stayed behind. You are waiting for the signal to fall green, so you can cross. One minute. Two minutes. Finally, it is green. You can walk! You take a step forward and get a heart attack when a vehicle almost hits you! You take deep breaths and control yourself. The signal is red again, and you wait yet again. This time when the signal changes to green, you check the road and see vehicles going! You realise that either be it red or green, people ride away! So, you keep the road rules aside, keep your safety as priority and walk when there are no vehicles in view.

RED OR GREEN? BOTH MEANS GO!

Red no longer matters. It is the vehicles that matter.

112


ignoring rules SCENARIO 2. The road is blocked. You wait in the traffic hoping for it to clear. A car squeezes in, you let it go. Another car, gets ahead and places itself between you and the other car. You let it be. Then a motercycle turns and waits for the chance to overtake you. You let it sidetrack you. It has been an hour. The vehicles which were behind you have gone ahead; and you are still left behind in the same spot, stuck and late. What do you do next time? You learn the trick from the 'Rome' and put it in action! And, you succeed once! You go ahead for twice, and later thrice and it becomes a habit.

WHEN IN ROME, ACT LIKE IN ROME.

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ignoring rules SCENARIO 3. Indians, take few quotes literally. " Time is precious! " Urgh, why the hell are you making me wait? I have to get back to my classroom or office room to invent the next sensation even better than Facebook. Damn! I am going to lose my deal. Curse this traffic... No other go! I have to do this as this is for 'greater' good.

TIME IS PRECIOUS!

114


ignoring rules SCENARIO 4. The Part A - People ( uneducated about traffic rules ) "Rules? Ae kya hotey hey? Mujey nahi pata" There are many who don't know the standard traffic rules. Part B - People ( in general )

RULES? WHAT RULES?

"You shouldn't walk when it is red." "Why?" "A vehicle will hit you and you will die." "Did I die now?" "No" "Do I look like an idiot?" "No" "Am I blind?" "No" "Good! I can take care of myself. I know when a car is coming and I know to drive. Now go away." I am the boss. I know everything!

115


source: http://indiatransportportal.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Indian-public-bus.jpg


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WHY DON'T PEOPLE FOLLOW QUEUE ? If you queue up in India for public transport, you will never be able to board an overcrowded bus or a train. In India already the bus with 55 seating comes to bus stop almost full, there will be minimum 20 people standing at the bus stop. If a person stay on the queue and the most of the people standing at the end of queue will not be able to board the bus. They are not ready to reach for work late, so they ignore to make queue. Lets try the following social experiment a developed country - Cancel all bus routes except ONE , and keep the frequency at crazy low levels during peak time. Make sure there are only 20 seats in the bus for a passenger demand of 200. Allow the passengers to complain about this, but simply ignore them. Finally, report that the sun rises in the west if you still see people queuing up !


Horn OK please' is a phrase commonly painted on vehicles in India. This is spotted almost without exception on commercial vehicles like trucks, buses or local taxis. The purpose of the phrase is to alert a driver of a vehicle approaching from behind to sound his/her horn in case they wish to overtake.

HORN OK PLEASE


INFLUENCE OF HORN IN INDIAN TRAFFIC

HORN OK PLEASE HISTORY. STORY 1 During WW-II trucks were often run on petrol/kerosene when there was a shortage of diesel. Petrol, being highly unstable in nature, would cause the trucks to explode at the slightest accident. Hence a warning would be painted on the back saying “Horn Please, On Kerosene”. Gradually this became a norm and On Kerosene got abbreviated as OK.

STORY 2 In the early days, most of the trucks in India were manufactured by the TATA Group. During these times, Tata Oil Mills Ltd. came up with a new brand of detergent called “OK”. And in order to market their detergent they used the motor medium very effectively by painting OK in the middle of "Horn Please". This brand had a symbol in the shape of a lotus flower. Thus it became “Horn OK Please”.

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HORN IS A PART OF DRIVING ETIQUETTE. TRAFFIC SIGNAL

People don't wait at traffic signals, they don't want to waste time. Once green signal is on people start honking so that vehicle infront move fast and get out of intersection as quickly as possible. Its done because driver had experienced many previous incidents where people moved on honking

CROWDED STREETS

Drivers honk in crowded streets to alert pedestrians and people on road to give way for vehicle to move forward . In many times when an accident occurs pedestrian used to complain that the driver didn't honk because of that accident happened. Drivers also use their horn to move animals out of their way.


