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Working under Pressure

The Suns Rays and Angles

Global Winds

Hawaii Brochure

Weather Instrument Project

Cool Climate Graphs

Clouds

Layers of the Earth

Cloud Identification Chart

Wegner Questions

Fronts

Model of Sea Floor Spreading

Tracking a Hurricane

Essay on Sea Floor Spreading

Reading a Weather Map

Types of Faults Finding the Epicenter Report on Earthquakes Design a Seismograph Where are Volcanoes found on Earth’s Surface? Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes How Fast Do Liquids Flow?


Volcano Drawing What is the True Color of a mineral?

Which layer is the Oldest

Finding the Density of a Mineral

Finding Clues to Rock Layers

Report on Quartz (instead of Crystal Tree)

Movie Summary

Crystal System Handout

Index Cards on the Different Eras

Who Owns the Oceans Minerals?

Track the Moon

How do Rocks Compare?

Phases of the Moon

Rock Collection

A “Moonth” of Phases

Sedimentary Rock Formation Mystery Rock

Venn diagram of the Eclipses Picture of Eclipses

Rock Cycle Air Engines Rusty Rock What is Soil? Sandy Hills Course of a River Flood plains

Interview of the Space Race Summary of Galileo’s Controversy Picture of the Sun Venn diagram of The Inner and Outer Planets

Permian Brochure Fossils

Final Reflection on Portfolio


09-02-08 I. Title: Working Under Pressure II. Problem: How can a barometer detect changes in air pressure? III. Materials: 1) modeling clay 2) scissors 3) white glue 4) tape 5) pencil 6) glass jar 7) ruler 8) Card board strip 9) rubber band 10) balloon 11) drinking straw IV. Procedures:

1. cut off narrow end of balloon 2. Fold the balloon outward. Carefully stretch the edges of balloon over the open end of the glass jar. Use a rubber band to hold the balloon on the edge of the glass jar. Hold the balloon. 3. Place a small amount of glue on the center of the top of the balloon. Attach one end of the straw to the balloon. Allow the other end to extend several centimeters beyond the edge of the glass jar. This is your pointer. 4. While the glue dries, fold the cardboard strip lengthwise and draw a scale along the edge with marks 0.5cm apart. Write high pressure on the top of your scale and low pressure on the bottom. 5. After the glue dries add a pea-size amount of clay to the end of the pointer. Place your barometer and its scale in a location that is as free from temperature changes as possible. Note that the pointer of the straw must just reach the cardboard strip as shown in the diagram. 6. Tape both the scale and the barometer to the surface so that they do not move during the experiment. 7. Make a data table like the one below in your notebook. Record the date and time. Note the level of the straw on the cardboard strip. 8. Check the barometer twice a day. Record your observations on your data table. 9. Record the weather conditions for at least three days.

V. Data:

Date and Time

Air Pressure

Weather Condition

1:30pm 8-26-08 9:14am 8-27-08 8:44AM 8-28-088 11:25am 8-29-08

3.5 3 3 3.5

Cloudy Clear Clear Cloudy


VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1. To cause the free end of the straw to rise, the air pressure must be high. To cause the free end of the straw to go down, the air pressure must be low. 2. The air pressure was higher on cloudy days and lower on clear days.


I. Title: Heating Earth’s Surface II. Problem: How do the heating and cooling rates of sand and water compare? Hypothesis: 1) I think water will heat up faster. 2) I think water will cool down faster III. Materials: 1) 2 thermometers 2) 2 beakers 3) sand 4) water 5) lamp with bulb IV. Procedure: 1) Record your hypothesis. Then follow the steps to test it. 2) Copy the data table into your notebook. 3) Fill one beaker with 300 mL of dry sand. 4) Fill the second beaker with 300 mL of water at room temperature 5) Arrange the beakers side by side beneath the ring stand 6) Place one thermometer in each beaker. 7) Suspend the thermometers from the ring stand with string. 8) Adjust the height of the clamp so that the bulb of each thermometer is covered by about 0.5 cm of sand or water in a beaker. 9) Position the lamp so that it is about 20 cm above the sand or water. There should be no more than 8 cm between the beakers. 10) Record the temperature of the sand and water in the data table. 11) Turn on the lamp. Read the temperature of the sand and water every minute for 15 minutes record the temperature in the temperature with light on column in the data table. 12) Record your hypothesis on what you think will cool down faster. 13) Turn the light off. Read the temperature of the sand and water every minute for another 15 minutes. Record the temperature in the temperature with light off column.


V. Data: Temperature with light on (째C)

Temperature with light off (째C)

Time

Sand

Water

Time

Sand

Water

start

20

20

16

30

23

1

20

20

17

29

23

2

20

20

18

29

23

3

20

20

19

28

23

4

20

20

20

27

22

5

24

20

21

26

22

6

25

20

22

27

22

7

25

22

23

26

22

8

26

23

24

26

22

9

26

24

25

26

22

10

28

24

26

26

23

11

29

24

27

25

22

12

31

24

28

25

22

13

31

24

29

25

22

14

32

24

30

25

22

15

32

25

X

VI. Analyze and Conclude

1)


2) The calculations of the total change in temperature for each material is: Sand-12°C, .......water-5°C. 3) Based on my data the sand heated up faster. 4) I can conclude that sand heated up faster. I thought water would heat up faster so my hypothesis was wrong. 5) In 15 minutes water cooled faster. 6) My second hypothesis was wrong also. 7) The sand would heat up faster on a sunny day. It would also cool down faster at ........................night. 8) I predicted that water would heat up faster. I was wrong. I thought about how hot the water could get at the beach. I didn’t think about how hot the sand could get. .....................The sand shot way up in temperature while the water stayed behind. The results were very surprising!


