FAIRVIEW WOODS PARK MASTER PLAN
Bridge Street Trailhead
Contents Acknowledgments Introduction & Purpose Park History Park Classification & Description Park Improvements Park Management Plan Park Improvement & Action Summary, 2010-2015 Preferred Plant List
FAIRVIEW WOODS PARK MASTER PLAN
New Trail Alignment : Grading & Materials Plan Trail Specifications: Crushed Rock Trail Wetland Raised Trail Drainline Bridge Street Fence Split Rail Fence Living with Urban Wildlife
Acknowledgments Funding for this master plan was provided by the Fairview City Council and Fairview Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee on behalf of the citizens of the City of Fairview. The improvements to Fairview Woods Park completed in 2009 were accomplished through many hours of volunteer work, partnerships with the Housing Authority of Portland and Historic Bridge Street Neighborhood Association. Construction funding was provided by the 2006 Metro Nature in Neighborhood Bond Measure.
Former Parks & Recreation Advisory Committee Members Jim Raze, Council Liaison Rob Maricle, Council Liaison Balwant Bhullar, Council Liaison Theresa Delany-Davis Dave Harding
Fairview Woods Park Working Group Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee Don Taylor, Historic Bridge Street Neighborhood Joel Gooing, Historic Bridge Street Neighborhood Carrie Ann Aadland, Housing Authority of Portland Sgt. Bernie Meyer, Fairview Police Department John Gessner, Community Development Director Lindsey Nesbitt, Senior Planner Devree Leymaster, Program Coordinator Bob Cochran (former Public Works Director) Ken Johnson, Police Chief Rob Maricle (former City Councilor) Michelle Mathis, GreenWorks, PC Mike Faha, GreenWorks, PC
Groups and individuals responsible for the success of the Fairview Woods Park Working Group and adoption of this Master Plan include the following:
Fairview City Council Mike Weatherby, Mayor Larry Cooper, Council President Barbara Jones, Council President Lisa Barton-Mullins Ken Quinby Steve Owen Dan Kreamier
Fairview Parks & Recreation Advisory Committee
Other Contributors SOLV Volunteers C. Mirth Walker, SWCA Craig Madsen, Healing Hooves Ron Bush, Bush Surveying and Engineering Mary Rose Navarro, Metro Natural Areas Bond Program Joseph Gall, City Administrator Jim Winkler, Winkler Development Corporation Erika Rence, Assistant Planner Mike Janin, Tualatin Hills Park and Recreation District
Steve Kaufman, Chair Chris Marraccini, Vice Chair Barbara Jones, Council Liaison Brad Fudge Brad Dehle Don Taylor Kris Kruse
Introduction & Purpose
Fairview Woods Park was created in 1995 through the efforts of the City of Fairview, Winkler Development Corporation, the Housing Authority of Portland, dedicated educators at Reynolds High School, and high school student volunteers. Jim Winkler, developer of the Bridge Street Forest subdivision, created two wooded lots that would become Fairview Woods Park. The Housing Authority of Portland was the original owner of the park lots received as a gift from Winkler Development Corporation. The land was given to the Housing Authority and subsequently to the City. This was done with the condition the land would only be used for park, open space, and other public purposes. After creation of the park lots, students and other volunteers built boardwalks, a bird viewing shelter, trails and interpretative signs that show-cased the park’s natural features. Over time natural elements, vandalism, and lack of maintenance led to problems of park disuse. In 2007, the Fairview Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee recognized the need to improve Fairview Woods Park and undertook the task of preparing a master plan. For over a year, the Committee worked with the Historic Bridge Street Neighborhood Association, the Housing Authority of Portland, landscape architecture and
environmental consultants, and city departments to create policies for development and use of the park. The Fairview Woods Park Master Plan is the culmination of that effort.
Fairview Woods Park Master Plan Guides Future Action, 2010-2015 The Fairview Woods Park Master Plan is intended to honor the park’s history, its value to the City of Fairview, and help readers understand “how we got here.” This Plan represents the final recommendations of the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee and the adopted policies of the Fairview City Council. Many issues, such as crime, nuisance activities, park encroachments, park service area, environmental impacts, and security were discussed deeply during the planning process. The Fairview Woods Park Master Plan incorporates and preserves the planning process and decisions made between 2007 and 2009. However, recognizing that change is ongoing, this plan is intended to be reviewed every five years. Future funding, improvements, spending, regulation, maintenance and use should be consistent with this plan.