INFLUENCE OF HORN

HORN IS A COMMUNICATION TOOL. OVERTAKING

Drivers honk when they want to overtake another vehicle. Its like requesting space or asking the vehicle infront to move and give way for overtaking. Indians honk without pause, and honking is learned behaviour that tells 'The more you honk, more you get obstacles out of your way '.

TURNING CURVES

Drivers use horns on curves to make sure there is no vehicles coming towards them in opposite side on the other end of the curve. It's a type of alert and aknowledgement system which avoids collision in curves. People generally do not drive when their vehicle horn stop working.

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MORE YOU HONK, MORE SAFE DRIVER YOU ARE

NO RESPECT TO NO HORN SIGN

#MISBELIEF TRUCK DRIVERS HONK BECAUSE THEY DON'T WANT TO STOP.

HORN HAS BECOME NECCESSITY IN INDIA

#FACT

#TRUTH

INDIAN 1 YR HONK = GERMAN LIFETIME HONK source:www.ibtimes.co.in

HORN OK PLEASE INDIAN DRIVER HONK MORE IN A YEAR THAN GERMAN DOES IN HIS LIFETIME.


INFLUENCE OF HORN

1.

3. TYPES OF HONKS

SHORT BURSTS Short bursts (urgent) indicate supplication, e.g., in clearing dogs, rickshaws and pedestrians from path. Even if they can see you clearly, others will not acknowledge your presence unless you blare, at least a bit.

SINGLE BLAST Single blast (casual) means: “I have just seen someone out of India’s 870 million whom I recognise,” or “There is a bird in the road (which at this speed could go through my windscreen)” or “I have not blown my horn for two minutes.” Trucks and buses (class IV,2,a): All horn signals have the same meaning.

2.

4.

LONG BELLOWS Long bellows (desperate) denote supremacy, e.g., to oncoming truck: “I am going too fast to stop, so unless you slow down we shall both die.”

INCESSANT LONG HORN Incessant din indicates either A.) Cautious, professional chauffeur is approaching, or B.) Driver is napping for a few minutes with his head on the horn to clear the road ahead.

source: enjoyingindia.com

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The essential horn. Photo credit: Carol Mitchell - Creative Commons


125

HORN CREATES SOUND POLLUTION, BUT Horns actually helps a lot in reducing collisions. If any countries be thankful for the invention of horn, India should be on the top of that list. The amount of traffic, the narrow lanes and the habitual nature of the drivers make it necessary to use the horns all the time. The narrow lanes also add to the whole reason behind honking. Drivers often wander outside their lanes, as vehicles are crossing and passing-by from all over the places.

HORNS ARE ESSENTIAL.

Therefore, popular writing of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Horn Pleaseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; on the vehicles is not in poor taste of driving, or bad manners by any means. It is the necessity of Indian driving; it is part of the road-side manners.


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POWER EQUATION Indian traffic, like Indian society, is structured on a strict caste system. The following precedence must be accorded at all times. In descending order, give way to: cows, elephants, heavy trucks, buses, official cars, camels, light lorries, buffalo, jeeps, ox-carts, private cars, motorcycles, scooters, autorickshaws, pigs, pedal rickshaws, goats, bicycles (goods-carrying), handcarts, bicycles (passengercarrying), dogs and pedestrians.

INDIAN TRAFFIC PRIORITY CHART source: http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=3619


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people killed by driver negligence across states and UT's in india. (2012) source: www.data.gov.in


Major contribution towards accidents comes from the driver negligence.


ACCIDENTS

According to who, India’s accident death rate of 18.9 for every 100,000 people is only a little higher than the global average, 18.

India could do a lot to make its roads safer. Given that it is the secondmost populous country, it is only natural that India would have a high number of road accident deaths compared to other countries. And as India urbanizes, builds more roads and more vehicles, the number of traffic accidents and accident-related deaths is unfortunately bound to increase. A better measure of road safety is the number of deaths per 100,000 population. According to World Health Organization figures, India’s accident death rate of 18.9 for every 100,000 people is only a little higher than the global average, 18. wMany countries have a much higher accident death rate—Thailand (38), South Africa (32), Venezuela (37.2), Oman (34), Nigeria (33), Iran (34), Iraq (31), Saudi Arabia (28), Malaysia (25) and China (20.5).