Rain Gauge: Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Amount of Precipitation 0 cm 0.5 cm 1.2 cm 1 cm 2 cm 1.3 cm 0 cm

Total Precipitation 0 cm 0.5 cm 1.7 cm 2.7 cm 4.7 cm 6.0 cm 6.0 cm


I. Title: Clouds II. Purpose: To identify clouds and use them to predict the weather. III. Materials: Cloud Finder, pen, paper IV. Procedure: 1) Go outside. 2) Identify the clouds you see in the sky. 3) Predict what weather you think they will bring in the ..............................afternoon 4) Check the weather in the afternoon. 5) Record your predictions and data. 6) Repeat this for a week. V. Data Date/Time

Cloud type

AM weather

Pm weather

Fair

Predicted PM weather Good weather

9-12-08, 7:18am 9-13-08, 8:47am 9-14-08, 9:30am 9-15-08, 7:40am 9-16-08, 7:39am 9-17-08, 7:38am 9-18-08, 7:20am

Cirrus Status

Still

Overcast

Good weather

Cumulonimbus

Humid

Stormy

Stormy

Cirrocumulus

Fair

Stormy

Stormy

Altocumulus

Fine

Thunderstorms Fine weather

Cirrus

Warm

Good weather

Good weather

altocumulus

humid

thunderstorms

thunderstorms

Good weather

VI. Analyze and conclude 1) I observed cirrus, stratus, cumulonimbus, cirrocumulus, and .........................altostratus clouds. I can tell because of their shape and altitude. 2) My predictions were mostly correct. I think some of my predictions ..........................were wrong because I judged some of the clouds wrong. 3) The weather usually corresponded with the cloud type.


I. Title: Tracking a Hurricane II. Problem: How can you predict where a hurricane will come ashore? III. Materials: 1) ruler 2) red, blue, green, and brown pencils. 3) Paper IV. Procedure: 1) Look at the hurricane on the map. Each dot represents the location of the eye of the hurricane at 6 hour intervals. The last dot shows where the hurricane was on august 30 at noon. 2) Predict the path you think the hurricane will take. Place a tracing paper over the map below. Using a red pencil, place an X on where you think the hurricane will first reach land. Next to the X write the date and time you think the hurricane will come ashore. 3) On your tracing paper shade in a area of red you would issue a hurricane warning for. 4) Plot the following data, in blue, on your paper. Date and time August 30,6:00 PM August 31, Midnight August 31, 6:oo AM August 31 Noon August 31, 6:00 PM

Latitude 28.3° N 28.4° N 28.6° N 28.8° N 28.8° N

Longitude 86.8° W 86.8° W 85.3° W 84.4° W 84.0° W

5) Based on the new data, decide if you need to change your prediction of where and when the hurricane will come ashore. Mark your new. predictions in blue pencil on your tracing paper.


6) During September 1, you obtain four more positions. Based on these new data, use the. Green pencil to indicate when and where you now think the hurricane will come ashore.

Date and time September 1, midnight September 1, 6:00 AM September 1, Noon September 1, 6:00 PM

Latitude 28.8° N 28.6° N 28.6° N 28.9° N

Longitude 83.8° W 83.9° W 84.2° W 84.8° W

7) The next day, September 2, you plot four more positions using a brown .............................pencil. (Plot these points only after you have completed Step 6.) Date and time September 2, midnight September 2, 6:00 AM September 2, Noon September 2, 6:00 PM

Latitude 29.4° N 29.7° N 30.2° N 31.0° N

Longitude 85.9° W 87.3° W 88.8° W 90.4° W


VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) On august 28th the hurricane was on the tip of Cuba. Over the next 2 days it traveled over the rest of Cuba and began traveling over the Gulf of Mexico. On August 30th at 6:00 Pm the hurricane made an abrupt turn and began heading toward Tampa, St. Petersburg instead of Mobile. The hurricane traveled over Tampa, St. Petersburg and went over the Atlantic Ocean. It made another sudden turn and headed just north of Tampa. It went over the Gulf of Mexico again and made landfall in Louisiana, north of New Orleans. 2) My hurricane warnings weren’t completely off. My first prediction for where the hurricane would land was way off. So was my second prediction for were the hurricane would land. 3) The odd thing about this hurricane was that it completely changed directions. 4)You can never be to sure where and when a hurricane will hit so even if you are not in a hurricane warning area always be prepared because meteorologists can never be to sure. 5) It is dangerous to issue a hurricane warning because meteorologists can never be to sure what area to issue one for. You have to be careful when you issue a hurricane warning because if you issue it for the wrong people they might be angry. If you issue a hurricane warning to late people could be killed. 6) To issue a hurricane warning you should have a weather balloon. Weather balloons help you gather weather information about the weather.


Satellites can also help you. You must know what winds are steering the hurricane. Hurricanes are very unpredictable.


I. Title: Reading a Weather Map II. Problem: How does a weather map commute data? III. Materials: Weather map IV. Procedure: 1) Examine the symbols on the weather map below. 2) Observe the different colors on the weather map below. 3) Find the symbols for snow and rain. 4) Locate the warm and cold fronts. 5) Locate the symbols for high and low pressure. V. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Orange is the hottest temperature. Purple is the coldest temperature. 2) Miami has the highest temperature. Billings has the coldest temperature. 3) It is raining insane Francisco. It is snowing in Billings. 4) Three different types of fronts are shown on the map,stationary fronts, cold fronts, and warm fronts. 5) Two areas of low pressure and two areas of high pressure are shown on the map. 6) I think that the season that the map represents is winter because all the temperatures are very low. 7) I think that a cold front is moving towards Minneapolis. It will bring cold weather and storms.


