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RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE By Anne Pham

© May 2013 Anne Pham

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Architecture School of Architecture Pratt Institute May 2013


RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE By Anne Pham

Received and Approved: Date Sulan Kolatan


RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE By Anne Pham

Received and Approved: Date Sulan Kolatan


RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE By Anne Pham

Received and Approved: Date Sulan Kolatan


Acknowledgments

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor prof. Sulan Kolatan for her immense knowledge, continuous enthusiasm and patience. I thank my fellow classmates and friends for their encouragement and critical feedback. Finally I would like to thank my greatest supporter, my parents and brothers for continuously believing in me.


Table of Contents 1.

Abstract

2

2.

Climate Change

4

3.

Upper New York Bay

18

4.

Resilient thinking

32

5.

Minimal Surface Cell

44

6

List of Illustrations

84

8.

Bibliography

90


1


The purpose of this study was to investigate resilient thinking in order to redesign the performance of Manhattan Upper Bay’s Edge in response to climate change. Mirroring the morphology of a wet land ecosystem, minimal surface cell was used for their similar porous character. I am proposing a resilient fl ooding management by introducing a redundant use of various cells to generate a more complex soft edge with hybridized functionalities of water filtering, hydroelectricity and reef habitat

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3


2.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS?

Climate Change 4


Over the last several decades, the Northeast has experienced noticeable changes in its climate. Since 1970, the average annual temperature rose by 2째F and the average winter temperature increased by 4째F. Heavy precipitation events increased in magnitude and frequency. For the region as a whole, the majority of winter precipitation now falls as rain, not snow. Climate scientists project that these trends will continue.

5


Sea level rise, storm surges, erosion, and the destruction of important coastal ecosystems will likely contribute to an increase in coastal fl ooding events, including the frequency of current “100-year fl ood� levels. By the end of the century, New York City may experience a 100year fl ood every 10 to 22 years, on average. By 2080, it is estimated that 34% of New York City will be in a fl ood risk zone. More frequent extreme precipitation events would increase the risk of waterborne illness caused by sewage overfl ows and pollutants entering the water supply. Furthermore, extreme storms can damage infrastructure, resulting in loss of life.

6


Mannahatta Project The term “Mannahatta” refers to the island as it was in 1609, and “Manhattan” refers to the metropolis of today. The Lenape people inhabited Mannahatta for thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. They named their island home “Mannahatta,” meaning “Island of Many Hills.” The Mannahatta Project includes a focus on measuring the modern biodiversity of the city, in terms of the communities and species of 400 years ago. Studies of ecological communities in matter of the physical conditions of the site plus the interaction of disturbance processes like fire, wind throws, freezing, and habitat change caused by people or other animals shows that Mannahatta once had 570+ hills, more than 60 miles of streams, over 20 ponds, and over 300 springs. Sandy beaches stretched from the tip of Manhattan to past 42nd Street on the Hudson River shore. And beyond the shore was the vibrant, dynamic tidal estuary, with complex currents, sedimentary patterns, and the influence of the Hudson River. Mannahatta had 55 different ecological communities, including terrestrial communities (like forests and grasslands), wetland, pond and stream communities, and estuarine communities in the surrounding waters with just over 1000 species of plants and vertebrate animals (24 species of mammals, 233 birds, 32 reptiles and amphibians, 85 fish, and 627 species of plants, and unknown numbers of fungi, lichens, mosses, insects, shellfish and other invertebrates). (The Welikia Project)

Figure 1: Mannahatta and Modern Manhattan

7


Increase in Elevation (Filled in Waterways) Decrease in elevation (Leveling Hills)

Figure 2:Mannahatta Elevation Difference (1609-2009)

Figure 3: Mannahatta Digital Elevation Model

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The expected effects of climate change on habitats and wildlife are varied. Plants and animals have evolved over millions of years to fit their specific habitats. But conditions are now shifting because of climate change too rapidly for some species to move or adapt. The species that make the estuary their home (plants and animals, in and out of the water) may change, causing profound ecological transformations. (New York - New Jersey Harbor & Estuary Program)

