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A DIPLOMA PROGRAM

TILFLUKTSROM Aina Telhaug Ann-Sofie A. Indgul Bergen school of architecture Spring 2014


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TILFLUKTSROM This diploma will deal with the existing shelters in Oslo, Norway. It will investigate their existence, functionality and future. Apx. 5 000 shelters are hidden in the city : beneath, behind and inside. Once meant to protect the inhabitants of Norway from attacks, gas and splints - they no longer seem to play a strong role in our society. The goal is to develop a series of reactions to the forgotten voids, through architectural responses that should adapt to the situation and the scale each shelter is situated in.

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INDEX 6 introducing the hidden 10 shelters 12 private tilfluktsrom 14 offentlige tilfluktsrom 16 alarmplasser 18 three categories 20 Oslo 22 timeline 24 districts 26 site visits We pass a yellow sign.

28 approaching the shelters 30 site visits / field trip

Leads us into grey matter and endless darkness voids of white rotting paint

38 approach A + B

The shelters lay hidden as a shadow of a past threat. Distant on our memory and far away from our imaginations.

46 workflow / calendar

40 chosen site I 42 chosen site II 44 expected outcome 48 CV Aina 50 CV Ann-Sofie

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SHELTERS There are 25 000 shelters all over Norway that all together can hold 2,5 million people. The highest density is to be found in the capital. This diploma wish to enlighten the number of shelters that are hidden in the city of Oslo. The awareness of the shelters existence is declining and maintaining them is often a burden for those responsible, both in cooperative buildings and in the municipality. The amount of space that the bunkers in Oslo hides is equal more than the floor area of seven Operas: 38 500m2 Through mapping, sorting and organizing, a set of sites will be chosen and further be thoroughly investigated and presented. As a part of the process the program will continuously be redeveloped and after visiting the sites readjustments of the program will be done. During the field trip several sites of different

character will be visited and analyzed. The criteria for choosing a shelter is not set, but preferably they are empty or easily emptied for access, 1:1 sketching or potential happenings. They should also be located in relation to existing infrastructure. The different shelters in Oslo have in this diploma been categorized into the following groups; private tilfluktsrom, offentlige tilfluktsrom and alarmplasser. Properties and ownership vary, and this will be presented in the program. The approach is to adapt to the chosen sites and intervene with the spatial qualities and the location of the shelters. The process will consist of a set of methods: visiting the sites, documenting through site analyses, meeting the people living in the neighborhood and contemplating potential interventions that can enhance the space on a local scale. It may also include 1:1 interventions, performance, participating workshops and different methods of adapting to the shelters and their context.

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PRIVATE TILFLUKTSROM Private shelters are placed in most of the apartment buildings and housing areas in Oslo, with a distance of maximun 75 meters. They can hold 50-150 people and are mainly for those who inhabit- and for those who frecuently pass or use this area. Private shelters are today under the responsibility of those who are in charge of the block, or cooperative building. From 1998 it was decided that small shelters fitting less than 50 people could be reprogrammed if applied for. There are no rules for what you can use the shelter as in time of peace, as long as the construction is intact, and it can be emptied within 72 hours.

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OFFENTLIG TILFLUKTSROM There are about 37 shelters in Oslo to hold the general public in case of emergency. Varying in size and shapes they are placed in schools and malls or next to the underground metro stations.

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ALARMPLASSER These halls served as shelters for the civil defence and bases for the Germans during WWII. They were recently transferred from the civil defence to the municipalitys ownership, and vary in size from 300 to 2 000m2. Two of the shelters are rented out, 8-9 for free and 10-12 are without any program. Some are rented out or sold to mcor sportsclubs, but still some remain as wet and dark voids. Ready to be maintained and experienced. Many of them contain toxic material, and must be decontaminated.

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THREE CATEGORIES The private shelters, public shelters and alarmplasser are of different character and even though they vary within the typology there are some applicable factors and conditions. The private shelters that we visited where more or less around 30 m2 and belonged to a household or a hallway of several apartments. Some of the shelters had become a part of the functional space of the house, some where left empty and most of them where used for storage.