Park History Bridge Street Forest Subdivision In late 1995, Winkler Development Corporation created the ten-acre, nine-lot Bridge Street Forest Subdivision. Over eight acres of the property including wetlands and mature stands of western red cedar and douglas fir were set aside as open space. Shortly after recording the Bridge Street Forest Subdivision, Winkler Development Corporation conveyed Lots 8 and 9, which now make up the entirety of the park, to the Housing Authority of Portland as a charitable gift.1 The gift was conditioned upon the land being used only as a public park, nature area, or a similar public use.
Housing Authority of Portland & Park Improvements Shortly after the Housing Authority of Portland acquired the property, it gave the three-acre Lot 8 to the City of Fairview.2 City records are incomplete regarding the City’s acquisition and plans for the property. It is known that then Reynolds High School students Joseph Chung and Jon Fritz volunteered for a summer building trails, boardwalks, a bird watching shelter, and interpretative markers. This work was done through the cooperation and collaboration of the Housing Authority of Portland, Reynolds School District, AmeriCorps, the U.S. Forest Service, and the City of Fairview. Based on accounts of park neighbors, the improvements were well done and the park was considered a “gem” for the neighborhood. After some time, the park improvements suffered from vandalism and disuse. Eventually, many of the trail markers were destroyed and the boardwalk and bird blind fell into disrepair and were not repaired or replaced. Undated parks records, believed to be from the late 1990s
1 2 3 4 5
indentified problems with vandalism, illegal dumping, and invasive plants.
Housing Authority Donates Lot 9 In June 2008, the Housing Authority of Portland donated the five-acre, Bridge Street Forest Subdivision, lot 9 to the City of Fairview.3 With this donation, all lands within the park came into city ownership. Prior to accepting the property, a phase 1 environmental site assessment was conducted to identify possible environmental risks from prior occupation of the site. No hazards were identified.4 The park donation was accepted by the Fairview City Council in May 2008.5 The deed to the City includes the original condition that the property only be used as a public park or natural area.
Fairview Parks & Recreation: Open Space Master Plan, 2001 Prior parks plans contain little information about Fairview Woods Park. The 2001 Parks Master Plan identifies Fairview Woods Park as an “open space” park, with a citywide service area. According to the 2001 plan, the main purpose of an open space park is to provide habitat protection with minimal public access. The plan also identifies recreation opportunities in the park including nature viewing, open lawn, trails and playground. The 2001 Parks Master Plan identified citywide strategies to address crime, vandalism, natural resource protection, and park development. Records indicate that few, if any, formal actions were taken for preservation and improvement of Fairview Woods Park in the years following its initial improvement. Additionally, the 2001 plan did not allocate capital funds for future park improvements.
Multnomah County Deed 95-157239 With the condition that it could only be used for a public park or nature area. Multnomah County Deed 95-15830. City records regarding acceptance of the property have not been found. Lot 9, Bridge Street Forest Subdivision. Multnomah County Deed 2008-101155. See Phase I Environmental Site Assessment dated May 16, 2008, by GeoDesign, Inc. See Fairview City Council Resolution 13-2008.
Fairview Woods Park Master Plan Working Group In early 2007, the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee recognized the need to update the 2001 Parks Master Plan. Fairview Woods Park was identified as the park with the greatest needs and was targeted for the first neighborhood master planning process. An advisory committee was formed that included neighbors, the Housing Authority of Portland, Fairview Police, Public Works and Community Development departments, and the consultant team. Key policy and park design issues were identified and addressed. The planning process took a sharp turn after two houses that neighbor the park were hit by shotgun fire on the evening of November 1, 2007. Public safety and park design became the focus of neighborhood concerns and working group attention thereafter. After many months of public involvement and meetings, the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee adopted a set of key policies and standards for the park. The City Council subsequently approved those policies and improvement plans. This master plan captures the results of the working group process.
