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“More important, one might say that essential for the success of the Bauhaus idea is the education of our contemporaries outside of the Bauhaus.� Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, The New Vision

“Design is not a profession; it is an attitude – the attitude of the planner…It is the spirit that determines the whole thing. We have to develop, step by step, an educational procedure in which the creative abilities and capacities of young people are used…When any human being works with his hands, whatever he does will be translated into the brain as knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, will react on his emotional self. That is how a higher level of personality is achieved.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1946 Laszlo Moholy-Nagy is recognized across many fields of art and design, but what draws me to him is not the work that he produced, but the thinking he encouraged. His educational philosophy and pedagogy, developed in the Bauhaus and refined at the Institute of Design in Chicago, focused on the practical experience of learning through making, the combination of technical and emotional benefits of doing so, and their importance in learning & living. This connection I feel to Moholy-Nagy and his philosophy is not just theoretical - it’s very personal. My father attended and later lectured at the Institute of Design from 1960-1966. Although MoholyNagy had passed away in 1946, his philosophy and methods of teaching were still central to the educational experience at the ID. This exposure to and continuation of Moholy-Nagy’s holistic methods of experiencing, making, and learning impacted my father in every aspect of his life, including parenting. My entire upbringing was shaped by the thinking of design as an attitude. It wasn’t until my postgraduate studies at Kingston School of Art that I made the connection between Moholy-Nagy and my father. Even though I knew where he’d studied, he never told me (or I wasn’t listening) about the connection to the Bauhaus. I’m not sure how I missed it, but as I read more about the Bauhaus from a philosophical standpoint, the more it deeply resonated with me. It was a revelatory moment when I read about Moholy-Nagy and the New Bauhaus for the first time, a moment where everything about my life and my identity as a designer was re-framed and contextualized in a way I’d never considered before. It was a pivotal moment for me, it’s what lit the fuse on this project, it’s why I wanted to explore design pedagogy and the possibilities it has outside of an “arts” environment.

My father has always hated the phrase “think outside the box” because, to him, there is no box. I spent so much of my life rolling my eyes at him for saying that, but now it makes so much more sense to me. To even consider “the box” is to interact with the world in a way that is inherently closed off from opportunity, inventiveness, and imagination. If we understand design as an attitude, as the ability to think in relationships1 then we can understand design and design thinking as simply the cultivation of four core intrinsic characteristics: curiosity, creativity, collaboration, and compassion. If we can develop each of these aspects together and in a meaningful fashion, we will develop creative, critical, imaginative, experimental, and empathetic designers. Designers who will solve the pressing challenges of our time. Designers who will be community-focused and compassionate. Designers who don’t think outside of the box, because there is no box. Designers who don’t call themselves designers, because designing isn’t a profession, it’s an attitude.


Vision in Motion, p. 42 Carlotta Corpron. Moholy Nagy Teaching a Class Amon Carter Museum of American Art

MAKE SHIT TOGETHER If we frame attitudinal design as the combination of four constituent parts: curiosity, creativity, collaboration, and compassion, the major challenge we face is: How do we cultivate these four elements? One answer, like so many things in life, is simple – but it’s not easy: Make Shit Together


Make Shit Make anything. Make prototypes, make mistakes, experiment, make shit. By allowing yourself the freedom of making something that doesn’t have to be “good,” it overcomes a fear instilled in us by an unrelenting academic and professional focus on the outcome. If we shift the focus to the process, we allow our curiosity to develop into creativity.

This pamphlet is a manifesto of these three stages of cultivating design as an attitude. It is a call to action to educators and facilitators of learning (because learning doesn’t always happen in the classroom) to consider incorporating collaborative experimentation and “thinking through making” into their lessons. Specifically those considered to be outside of a traditional “arts” discipline. How can we apply design thinking and pedagogy to other learning environments? And why should we?

Individually Developed Non-Verbal

Group Developed Verbal


Make The act of physically making allows for non-verbal digestion & processing of thoughts and ideas, unlocking the first stage of critical thinking and development of self-awareness.