9


Temperature “New York City has a temperate, continental climate, with hot and humid summers and cold winters. Records show an annual average air temperature from 1971-2000 of approximately 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The annual mean temperature in New York City has risen 2.5 degrees Fahrenheit since 1900. [...] New York City’s mean temperatures throughout a ‘typical’ year may be increasing by 1.5 to 3°F by the 2020s, 3 to 5°F by the 2050s, and 4 to 7.5°F by the 2080s. The growing season could lengthen by approximately a month, with 4: Observed annual temperature in Central Park, summers becoming more intense and win- Figure 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research ters more mild. [...] The temperature trends for the New York City region are broadly simi- Potential Implications for NYC ecosystem lar to trends for the Northeast United States. ” • Gain in species that require warmer temperatures, such as ghost crabs, and see an increase invasive and exotic species Potential Implications for NYC Infrastructure • Increase in peak electricity load, resulting in • The populations of more than 175 migratory birds and fishes have shifted northward to esmore frequent power outages • Fluctuation in voltage, damaging equipment cape warming waters (National Audubon Society 2009)(Fried & Schultz 2006) and interrupting service • Degradation of and increased strain on mate- • Parasites and disease-carrying organisms that were once rare are now thriving. For example, rials “Dermo,” a disease that affects oysters, has en• Increase of demand on HVAC systems • Reduction of electricity and transportation ser- tered our region recently as temperatures have increased (Conover 2007). vice disruptions • The life cycles of animals and plants can change, • Increase in construction season • Reduction of energy/heating requirements in benefiting some species but harming others. For example, recent data suggest that warmer temwinter • Reduction of road damage associated with peratures in New Jersey have extended the mating season for fiddler crabs (Bergey and Weis, freezing and refreezing of surfaces • Decrease of water quality due to biological and 2008). But if the timing of their breeding does not match the timing of food availability, crab populachemical impacts • Increase in costs associated with cooling wa- tions may suffer. (New York - New Jersey Harbor & Estuary Proter for power plant operations gram) (New York City Panel On Climate Change)

Figure 5: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

10


Precipitation “The City’s climate is characterized by substantial precipitation in all months of the year. Annual average precipitation amounts range between approximately 43 and 50 inches depending on the location within New York City. [...] Regional precipitation may increase by approximately 0 to 5 percent by the 2020s, 0 to 10 percent by the 2050s and 5 to 10 percent by the 2080s. [...] While mean annual precipitation levels have increased only slightly over the course of the past century, inter-annual variability of precipitation 6: Observed annual precipitation in Central Park, has become more pronounced. Precipita- Figure 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research tion in the Northeast also increased modestly in the 1900s, although the trend reversed Potential Implications for NYC ecosystem slightly in the last decades of the 20th century.” • As the oceans absorb large quantities of the extra CO2, the chemistry of seawater changes, becoming more acidic and decreasing in the Potential Implications for NYC Infrastructure • Increase of street, basement and sewer flood- amount of carbonate, a mineral that numerous species of shellfish, corals, plankton, and moling • Increase in risk of low-elevation transporta- lusks need to make their shells (Feely 2010). For tion, energy and communications infrastructure example, scientists predict that the growth of the Eastern oyster may slow down as ocean acidififlooding and water damage cation increases (Miller et al., 2009). • Increase in delays on public transportation and (New York - New Jersey Harbor & Estuary Prolow-lying highways gram) • Increase in nutrient loads, eutrophication, taste and odor problems and loadings of pathogenic bacteria and parasites in reservoirs • Increase in Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) events, polluting coastal waterways • Reduction of the need for winter weather road and airport operations • Decrease in average reservoir storage and changes in operating rules and usage • Degradation of and increased strain on materials • Increase in strain on upstate reservoirs (New York City Panel On Climate Change)

Figure 7: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

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Sea Level Rise “Within the past 100 to 150 years, as global temperatures have increased, regional sea level has been rising more rapidly than over the last thousand years (Gehrels, et al., 2005; Donnelly et al., 2004; Holgate and Woodworth, 2004). Currently, rates of sea level rise in New York City range between 0.86 and 1.5 inches per decade, with a longterm rate since 1900 averaging 1.2 inches/ decade. [...] Sea level may rise by 2 to 5 inches in the 2020s, 7 to 12 inches in the 2050s, and 12 to 23 inches in the 2080s [...] The sea level rise measured by tide gauges, include both the effects of recent global warming and the residual crustal adjustments to the removal of the ice sheets. Most of the observed current climate-related rise in sea level over the past century can be attributed to expansion of the oceans as they warm, although melting of land-based ice may become the dominant contributor to sea level rise during the 21st century.”

Figure 8: Observed annual sea level rise at the Battery tide gauge station, 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

• Increase of salt front up the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, leading to reduced supply of drinking water • Increase in street, basement and sewer flooding • Increase in flood risk of low-elevation infrastructure and wastewater treatment plants • Increase in delays on public transportation and low-lying highways Potential Implications for NYC Infrastructure • Increase in structural damage to infrastructure • Encroachment of saltwater on freshwater due to flooding and wave action sources and ecosystems, increasing damage • Increase in need for use of emergency manageto infrastructure not manufactured to withstand ment procedures saltwater exposure (New York City Panel On Climate Change) • Increase in pollution released from brownfields and other unprotected waste sites • Inundation of low-lying areas and wetlands, and higher rates of beach and salt marsh erosion • Increase of inflow of seawater to sewers and Wastewater Pollution Control Plants (WPCP) and reduced ability of discharging Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) and WPCP effluent by gravity

Figure 9: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

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Extreme Events “The critical climate factors affecting New York City can be divided into three general categories: temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise. Each of these climate variables operates at a variety of timescales. When experienced in limited duration, they are referred to as an extreme event. Heat waves and cold air events are examples of temperature-related extreme events. For precipitation, the extreme event timescales are asymmetric; heavy precipitation events generally range from less than one hour to a few days, whereas droughts can range from months to years. While sea level rise is a gradual process, storm surge represents short-term high-water levels superimposed onto mean sea level. The key types of storms in the region are hurricanes and nor’ Easters.” (New York City Panel On Climate Change)