BUT INDIA IS NOT THE WORST COUNTRY FOR CAR-ACCIDENT DEATHS. source: http://qz.com/216766/despite-what-you-may-think-indias-hardly-the-worst-country-for-driving-accidents

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"There must be some fantastic drivers in India, I cannot fathom how vehicles converge at any given point from all directions at the same time and no one hits anyone. They all move away smoothly". Lewis Hamilton, F1 Champion


POSITIVES CONCENTRATION People will definitely have good concentration as they have to pay full attention on road (sometimes can't lose sight for even single second) as there is saying which applies to India especially: Nazar hati to durghatna ghati (Translation: If you lose focus, you meet accident). PATIENCE Patience will improve with time. The time spent in jam will definitely help to increase patience. HELP If there some emergency in middle of road, there will be good probability that you will find someone who could help you.

ALERTNESS People become more alert. Mind learns to keep sight on surroundings to prevent accident from vehicles which appears out of nowhere. MULTI-TASKING People learn to manage multiple things. They while driving do various things like talking on phone, checking out ads, keeping care of their child while driving two wheelers, etc. SOCIAL SKILLS People often talk with strangers when strucked on traffic for long time (by cursing the situation with other people). This helps them to increase their social skills.

POSITIVES ABOUT INDIAN TRAFFIC CHAOS.

TIME MANAGEMENT When people lose their precious time in traffic, they become conscious about the work pending. They then tend to manage time more effectively and learn to leave early if they have some important scheduled work. DRIVING SKILLS Will gain good driving skills for sure. Get trained in the skill of driving in Indian roads, then driving anywhere else in the world will be so easy.

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SELF DRIVING CARS.


PAST. PRESENT. FUTURE.


AUTONOMOUS CARS

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

AUTONOMOUS TECHNOLOGY IS ALREADY HERE. Couple of years ago self driving cars were yet another science fiction like jetpacks and flying cars, DARPA grand challenge and urban challenge made autonomous vehicle technology more believable to the public. Automobile companies are rapidly expanding the advanced cruise-control to adaptive cruise control which can effectively take over acceleration and braking in traffic. But technology companies like google and apple recognized that revolution are foot ahead. Rather than developing a system from old tried cruise control technologies they wanted to build that from scratch as a fully autonomous vehicle. Silicon valley and Detroit will be witnessing many more contributions in the coming future. New transportation platforms, enabled by the mobile internet can remake the way we commute. Uber is just a small example which technology revolutionise the way people move around.

Initially, we were afraid of the idea to make cars driverless.

139


1

3

5

7 Mercedes- Benz F 015

University of Bundeswehr General Motors

1939

Wo rld ’s Fa i r

General Motors built upon Bel Geddes early vision during the 1950s, creating a Scalextric style design where wires buried in pavements would work in conjunction with magnetic pick up coils in cars.

1950

At the 1993 New York World’s Fair, American theatrical designer Norman Bel Geddes put together his vision of what cars would look like in 1959.This exhibit was called ‘Futurama’ and featured ‘Autonomous’ electric vehicles.

1977

Tsukuba Lab

Ernst Dickmanns and his colleagues at the University of Bundeswehr in Munich used sensors so that the car could determine appropriate actions, creating the first autonomous vehicle capable of making its own decisions.

1890

The Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab in Japan moved away slightly from the Scalextric style design in 1977, incorporating cameras to help their test car track white street markers.

2

Googl e The Google Driverless Car program begins to rock up more than 140,000 miles with a fleet of autonomous Toyota Prius Hybrids.

2011

2004

DARPA Challenge

2010

State of Nevada

2015

The state of Nevada approves the first lam allowing driverless vehicles. Other US states begin to introduce legislation.

The DAPRA Grand Challenge, first held in 2004, is a race for driverless vehicles. Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a $2 million cash prize is handed out to the winner with the ultimate aim being to promote advances in autonomous automotive technologies.

4

The Mercedes-Benz F 015 Luxury in Motion research vehicle is offering a vision of autonomous driving in the future. The vehicle was showcased at Cunsumer Electronics Show 2015. F015 potrayed the future of luxury autonomous vehicle

6

8


141

9

2015

Go o g le car p ro t o ty p e The ďŹ rst prototype of fully autonomous concept car from google got reveiled on January 2015. Hundred of these prototypes were made to test in the streets of Mountain View, California.