Make Shit Together By adding other people to the process of making, and not just ideation, we engage in a practice of verbalizing our non-verbal ideas. This, combined with technical skill sharing, develops communication skills as well as empathy as it provides an opportunity to be exposed to other perspectives. When we push creativity into collaboration, it leads to the cultivation of compassion, and the cycle begins again.








Four Elements of Attitudinal Design The “internal” row refers to aspects of attitudinal design which tend to be internally developed and fostered, in contrast to the “external” row which are aspects that are the external manifestations of their internal counterparts. Internally we develop our curiosity, which is manifested through creativity. Internally we develop compassion, which is manifested through collaboration.

The individual & group columns are similarly thought out - curiosity and creativity are able to exist and develop on an individual basis, however compassion and collaboration require more than one person to cultivate.

Why does Making Shit Together matter? As professional adults who live in a verbal world, we need to use words to express ourselves, our creative ideas, and our feelings. Art/Craft/Making gives us channels to explore our thoughts and feelings non-verbally, so we can feel them and understand them before we try to verbalize them. The state of contemporary western institutionalized education places the emphasis of learning on the outcome, not the process. This, combined with the dwindling funding and support for arts in education, leads to an environment where that non-verbal reflection and emotional development cannot happen in a meaningful way. This system creates adults who are emotionally illiterate, unable to fully address/understand their internal emotions, which, in turn, affects their ability to articulate not just their emotions, but their thoughts and ideas effectively in a professional environment.


“It is the practical exercise and the pleasure in sensory experiences which lead him to a security of feeling and later to the creation of objects which will satisfy human needs which are spiritual as well as utilitarian.� Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, The New Vision

Making as a Tool for Learning Reading and writing, or verbal literacy, are ubiquitous tools in our learning and living experience. They are taught both as an outcome and as a method of learning. Arts, making, and visual literacy aren’t typically considered to be a tool for understanding and expression in the same way. We learn how to read words, how to interpret writing, and use it to interact with every other subject we learn. But why can’t we do the same with the arts? The arts can be an outcome unto itself like reading and writing, but instilling a visual literacy as a tool in conjunction with our verbal literacy will pay dividends in the development of critical thinking, connection making, and self expression. In her article, “Imagining Futures, The Public School and Possibility,” educational philosopher Maxine Greene discusses the potential role of the arts as a central aspect of the learning experience, as opposed to a separate discipline:

“The arts hold no guarantee as to true knowledge or understanding, nor should they replace other subject matters in middle school and high schools. They should become central to the curricula and include exhibitions and live performances, thus adding to the modalities by means of which students make sense of their worlds. With aesthetic experiences a possibility in school, education will be less likely merely to transmit dominant traditions. Experiences with the arts and the dialogues to which they give rise may give the teachers and learners involved more opportunity for the rise of authentic conversations out of which questioning and critical thinking and, in time, significant inquiries can arise.” (2000)

This echos the vision of Moholy-Nagy that the role of making is vital to the learning process. Making isn’t just something we do as a means to an end, it’s a method and tool for learning and understanding.

"In the future, if progressive education is to be successful, it has to correlate the verbal performance of acquired knowledge with other means of expression such as painting, sculpture, poetry, play, and music." Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

“The remedy is to add to our intellectual literacy an emotional literacy, an education of the senses, the ability to articulate feeling through the means of expression.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

Making & Emotional Development Contemporary educator and developer of the Enki style of education & learning, Beth Sutton, has spent over thirty years developing a holistic approach to learning, which can be simplified into three stages: Open Intake, Digestion, Application.


The first stage, Open Intake, is the presentation and discovery of new information. Most of the time this is facilitated by a teacher, sometimes the information is discovered by the student. In either scenario, the next stage - digestion, is the most important. Digestion requires time, it requires experimentation, it is often facilitated through non-verbal means. Art, music, craft, sleep, are all tools through which digestion can occur.