I. Title: The Suns Rays and Angles II. Problem: How does the angle of a source of light affect the rate at which the temperature of a surface changes? III. Materials: 1) books 2) graph paper 3) pencil 4) clock or watch 5) ruler 6) clear tape 7) 3 thermometers 8) protractor 9) 100-W incandescent lamp 10) scissors 11) Black construction paper IV. Procedure: 1) cut a strip of black construction paper 5 cm by 10 cm. fold the paper in half and tape two sides to form a pocket. 2) Repeat step 1 to make two more pockets. 3) Place the bulb of a thermometer inside each pocket. 4) Place the pockets close together. Place one thermometer in a vertical position (90째 angle), one in a 45째 angle, and the third one in a horizontal position (0째 angle). Use a protractor to measure the angles. Support the thermometers with books. 5) Position the lamp so that it is 30cm from each of the thermometers bulbs. 6) Copy the data table into your notebook. 7) Record the temperature of all three thermometers. 8) Turn on the lamp. Record the temperature of each thermometer every minute for 15 minutes.


1515

V. Data: Time (min.) Start 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 32

0° angle 24°C 25°C 26°C 27°C 27°C 27°C 27°C 28°C 29°C 29°C 29°C 29°C 30°C 30°C 31°C 32° C

45° angle 26°C 29°C 30°C 30°C 31°C 31°C 32°C 32°C 33°C 33°C 34°C 34°C 34°C 35°C 35°C 35°C

90° angle 21°C 22°C 24°C 25°C 24°C 24°C 25°C 26°C 26°C 27°C 28°C 28°C 28°C 28°C 28°C 29°C

VI. Analyze and conclude: 1) The manipulating variable was the different angles. The responding variable was the temperature change. 2)


3) The temperature increased the most at a 45° angle. 4) At a 90° angle the temperature increased the least. 5) 0° represents the polar zone. 45° represents the temperate zone. 90° represents the tropical zone. 6) The North Pole is located in the polar zone which means the sun hits it at a lower angle. 7) Several variables were held constant in this experiment. Two of them was the lamp the lamp and its position. Some other ones were the books and the table. The black paper was the same also.


I. Title: Cool Climate Graphs

II. Data:


III. Analyze and Conclude: 1) City A has the least change in average temperature. 2) City A‟s climate is Mediterranean. City B‟s climate is Highland. City C‟s climate is semiarid 3) City A represents San Francisco, California. City B represents Colorado Springs, Colorado. City C represents Reno, Nevada. 4) The climate graphs are so different because some of the cities are on the windward side of the mountains and others are on the leeward side of the mountain, some are even mountains. 5) When setting up the graph you have to remember the average high temperature, the average low temperature and the average amount of precipitation. 6) If you‟re looking for a place to go, come to city A. It is a great place go swimming in the summer and rain walking in the winter. If you like hot, dry summers come on by! Even if you like rainy winters this is still the place for you! City A can fit your needs!


Answers for Alfred Wegner Questions:

1) 2) 3) 4)

Wegener meant to get information from all sources before jumping to conclusions. The quote means that it takes time to prove theories; even great ones. The book at the library prompted Wegener to pursue to theory of continental drift. Some specific examples that led Wegner to propose his theory of continental drift are fossils, the book at the library and how all the continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. 5) Pangaea is when all the continents were together to form one big land mass. Pangaea split up into different continents. Wegener was not the first to suggest Pangaea. 6) The scientific community did not accept Wegener‟s theory. 7) The main problem in Wegener‟s theory was that he didn‟t have any proof. 8) Wegener had support for his theory because he saw ho the continents fit together and fossils. 9) An increase of exploration of earth‟s crust prompted the revival of continental drift. 10) The term “continental drift” is not quite accurate because the continents do not actually „drift”; they take the crust with them.


I. Title: Modeling sea-floor Spreading II. Analyze and conclude: 1) The feature of the ocean floor that the center slit stands for is the mid-ocean ridge. Mountains are the prominent feature missing from this experiment. 2) The side slits stand for deep-ocean trenches. The space under the paper stands for the asthenosphere. 3) In the ocean floor close to the center slit the magma is coming out whereas on the side slits subduction is occurring. This affects the depth of the ocean in that near the canter the ocean floor is probably taller. 4) The stripes on the strips stand for magnetic stripes. It is important for my model to have identical patterns of stripes on both sides because it shows the direction of earthâ€&#x;s magnetic field. 5) Differences in temperature and density provide some of the force needed to cause seafloor spreading and subduction because as new hot oceanic crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge it becomes cool and dense. Then gravity pulls denser crust beneath the trench. 6) Sea-floor spreading is the process in which magma comes out of a mid-ocean ridge, cools and hardens, and then sinks back into the crust. How much time it takes is not demonstrated by the model.