MILESTONES.


DREAM TOWARDS DRIVERLESS FUTURE.


AUTONOMOUS CARS : THE PAST

GRADUATION PROJECT ANOOP BALAKRISHNAN

THE AGE OLD DREAM. Self-driving cars have existed both in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s minds and on paper for a long time. The visions and utopias from the past tell the history of our automotive future itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a dream that has been around for a long time. It was a lack of practical feasibility that had prevented the vision of a robot car being turned into reality. Drawings on paper were the only medium that visualised transport concepts. Futurists had different concepts of autonomous cars for the future. Those concepts were fancy enough to keep the dream towards driverless future alive. Some concepts like hyperloop creating lot of hype in current scenario those were unpractical concepts then, but now the technology had developed such a way that most of those concepts are soon to be realised.

So what designers and futurists predicted driverless cars of the future will look like. ?

143


144

source:http://next.mercedes-benz.com/en/the-age-old-dream-of-the-driverless-car

1955

Towing systems and junction-free roads are some of the more complicated systems that provide greater convenience


145

source:http://thediagonal.com/?s=driverless+cars

1957

Thinking about the children rather than steering the car: autonomous .driving helps to improve life balance


146

source:http://blog.modernmechanix.com/why-dont-we-have-moving-sidewalks-for-city-shopping

1954

Moving Sidewalks for City Shopping, a horizontal variant of the paternoster lift


147

source: http://www.popsci.com/cars/article/2012-09/what-happened-1500mph-no-wheels-self-driving-car

1961

Automated valet parking, with simple automatic controls, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d send car back to your garage empty to wait for your call


148

source: http://www.popsci.com/cars/article/2012-09/what-happened-1500mph-no-wheels-self-driving-car

1961

Swept through Aeroduct pipe by a current of air, wheel-less cars could speed between cities


149

source: http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2013/10/competing-for-the-world-largest-infrastructure-project-over-100-million-jobs-at-stake/car

1957

Hyperloop then : Honeywell engineer predicted that by 2000 cars will zip through anetwork of crash proof pneumatic tubes


150

source: http://www.automobilemag.com/features/awards/1401_2014_technology_of_the_year_autonomy

1961

If cars are queuing bumper to bumper, then why not move in convoy like a train.Automobil magazine selcted driverless vehicles as the technology for future


151

source: http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2013/10/competing-for-the-world-largest-infrastructure-project-over-100-million-jobs-at-stake/car

1939

New York World Fair gave great importance to the vision of driverless.vehicles, believing they would dominate the roads in future


152

source: http://americandreamingfilm.com

1953

Charles Balogh from Ford advanced design conceived of a car with semi-circular round seating that would stimulate conversation among passengers inspired from aliens


153

)source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knight_Rider_(1982_TV_series

1982

The most famous vision of a computer-controlled car is KITT, the intel ligent hero car who appeared alongside David Hasselhoff in the TV series Knight Rider


Elon Musk

Anthony R. Foxx

CEO, Tesla

US Secretary of Transportation

Travis Kalanick CEO, Uber

“Be ready and expect true

“ Driverless cars will be in

“Uber fleet to be driverless

2023

2025

2030

Stefan Moser

Dr. Wolfgang Epple

Dieter Zetsche

Head Product Comunication, Audi

Director R&D, JLR

Chairman, Daimler

CEO, Ford Motors

“Autonomous cars from Jaguar and

“ Fully autonomous vehicles

“Fully autonomous vehicles would

2020

2025

2020

autonomous driving by

“Next generation Audi A8 will be

capable of fully autonomous driving

2017

use all over the world by

Land Rover will happen by

by

could be ready by

Mark Fields

be available on the market by


155

FORECAST. Self-driving cars may be hitting the road sooner than you expect. According to experts in the field, they will be common on highways within 15 years Companies like Google focus on the “Holy Grail” approach, continuing to test prototypes for fully autonomous vehicles But the other approach - “incremental automation” - is actually a lot more promising. In this vision, people will still be in the driver’s seat in the future, but cars will gradually be able to do more tasks by themselves

Carlos Ghosn CEO, Renault/Nissan

Robert Hartwig

President Insurance Information Institute

“Driverless cars coming to

“Truly autonomous cars to

2020

2028

showrooms by

populate roads by

Justin Rattner

Sergey Brin

CTO, Intel

Founder, Google

“Driverless cars will be available

“Planning to bring Google driverless

2025

2018

within 10 years

car in the market by


TECHNOLOGY.