There’s a lot of overlap in this method of learning and the pedagogy of the Bauhaus. To Moholy-Nagy, the act of making and non-verbal expression not only aid in the attainment of technical skills and knowledge, but in the process and development of self awareness and emotional intelligence. In an interview with her, I asked Beth if there was a level of inspiration from pedagogies like the Bauhaus in her development of Enki Education, to which she replied she’d never heard of it. I was surprised, but it illustrates that, fundamentally, this method of learning seems to be a natural way of understanding ourselves and our world.1

Enki is influenced by Waldorf education, which was developed by Rudolph Steiner and incorporates Anthroposophy deeply into his pedagogy. Wassily Kandinksy was a known Anthroposophist, and incorporated that spiritual nature into the early Bauhaus philosophy. We can then see a connection to Enki even though it wasn’t intentional. 1


Incorporating an arts-centric approach to education is the basis for the 2016 study by Sara Shields, “Artful Pedagogy: (En)Visioning the unfinished whole” where she cites several sources about the benefits of the arts & process-based learning: “…the artful pedagogue is one who blends these two approaches to cultivate learners’ deep thought and selfexpression by using aesthetic and artistic attention to bring about cognitive, personal, and educative gains.” (Chemi 2014 as quoted in Shields et al 2016) “...the arts can serve as a core paradigm for the rest of education. Education in our schools should look more like the arts, rather than the arts looking more like our schools.” (Eisner 2001 as quoted in Shields et al 2016) “During process-based learning art becomes a metaphor for larger meanings…By encouraging our students to grapple with concepts through art materials, we encourage critical thinking and thus valuable meaning making experiences.” (Shields 2016) “...students exposed to arts-based curricular pursuits spend more time observing and used more words in descriptions, suggesting an increased sensitivity to the surrounding world.” (Casey, 2009 as quoted in Shields et al 2016) The absence again in this article of any reference to the Bauhaus underscores how an arts-based philosophy is supported from many contexts. The main difference, however, being Moholy-Nagy and the Bauhaus propose a process-based educational philosophy that is grounded less in “fine art” and more in the practical utility of materials and technology for both the development of the self as well as the physical design of our future.

Exterior view of the New Bauhaus, Chicago, 1937/39 Moholy-Nagy Foundation

“At present, the nonintellectual development of the individual is entirely his private affair, confined to a hitor-miss approach. The consequence is emotional illiteracy, which means to be without a compass, without assurance of feeling, in a complex and immensely extended world.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

Education & Politics Along with Enki, other schools like Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia incorporate a holistic and process-based approach to learning. But these pedagogies, while well respected in early childhood education, get pushed to the fringe as students get older and enter the system of education. The only time students might be exposed again to an open and experiential pedagogy is if they choose to pursue the arts, where students (myself included) have to go through the mental challenge of relearning how to learn, and be open to divergent thinking in a formal environment. Walter Gropius was heavily influenced by Fredrich Froebel, the developer of Kindergarten. He saw the value in practical learning and learning through play, and incorporated aspects of the Froebel philosophy into the basis of the Bauhaus pedagogy. “The Bauhaus of Germany and its ramified American off-shoots, today is stressing, as the Kindergarten tried to do in 1852, that education through vision and the sense of touch, and by means of the great richness of materials and tools now available, is all important.” (Logan, 1950) But what happens in the middle? Why aren’t these practice-based pedagogies practiced more during the bulk of our education? In short? Politics and economics. The longer answer would require a much longer book written by much more intelligent people, but let’s try to briefly contextualize the state of contemporary institutionalized education.

In a capitalist society, the education system serves to develop and cultivate the next generation of workers and employees. This means, for the most part, creating a population of employees to complete tasks, to not question authority, to “assimilate those who were different, to enable them to stand on common ground.” (Greene, 2000) Simultaneously, the logistical requirements of an institutionalized education system require streamlined processes for assessment and accountability, meaning a focus wholly on outcomes. The current state of education favors convergent thinking, knowing information, and reaching assessment targets. “Preoccupations with testing, measurement, standards, and the like follow from a damaging approach to children as ‘human resources’...Assessments are important if they do more than simply sort people out for places on a hierarchy. Standards are important if they connect with learners’ own desires to appear the best they can be, to achieve in response to what they hope to be. Extrinsically imposed they can deny the human effort to reach further, to imagine possibility.” (Greene, 2000). What we miss out on is the ability to engage in divergent thinking, critical thinking, reflective thinking, and asking the simple question: Why? But asking “why” is a dangerous question. It challenges status quos, it challenges authority, it challenges the institution - which the machine of capitalism doesn’t want. Therefore, holistic & process-based education pedagogies are fundamentally counter to the capitalist institution of education and will stay on the fringe until a landmark educational and political reform happens.