During a visit at Beredskapsetaten in Oslo we dived into the archive of public shelters and some alarmplasser. Of the 40 public shelters that Oslo holds, 10 of them are totally public while the rest are partly in private offices or metro stations. These are operative and do not require a re-programing. As opposed the alarmplasser in hands of the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection are now useless for its original purpose and often left unused. Their future remains unclear for legal reasons in addition to the fact that the different stakeholders are ambiguous in their position on the matter.

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OSLO Oslo is located at the innermost part of the Oslo fjord and covers an area of 450 km2 in total. One third of this area is built while two thirds encompasses the green areas, Oslomarka. The capital have 623 966 inhabitants and is the city of Norway with the highest degree of density. Without including Marka there are 4 458 persons per km2. As the city strives to build in accordance with the needs of the growing population, we want to rise the question of using the already existing volumes of the city. Since Oslo have both the largest amount of shelters and highest degree of density, it is an interesting city to focus on within the topic of re-using existing structures. When it comes to density there is a considerable variation within Oslo. The district Sagene has the highest density with almost 12 000 inhabitants per km2, while the district Søndre Nordstrand has the lowest density with less than 2 000 persons per km2.

Variation between Oslo west and east is to be found in several fields. Economically we can se how the median income vary within the districts and also the residential pattern of immigrants is an evident distinction. The immigrants are mostly resident in the central east or in the east suburbs. Oslo is the biggest university city in Norway and holds in total 72 690 students. Many young people live and move frequently within the central districts. The sites chosen for this diploma are located in the central east part of Oslo. The two sites have different potential in the radius of people that will be affected by the project. Working with a site conveniently located in relation to existing infrastructure the scale of the project may reach a broader part of the population. Second, working on a more local scale with an apartment complex the opportunity to include local initiatives and proposals is possible.

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Shelters Oslo’s housing development

After WWII the law demanded integration of shelters in all new buildings

WWI

Oslo’s modern history housing starts 1929: establishment of Oslo og omegn bolig og sparelag OBOS

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1935: Agreement WWII 1946: Foundation of between Oslo the Norwegian State Housing Bank. and OBOS forms the basis for residential 1948: The merging of construction in Oslo and Aker led to Oslo forward until even greater increase in the large-scale housing our days. construction Because of this collaboration Oslo got apx. 2 500 1950: Construction of new homes during the country’s first suburb the 30’s town, Lambertseter was initiated

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1950

1946

1939 - 1945

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1929

1914 - 1918

Most of the shelters in Oslo were build in the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS


After 09/11 the discussion around shelters in Oslo is rose again. They are still seen upon as relevant, even though the level of threat has changed 1998: An adherence to a temporary halt in construction of shelters, pending the investigation of a new protection consept..

1945 - 1989: Nearly 85 % of all residentials in Oslo were built in the outer city

1990 - 2003: Fewer than 900 homes were built annually in the outer city and fewer than 500 homes in the inner city

1994: Most 3-4 bedroom apartments built

2004: The trend changes, more homes were built in the inner city Most 1-2 bedroom apartments built After 2004, there was built about 1 400 homes annually in the outer city and 1 600 homes annually in the inner city 23

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2009

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1998

After 1998 it was possible to apply for exeption from building shelters in new public constructions

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1989

Regulation March 15th 1995 ยง 254 of shelters provides authority to waive the requirement for construction of private shelters

2012: 84 % of residential construction consisted of flats 1 480 new homes in the inner city, 2 482 In the outer city


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DISTRICTS Oslo is divided into 15 administrative districts. In addition there are two geographical districts, Sentrum and Marka. The districts nearby have responsibility to offer services to the inhabitants of these districts. With the evenly spread out shelters in the city, assuming that there is an equal amount in each of the districts - meaning that every district contains appx. 333 shelters. This amount of volumes could be a resource for the districts. The law demanded them built in all neighborhoods, working and public areas. When upgrading a district with different kinds of urban or social planning this oppurtunity should be used; both in a sustainable perspective and as overall strategy with local initiatives, avoiding hubs only to develop in central- or west districts.