SELF DRIVING CARS DEFINITION. An autonomous car, also known as a uncrewed vehicle, driverless car, self-driving car and robotic car, is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the main transportation capabilities of a traditional car. As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage.


TECHNOLOGY

159

HARDWARE.

Powered by an electric motor, the car uses a combination of sensors and software to locate itself in the real world combined with highly accurate digital maps. A GPS is used, just like the satellite navigation systems in most cars, to get a rough location of the car, at which point radar, lasers and cameras take over to monitor the world around the car, 360-degrees. Highly efficient and precise hardware is been used to obtain accurate information about the sorroundings.

SOFTWARE.

Software can be considered as the key to autonomous driving. Perception, planning, and control are said to be the main three parts of an autonomous software. WWThe software can recognise objects, people, cars, road marking, signs and traffic lights, obeying the rules of the road and allowing for multiple unpredictable hazards, including cyclists. It can even detect road works and safely navigate around them. Making car drive is fundamentaly an computer science issue because we are taking in vast amount of data and we need to make decisions on that data


LEGISLATION. In the United States, state vehicle codes generally do not envisage â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but do not necessarily prohibit â&#x20AC;&#x201D; highly automated vehicles. To clarify the legal status of and otherwise regulate such vehicles, several states have enacted or are considering specific laws. As of the end of 2013, four U.S. states, (Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan), have successfully enacted laws addressing autonomous vehicles.

NEVADA, FLORIDA, CALIFORNIA, AND MICHIGAN.

In June 2011, the Nevada Legislature passed a law to authorize the use of autonomous cars. Nevada thus became the first jurisdiction in the world where autonomous vehicles might be legally operated on public roads. According to the law, the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (NDMV) is responsible for setting safety and performance standards and the agency is responsible for designating areas where autonomous cars may be tested.


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LEVELS OF AUTONOMY. IN THE UNITED STATES, THE NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA) HAS PROPOSED A FORMAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM:

LEVEL 0 : The driver completely controls the vehicle at all times. LEVEL 1 : LEVEL 2 : LEVEL 3 : LEVEL 4 :

Individual vehicle controls are automated, such as electronic stability control or automatic braking. At least two controls can be automated in unison, such as adaptive cruise control in combination with lane keeping. The driver can fully cede control of all safety-critical functions in certain conditions. The car senses when conditions require the driver to retake control and provides a "sufficiently comfortable transition time" for the driver to do so. The vehicle performs all safety-critical functions for the entire trip, with the driver not expected to control the vehicle at any time. As this vehicle would control all functions from start to stop, including all parking functions, it could include unoccupied cars.

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AUTOPILOT SYTEMS OR ADVANCED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS (ADAS).

Driver is required behind steering wheel.

Less data is stored. Computer vision from camera has a major role. Sense and align method.

TESLA

Daimler

AUDI

toyota

volvo

gm

FULLY SELF DRIVING SYSTEMS.

Driver is not required.

Huge amount of data is stored. LIDAR based sensors have major role. Sense and understand method.

GOOGLE


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STORE AND ALIGN METHOD.

STORE AND UNDERSTAND METHOD.

Stores huge amount of data in the database and then match these data on realtime. For example the road and sorroundings is scanned and stored in the database, when the self driving car goes throgh the same route the stored data is crosschecked with the data acquired through sensors. Advantage of this system is that if the data collected is rich enough you don't need to do much sensing.

Records/stores nothing or less amount of data. Use cameras, radars, sensors interpret things happening on road just like humans do. And take this information understands it and use that for actuation.

Google Fully self driving cars follows this method.

pre-drive recording of 3600 surround 3d

Google

HD maps

Advantage od this sytem is that no prerequisite data about the route is required. Only upto level 3 autonomy could be acheived. Tesla and other OEMs based on Mobileye Advanced driver assistance systems follows this method.

sparse recording

no recording

ADAS

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The basic objective of driverless cars or driver assistance system is to reduce accidents.