“To reach this objective one the problems of the Bauhaus education is to keep alive in grown ups the child's sincerity of emotion, his truth of observation, his fantasy and his creativeness.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1938



Exhibition of student work from the preliminary course of the New Bauhaus, 1938 Moholy-Nagy Foundation

“Fear and self-consciousness are the most serious psychological hindrances in life...They ‘know’ beforehand that their work cannot be worthwhile because they can ‘never’ match historical standards. The result is paralysis of any creative attempt, brought about by the fear of being laughed at.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

The Importance of Experimentation One of the fundamental issues in an education system that’s too heavily weighted towards the outcome is an intense pressure on students to “be right” all the time - engaging in a very binary way of interpreting the world. It’s a learning environment where creativity atrophies, and compassion is never cultivated. When we engage in experimentation and “making shit,” we tap into divergent thinking and thinking in relationships, increasing our ability to make new connections. If making is important, making shit is even more so. When we experiment practically, we learn about materials, technique, construction, as well as ourselves. Today, we are generally removed from the process of manufacture, or how the goods we consume are produced. Using art to develop self-awareness is important, but a practical approach with a wide range of materials is an even better way to encourage that same emotional development while simultaneously providing an insight into the physical process of making.

“The acquisition of technique and skills increases the expressive power of the individual; and with the accumulation of experiences his intellectual status is refined. This refinement in turn affects his emotional existence.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

“The best education is one’s own experience. Experimenting surpasses studying. To start out by “playing” develops courage, leads in a natural manner to an inventive way of building and furthers the pedagogically equally important facility of discovery.” Joseph Albers, 1928

Learning New Skills When you adopt an attitude of experimentation, you to want to try new things

When you want to try new things, you learn new skills

When you learn new skills, you build more technical abilities in making

When you learn new skills, you learn more words to communicate aspects of making

When you build more technical abilities in making, you’re able to make more connections

When learn more words to communicate aspects of making, you understand more perspectives

When you’re able to make more connections, you become more creative

When you understand more perspectives, you become more empathetic


experimentation and learning new skills simultaneously develop


The Interdisciplinary Benefits of Experimentation Another pitfall of an education style that overemphasizes depth of learning is an inability to make interdisciplinary connections. “The specialists worked to the best of their ability, aiming at an optimum performance of their given task. But their actions were determined by unrelated thinking, without the broad vista of social planning.” (Moholy-Nagy, 1947) This hyper-specialism creates an environment where individuals develop feelings of superiority over others, as evidenced in a 2016 study of STEAM education between the arts & engineers, “issues of disciplinary identity were preventing the group from moving forward.” (Sochacka, 2016) There are technical limitations to over-specialization in addition to the emotional. Dr. Roger Kneebone, professor of surgical education and engagement science at Imperial College London, has worked closely in the realm of interdisciplinary education focusing on the value of incorporating craft into the education of surgeons.

“Bioscientists and clinicians in the divisions of computational medicine and surgery are working with expert practitioners and academics from the Art Workers’ Guild, the Royal College of Music and the Victoria and Albert Museum Research Institute to explore common ground in haptic learning — how we discover through doing in science and craft.” (Kneebone, 2017) Educators like Dr. Kneebone see the value in an exploratory and experimental way of approaching and combining seemingly disparate disciplines. It’s this kind of open mindedness to which my dad referred to when stating “there is no box.” But how do we get to a point where more people have this ability to see the potential in making these interdisciplinary leaps? By incorporating more opportunities to engage with divergent thinking and material exploration in the earlier/formative stages of learning.