SEA-FLOOR SPREADING

Over thousands of years the continents have been moving. In 1960 Harry Hess proposed that this is a result of sea-floor spreading. Sea-floor spreading is when the ocean floor begins to spread out from a mid-ocean ridge due to molten materials coming through the crust. At the time this did not seem logical, or even possible. Now that we have more technology and sources we can see that Hess is correct. I believe that sea-floor spreading is happening due to evidence from molten materials, magnetic stripes and drilling samples. Even though we can not see the sea-floor actually spreading, we have evidence that it is. One of the pieces of evidence is molten materials. In the 1960’s scientists found this while investigating the ocean floor in a submarine called Alvin. Scientists found rocks that are only formed by molten materials. This gave proof that Hess may actually be correct. The ocean floor also gives evidence that sea-floor spreading is actually happening from magnetic stripes. Scientists use special instruments to find out the magnetic memory of rocks on both sides of the mid-ocean ridge. They found out that the rocks formed in the directions of earth’s magnetic field. Since earth’s magnetic field changes every 780,000 years, some of the rocks formed in the opposite direction. From this we can tell that the rocks must have been coming up for years. Although sea floor has been happening for thousands of years it takes time to show. Aside from molten materials and magnetic stripes, there is still one more piece of evidence: drilling samples show the age of some of the rocks near the ridges. In 1968 a drilling ship called the Glomar Challenger gathered samples. The rocks found in the middle of the ridge were younger than those on the outside of the ridge. This gave evidence that molten material is coming out of the ridge and


forming new rocks. This last proof showed scientists that Hess’s crazy idea of sea floor-spreading is correct. Due to all this evidence, I believe that sea-floor spreading is actually happening. Harry Hess was able to prove that the reason continents have been moving is because of this. Technology was able to help prove him correct. Thanks to evidence from molten materials, magnetic stripes and drilling samples we have definitive proof.


I. Title: Finding the epicenter II. Problem: How can you locate an earthquakes epicenter? III. Materials: 1) Drawing compass with pencil .........................2) Outline map of the U.S. IV. Procedure:

City Denver, Colorado Houston, Texas Chicago, Illinois

Difference in P and S waves arrival time 2 min 40 s 1 min 50 s 1 min 10 s

Distance to epicenter 1,600 km 1,000 km 700 km

1) Copy the data table 2) Use the graph of Seismic wave arrival times to complete the data table in the Distance to epicenter column. 3) Set your compass at a radius equal to the distance from Denver to the earthquake epicenter that you previously recorded. 4) Draw a circle with the radius determined in step 3, using Denver as the city. 5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the other cities. V. Analyze and Conclude: 1) The earthquakeâ€&#x;s epicenter is in Kentucky. 2) Chicago is the closest city to the epicenter. It is 700 km away from the epicenter. 3) A seismograph would detect an earthquake in Chicago first and Denver last. 4) San Francisco is greater than 2,000 km away from the epicenter. The difference in arrival times of the S and P waves in San Francisco would be Greater than 3 minutes. 5) As the distance from an earthquake increases the P waves begin to arrive much sooner than the S waves.


AMGP News: Earthquakes

Carol: “Today a terrible tragedy happened along the Denali fault in the city of Tamish. Tamish is located in Alaska. More than 1,000 lives were lost at 3:21 in the afternoon. Only 100 lived through this size X (on the Mercali scale) earthquake. Johnny is there to investigate the damage. Johnny?” Johnny: “Good evening Carol. As you have said this earthquake has been rated a X on the Mercali scale, Only 100 people survived and 75 are in the hospital. Amanda Jotan is here to tell us what it was like. Amanda, what sign told you that you were experiencing an earthquake?” Amanda: “Well, the ground began to shake so everyone ran outside to see what was going on. Then a crack appeared on the ground. It was as if someone had dug a 30 foot hole. Before you knew it, buildings were crashing and trees were falling.” Johnny: “Tell us Amanda, what was your first reaction?” Amanda: “Well.... I‟m not sure.... it happened so quickly. I remember calling for my daughter and falling on the ground.” Johnny: “Thank you Amanda. Back to you Carol.” Carol: “Thank you Johnny. The now destroyed city of Tamish was right above the epicenter of the earthquake. Today‟s earthquake was truly a tragedy. For AMGP news, I‟m Carol Backs.”


I. Title: Designing a seismograph II. Problem: Can you design and build a seismograph that can record movements of a stimulate earthquake? III. Materials: 1) shoebox 2) paper roll 3) pencil 4)1 meter strips of paper 5) block of wood 6) Electrical tape IV. Procedure: 1) Develop your own design for a seismograph. Your seismograph should be 路 Record vibrations continuously for 30 seconds 路 Produce a seismogram that can distinguish between gentle and strong Earthquakes 路 Record seismic readings consistently from trail to trail. 2) Sketch your design. Make list of all the materials you will need. 3) Construct your seismograph. V. Analyze and Conclude: 3) When we designed the seismograph we had trouble getting pen to touch the drum. We solved this by hanging the pen from the ceiling. 4) Factors such as materials, costs, time, ect. limited us to the quality and accuracy of our seismograph. We adapted to these situations by positioning some of the materials in different places. 5) It is important for scientists to have accurate and durable seismographs so that they can measure how bad an earthquake was.


I. Title: Where are volcanoes located on earth‟s surface? II. Purpose: To develop a better hypothesis which explains where volcanoes are located. III. Materials: Map of earth‟s active volcanoes IV. Procedure: Look at the map of earth‟s active volcanoes and answer questions. V. Data:

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Yellow triangles are used to represent volcanoes 2) Other symbols on the map are red lines indicating plate boundaries. 3) Yes, the locations of volcanoes on the map do form a pattern. 4) Yes, The volcanoes on earth‟s surface seem are related to plate boundaries. 5) I believe volcanoes form along plate boundaries.


I. Title: Mapping Earthquakes and volcanoes II. Problem: Is there a pattern in the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes? III. Materials: 1) outline world map showing longitude and latitude 2) 4 pencils of different ..............................................................................................................................colors IV. Procedure: 1) Use the information in the table to mark the location of each earthquake on ...............................the world map. Use a colored pencil to draw a letter E inside a circle at each ...............................earthquake location. 2) Use a second color to mark the volcanoes on the world map. Indicate each volcano with the latter V inside a circle. 3) Use a third color pencil to lightly shade the areas in which earthquakes are found. 4) Use a forth colored pencil to lightly shade the areas in which volcanoes are found V. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Earthquakes are located all over the map except in the polar zone. 2) Volcanoes are also distributed in temperate and tropical zones. 3) From my data it seems that earthquakes and volcanoes often occur near each other.