Figure 10: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

13


Heat waves, are defined as three consecutive days with maximum temperatures above 90°F During the 1971-2000 period, New York City averaged 14 days per year over 90 degrees, 0.4 days over 100 degrees, and two heat waves per year. The number of events in a given year is highly variable. Seven of the ten years with the most days over 90 degrees in the 107-year record have occurred since 1980. Between 1971 and 2000, New York City averaged 13 days per year with 1 inch or more of rain, 3 days per year with 2 or more inches of rain, and 0.3 days per year with more than 4 inches of rain. Although the percentage increase in annual precipitation is expected to be relatively small, larger percentage increases are expected in the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme precipitation (defined as more than 1, 2, and 4 inches) at daily timescales. By the end of the 21st century the effect of higher temperatures, especially during the warm months, on evaporation is expected to outweigh the increase in precipitation, leading to more droughts. Changes in the distribution of precipitation throughout the year, and timing of snowmelt, could potentially make drought more frequent as well. As sea levels rise, coastal flooding associated with storms will very likely increase in intensity, frequency, and duration. Any increase in the frequency or intensity of storms themselves would result in even more frequent future flood occurrences relative to the current 1-in-10 and 1-in-100 year coastal flood events. By the end of the 21st century, sea level rise alone suggests that coastal flood levels which currently occur on average once per decade may occur once every one to three years. The NPCC estimates that due to sea level rise alone the 1-in-100 year flood may occur approximately four times as often by the end of the century. By the end of the century, heat indices are very likely to increase, both directly due to higher temperatures and because warmer air can hold more moisture. The combination of high temperatures and high humidity can produce severe additive effects by restricting the human body’s ability to cool itself. There is some indication that the frequency and intensity of ice storms and freezing rain may increase. Snowfall is likely to become less frequent with the snow season decreasing in length. Possible changes in the intensity of snowfall per storm are highly uncertain.

Figure 1: Hot days and heat waves in Central Park (19012007), Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

Figure 11: Heavy precipitation events in Central Park (19012007), Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research

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Manhattan Flooding Projection

2012

2020

17%

Figure 12: Manhattan Sea Level Rise in 2012

15

24%

Figure 13: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2020


2050

2080

27%

Figure 14: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2050

34%

Figure 15: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2080

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17


3.

WHERE IS IT?

Upper New York Bay 18


Upper New York Bay The Upper New York Bay It fed by the Hudson River, and the East River as it empties through the Narrows into the Atlantic Ocean. It contains several islands including Governors Island, Ellis Island and Liberty Island and extends to ďŹ fty-mile radius of its central harbor with twenty million people living within. The region is an economic powerhouse, and the harbor itself is home to a diverse but fragile estuarine ecosystem. Both the built and the natural elements will be radically affected by global climate change and its consequences. (Nordenson) As for example the Robbins reef was historically one of the largest oyster beds in the world until the end of the 19th century, when the beds succumbed to pollution. (Kurlansky)

2012 2020 2050 2080

Figure 16: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise

19


Figure 17: Site Close Up with Project Sea Level Rise Following Contour Lines

20


Based on GIS topography and bathymetry, I have recreated Manhattan three dimensional topography. This map bear similarities with the Mannahattan project.

21


Figure 18: Upper New York Bay Topography

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Figure 19: Upper New York Bay Man Made Edge is Unrelated to Contour Lines

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Figure 20: Upper New York Bay LandďŹ ll

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27


Figure 21: Upper New York Bay Navigation Route

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Figure 22. Aerial view of Liberty Island

Figure 23. Top View of Liberty Island

Figure 24. Aerial view of Governor Island

Figure 25. Top View of Governor Island

Figure 26. Aerial view of Ellis Island

Figure 27. Top View of Ellis Island

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Figure 28. Aerial view of Financial District

Figure 29. Top View of Financial District

Figure 30. Aerial View of Brooklyn Bridge Park

Figure 31. Top View of Brooklyn Bridge Park

Figure 32 Aerial view of Liberty State Park

Figure 33. Top View of Liberty State Park

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31


4.

IS THERE A BETTER WAY?

Resilient Thinking 32


33


Research suggests that to restore some systems to their previous state requires a return to environmental conditions well before the point of collapse. (Resilience Alliance)

34


Prevention Strategies

Figure 34: Block Water

Figure 35: Avoid Water

The long term use of sea gates in order to restrain water out of the city can damage the biodiversity of the ecosystem. However, the economic and fast acting of this solution may be applied for instance of periodic storm

Raising off the water can be a short time solution but has physical limitation and does not protect surrounding. Ignoring danger and dealing with aftermath is expensive.