Metro’s Nature in Neighborhoods: Local Share Grant Program In 2006, the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee and City Council adopted a list of citywide parks projects for use of Fairview’s $460,703 share of Metro’s Nature in Neighborhoods bond measure. No funds were allocated to Fairview Woods Park on the 2006 list. As a result of the Fairview Woods Park Working Group process, the Parks & Recreation Advisory Committee and City Council allocated $101,000 for capital improvements to the park. These improvements were completed in November 2009.
Park Classification & Description Fairview Oaks and Woods Apartments is restricted to apartment tenants and apartment visitors only. Access by the general public at the apartments is not available at that location. Fairview Woods Park is a significant upland and wetland forest of shared importance to all residents of the City. Its natural functions provide park visitors with opportunities for exercise, meeting neighbors, play, and the experience of nature. Passive recreation improvements that achieve the goals of public safety, increased public use, and resource protection are encouraged. Future placement of benches, trail rests, and similar features is encouraged subject to prior review by the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee. The park is open from dawn to dusk by ordinance of the City Council.6
Wood Village Sewer Easement In 1973, the former property owners conveyed a permanent sewer easement to the City of Wood Village at the northeast corner of the property.7 The easement lies along the north 15 feet of the park running 100 feet west of the northeast property corner.
Neighborhood Park Fairview Woods Park is classified as a neighborhood park primarily intended to meet the recreational, educational, environmental, family, and other park interests of households located within one-half mile walking distance to park entrances. This service standard is not intended to exclude any persons or legitimate use of the park. Use of the park by all city residents and visitors is encouraged. Park access may be limited due to the lack of parking in the Bridge Street area. Access from the trailhead at the
See Ordinance 13-2007. Multnomah County records Book 952, pages 604 and 607.
The park land within the easement is maintained as a lawn adjacent to 505 Bridge Street. Vehicle access to City of Wood Village sewerage facilities, located east of the park, is provided over the easement.
Physical Characteristics & Natural Resources The site has two key physical features: the three-acre wooded wetland with perennial surface water along Bridge Street and the mixed conifer/deciduous forested upland.
The northern wetland is located within the eastern half of the site and continues into the adjoining property. It is bounded on the north by Bridge Street and on the west by the main park trail. There are no known surface water flows into the wetland, which has significant riparian buffers around much of its perimeter. The wetland and extensive riparian area contain stands of Oregon ash with mixed understory of red twig dogwood, nootka rose, willow, slough sedge, and emergent western red cedar and other native plant species. A wetland delineation was conducted in January 2009. The wetland is fed primarily via groundwater flows, but receives some seasonal surface water from properties bordering to the west. It discharges into a culvert under Bridge Street and daylights on the west side of 505 NE Bridge Street before entering a drainage basin at the Union Pacific Railroad track embankment. There are no known water quality issues with the wetland.
are common throughout the park. A pocket wetland is located at the southeast corner of the park. A habitat assessment was conducted prior to the 2009 trail construction project. However, a complete plant inventory has not been conducted. A large amount of vegetation was removed in 2009 to provide greater sight distances and reduce areas of concealment — both essential to increasing park safety. The vegetation removal is expected to have a short-term impact on foraging, bird nesting for certain species, and other habitat disruptions. Long-term habitat quality is expected to improve through invasive species removal, ongoing wetland protection, increased plant diversity, and conservation oriented vegetation management. Over 1,500 native plants were planted as part of the 2009 park improvement project including the following:
The forested upland contains primarily western red cedar, douglas fir, Oregon ash and black cottonwood. The understory contains vine maple, elderberry, filbert, pacific ninebark, and stands of snowberry and indian plum. Ferns, nettles, solomon seal, trillium and other flowering plants
• Western red cedar
• Nootka rose
• Oregon grape
• Pacific ninebark
• Sword fern
• Vine maple
• Douglas fir
Soils & Hydrology
The principal non-native invasive plant species are Himalayan blackberry and English ivy. There is a small area of yellow flag iris at the northeast corner of the park that should be removed. Eradication efforts in 2008 and 2009 included volunteer SOLV events and use of a goat herd. The SOLV event resulted in the cutting of ivy vines on approximately 70 trees and ground removal of approximately 20 cubic yards of vine material.
Site soils are predominantly Wollent silt loam. A small area of Aloha silt loam is located along the western park boundary. Wollent soils are generally poorly drained with high seasonal water tables. At numerous locations ground water seeps run continuously during the midwinter and early spring. These seeps are managed through drains that run under the trail and have long-term maintenance implications.