I. Title: How fast do liquids flow? II. Purpose: To determine whether honey or oil flows faster. III. Materials: 1) honey 2) oil 3) paper cups IV. Procedure: 1) Fill 1/3 of a small plastic cup with honey. Do the same with the oil. 2) Hold the cup containing honey over a third cup and tip it until the liquid begins to flow out of the cup. Time how long it takes for the honey to pour into the other cup. Record the time. 3) Repeat step 2 with the oil. V. Data: Substance Honey Oil

Time (S) 26 9

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flowing 2) Honey has a greater viscosity 3) We measured the viscosity of the oil by pouring the honey and the oil into a cup and measuring which one flowed faster. 4) One substance has a greater viscosity because of stronger chemical bonds.


I. Title: What is the true color of a mineral? II. Purpose: To observe the color made by streaking various minerals across a plate. III. Materials: 1) Quartz 2) Hematite 3) Glena 4) Azurite 5) Granite 6) plate IV. Procedure: 1) Streak minerals across a plate 2) Observe and record color 3) Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other minerals V. Data: Mineral Granite Hematite Azurite Quartz Glena

Color Nothing Muddy brown Nothing White Gray

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) No, a mineral didnâ€&#x;t leave a different color streak than its own color. 2) 2 of the rocks had no streak color. 3) You can use the luster of the rock to identify the type of rock.


I. Title: Finding the density of minerals II. Purpose: To compare the density of different minerals. III. Materials: 1) graduated cylinder, 100-mL 2) 3 mineral samples: pyrite, quartz, and galena 3) Water 4) balance IV. Procedure: 1) Check the mineral to see if it is small enough to fit in a graduated cylinder. 2) Place the pyrite on the balance and record its mass on the data table. 3) Fill the cylinder to the 50-mL mark. 4) Place the pyrite in the cylinder of water. 5) Read the level of the water on the scale of the graduated cylinder Record the level of water with pyrite in it. 6) Calculate the volume of water indicated by the pyrite. To do this, subtract the volume of water without the pyrite from the volume of water with the pyrite. 7) Calculate the density by dividing mass by volume. 8) Remove the water and mineral from the cylinder. 9) Repeat steps 2-8 for the quartz and galena. V. Data: Pyrite 32 50

Mass of Mineral (g) Volume of Water Without Mineral (mL) Volume of water With 57 Minerals (mL) 7 Volume of water Displaced (cm cubed) Density (g/cm cubed)

0.56

Quartz 8 50

Galena 34 50

57

55

7

5

0.14

0.61


VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Galena had the highest density. Quartz has the lowest density. 2) Divide the volume of the water displaces by the volume of the mineral. 3) The shape of the mineral does not effect its density because the density will always be the same.


Quartz Instead of the crystal tree The mineral quartz is the most abundant mineral in earth‟s continental crust. Quartz looks like a Crystal because it has the shape of a six-sided pyramid. Quartz comes from the German language meaning “cross-vein ore”. Its color can vary but the clear color quartz in definitely the most common of all of them. It has a glassy luster and its streak color is white. On the Mohs hardness scale, it rates a seven. Quartz cleavage is weak in three directions and its fracture is conchiodal. It is a great type of gemstone and is a very popular mineral. .

THESE ARE SOME OF THE MOST COMMON QUARTZ TYPES

Japan Law Twin

Milky Quartz Rose Quartz

Dusty Citrine

Rock Crystal

Phantomed Amethyst


Who owns the oceans minerals? 1) There is a lot of controversy concerning minerals rights. Mining the ocean floor costs lots of money. Wealthy nations argue that they should be the only ones to mine in the oceans. Land locked nations and poorer countries disagree. They think that wealthy nations should share there technology and wealth. Eventually a law was passed that everyone was open to mine on the ocean floor. 2) Who should own the minerals on the ocean floor is a debatable subject. Many people think that only wealthy nations should. Others think the opposite. Eventually, we can come to the conclusion that everyone owns them. By 2003, 157 nations signed the law of the Sea Treaty that said all nations owned them. This gives a fair chance to those nations that are not as powerful or rich. 3) One of the hardest questions to answer on this subject is, do wealthy nations have to share the profits? I think certain nations should share with poorer nations. Maybe in turn for something, such as a certain percentage of their people mining the ocean floor. On the other hand, it might be best if it were an “every nation for itself” type of deal. Whatever the case, the ocean’s minerals should belong to every nation and Tribe.


I. Title: How do rocks compare? II. Purpose: to compare different kinds of rocks III. Materials: 1) Hand lens 2) Conglomerate 3) Marble 4) Granite 5) Basalt 6) Obsidian IV. Procedure: 1) Examine each rock with a hand lens. 2) Describe the rocks. What is the color? What is the texture? 3) Try scratching the surface of each rock. Which one is harder? 4) Hold the rocks in your hand. Which one seems Denser? V. Data: Rock Conglomerate Marble Granite Basalt Obsidian

Color Tan White Brown/black Gray Black

Hardness 1 2 3 3 2

Texture Coarse grained Coarse grained Coarse grained Fine grain No visible

VI. Analyze and conclude: 1) Based on my observations I would use hardness to compare the physical properties 2) Three characteristics that geologists use to classify rocks are color, texture, and mineral composition. 3) To say that a rock is coarse grained means that the grains are large and visible. 4) The three main groups of rock are: 1) Igneous rocks: cooled magma 2) Sedimentary rocks: particles of rock or remains of plants an animal that are pushed together. 3) Metamorphic rocks: Existing rock is changed by heat, pressure or chemical reactions.