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A Alna B Bjerke C Frogner D Grorud E Gamle Oslo F Grünerløkka G Nordre Aker H Nordstrand I Sagene J Sentrum K Stovner L St. Hanshaugen M Søndre Nordstrand N Ullern O Vestre Aker P Østensjø

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A E G C

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SITE VISITS During the study-/ field trip to Oslo 1-11 february, the following shelters will be visited: A Betzy Kjelsbergs vei 24 C B Tvetenveien 23 C Frognerveien 21 D Helgesens gate 17 E Bergensgata 12 F Einars vei 26 G Konventveien 40B H Under Kampen park I Nationalteateret t-bane J Stortinget t-bane

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APPROACHING THE SHELTERS Our fieldtrip starts on the train to Oslo, entering the past and the future at the same time - the nostalgia of traveling, towards the unknown both for us and the project, and the future of shelters? Depending on the context, on the following pages we propose to ourselves two angles of approaching the different rooms we are about to visit.

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SITE VISITS DURING FIELD TRIP OSLO 1- 11 february 2014

SITE VISIT A TVETENVEIEN 23 This is one of several 1950ies four storey housing blocks in the area. Each block has two entrances leading to twelve apartments, and every floor consists of one- , two- and tree room apartments. The shelter is placed in the basement and is calculated for app. 30 persons on 32m2. It is now used randomly as storage. The outdoor areas are open and protected between the blocks, and used mainly in summer time. The inhabitants of the blocks share a common building that they can rent for different occations.

SITE VISIT B BETZY KJELDSBERGS VEI 24C This two storey row house consist of 12 apartments, amongst several buildings and blocks under the same cooperative. Each apartment has its own entrance and the shelter is placed in the basement of every fourth apartment. The room is no longer regulated as a shelter and is now included as a permanent part of the apartments private space for storage, wash room etc. The area is inhabited by both elderly and young families who share the outdoor facilities between the buildings.

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SITE VISIT C EINARS VEI 26 These apartment blocks, consists of two entrances leading to four storeys of two apartments each. The area is inhabited by both elderly and young families - where the latter is the dominating precentage. The shelter is situated in the basement of the building and is appx. 30m2 and therefore dimensioned for 20-30 of the blocks inhabitants. The room is now used as unorganized storage and the need for stalls is expressed. The inhabitants of the area can rent one of the two common villas for different occations or as spare bedrooms for visitors if neccesary. The oudoor areas consists of roads, parking spots, grass and playgrounds.

SITE VISIT D FROGNERVEIEN 21 This quite central area consists of large 19th century villas with gardens and early 20th century apartment buildings of various height and floors. The block is from the 1960ies and consists of four floors of one and two apartments. The common space is the stairway, the entrance area, and an intimate garden in the back hidden from the road in front. The basement has an enormous amout of space and storage, wash room and a neglected sauna with a shower. The small shelter is appx. 20m2 and not in any particular use today.

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SITE VISIT F BERGENSGATA 12

SITE VISIT E UNDER KAMPEN PARK Kampen park is considered a hidden treasure next to the large Tøyen park with the Munch museum and Tøyen bath. The area is inhabited by a diverse mix of people and has a hig proximity to the rest of the city because of the exisiting infrastructure and the metro. The alarmplass situated under the park, with two entrances facing Økernveien and Caltexløkka. The dead end tunnels are app. 800m2 , where 50% serve as rehersal space for several rockabilly- and surf bands in the city. Until one year ago it also housed one of the more important rock-clubs in Oslo before it was closed down because of fire regulations.

Bjølsen is an area with a variated population; both students, families and elderly. There are also several social housing complexes within the district Sagene. Within Oslo, Sagene is the district where most people live alone - more than 70 % of the inhabitants. The shelter is placed under Bjølsen Metodist Church located in a quite busy corner in the center of Bjølsen.The church has a main entrance but as it is a part of a block consisting of apartments it has a separate entrance on the side. This also leads to the shelter of appx. 100m2 that is placed in the basement. The shelter has a temporary use; rehersal space for theater and choir groups. Now the church is considering to transform it into a professional music studio.

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SITE VISIT G KONVENTVEIEN 40B The area today consist of a mix between row house from the 1970ies, villas with gardens, and high-risers. The proximity to public transport is rather varied, and the most common transport is by car. The visited shelter is situated in a garage, or has in later times been transformed into one. Because of the landscape the small concrete block is placed into the hill on the lot of a semi detached house that now accomodates the need for storage of tools and stuff. The shelter is no longer functioning as one since the changes done to it is permanent and irreversible.