A herd of 270 goats was used in June 2009 in preparation for subsequent vegetation removal and the trail improvement project. Use of the goat herd was very effective against both ivy and blackberry although additional removal efforts are needed to prevent re-emergence. Goats were selected to control plants because of adopted policies against application of chemical agents in the park and the resistance of ivy to chemical herbicides.
No Name Creek No Name Creek meanders along the western park boundary. The perennial stream was diverted in the early 1990s under a permit from the Division of State Lands as part of the Lingelbach subdivision. There are no wetlands associated with the stream, which is incised along the park boundary. The stream meanders into the park in certain locations along the east side of 229th Court properties.
Wildlife A detailed wildlife survey has not been conducted. However, based on casual observation, it is known that coyote, various song birds, raptors, owls, reptiles, amphibians, and rodents inhabit or visit the site. It is anticipated that the desired increase in human park use may affect wildlife. This is a known and accepted trade-off for increasing public use and public safety in the park through park improvements and vegetation removal.
Natural Resource Management Plan Because of the parkâ€™s environmental qualities and sensitive habitat, an environmental maintenance program will be developed. The goal of the program is to minimize use of chemical agents, and establish appropriate practices for plant and landscape maintenance, habitat restoration, and nuisance animal management.
Park Improvements In 2009, the park was improved based upon the recommendations and plans that came out of the Fairview Woods Park master planning process. The Plan includes the following features:8
• Over 1,800 feet of 6-foot wide compact gravel trails.
1,500 feet of trail is handicapped accessible.
• A public trailhead at Bridge Street with signage,
garbage can, and doggie bag station.
• A private trailhead with signage, garbage can,
and doggie bag station for Housing Authority of Portland tenants and their guests at the east side of Fairview Oaks and Woods Apartments.
• Trailhead fencing at the Bridge Street entrance to
protect the neighboring property.
• 50-foot wide vegetation management buffer along
• Decommissioned informal trails. • Non-native invasive plants removal. • Vegetation removal to reduce areas of concealment
• Improved public safety access from both Bridge
Street and Fairview Oaks & Woods Apartments.
• Two locations set aside for future park amenities
such as rustic benches, seating locations, or play features.
• Removal of over 20 yards of natural forest litter
and woody debris.
• Goat herd clearing of three acres of dense
understory and non-native invasive plants.
• Planting native plants and trees. • Removal of hazardous trees. • Construction of a handicap parking space on
See Appendix 1, New Trail Alignment : Grading & Materials Plan.
Park Management Plan The following standards and practices should be followed unless otherwise determined by the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee and City Council. Funding requests needed to carry out this plan will be proposed by the Park and Recreation Advisory Committee during the annual budget process.
1. Trash, Graffiti, Litter & Vandalism The cleanliness and condition of the park has a significant influence on park use and the user’s sense of comfort, satisfaction and safety. Rapid response to full garbage cans, graffiti, litter and vandalism is a top priority. Graffiti removal should be conducted in accordance with adopted practices including photographing the tag before removal. Chemical removal should be done using citrusbased or other “green” and least toxic methods.
2. Park Rules & Temporary Closures Fairview’s park rules will be enforced in Fairview Woods Park.9 These rules include park hours, prohibited conduct, and encroachments by neighbors. The issue of encroachments was studied by the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee during the Fairview Woods Park Working Group Process. The Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee acknowledged existing code prohibitions against encroachments and requested city staff enforce violations. The park may be periodically closed for maintenance and other purposes.
3. Public Safety At least once yearly, the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee will meet with the Fairview Police Chief to discuss public safety issues in the park consistent with Fairview Municipal Code 2.16.01(D)(2).
The Fairview Police Department urges that all suspicious and criminal activity be reported. Emergencies should be reported directly to 911.
4. Bicycles & Motorized Vehicles Fairview Woods Park is closed to bicycles. The bicycle restriction is warranted due to the narrowness of the trails, to ensure pedestrian safety, and protect trails from damage. Motorized vehicles are prohibited except for authorized vehicles, in accordance with Fairview's park rules. Vehicles used for maintenance purposes should be wheeled. Tracked vehicles and vehicles that use braked steering (skid steer) are prohibited because of the extensive trail damage they cause.