Rock Collection

Number

Description

Type

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Black/white White Brick colored Pink/red/tan Brown w/ black speckles Brown/white White White/gray White/brown White/gray/brown Grayish chalk color Gray/white Gray/white Black/white/gray Black/white Tan/black/white White White/black White Gray/white/green White/tan Gray/white Brown/black/tan Green/white Tan/white

Igneous Sedimentary Sedimentary Metamorphic Sedimentary Sedimentary Sedimentary Metamorphic Sedimentary Metamorphic Metamorphic Metamorphic Metamorphic Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Metamorphic Metamorphic Metamorphic Sedimentary Metamorphic Sedimentary Igneous Sedimentary


I. Title: Mystery Rocks II. Purpose: To identify properties that can be used to identify rocks. III. Materials: 1) 1 “mystery rock� 2) 2 unknown igneous rocks 3) 2 unknown sedimentary rocks. 4) 2 unknown metamorphic rocks 5) hand lens IV. Procedure: 1) Using your hand lens, examine each rock for clues that show the rock formed from magma or lava. Record the rocks color and texture. Observe if there are any crystals in the rock. 2) Use the hand lenses to look for clues that show the rock formed from particles of other rocks. Observe the texture of the rock to see if it has any tiny, well rounded grains. 3) Use the hand lenses to look for clues that show the rock formed under heat or pressure. Observe if the rock has a flat layer of crystals or colored bands. 4) Record this in your Data table V. Data:

Sample

Color

Texture

Foliated or banded

Rock Group

5 2

Tan Back and White Black and Gray White and Gray Pink Pink Gray

Fine grain Fine grain

Yes Yes

Sedimentary Metamorphic

Coarse grain

Yes

Shell

Coarse grain

No

Sedimentary

Coarse grain No Visible Fine grain

No No No

Igneous Metamorphic Igneous

mystery rock (1) 14 6 29 8


VI. Analyze and conclude: 1) Rocks 5 and 14 are sedimentary rocks. Rocks 2 and 29 are metamorphic rocks. Rocks 6 and 8 are igneous rocks. The mystery rock is a shell 2) The Igneous rocks are 6 and 8. They both share the physical properties of having the same texture and they are both not banded. They are different because they have different colors 3) The sedimentary rocks are 5 and 14. I think they formed when bits of rock or remains of animals were pushed together. The physical property of these rocks is that they both are made of light colored minerals. 4) Samples 2 and 29 are metamorphic rocks. Their physical property is that they both have just about the same texture. 5) Sample 1 is not a rock. I knew this because it looks like a shell. The mystery rock 9is a shell because it is not igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. 6) The least helpful physical property is the color because it did not tell us about the rock or the group it was in. the most useful was foliated or banded because it would tell us that it is not igneous.


I. Title: Rusty Rock II. Purpose: To demonstrate how oxygen causes a rock to crumble III. Materials: 1) Steel wool 2) Paper plate 3) Water IV. Procedure: 1) Moisten a piece of steel wool with water. 2) Allow it to sit for three days. 3) Pick up the steel wool after three days and rub it between your fingers. 4) Take a new piece of steel wool and rub it between your fingers. V. Data: New Wool Stringy, Crunchy Hard

Moistened wool Rusty, Crunchy, Hard

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) If I kept the steel wool moistened for longer it would eventually crumble. 2) The weathering of steel is like the weathering of a rock because it takes time to wear away.


I. Title: What is Soil? II. Purpose: To observe what makes up soil. III. Materials: 1) Soil 2) Paper plate 3) Tooth pick IV. Procedure: 1) Use a tooth pick to separate a sample of soil into individual particles. With a hand lens, try to identify the different types of particles in the soil. 2) Write a ‘Recipe” for the sample of soil, naming each of the “ingredients” that you think the soil contains. 3) Compare your recipe with your classmates. V. Data: Recipe for soil Air, decayed materials, bark, water, dirt

Comparison with Classmate Gravel , Clay, Silt

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) I think a good definition of soil is: A mixture of air, decaying materials, minerals, bark, water, dirt


I. Title: Sandy Hills II. Problem: What is the relationship between the height and width of a sand hill Hypothesis: I think the width increases with the height. III. Materials: 100 mL of dry sand, cardboard tube, tray, wooden barbecue skewer, masking ..........................tape, spoon, ruler, pencil or crayon, several sheets of white paper IV. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Place the cardboard tube in the center of the tray. Using the spoon, fill the cardboard tube with sand. Carefully lift the sand-filled tube straight up so that the sand flows out Develop a hypothesis explaining how you think the width of the sand pile relates to the height for different amounts of sand. 5. Empty the sand in the tray back into a container. Then set up your system for measuring the sand hill. 6. Following steps 1-3, make a new sand hill. 7. Measure and record the sand hill’s height and width for Test 1. 8. Now test what happens when you add more sand to the hill. Place the cardboard tube vertically at the center of the sand hill. Using a spoon fill the tube with sand as before. 9. Carefully raise the tube and observe the sand’s movement. 10. Measure and record the sand hill’s height and width for Test 2 11. Repeat steps 9-11 at least three more times V. Data Test

1

2

3

4

5

Amount of Sand (mL) Height (cm)

60

70

80

90

100

2

2.5

3.5

3.75

4

Width (cm)

10

11

11.5

12

12.5


VI. Analyze & Conclude: 1)

2) The graph shows that as width increases, so does height. 3) Yes, the graph supports my hypothesis because my hypothesis matched with the end result. 4) I would not change or revise my hypothesis because it was correct. 5) If I continued the graph five more times, then both the height and the width would increase. I could test my prediction by adding more sand to the hill. 6) Measuring the sand hill was tricky. Some of the measurements that we came up with were hard to get exactly correct. Others didn’t seem as if they matched what they represented. We adjusted and coped with these problems by re-measuring the height and width. On one occasion we even redid the sand hill. In the end, we had the correct measurements along with a great time!