Kingston School of Art Students in the 3D Workshop, 2019

Need for Creative Thinking

kind of development, the existing literature “does not provide guidance on how to foster empathy in undergraduate engineering programs.” (2017)

In 2012 Adobe conducted a survey of 1,000 university-educated working Americans about the role creativity plays in their work. The results were a striking reflection of the systemic issues and limitations with the current system of education.

For the study, the researchers used evidenced-based empathic training methods from Social Work and applied it to engineering students. But the methods used were theory-based and not practical or experiential.

Contemporary research is being done about the role of empathy in a professional practice. A 2017 study titled “A Model of Empathy in Engineering as a Core Skill, Practice Orientation, and Professional Way of Being” illustrates the importance of cultivating empathy in learning. The context of the study was that contemporary undergraduate education of engineers has focused too heavily on technical education at the expense of learning “soft skills.” In order to address the global challenges we face, “engineers must possess not only deep technical expertise but also broader social competencies, such as empathy, communication skills, and the ability to collaborate on interdisciplinary teams.” (2017) This seems like a ripe opportunity to incorporate the pedagogy of Moholy-Nagy, and yet despite recent efforts recognizing the need for this

71% “creative thinking should be taught as a course, like math & science”

This study, along with the Adobe research, underscore the negative ripple effects of an educational system that’s too heavily focused on outcome. We’re at a crossroads where the students we’re producing aren’t prepared for the types of challenges they will face professionally and personally. Collaborative experimentation provides a practical and real time experience that simultaneously cultivates creativity and empathy, because the two are intrinsically linked when we understand design as an attitude. These experiences develop the social competencies needed not just in engineering, but across the spectrum of learning.

82% “wish they had more exposure to creative thinking as students”

91% “agree there is more to success in school than focusing on course material”



“It is their intimate collaboration which is needed, especially at the start, a mutual willingness to exchange ideas and yield to suggestions...� Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

Why we need to make shit together. Making and experimenting (making shit) are key elements in the digestion, processing, and non-verbal expression of information and feeling. They are vital to cultivating curiosity and creativity, developing critical thinking skills, and fostering self-awareness. It’s the experience of non-verbal expression that prepares us to verbalize them. Because, the fact of the matter is, we live in a verbal society. We use words to communicate. As important as the first two stages of this manifesto are, they must be pushed forward and contextualized into the verbal. It’s not a scale that needs to be balanced between verbal and non-verbal, it’s a feedback loop. The more non-verbal expression we create, the better we’re able to use words, the better we’re able to use words, the more sophisticated non-verbal expression we’ll be able to create, and the more effective we’ll all be at understanding and communicating. Collaboration provides an environment where we are forced to articulate non-verbal thoughts and ideas in a way that not only conveys the information we’re trying to get across, but forces us into a situation where we’re exposed to other perspectives and ways of thinking - other flavours of creativity. When we’re exposed to those other flavours of creativity and perspectives while working towards a common goal, we develop compassion through collaboration. But it’s a specific type of collaboration that can facilitate that - and it’s through the real time, physical act of making, together.

In many scenarios, collaboration doesn’t happen in the making stages of a project. It happens in the ideation stage. For example, a collaboration in a class where the class decides what kind of mural they want to make and every child makes their own section of the whole. Is this truly collaboration? Or, more traditionally, in class projects where groups come together to share ideas then break up for the work do be done separately. Theoretically this may be closer to collaboration, but practically it rarely works out and results in students being averse to the idea of collaborative exercises. We use different language and interact differently with each other when we collaborate on projects in the physical making & doing of a project. A coursemate of mine told me “I hate collaboration with people I don’t like.” I found this statement to be really interesting, and clearly a response to negative collaborative experiences. But as professionals, we will be expected to collaborate & communicate with coworkers, clients, stakeholders - and we won’t have a choice about that, or whether or not we like them. The more we try to foster positive collaborative experiences, the more prepared students will be for the expectations of them in the workforce.