SITE VISIT H HELGESENS GATE 17 Grßnerløkka is an area that has transformed drastically during the last decades. Due to gentrification there has been a shift from being the neighborhood of the working class to a hip and trendy area, were intelectuals, artists and many young people live or move frequently within. The shelter is located under an appartment block as a part of a townhouse block. Today the shelter is furnished with storage stalls conveniently located in the basement together with other storage rooms for bikes etc. From the basement it is possible to enter the parking area under the backyard.

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APPROACH A

APPROACH B

APPROACH A + B

Choose a series of 2-3 smaller private shelters in neighborhood scale.

Planning for a larger transformation of an alarmplass placed under a hill or park.

In this situation we would like to engage the inhabitants of the area(s) to investigate the potential of the space and for them to join in through the planning process, if possible and wanted.

These rooms are today often raw and unfurnished with fragments of the past lying in the puddles. This may lead to a spatial investigation and a formal focus towards the architectural proposal that can embrace the mysteriousness. This approach relates to a public scale, directed towards the district it is situated in.

During the field trip to Oslo we visited several shelters and came to the conclusion that we aim to combine the aforementioned approaches – working both with a shelter in a neighborhood context and with an alarmplass that relates to the context and scale in another way. By choosing two sites that vary in scale and context we want to investigate different methods for the development of the project.

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CHOSEN SITE I TVETENVEIEN The housing blocks at Teisen is an interesting neighborhood, as there are a great number of shelters in the block complex and an existing engagement by those who live in the area. By using an approach where involving the habitants of the neighborhood and by bringing transformation of shelters on the agenda, hopefully there will be a domino effect where more of the shelters become useful places for the locals.

The intervention may be a small scale project where few actors are involved and small changes are done or it may become a significant physical change that connects the different shelters and/or the common green areas between the apartment blocks.

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present status

movement / infrastructure

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CHOSEN SITE II UNDER KAMPEN PARK Three tunnels still stretch into the hill of Kampen park and were originally built to protect the civil defence from the impact of war to make sure that they had a safe place to withdraw. This is one of several voids that at some point became interesting for the passerby which saw the potential. In this case a rock club appropriately named “CAVE’N” settled inside the hill under Kampen park in 1989 and started their history as one of Oslo’s more important rockabilly scenes with

concert gigs and rehearsal spaces. This continued until 2012 when it was closed down because of fire regulations, but continues to house rehearsal spaces for several bands. The floor is app 800m2, where only 350 of them is used by the club while the rest is closed and unused at the moment, but has a great potential. When approaching this, it is possible to both work with the technical challenges of this room and to zoom out and consider the relevancy in district scale. The existing users will be included to some extent and the program of today; where music is highly relevant, is important to play with.

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present status

movement / infrastructure

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EXPECTED OUTCOME First step is to get an understanding of the existing structures, both regarding quantity and identifying actors related to the bunkers of Oslo. Through site visits and investigations during the field trip to Oslo a set of sites will be chosen for further project development and architectonic proposals. There will be a constant process of developing the program of the bunkers, where the context and spatial qualities of the spaces are relevant factors. During this diploma project there will be an ongoing process to refine more detailed and complex architectonic decisions, always considering the aspects of social, economical and environmental sustainability. For the final delivery the aim is to produce a series of architectonic proposals

presented in drawings and models. Staging events, engaging the locals, 1:1 work, video, photo and performance are other methods that may be used. The presentation of the final intervention ambitions to trigger, surprise and increase the consciousness of the potential of the bunkers.