The current flood risk management strategy is based on preventing floods by constructing dikes and other structures. After each flood dikes were raised, people felt safer and investments in the area increased, causing a further need to prevent flooding. This strategy causes an endless need for raising and improving the water defense structures. Restricting the natural dynamics of a river system by canalization and embankments will require a continuous attention, otherwise the river dynamics will damage these works and the river will try to return to its own natural behavior. Because of the restriction of the river to very narrow floodplains, large amounts of sediment have been deposited resulting in a significant increase of their level (Janssen and Jorissen, 1997). The increasing level of the floodplains implies less room for the river and thus higher water levels and an increased flood risk. (De Bruijn) City officials say that sea barriers are among the options being studied, but others say such gates could interfere with aquatic ecosystems and with the flushing out of pollutants, and may eventually fail as sea levels keep rising. And then there is the cost. Installing barriers for New York could reach nearly $10 billion. (Navarro)

Americans spend too much energy and capital on emergency relief and recovery after disasters have already struck, and not nearly enough on anticipating and mitigating trouble. (Kimmelman)

35


Flexible Strategies

Figure 36: Submit to Water

Figure 37: Redirect Water

When relocation is not an option, submersible structure is an unnatural solution. The need of a sub system connecting to exterior life and waterproofed maintenance make this option inefficient in the long term.

Filtering water creates opportunities to control water current and protect surrounding. Redirecting can act as buffer zone and slow down water trajectory.

A resilience strategy does not focus on preventing floods, but aims at accelerating the return to a normal situation after a flood. It focuses on recovery. This means that floods might be allowed but on a controlled, less harmful manner. It also brings along that not only probability of events and hydrologic and hydraulic processes within in the river must be studied, but also the consequences of events. (De Bruijn) A resilient system reacts on a disturbance and then recovers; a resistant system does not show a reaction but just absorbs the disturbance and persists. A tree species could for example survive fires by having a fire-resisting bark (resistant strategy), or alternatively it could burn down and regenerate from seeds with a fire-induced germination (resilience strategy). In very dynamic environments, like coasts and natural floodplains, resilient species dominate, while in stable environments, like rainforests, coral reefs etc. more resistant species will be found. These resistant ecosystems are generally very vulnerable for bigger disturbances. In general resilience” can be defined as the ability of a system to persist if exposed to a disturbance by recovering after a response. In contradiction, resistance, can be defined as the ability of a system to persist if exposed to a disturbance without showing any response at all (De Bruijn) 36


Artificial Reef New York State artificial reefs were developed to increase fisheries habitat. They also provide marine fish and other organisms additional opportunities for shelter and foraging and may increase productivity in the areas where they are placed. Anglers visit artificial reef sites to benefit from the increased fishing opportunities they provide. Divers also visit our reefs for nature observation, photography, and catching fish and lobsters. Artificial reefs are built out of hard, durable structures such as rock, concrete, and steel, usually in the form of surplus or scrap materials. As quickly as the material settles on the sea floor, the reef structure begins to fill with marine life. Fish like blackfish, black sea bass, scup, fluke, hake, and cod move in to check out the new structure. Lobsters and crabs take up residence, and encrusting organisms like barnacles, sponges, anemones, corals ,and mussels cling to and cover the material. Over time, the structure teems with sea life, creating a habitat very similar to a natural reef. Submerged Heritage Preserves are historic shipwrecks and other submerged archaeological resources. New York State and federal laws make these resources the shared cultural and historic legacy and property of the people of New York. Lake George’s Submerged Heritage Preserves opened to divers in 1993, with two preserves - “The Sunken Fleet of 1758” and a motor launch shipwreck site called “The Forward.” In 1995, a third preserve, the “Land Tortoise - A 1758 Floating Gun Battery,” opened. In 1997, a 23-foot-long colonial bateau was submerged at “The Sunken Fleet of 1758” preserve to enhance the site for scuba divers. In 19971998, “The Forward” preserve, now sometimes referred to as “The Forward Underwater Classroom,” was enhanced by the addition of several stations enabling divers to learn about the ecology of the lake. (Dec.ny.gov)

Figure 38: old MTA train car used as an artificial reef

Figure 39: old MTA train becoming a rich reef

Figure 40: Interior of MTA train car artificial reef

Figure 41: Lake George’s Submerged Heritage Preserves

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Hydro Turbines As advanced marine and hydrokinetic technologies are responsibly deployed and new hydropower opportunities are seized, water resources could deliver 15 percent of our nation’s electricity supply by 2030. In 2002 Verdant Power successfully developed tidal turbine prototypes in the East River. By 2015 30 commercial turbines will be fully installed and will use the flow of the river and tides to generate 1,050 kilowatts of electricity -- this power will be delivered to 9,500 New York residents, making it the first commercially licensed tidal energy project in the United States. The turbines will also collect important data about environmental impacts on fish and river sediment and provide jobs to a team of technicians who will maintain and monitor the equipment. (http://energy.gov/) Verdant Power systems operate silently and automatically, fully underwater and out of sight from shore. This aspect of the technology reduces the visual disruption related to other sources of renewable energy, especially wind farms. Renewable and Predictable Energy: Water currents provide a predictable, if not constant, source of renewable energy. This creates an advantage for hydro energy technologies over wind and solar systems, which offer intermittent power more subject to daily changes in weather and blackout scenarios. Verdant Power anticipates that its river-based systems will achieve 80-90% capacity factors, approximately double those of wind and solar power systems. Verdant Power systems are simple and modular in design and can be scaled to produce cost-effective power at a wide variety of sites from placement directly in population centers to use in deep offshore ocean locales. The simple nature and few moving parts in the systems also decrease operations & maintenance costs. Additionally, the systems do not require dams, impoundments or other major civil works, thus causing minimal public and environmental impact and minimizing upfront capital costs (Verdant Power)