IMPACT OF SELF DRIVING CARS VS DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS.

Looking at the graph, and along the bottom is how often does the car apply the brakes when it shouldn't. And the vertical axis is how often the car is going to apply the brakes when it's supposed to to help you avoid an accident. Now, if we look at the bottom left corner here, this is your classic car. Driver assistance systems avoids half of accidents that the human driver misses, that is the green curve, and self driving cars is the orange curve. So let's look at how often the technology has to do the right thing. And so this green dot up here is a driver assistance system. It turns out that human drivers make mistakes that lead to traffic accidents about once every 100,000 miles in America. In contrast, a self-driving system is probably making decisions about 10 times per second, so order of magnitude, that's about 1,000 times per mile.

Courtesy GoogleX source : Chris Urmson TED talk

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1.

3. GOOGLE SELF DRIVING CAR

WHERE AM I ? The car processes both map and sensor information to determine where it is in the world. Our car knows what street it's on and which lane it's in.

WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT? The software predicts what all the objects around us might do next. It predicts that the cyclist will ride by and the pedestrian will cross the street.

2.

4.

WHATâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S AROUND ME? Sensors help detect objects all around us. The software classifies objects based on their size, shape and movement pattern. It detects a cyclist and a pedestrian in this case.

WHAT SHOULD I DO? The software then chooses a safe speed and trajectory for the car. Our car nudges away from the cyclist, then slows down to yield to the pedestrian.

Courtesy GoogleX source : Google Self driving cars website

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GOOGLE SELF DRIVING CAR

HOW LIDAR WORKS?


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TECHNOLOGY HARDWARE INSIDE. LIDAR

PROCESSOR

Lidar is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. Acronym of Light Detection And Ranging. Laser light scans 3600 sorroundings around the vehicle realtime. (fig1)

A processor reads the data and regulates the vehicle behaviour, Google specially designed computer for serving the purpose of huge realtime processing and computer vision.

DISTANCE AND SPEED SENSOR Radar sensor that measures the distance and speed of vehicle ahead. Allow the car to "see" far enough to detect nearby or upcoming cars or obstacles

POSITION ESTIMATOR Position from GPS will have small amount of difference in terms of centimeters, but for self driving cras even small difference in position matters a lot. To keep up with exact location google uses a position estimator, Its a wheel hub sensor detects the number of rotation to determine the exact location of the vehicle.

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HOW A DRIVERLESS CAR SEES THE ROAD?


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Car starts by understanding where it is in the world, by taking the sensor data and map data and aligning them each other, plus what car sees in the moment. So here the purple boxes is the other vehicles on road, the red box is a cyclist and up in the distance there are some cones, so now the car know where it is at the moment but to do better than that the car have to predict whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going to happen. To predict, the car really need to know what everybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thinking in realtime. To understand what everybody going to do in a crowded route is a very complicated problem. for doing that the basic thing to be done is observing actions of everyone and creating possible trajectories for them.

Courtesy GoogleX Source : Chris Urmson TED talk

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HOW TO PREDICT WHATâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GOING TO HAPPEN. Took all the data that driverless cars have seen over time, the hundreds of thousands of pedestrians that have out there in the road and understand what they look like and use that to infer what other pedestrians should look like, and from that a model of how we expect them to move through world. The same applies for vehicles, cyclists on road, so there will be good amount of data is stored, which is been crosschecked in realtime. According to predicted movement, tragectories are created for each and every moving object. Then the driverless creates a safe trajectory path for itself for collision free movement.

Courtesy GoogleX Source : Chris Urmson TED talk

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UNDERSTANDING MANUAL HAND SIGNALS. The driverless car should understand all manual hand signals on the road, when a cyclist puts up their arm, it means theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re expecting the car to yield to them and make room for them to make a lane change. The car dynamically identify those traffic gestures and will act accordingly. And when a police officer stood in the road, driverless vehicle should understand that this means stop, and when they signal to go, car should continue. Understanding when to stop and when to move is done by modelling the police officer in realtime and tracking his gestures. When the hand gesture of STOP is identified by the car it will halt and starts moving when identified with move gesture.

Courtesy GoogleX Source : Chris Urmson TED talk

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1.


