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UPGRADING SVALBARD! ADDRESSING GLOBAL WARMING AND PERMAFROST THAW AS OPPORTUNITIES

ANNISA SOLIHAH SONTANI


previous episode cool..!

coal!! longyearbyen

Speculating Svalbard barents sea

as a necessity of preserving coal mining industry

beautiful series of mountain contain mineral resources. create unique landscape in vulnerable circumpolar arctic.

Sir, we’re now so popular in europe.. soon, world! thanks svalbard..

...the mining industry has created society

svalbard already so lavish. its coal production way behind USA, the biggest one.

in mainland...

the industry developed. the land were being more exploited. in the other hand, it contribute some revenue for nation.

we need coal from svalbard!

Let’s have another exploitation

meanwhile, many people opposed coal mining regarding to the waste..

clean water

close down mining industry!

clean air

in the same time, restricted areas are established as a way to taking care of environment..

I am fly ash

tourism..

damaging landscape

no need to close down mining industry, yet.

opportunity for researher

his habitat ...CO2 from coal mining process trigger global warming

...they can still walk together


CONTINUED..

Global warming gives many impacts for many aspects, especially for the environment. The warmer temperature of the earth can trigger ice melting on the surface, particularly in circumpolar area

projected temperature increases by 2090

obviously, carbon fuel utilizing contribute global warming but..

+ 12 °C

future sea ice in september

+ 10 °C

observed sea ice

+ 5 °C

+ 1 °C

we are undoubtly facing the climate change. The temperature of the earth is increasing, resulting ice melt in high latitude

methane can be found in the form of organic compound under the earth it ‘s not dangerous as long as it kept frozen by the frozen ground as we call it permafrost

..in fact CH4, a.k.a methane is more potent than CO2

isolated (17%) sporadic (17%)

permafrost classification and distribution

continuos (47%) discontinuos (19%)

lake

permafrost should has temperature not exceeding 0°C, for at least 2 years unfrozen soil and rock


an ironic potrayal of permafrost thaw in the future, which somehow accelerate global warming regarding CO2 and CH4 released from permafrost

permafrost remain

2000

2090

then, what will happen to the landscape?

Temperature

pipes on the surface regarding ground instability

an evil circle; the more it was, the more it is, the more it’s going

CO2 CH4

structtural damage of the building

Permafrost thaw

hole in ground increase risk of landslides

infrastructure damage ë”explosive” ground from methane released excessive irrigation on poorly drainage soil


moving into svalbard.. its vulnerability should keep the islands “untouched” by humans. it belongs to nature and wildlife.

Svalbard is covered almost entirely by permafrost. The thickness are varies around 100 meters thick in coastal areas and 400-500 meters thick under mountainous area .

meanwhile, in svalbard, it has all components to trigger climate change

2500

sea ice during september

2000

thaw soon?

-2 -3

temperature below 8 meters

-1

Lunckefjell

Longyearbyen

settlements contain coal

Svea

100

Ny Ålesund

500

Barentsburg

1000

number of people involved

1500

-4 longyearbyen

raising air temperature up to 10 °C

-5 -6 -7°C

continuous permafrost

2.94

Production(1billiontonnes)

Exportrate

borehole investigation raised assumption of permafrost thawing possibility

Coalprice (USD/tonne)

0

Turnover&Profitaftertax (NOKbillion)

39

2003

0

2.5

5

0

2.5

5

2.5

5

productivity of coal mining that contribute CO2 emmission

2.9

64

2004

1.47 2005

0

67

opportunity?

2.39 2006

0

2.5

5

72

4.07 2007

0

2.5

5

83

3.43 2008

0

2.5

0.88

5

175

2.64 2009

0

2.5

5

2.5

5

128

1.93 2010

0

131


ICE SEA REMAINS IN THE FUTURE WILL SOMEHOW OPEN UP NEW NORTH-ROUTE

ALASKA

INVESTMENT MAY BOOST IN SVALBARD

CANADA

RUSSIA sea ice

SVALBARD WILL BECOME AN IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL HUB

NEW INTERNATIONAL CIVILIZATION

EUROPE

SHIPPING HUB


SVALBARD TREATY CONCEPTS

PEACEFUL CIVILIZATION AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT

NON-DISCRIMINATION NON-MILITARY ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY


SCIENTIFIC AND HERITAGE TOURIST ATTRACTION

DEVELOPING RESEARCH STATION IN SUSTAINABILITY ENERGY


CLEANER COAL MINING REGARDING PERMAFROST “LEFT OVER”

electricity genration using methane from thawing permafrost

establish cleaner renewable energy


pictures references bulding bytesizebio.net usa today warmalglobing.com churcheswa.com.au e-reful.com earthrelief.wordpress.com stephenleahy.net sustainablechemeng.blogspot.com mpg.de


Upgrading Svalbard