Figure 42: Verdant Tidal Turbine in East River, NY

Figure 43: Instalation of Verdant Tidal Turbine in East River, NY

Figure 44: Verdant Tidal Turbine Prototype

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Oyster-Tecture “We propose to nurture an active oyster culture that engages issues of water quality, rising tides, and community based development around Brooklyn’s Red Hook and Gowanus Canal. An armature for the growth of native oysters and marine life is designed for the shallow waters of the Bay Ridge Flats just south of Red Hook. This living reef is constructed from a field of piles and a woven web of “fuzzy rope” that supports oyster and mussel growth and builds a rich three-dimensional landscape mosaic. A watery regional park for the New York Harbor emerges that prefigures the city’s return to the waterfront in the next century. The reef attenuates waves and cleans millions of gallons of Harbor water through harnessing the biotic processes of oysters, mussels and eelgrass, and enables neighborhood fabrics that welcome the water to develop further inland.” (Scapestudio.com)

Figure 45: Wave Attenuation system

Figure 46: Floating Protective Oyster Nursery

Figure 47: Oyster Tecture Section

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Figure 47: Oyster Tecture Physical Model

Figure 48: Oyster section

Figure 49: Weekly life cycle of oyster

Figure 50: Cycle is transported to site creating an oyster nursery.

Figure 51: Oyster Tecture section

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Buzz Holling Buzz Holling is perhaps best known as the father of the resilience theory. Emeritus Eminent Professor in Ecological Sciences at the University of Florida, USA, he is the founder of Resilience Alliance, an organization of researchers in numerous countries, and his theory on resilience is the foundation for the Stockholm Resilience Centre at the University of Stockholm. Buzz Holling received the 2008 Volvo Environment Prize which awards individuals who explore the way to an equitable and sustainable world. Today, with many worrying about global climate change and unexpected natural disasters, Buzz Holling stresses the importance of increasing our society´s ability to be flexible and cope with change. This is necessary for the continued use of natural resources, because crisis, Holling says, is an inevitable part of nature´s way of functioning. (Stockholmresilience.org) Holling explain that systems proceed through recurring cycle knows as the adaptive cycle. The first phase is known as the Exploitation phase (r) as it is of is of rapid growth, the system is exploiting new opportunities and available resources. Then it incrementally transition into a Conservation phase (K). The system becomes very efficient as components are strongly interconnected. The elimination of redundancy creates a rigid platform but is also less resilient. Then when a disturbance exceeds the system’s resiliency, interconnections are breaking apart The system enter the Release phase (Ω) where dynamics are chaotic. From the lose of equilibrium, options re-open and the system enter the Reorganization phase (α) new components and dynamics enter the system. According to Buzz Holling, variability and redundancy are more important than consistency because natural system and diversity can evolve. Biodiversity plays a crucial role by providing functional redundancy but in order to coexist, species must have some level of limiting similarity. They must be different from one another in some fundamental way, otherwise one species would competitively exclude the other.

41

Figure 52: Adaptive Cycle, Buzz Holling

The concept of ecological redundancy is sometimes referred to as functional compensation and assumes that more than one species performs a given role within an ecosystem. More specifically, it is characterized by a particular species increasing its efficiency at providing a service when conditions are stressed in order to maintain aggregate stability in the ecosystem. Such increased dependence on a compensating species often enhances the ecosystem susceptibility to subsequent disturbance. (Holling)


Brian Walker Brian Walker is an Honorary Research Fellow with CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences and is also Chair of the Board of the International Resilience Alliance. A key focus of Dr Walker’s work is understanding the factors that determine how resilient social-ecological systems are when under disturbance pressures. He is promoting learning how to change in order not to change. When a shift into some bad state has occurred, or when it’s clearly inevitable, then the only course of action is transformation into some new kind of system. (Walker) Brian Walker explained that seeking for control and optimal efficiency is unsustainable due to wrongly assumptions. “Current best practice is based on the philosophy of optimizing the delivery of particular products (good or service). It generally seeks to maximize the production of specified components in the system (set of particular products or outcomes) by controlling certain others.” Moreover, optimization “promotes the simplification of values to a few quantifiable and marketable one, and demotes the importance of unquantifiable and unmarked values” “Optimization does not work as a best practice model because this is not how the world works. The system we live in and depend on are usually configured and reconfigure by extreme events, not average conditions […] while minor changes are often incremental and linear, the really significant ones are usually lurching and nonlinear. […] What it all adds up to is that there is no sustainable “optimal” state of an ecosystem, a social system, or the world. It is an illusion, a product of the way we look at and model the world. It is unsustainable; in fact (as we shall see) it is counterproductive, and yet it is widely pursued goal.”(Walker 7) Moreover, being efficient is optimizing elements beneficial to the system which in returns leads to elimination of redundancies. Without redundancies the system is more vulnerable to shocks and disturbance. According to Walker, “the key to sustainability lies in enhancing the resilience of social economical system terms, not in optimizing isolated components of the system” (Walker 9)

Resilience is defined as “the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and re-organize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks” (Walker).