Making & Feeling To test the idea that collaborative making exercises are beneficial to developing the aspects of attitudinal design - specifically the elements of compassion and collaboration, I developed a workshop that is designed to be scalable and adaptable to many learning environments. Inspired by community quilts and the material experimentations of the foundation course developed by Moholy-Nagy, the workshop is simple: In pairs, create a quilt “block” which is a visual interpretation of a theme. The theme can be anything related to the course or context of the workshop - the important thing is to encourage the participants to explore what that theme means through the materials given. The experiences fostered in this workshop are twofold:

Technically they are presented with a challenge in making. They have the opportunity to experiment with materials and techniques they may or may not be familiar with, and to share skills with their partners. This skill sharing and exploration of materials brings curiosity out into creativity. Emotionally they are presented with a challenge where the creators need to communicate their ideas and interpretations of a theme to another person before physically creating something. In many art activities, the process of thinking and making is done on an individual basis, so the verbalization of nonverbal thinking forces an engagement in not just “how do I say what I was trying to make?” but also an engagement with alternate perspectives which cultivates compassion through collaboration. Both of these experiences cultivate the four components of design as an attitude, empathy, and communication skills.

Students participating in the workshop

Case Study I ran my workshop with a group of American undergraduate students during a summer exchange session at Regents University. The theme of the workshop for this group was “mindfulness” as they were doing a unit on the psychology of happiness. I had the students fill out questionnaires about their experience before, during, and after the workshop. The top three words they used to describe how they were feeling prior to the workshop were: Excited Tired Curious It’s easy to see that a group of 19 year olds would be tired first thing in the morning during an intense summer session, but the excited and curious feelings were promising. I split the group into four sets of pairs and gave them an hour to complete a block, then mixed the pairs up and had them each make a second block. The interactions and process of this workshop were fascinating to watch, and even more so for the teachers. “I’ve never seen them so focused on anything I’ve given them.” For the second grouping, the teacher gave me some insight into pairing up students who historically didn’t have the best social rapport, but I would have never assumed that had she not told me. “They’re saying things to each other I would have never expected actually complimentary.”

At the end of the exercise, the the top three words used were: Happy Content Creative The transition from curious being a feeling they felt before the workshop to creative being feeling they felt after the workshop shows the process of encouraging the manifestation of curiosity into creativity through practical workshops like this. I also asked them what the most surprising thing about the workshop was and half of them said it was how varied the blocks were between the groups and between the sessions. This is indicative of extended exposure to a binary/outcome driven learning environment where answers are either right or wrong. Exposure to different ways of interpreting material starts to encourage the possibility of divergent thinking and new perspectives - not only in learning, but as a means to develop compassion for other people and ideas in general. Other answers included “I had more ideas than I thought and if I try hard enough, I will have more creativity in my future.” “I actually know some of the material and had fun putting the course together in a creative way.” The feedback from the students and the teachers indicate the power of experiences like these on the learning process, both in material and interpersonally/emotionally.





wonk ew tahw leef ot ,laog siht hcaer oT“ eht fo eno si - leef ew tahw wonk dna ”.noitareneg ruo fo sksat noitoM ni noisiV ,ygaN-ylohoM olzsaL

The practicality of this manifesto can rightfully be questioned. There are very real, very tangible systemic challenges when applying these philosophies to institutionalized education. Lack of funding, the constant logistical and emotional pressures and stresses on both students and teachers as a result of an outcome & assessment driven system, the endemic issues with privilege inherent in education - these are all hurdles that simultaneously make it difficult to incorporate these ideas, while underscoring the importance of doing so. Additionally, I’m writing this from a context based entirely on an European/American perspective of education. The challenges faced in other parts of the world may or may not be the same, but moving forward, as our world becomes more connected, the more imperative it is that we cultivate curious and compassionate thinkers.