5. Invasive Plants Additional treatment of the goat browse area is required to ensure that invasive plants do not re-establish. English ivy, Himalayan blackberry and English holly are of particular concern. All available resources should be utilized including volunteers, SOLV events, the Multnomah County Sheriff’s Department Inmate Work Crew, and City of Fairview resources. Areas that were not browsed by the goat herd in 2009 should be assessed for the most effective means of invasive plant control. Protecting trees from ivy and the spread of ivy into cleared areas should be the first priority. A goat herd may be used again if it is cost effective. Chemical plant control treatments should not be used in Fairview Woods Park. Continual and aggressive removal of invasive plants may be required for a number of years, after which, invasive plants can be managed through routine maintenance.
See Fairview Municipal Code 12.30.
6. Vegetation Management Areas The 50-foot vegetation buffer along interior park trails is intended to be moderately managed to maintain low-growing native plants in order to establish open view sheds within the park.10 The managed buffer along the east, west, and south trails will be 10 feet wide along the outer buffer sections.11 This practice is intended to promote public safety and a sense of comfort among park users. Where conditions allow, native flowering plants should be planted along trails to enhance forage opportunities for bees, butterflies and hummingbirds and to beautify the park. The buffer may require periodic plant thinning or removal, new plantings, or mechanical removal of plants. The Community Development and Public Works Directors will coordinate on maintenance practices of the buffer. Areas outside of the 50-foot vegetation buffer will receive minimal maintenance in order to promote natural ecological functions and habitat preservation.
7. Tree Hazard Assessment & Mitigation Several properties along the park’s western boundary are within falling distance of park trees. The greatest risk of tree fall is in the winter months due to snow, ice and high winds. The winters of 2008 and 2009 saw numerous tree failures with some resulting in property damage. In response, an arborist subsequently inspected and removed many high-risk trees.
8. Tree Fall within the Park
Trees along the western park boundary should be assessed annually. Where appropriate, tree hazards should be mitigated by pruning or cabling rather than removal. Tree topping is discouraged except as needed to eliminate an immediate risk.
Fallen trees should remain in place to promote related ecological functions subject to the following conditions: • Tree debris smaller than 12 inches in diameter that
falls within the 50-foot trail buffer will be removed from
the buffer. Debris may be relocated to other parts of
• Small diameter debris should be chipped in place
• Trees that fall outside of the 50-foot buffers may be
left in place, except that pruning of branches may be
desired for aesthetic purposes and to protect views
through the park if obstructed by fallen trees.
The buffer extends 25 feet on both sides of the trail from the trail centerline. The term “outer” means the area between the trail and adjoining properties.
Ribbon Cutting Ceremony : November 21, 2009 : Grand Reopening of Fairview Woods Park [ left to right ] David Widmark, HAP Board Member; Mike Weatherby, Mayor of Fairview; Rod Park, Metro Councilor; and Steve Kaufman, Chair Parks & Recreation Advisory Committee.
9. Trail Maintenance The crushed gravel trails are constructed to a specific standard described in the park construction plans and specifications. The base course is 4 inches of ¾” minus compacted rock. The top course is 4 inches of compacted ¼” minus with select sieve specifications. Trail repair may be required from time to time due to damage from weather, fallen trees, vandalism, or vehicles and equipment. Repair materials and methods will be consistent with construction specifications found in original trail design documents. In certain locations logs have been placed for containment of trail material. These logs will need to be replaced over time as they decay. Under-trail drains have been installed in key locations at the north end of the trail and within the park as needed to drain seeps. The drain requires monitoring to ensure
proper location and capture of surface water seeps. All drains need periodic inspection.
10. Bridge Street ADA Parking Space The parking space at the Bridge Street trailhead is to be maintained as a handicap parking space. The space shall be improved to accommodate park access by people with mobility limitations. Asphalt is the preferred surface treatment.
11. Coyotes Coyotes are known to occasionally occupy the park. As is true in many areas of the region, human and coyote interactions may cause concern. While reports of coyote attacks on humans are rare, coyotes do prey on dogs and cats. Cats are especially prone to coyote predation. There are a number of large patches of undeveloped land along the Union Pacific rail line, which is used as a corridor by coyotes. Fairview Woods Park is part of this coyote habitat system.