Brian Walker explains that resisting change is to increase vulnerability and limit options. Climate changes is inevitable. The option of ���living with floods” should focus on recovery by accelerating the return to a normal situation after a flood. However, recovery does not require a return to exactly the same situation as before. It is an opportunity for modernization, community straightening and awareness. A study of existing ecosytem

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Figure 53: Topographic Section

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6.

NEW REEF

Minimal Surface Cell 44


Figure 54: Existing Manhattan Edge

Flat, smooth, non-porous and hard edged with a simplified Euclidean geometry

45


Figure 55: Proposed Manhattan Edge

Three dimensional, porous, and soft edge with a complex geometry

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Minimal Surface Cell Patrik Schumacher, architect at Zaha Hadid architect, argue in his Parametricist Manifesto that parametric compositions are so highly integrated that they cannot be easily decomposed into independent subsystems – a major point of difference in comparison with the modern design paradigm of clear separation of functional subsystems. It is the sense of organized (law-governed) complexity that assimilates parametricist works to natural systems, where all forms are the result of lawfully interacting forces. Just like natural systems, The ambition is to enhance the overall sense of organic integration through intricate correlations that favor deviation amplification rather than compensatory or ameliorating adaptations. This might include the deliberate setting of accentuating thresholds or singularities. Thus a far richer articulation can be achieved and thus more orienting visual information can be made available. Parametricist architecture propose that urban and architectural (interior) environments can be designed with an inbuilt kinetic capacity that allows those environments to reconfigure and adapt themselves in response to the prevalent patterns of use and occupation. The real time registration of use-patterns produces the parameters that drive the real time kinetic adaptation process. Cumulative registration of use patterns result in semi-permanent morphological transformations. The built environment acquires responsive agency at different time scales. (schumacher) According to Florian Dubiel, Porosity is one of the qualities that characterize minimal surfaces. This porosity allows for a multiplicity of affiliations in the space generated by the spatial units and also a higher degree of selective visual connections. These qualities are noticed in the system from the spatial unit itself. In this case referred to a component which belongs to the batwing family of the triply periodic minimal surfaces. When the possibilities of aggregation of the spatial units as components of space are studied, then a structure for a system is created. These different possibilities are supposed to be put together to generate a whole. 47

But the fact that this whole has to actually be a space requires for a consistency of a system. Aggregation is proposed as a generative method of form, but in order to create a space, the units have to be integrated and not only aggregated. This process of integration requires that the different meaning or use of each individual spatial unit (or component) blends in intentions and use with the rest of them. A family of components has been generated from the original one to integrate the different uses of space and connections that the user requires. After the different components are arrayed together, they are informed according to the uses that the different spaces and surfaces are going to have in consideration with the client and the site. The spatial units can provide porosity by the diversity of connections that they provide. However, if they need to be taken further for their application in architecture, they have to offer some potential for inhabitation. If a potential for perception has been addressed by providing multiple connections in the space, it is certain that the potential for action has not been approached. (Dubiel)

Figure 56: Funnel Cell

This cell was selected for its tubular and openness quality. The intention was to create opportunities to redirect flows of people circulating and water; but also to connect water turbines.


Complex Spiky

Open Funnel

Figure 57: Blend from funnel cell to spiky cell

New Reef is a model of resilient ood management using minimal surface cell. As Buzz Holling stressed, a resilient system is promoted by variability and redundancy. Minimal surface are highly variable. The owing page is a collection of few extreme variation of the same cell. Furthermore, blending two cells allow redundant morphology and therefore opportunities for similar program. Upper New York Bay ecosystem has been modiďŹ ed so as to accommodate urban life, making it less resilient to climate change. In order to become more resilient, Manhattan needs to retrieve its former biodiversity by emulate its original estuary ecosystem. Likewise, minimal surface cells, estuaries and wetlands share similar porous qualities. Figure 58: Spiky Cell

This cell was selected for its spiky and complex quality. The intention was to create buffer zones and habitats. The complexity of the cell is an ideal platform for marine species to attached on. 48


Figure 59: Batwing cell, 1,0,1,1,1

Figure 60: Batwing cell, 0,1,0,0,0

Figure 61: Batwing cell, 0,0,1,0,0

Figure 62: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,1,0

Figure 63: Batwing cell, 1,1,0,1,1

Figure 64: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,0,1

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Figure 65: Batwing cell, 1,0,0,0,0

Figure 66: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,0,0

Figure 67: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,0,1

Figure 68: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,1,0

Figure69: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,1,1

Figure 70: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,0,0

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Meshboxes wrapping Financial District are uniformly following the city grid and scaled in relationship with city blocks. On the other hand meshboxes around the islands are distributed organically and varies in scales. Navigation routes determined meshboxes edge or center line giving the cell harbor condition.