We can’t change the system from the top down. To use a metaphor from my coursemate’s father: It’s impossible to take down a fortress with one hit pick one brick and start to chip away at it. All it takes to start is one workshop, in one class. Collaborative experimentation in learning doesn’t have to be complicated or expensive - in fact, it’s best if it’s not. Finding ways to engage students with learning in a practical and truly collaborative way is the goal. The first time I ran my workshop, within the first thirty minutes of the exercise one student, unprompted, stated “I hate that schools sacrifice creativity for testing.” The fact that this came out organically speaks to how hungry students are for a creative outlet, and how little it takes to ‘prime the pump’ of design thinking and attitudinal design. All we had to do was to make shit together.

“The to bring the intellectual and emotional, the social and the technological components into balanced play; to learn to see and feel them in relationship. Without this interrelatedness there remains only the disjunctive technical skill of handling human affairs, a rigidity stifling biological and social impulses; a memorized, not a lived life.” Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion

Session 1 - Visual interpretations of “Mindfulness”

Session 2 - Same task, different partners

References Adobe. 2012. “Creativity and Education: Why it Matters” [online]. Available at: < be/pressroom/pdfs/Adobe_Creativity_and_Education_Why_It_Matters_infographic.pdf> Albers, J., 1928. “Creative Education” Sixth International Congress for Drawing, Art Education, and Applied Art in Prague. Reprinted in Wingler, 1978. Greene, M., 2000. “Imagining Futures: The Public School and Possibility.” Journal of Curriculum Studies, [online] 32(2), pp.267–280. Available at: <>. Gropius, W., 1916. “Recommendations for the Founding of an Educational Institution as an Artistic Counseling Service for Industry, the Trades, and the Crafts” Reprinted in Wingler, 1978 Kneebone, R., 2017. “Discovery Through Doing.” Nature, 542(7641), pp. 294. Logan, F.M., 1950. “Kindergarten and Bauhaus” College Art Journal, [online] 10(1), pp.36–43. Available at: <>. Moholy-Nagy, L., 1938. The New Vision: Fundamentals of Bauhaus Design, Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. Mineola, NY: Dover. Reprint, 2005. Moholy-Nagy, L., 1938. “New Approach to Fundamentals of Design” More Busienss 3(11). Reprinted in Wingler, 1978. Moholy-Nagy, L., 1943. “Better than Before” The Technology Review, 46(1). Reprinted in Wingler, 1978. Moholy-Nagy, L., 1946. “Design - The Attitude of the Planner” Reprinted in Wingler, 1978. Moholy Nagy, L., 1947. Vision in Motion. USA: Wisonsin Cuneo Press. McLuhan, M. and Fiore, Q., 1967. The medium is the massage. London: Penguin. Reprint, 2008. Rawsthorn, A., 2018. Design as an Attitude. Zürich: Ringier. Shields, S.S., Guyotte, K.W. and Weedo, N., 2016. “Artful Pedagogy: (En)visioning the Unfinished Whole.” Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, [online] 13(1), pp.44–66. Available at: < 1080/15505170.2016.1147400>. Sochacka, N.W., Guyotte, Kelly.W. and Walther, J., 2016. “Learning Together: A Collaborative Autoethnographic Exploration of STEAM (STEM + the Arts) Education: A Collaborative Autoethnographic Study of STEAM Education.” Journal of Engineering Education, [online] 105(1), pp.15–42. Available at: <http://doi.>. Sutton, B., An Alternative Education. [online] Available at: <> Thamrin, D., Wardani, L.K., Sitindjak, R.H.I. and Natadjaja, L., 2018. “Experiential Learning through Community Co-design in Interior Design Pedagogy.” International Journal of Art & Design Education. [online] Available at: <> . Walther, J., Miller, S.E. and Sochacka, N.W., 2017. “A Model of Empathy in Engineering as a Core Skill, Practice Orientation, and Professional Way of Being: A Model of Empathy in Engineering.” Journal of Engineering Education, [online] 106(1), pp.123–148. Available at: <> . Wingler, H.M., 1978. The Bauhaus:Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.

annie yonkers july 2019 kingston university

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Make Shit Together  

A manifesto about the importance of collaborative experimentation in learning.

Make Shit Together  

A manifesto about the importance of collaborative experimentation in learning.