Live trapping and relocation of coyotes is considered an ineffective management strategy by wildlife managers. Lethal trapping methods are indiscriminate and may take unintended animals including pets. While coyote hunting is allowed in Oregon, the discharge of firearms is prohibited in the City of Fairview. In the event of complaints being received about coyote activity around the park, the City will first inform property owners about pet practices that can reduce risk of predation. Lethal trapping will be used only as a last resort in the event of significant coyote problems. City staff will seek direction from the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee as needed to address coyote issues.12 See the Audubon Society public information brochure, “Living with Urban Coyotes,” in Appendix 3. Additionally, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is a resource on management of urban coyotes for the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee.
13. Unauthorized Trails & Gathering Spaces Unauthorized trails are created when people use areas of the park that do not have formal access. These trails may lead to unauthorized gathering places, which are typically secluded and not visible from park trails. Experience shows that such gathering places may become locations where prohibited conduct (e.g., fires, alcohol use, littering, and nighttime activities) takes place. Aggressive action should be taken in response to park rule infractions and unauthorized trails and gathering spaces. The following strategies may be used to manage these problems: • Identify and monitor problem locations. • Enforce park rules. • Ensure rapid clean-up of litter and debris. • Close areas where unauthorized trails and gathering
places have been created.
12. Partnerships & Programs
• Visually expose gathering places to eliminate
The City should create and sustain formal relationships with the following park partners:
• Monitor placement of trails and obstructions.
• Bridge Street neighborhood • The Fairview Oaks and Woods tenant community • Housing Authority of Portland • Reynolds School District • SOLV
concealment and seclusion.
• Coordinate with Housing Authority of Portland.
14. Bridge Street Trailhead Lighting Trailhead lighting may be provided subject to cost considerations and neighbor agreement due to potential light impacts.
• Multisensory Learning Academy
15. Fences The City will communicate with park partners regarding news and events and solicit their interest in program and event opportunities.
The question of park fencing was widely debated throughout the master plan process. The Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee and City Council ultimately decided against installing fences within the park and around its perimeter.13 Abutting property owners are free to erect fences along their property lines. See minutes of the Parks Committee and City Council for further information.
The Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee is charged with advising staff on policies for management of the City’s natural resources, which include wildlife. An existing fence is located along the park’s east property line.
Park Improvement & Action Summary, 2010-2015 • Pave the ADA parking space on Bridge Street.
Fairview Woods Park Preferred Plant List*
• Install rustic benches and play features at
• Install “Entering Private Property Sign” at the
Housing Authority of Portland property trail crossing into the park. (HAP expense)
• Western red cedar
• Oregon oak
• Oregon ash
• Black cottonwood
• Big leaf maple
• Red alder
• Aggressively remove ivy and blackberry.
• Douglas fir
• Replace trailside logs when decayed.
• Install property markers along the west property line to help adjoining property owners avoid park encroachments.
• Red osier dogwood
• Install trailhead lighting at Bridge Street subject
• Mock orange
• Vine maple
• Pacific ninebark
• Develop a park profile brochure for public
• Red flowering currant
• Oregon grape
to funding and neighbor agreement. information and post on City’s website.
• Conduct educational and recreational activities
in the park through partnerships with the Housing Authority of Portland, neighborhood groups, and area schools.
• Promote environmental learning and volunteer
• Maintain open views along trails and low growing
vegetation within the 50-foot trail buffers.
• Ensure trash, litter, and graffiti are quickly removed. • Enforce park rules and correct unauthorized
• Nootka rose
• Red columbine
• Bleeding heart
• Yellow aster
• Rosa pisocarpa
• Wild ginger
• Willamette daisy
• Cascade penstemon
• Monkey flower
• Stream violet
• False Solomon’s seal
• Stinging nettle
• Oregon iris
• Marsh skullcap
• Pacific aster
* This list is not intended to be exhaustive or exclusive. Plant diversity should be maximized to meet natural resource and park beautification goals. There is an existing abundance of indian plum, which could be reduced.
Trail Specification Documents
Trail Specifications Crushed Rock Trail Wetland Raised Trail Drainline Bridge Street Fence Split Rail Fence
( note to viewer : following pages included city documents, which I've chosen not to display in this online publication)