Homes in Flood Plains 1) Flood Plains occur by river banks. Because of this, when a river overflows, it can cause massive destruction to homes. Many people that live on flood plains do not by flood insurance. When a flood comes, they relay on the government for help. Many people think living on flood plains should be illegal. Others think that the government should pay for insurance. Whatever the case, when a flood comes, you need to be prepared. 2) Several steps could be used to reduce flood damage. First of all, everyone should be required to get Flood insurance. This would help to reduce the need of government aid but may not be possible because people need to pay for it themselves. Still, everyone would benefit from it. Another thing that can be done is a flood gate. The government could take a certain percentage of taxes and use it to build one. Everyone should be able to pitch in help keep their city safe. 3) This Town should be rebuilt! It’s true that maybe it may be a hard job, but nobody ever said living on flood plains was going to be easy! Maybe in now we can learn from our mistakes. All of us know now that flood insurance is important. By rebuilding this town, we can show the world that we are not afraid to take chances!


I. Title: Fossils II. Purpose: To separate and identify fossils III. Materials: 1) Fossil samples 2) Magnifying lens IV. Procedure: 1) Separate the rocks and fossils into different piles. 2) Count the number of fossils you found and record it in your data table. 3) Next, switch with another group and check to see if they missed any fossils. A group will do the same to yours. 4) Find the separation of efficiency. 5) After that, identify the kinds of fossil that you found. Also record how many of each type you found. V. Data: A

B

Initial Count Second Count Separation of efficiency

Snaggle Tooth Shark Rear jaw teeth Lemon shark Shells Small teeth Ray mouth plates Petrified wood Fin Ray spine Parrotfish Mouth plate Tiger Shark

27 23 54%

1 1 1 35 5 1 2 3 1 1

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Our percent separation compared to be higher than other teams. 2) The easiest fossils to identify were shells. The hardest were petrified wood.


3) Yes, some of our species were extinct. 4) Teeth are the most common fossil because they don’t decompose easily and every animal looses them.


I. Title: Which Layer is the Oldest? II. Purpose: To Determine the relative age of rock layers III. Materials: 1) Clay 2) Plastic Cup 3) Two small seashells IV. Procedure: 1) Place a layer of clay on the bottom of a cup. 2) Cover the first layer of clay with a different color of clay. 3) Press a shell into the clay against the side of the cup. 4) Add a third and forth layer of clay on top of the shell. 5) Add a second shell and put a final layer of clay on top. V. Data:

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) The oldest rock layer was the bottom layer. The youngest was the top layer. 2) The rock layer that represents the present time in history is the top layer.


3) The law of superposition is the rule that says that the most top rock layer is the youngest and oldest rock layer is the rock layer on the bottom 4) It represents the law of superposition because the youngest layer is on the top and the oldest is on the bottom. 5) The shell bottom shell is the oldest because it is compacted with the older layers of rock. 6) The relative age of rocks is not ‘perfect science for determining the absolute age of rocks because there are gaps in the geologic record so it is hard to tell their actual age.


I. Title: Finding Clues to rock Layers II. Problem: How can you use geologic features to interrupt the relative age of rocks? III. Materials: 1) Skills Lab IV. Procedure: 1) Study the rock layers at sites 1 and 2. Write down the similarities and differences between the layers at the two sites 2) List the kinds of fossils found in each rock layer of sites one and two. V. Data: A. Site 1

Site 2

Similarities (Same fossils)

· Extra extrusion

· Two less Rock layers

· Layers G and Z

· Two more rock layer

· One less intrusion

· Layers f and Y

· Has no Trilobite fossil

· Layers X and C · Layers B and W

B.

Site 1 Mammal Plant Bird Dinosaur Shell Ammonite Trilobite Fish

Site 2 Mammal Plant Bird Dinosaur Shell Ammonite Fish

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) The “fossil clues” in layer “D” indicated that there were lots of plants and mammals. Layers “A” and “B” formed when there was a lot of water.


2) The oldest layer is layer “A” because it is at the bottom of the rock layers. 3) The youngest layer is layer “G” because it is on the top of the rock layers. 4) Fossils can‟t form in extrusions because it is to hot. 5) The types of fossils found in layer “F” are dinosaurs, plants, and birds. 6) The layer in site 1 that formed at the same time as layer “W” in site 2 is layer “B”. 7) Clues that show unconformity in rock layers are deep holes filled in with sediment. Layers “E” and “A” are missing from site 2. The rock layers were probably eroded. 8) Layer “Y” is older than intrusion “V” because intrusion “V” had to intrude a rock layer. 9) In layer “W” it appears that there was lots of marine life. When extrusion “X” formed it was obviously made of lava. Layer “Y” seems to have fossils with plants and reptiles in it. In the final layer (Z) there are plants and animals. The environment in site two went from simple organisms to complex.


Movie Summary The Universe is a mystery. Even David, from the Old Testament, did not fully understand it. We do know for certain that the earth is the best planet in our solar system. One of the reasons why is because the earth has water. 60% of our body is water, we need it for survival. Another thing that water does is erosion. Water can go against gravity (capillarity). ¾ of our polar ice caps is water. Ice can even act as an insulator. Water has so many uses on earth! Outer space is full of unknown planets and places. The moon is 100% dead. The moon also controls the tides on earth. Mars, however, is the planet most like earth. All the planets vary in temperatures. For example, Venus is 900°f and Jupiter is -200°f, that’s a 700 degree difference! God shows us his beauty in all that we do.