We want to tell you a story We want to show you a secret room We want to re-use We want to make a hidden space become yours We want to revive the empty stage with new actors We want to clean We want to engage, intervene and inspire We want to strengthen We want to estrange We want to trigger

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week 2

week 3 Read and Write Social anthroplogy essay

week 4

Sustainability manifest

1st tutoring with Arild Sustainability day

week 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M

Field trip OSLO Visit sites Measure structures Investigate 1:1 investigations Municipality meeting Work on site 1:1

week 6

Meet Omstilling Sagene week 7 Documentation of fieldtrip Choose sites Present sites in layout Present sites in model 1:1 investigations

week 8

Field rapport book Strengthen concept Concept - range of scalesweek 9 Define program 1:1 PRESENTATION

Hand in FIELD RAPPORT

Hand in PROGRAM + CONCEPT MODEL

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Hand in SUSTAINABILITY MANIFEST

Hand in ESSAY

1st PRESENTATION

April

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Concept work

T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W

week 10

2nd PRESENTATION Workshop all teachers

Focus on sustainability

week 11

Developing project Model, drawing, experiments Define production list

week 12

week 13

Sustainability PRESENTATION

week 14

Hand in PRODUCTION LIST

S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F

Present A first set of elaborated material/proposals with relevant architectural material

Clearance meeting Clearance meeting Social anthropology Social anthropology

Hand in PORTEFOLIO

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March

February

January

W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F


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June

May

April

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

2nd field trip ?

Project development Different scale models

Visualizations

Drawings

3rd PRESENTATION Tutors present

week 15

week 16

week 17

week 18

T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S

Present Relevant material elaborating the latest stages of the work progress

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T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W

1 2 3 Make beautiful models 4 and drawings 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Finish exibition material 27 28 29 30 31

week 19

week 20

week 21

week 22

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Exibition period

week 23

Make framework for exibition Final visualization Missing links Detailing Print and test week 24

Reherse exam - narrative

week 25

Last finish

Exibition preview

week 26

Make key exibition Lock out from BAS Exam Exam Exam week 27

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CV AINA TELHAUG EDUCATION Diploma Spring 2014 3rd semester Master Autumn 2013 Bergen School of architecture - Think Tank Bergen II Dencification studies at Sandsli, Bergen Teachers: Jonathan Woodroffe, Jèrome Picard, Eva Kun, Harald Røstvik 2nd semester Master Spring 2013 e[ad] Escuela de Arquitectura y Diseño, Valparaíso, Chile - Santuario Scöenstatt de Los Pinos + Taller de Obra Designing a sanctuary in Valparaíso + Concrete workshop in the Open City, Chile Professors: David Jolly, David Luza

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1st semester Master Autumn 2012 Bergen School of architecture - Complex Context Walking a pilgrim route designing an albergue and student housing in Santiago de Compostela, Spain Teachers: Arild Wåge, Kalle Grude, André Fontes 2009 - 2012 Bergen School of Architecture (Bachelor) 2008 - 2009 Noroff Instituttet Multimediadesign


CV ANN-SOFIE A. INDGUL EDUCATION Diploma Spring 2014 fall 2013 / 3rd master course Bergen School of architecture Teachers: Arild Wåge, Kalle Grude, André Fontes “Complex context” A new apartment area next to the river Spree, Berlin. Clearifying the connection to the river through a radical proposal. spring 2013 / 2nd master course Aalto university, Helsinki Teachers: Trevor Harris, Antti Lehto, Paula Siitonen, Laura Delaney-Ruskeepää “Sustainable urban design” Planning for transformation of a coal power plant and its surroundings at Hanasaari, Helsinki.

fall 2012 / 1st master course Bergen school of architecture Teachers: Cecilie Andersson, Eva Kun, May-Elin Bjerck, Harald Røstvik, Jacob Schroll “The library” Planning, designing and practical performance of the new library at Bergen school of architecture 2009- 2012 Bergen school of architecture Bachelor Teachers: Magnus Wåge, Gunvor Bakke Kvinlog, Bjarne Ringstad, Trygve Solløs, Inga Lindstrøm, Hector P. Barrios

WORK EXPERIENCE Grimstad og Tønsager architectural office assistant summer 2013 Summer 2012 Kjell Indgul Engineering assistant Summer 2011 Bergen State prison prison guard

2006 - 2007 Fosen folk high school: Textile, skin and wool 2005 - 2006 NTNU Dragvoll: Old Norse, Runologic, Nordic language 2001 - 2005 Gerhard Schønings high school: Arts, crafts and design studies Valle high school: Gold- and silversmith

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TILFLUKTSROM