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1. Trajectories of each and every vehicle around the self driving car are identified and according to that safe trajectory for self driving car created.

2. Three dimensional data of moving and static object around the driverless car is plotted and safe trajectory for driverless car is drawn in green colour.

2.

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SENSE MAKING


INDIAN TRAFFIC SELF DRIVING CARS.


LESS DISCIPLINE AND CHAOTIC. MORE IDEAS IT CAN GENERATE.


SENSE MAKING

SMART CHAOS

SMART CHAOS: INDIAN APPROACH TO LIFE Every country is different in its own way. But what makes India different from the whole lot is its powerful and at the same time distinctive personality. India consists of a huge diversity of people, with each having their own ideas, feelings, views, and yet, they are united by soul. India is Unity in Diversity, and this is our greatest strength, and the key to the future. To a western mind, this may seem ridiculous. But India have offered some of the best mathematicians and engineers the world have ever seen. India have used its wide variety of culture and ideas to create Smartness. Maybe we can learn something from looking at the streets of India. Indian traffic is crazy. There is hell of noise and disorder everywhere. At a glance, it may seem stupid. But if we look at its good side and study about how the problems get solved, we can get a lot of information which can even be copied. If we look at the west, we see a limited range of cars. Whereas in India, the diversity of the society can even be seen in the vehicles. Two, three, four, cheap, expensive, and the categories go on and on. Even then, the people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fight or argue with each other in traffic, they just mind their own business and gets along with others mistakes. Also, the different types of vehicles caused the roads to have insufficient amount of lanes, making the roads highly cumbersome.

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INDIAN TRAFFIC IS EXTREMELY CHAOTIC AND DANGEROUS, BUT THE SYSTEM WORKS.


SENSEMAKING INTERACTIONS ON ROAD MATTERS. trees

CHAOS PRE-CRASH SITUATIONS

DRIVING CLOSE NEGOTIATIONS

interactions

RASH DRIVING

ANIMALS TRAFFIC SIGNAL

PEOPLE

INFRASTRCTURE ISSUES

buildings

IT'S ALL BECAUSE OF INTERACTIONS The essance of indian traffic is the interaction between vehicles to the outside world. People interact each other on road which make this chaos smart and efficent. Eye to eye contact, a small head nod, or a hand signal are few in many ways where people interact on road. By looking at the face of driver opposite is enough to predict his next movement, Indian traffic is all about these negotiations and interactions.

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HOW DOES PEOPLE INTERACT ON ROAD ?


interactions

EYE CONTACT

HAND SIGNAL

HEAD NODDING

HOW WILL DRIVERLESS CAR EVER REPLICATE 'EYE CONTACT' ? How will they ever replicate 'eye contact' in the situation of a pedestrian attempting to cross the road ahead, looks at the drivers eyes to make sure she knows he is there? Will the pedestrian be looking at an autonomous car with the occupant reading a newspaper? Great confidence that will give. How will such an autonomous car decipher that the human driver in front has left his indicator blinking, and does not intend to take any action, left or right. Humans are much better at assessing human mistakes. Human drivers are learning while driving and this expanding experience makes them capable of avoiding mistakes and doing better.

HONKING

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FIVE HUMAN SENSES


interactions

CAMERA

SENSORS

DRIVERLESS CAR SENSES. Driverless car have efficient sensors to see and understand things around it. It has 360 degree camera to see things around, but no efficient system to communicate back to the system.

RADARS

LIDAR

In order to coexist with present systems the driverless vehicle should interact with the peoples and vehicles around. Car communicate with humans inside through voice and Graphical user Interface. but there is no mechnisms to interact with people outside apart from horns.

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THE SOLUTION The vehicle is a small part of the system. A system with vehicle in it is becomes the solution. System is quite big, rather than designing the whole system doing a speculative design could be the way forward.

system vehicle

SOLUTION.


SOLUTION

speculative design

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Hi Chris Urmson


Please reply to my mail to see the rest of my project Hi Chris, I have been trying to connect with you for the last 15 months. Couldn't grab your attention. There are some interesting outcomes from my thesis project. Which i thought it should somehow reach to google. I want to make sure that some one from google should see my project, that's why trimmed the Solution part of my project. If you had seen this please reply to my mail anoopbalakrishnan89@gmail.com

India inspires self driving cars  
India inspires self driving cars  
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