I. Title: Track the moon II. Purpose: To observe the shape of the moon and its position in the sky every day for a month III. Materials: 1) Notebook 2) Pen or pencil IV. Procedure: 1) Observe the moon every day for one month 2) Record your observations. 3) Map the locations of the moon every day for one month V Data: A.


B.

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) The relative position of the moon changed over time by making sort or a half circle around the tree. 2) The height of the moon changed over time by at first it went higher and then after a few days it became lower. 3) The moon’s shape went through its phases. It was interesting to watch. 4) I learned many things from this portfolio assignment. First of all, I never realized (until this assignment) that the moon actually changed heights in the sky. Another thing I learned is that Sometimes the moon can stay in one phase for a long time. Also, as I began to observe the moon, I realized that the moon is really cool and is fun to study. This assignment taught me to always follow through on what you started because if you don’t, you just might miss something.


I. Title: A “Moonth” of phases II. Problem: What causes the phases of the moon? III. Materials: 1) Lamp bulb 2) Plastic ball IV. Procedure: 1) Place a lamp in the center of the room. Remove the lampshade. 2) Make the room dark. Turn on the lamp. 3) Stick a pencil in a foam ball so that the pencil may act as a handle 4) Draw and number eight circles on a sheet of paper. 5) Have a partner hold the ball in-between the lamp and himself 6) Stand behind your partner and observe what part of the ball is lit up and record it in your circles 7) Have your partner turn 45° to the left and observe again 8) Repeat steps 6 and 7 six more times 9) Do the same thing for your partner V. Data:


VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) In my model, the sun was represented by the lamp, the earth was represented by us and the moon was represented by a white plastic ball. 2) When facing the lamp, you couldn’t see any of the ball lit up. 3) See Data 4) After a new moon, you saw 25% of the moon after each turn until the Full moon when you saw 25% less after each turn. 5) Half of the ball was always lit up. The darkness of the new moon wasn’t caused by an eclipse because for an eclipse to happen, the moon must be directly in between the sun and the earth 6) This experiment showed me how and why you can only see parts of the moon. A disadvantage is that we didn’t have as dark of a room as we needed. Another way to do the lab is by using a smaller moon and a bigger sun.


I. Title: Air Engines II. Purpose: To build and demonstrate a source of thrust found in rocket engines III. Materials: 1) balloon 2) Drinking Straw 3) Yarn 4) Tape IV. Procedure: 1) Fill a balloon with air. Release it. Make your observations 2) Attach a string to your balloon with a piece of tape. 3) Obtain a piece of yarn about 6 feet in length. 4) Tie one end of the yarn to the back of your chair. 5) Feed the other end of the yarn through your straw. 6) Inflate your balloon a) ¼ full and release b) ½ full and release c) Full and release 7) Make observations. Measure the distance the balloon travels V. Data:

Balloon not attached to straw The balloon went in circles. At first it went up high in the air. As it lost air, it went lower.

Balloon Attached to Straw ¼ Full The Balloon went all the way down the string. It went moderately fast.

½ Full The Balloon went all the way down the string. It was the fastest of all of them.

VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1) Thrust is the reaction force that propels a rocket forward.

Full The Balloon went fast but not as fast as the one half full. It went all the way down the string.


2) The action force is the air moving out of the balloon. The reaction force is the movement of the balloon. 3) The balloon traveled the same distance for all of the conditions because they all had enough air to make it to the end if the rope. 4)


Interview on the Space race Interviewee: Mr. Rivera How did you feel when the first American landed on the moon? “Very Excited” Did you watch it on TV? “Yes” What reaction did you give? “I was in awe” Was it the main topic that you and your friends talked about? “For a little bit” Did you understand what was happening? “Yes” Did you think that people were going to make it to the moon? “Yes” Was it surprising that Neil Armstrong made it back to earth? “I was expecting him to get stranded on the moon” What did you think the moon was going to be like? “I thought it would be a new world” How old were you when The Eagle landed on the moon? “12 years old” Did you want to become an astronaut? “No” Where were you when The Eagle landed on the moon? “At my house in Porto Rico having a party”


Reflection on Portfolio If you are in the 7th or 8th grade science class, you know that we have been going through new material at a tremendous speed. Our brilliant and amazing science teacher, Mr. Snyder has come up with a way to make sure that we keep all of our hard work throughout the year in a designated spot so that when we are older we can remember all that we did in 2009 science class. The word “Portfolio” is dreaded by many but actually, it taught me many things. Without my portfolio, I wouldn‟t know half as much about the computer and how to stay organized. My Portfolio helped me to learn many things this year. At the beginning of the year I didn‟t even know how to “copy and paste” on the computer. Then portfolio came along and I had to learn how to do much more than that. Learning to scan an item on to a computer was probably the hardest part for me. I also learned how to make graphs and to make tables on the computer. If I learned so much this year, think of how much I can learn next year. My Portfolio has helped me to be organized in many ways. First of all, it has helped me to put my priorities first. For instance, I know that if my portfolio is not done before I go out to play it will be difficult for me to find time for it later. Secondly, it helped me to see that once you start a project, you have to finish it. Like our moon project, you have to be consistent and accurate. My portfolio has been a great help to my organization. This year, I have learned many things from portfolio. One the things I learned is how to use a computer. Another is how to stay organized and on task. This year, portfolio was a great way to combine all of the stuff I learned in science and put it into one, completed piece of work. My portfolio definitely benefited me in ways I really wasn‟t expecting.


Ann Guernsey Earth Science Portfolio 2008-2009