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Figure 71: Meshbox mapping according to human activity and urban scale

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Extensive studies of water currents force and direction was the major influenced on the meshbox mapping. With the intention of maximizing water turbine efficiency, water turbulence area were avoided impacting the shape of the meshboxes in a deformed and thiner shape. Meshboxes are extending out toward Upper New York Bay Narrows with the optic of influencing the currents before it reaches Financial District. Water currents also dictated the Cell Blend strategy. Funnel Cells, which house water turbines, are located in linear flow areas while Spiky Cells offer buffer zone in turbulence and strong current areas

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Figure 72: Meshbox mapping according to water current

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Figure 73: Vector mapping December 21 at 00h

Figure 74: Vector mapping December 21 at 01h

Figure 75: Vector mapping December 21 at 02h

Figure 76: Vector mapping December 21 at 03h

Figure 77: Vector mapping December 21 at 04h

Figure 78: Vector mapping December 21 at 05h

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Figure 79: Vector mapping December 21 at 06h

Figure 80: Vector mapping December 21 at 07h

Figure 81: Vector mapping December 21 at 08h

Figure 82: Vector mapping December 21 at 09h

Figure 83:. Vector mapping December 21 at 10h

Figure 84: Vector mapping December 21 at 11h

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Figure 85: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 12h

Figure 86: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 13h

Figure 87: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 14h

Figure 88: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 15h

Figure 89: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 16h

Figure 90: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 17h

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Figure 91: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 18h

Figure 92: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 19h

Figure 93: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 20h

Figure 94: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 21h

Figure 95: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 22h

Figure 96: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 23h

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A locust simulating the water current was used in order to redefined the meshboxes in relationship with actual fluid dynamics. The swarm first extends out, then return back to the midpoint of the site mirroring the different stage of water current in real life. When the swarm extends out, it imitates the linear flow of the river but when the swarm returns it re act the change of current in the rivers. This last condition creates the most turbulence which has the most design implication therefore my interest for the second stage.

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Figure 97: Locust transformation

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Figure 98: Circulation Floorplan Close Up

Circulation through the building is non linear. To travel, users have the option to sway from one room to another on the same level or to walk up and down trough bridges from levels to levels.

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Figure 99: Street Level Floorplan

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As ooding danger increase, the second level offers short terms protection from water while street level act as a buffer. As sea level rise, second level will transform into harbor while street level becomes marine habitat.

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Figure 100: Second Level Floorplan

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Water Turbines are housed in Funnel Cells as they were planned to be located in linear water ow (which is the most efďŹ cient condition). Due to regulation banning direct navigation above turbines, housing turbines into cells allows oyster culture outside the cells without potential damage. Tidal Turbine Oyster Nursery

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Figure 101: Multi Program

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Use of salt marsh plant will help increase biodiversity and rebuilt the estuary ecosystem. Moreover, salt marsh plants are resilient to ood and will help buffering water. Correlation between increase in biodiversity and ďŹ shing creates economics opportunities. (dec.ny.gov)

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Figure 102: Salt Mash Plant Location

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Figure 103: Phragmites

Figure 104: Beaded Glasswort

Figure 105: Saltmeadow

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Figure 106: “Green” Plants

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Figure 107: Salt Marsh Aster

Figure 108: Groundsel Bush

Figure 109: Seaside Goldenrod

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Figure 110: “Yellow” Plants

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Figure 111: Sea Lavender

Figure 112: Marsh Hibiscus

Figure 113: Beaded Glasswort

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Figure 114: “Purple” Plants

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Figure 115: Render Floorplan

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Figure 116: Urban Reef

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Figure 117: Bridge

Figure 118: Financial District Buffer Zone 1

2

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Figure 119: Entrance

Figure 120: Harbor

2

1

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Figure 121: Above Bridge Condition

Figure 121: Under Bridge Condition

2

1

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Figure 122: Below Bridge Condition

Figure 123: Under Water Condition

1 2

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Figure 124: Governor Island Entrance

Figure 125: Governor Island Buzzer Zone

1

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List of Illustrations Figure 1: Mannahatta and Modern Manhattan, ecobrooklyn.com Figure 2: Mannahatta Elevation Difference (1609-2009), Welikia.org Figure 3: Mannahatta Digital Elevation Model, Welikia.org Figure 4: Observed annual temperature in Central Park, 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 5: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 6: Observed annual precipitation in Central Park, 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 7: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 8: Observed annual sea level rise at the Battery tide gauge station, 1901-2006, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 9: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 10: Baseline Climate and Mean Annual Changes, Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 11: Heavy precipitation events in Central Park (1901-2007), Columbia Center for Climate Systems Research, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov Figure 12: Manhattan Sea Level Rise in 2012, Anne Pham, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/11/nyregion/an-expanding-flood-zone.html?_r=0 Figure 13: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2020, Anne Pham, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/11/nyregion/an-expanding-flood-zone.html?_r=0 Figure 14: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2050, Anne Pham, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/11/nyregion/an-expanding-flood-zone.html?_r=0 Figure 15: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise for 2080, Anne Pham, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/11/nyregion/an-expanding-flood-zone.html?_r=0 Figure 16: Manhattan Project Sea Level Rise, Anne Pham, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/11/nyregion/an-expanding-flood-zone.html?_r=0 Figure 17: Site Close Up with Project Sea Level Rise Following Contour Lines, Anne Pham, GIS Figure 18: Upper New York Bay Topography, Anne Pham, GIS Figure 19: Upper New York Bay Man Made Edge is Unrelated to Contour Lines, Anne Pham, GIS Figure 20: Upper New York Bay Landfill, Anne Pham, GIS Figure 21: Upper New York Bay Navigation Route, Anne Pham, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 22: Aerial view of Manhattan Financial District, www.guardian.co.uk Figure 23: Top view of Manhattan Financial District, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 24: Aerial view of Governor Island, peopleslibrary.wordpress.com 84


Figure 25: Top view of Governor Island, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 26: Aerial view of Ellis Island, www.politico.com Figure 27: Top view of Ellis Island, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 28: Aerial view of Liberty Island, www.aviewoncities.com Figure 29: Top view of Liberty Island, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 30: Aerial view of Liberty State Park, www.folsp.org Figure 31: Top view of Liberty State Park, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 32: Aerial view of Brooklyn, luxuryrentalsmanhattan.com Figure 33: Top view of Brooklyn, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 34: Aerial view of Brooklyn, www.flickriver.com Figure 35: Top view of Brooklyn, https://maps.google.com/ Figure 34: Block Water, Anne Pham Figure 35: Avoid Water, Anne Pham Figure 36: Submit to Water, Anne Pham Figure 37: Redirect Water, Anne Pham Figure 38: old MTA train car used as an artificial reef, mta.info Figure 39: old MTA train becoming a rich reef, njscuba.net Figure 40: Interior of MTA train car artificial reef, www.mdcoastdispatch.com Figure 41: Lake George’s Submerged Heritage Preserves, http://www.lakegeorgemirrormagazine. com/tag/submerged-heritageFigure 42: Verdant Tidal Turbine in East River, NY Figure 43: Instalation of Verdant Tidal Turbine in East River, NY, Verdant power, http://verdantpower.com/media-rite/?pid=2 Figure 44: Verdant Tidal Turbine Prototype, verdantpower.com Figure 45: Wave Attenuation system, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 46: Floating Protective Oyster Nursery, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 47: Oyster Tecture Section, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 47: Oyster Tecture Physical Model, http://www.scapestudio.com/projects/oyster-tecture/ Figure 48: Oyster section, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 49: Weekly life cycle of oyster, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 50: Cycle is transported to site creating an oyster nursery, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 51: Oyster Tecture section, http://www.archipelagos.co/mobile/index.php?/oyster-tecture/ Figure 52: Adaptive Cycle, Buzz Holling, blogs.emory.edu Figure 53: Topographic Section, Anne Pham Figure 54: Existing Manhattan Edge, Anne Pham

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Figure 55: Proposed Manhattan Edge, Anne Pham Figure 56: Funnel Cell, Anne Pham Figure 57: Blend from funnel cell to spiky cell, Anne Pham Figure 58: Spiky Cell, Anne Pham Figure 59: Batwing cell, 1,0,1,1,1, Anne Pham Figure 60: Batwing cell, 0,1,0,0,0, Anne Pham Figure 61: Batwing cell, 0,0,1,0,0, Anne Pham Figure 62: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,1,0, Anne Pham Figure 63: Batwing cell, 1,1,0,1,1, Anne Pham Figure 64: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,0,1, Anne Pham Figure 65: Batwing cell, 1,0,0,0,0, Anne Pham Figure 66: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,0,0, Anne Pham Figure 67: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,0,1, Anne Pham Figure 68: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,1,0, Anne Pham Figure69: Batwing cell, 1,1,1,1,1, Anne Pham Figure 70: Batwing cell, 0,0,0,0,0, Anne Pham Figure 71: Meshbox mapping according to human activity and urban scale, Anne Pham Figure 72: Meshbox mapping according to water current, Anne Pham Figure 73: Vector mapping December 21 at 00h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 74: Vector mapping December 21 at 01h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 75: Vector mapping December 21 at 02h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 76: Vector mapping December 21 at 03h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 77: Vector mapping December 21 at 04h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 78: Vector mapping December 21 at 05h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 79: Vector mapping December 21 at 06h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 80: Vector mapping December 21 at 07h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 81: Vector mapping December 21 at 08h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 82: Vector mapping December 21 at 09h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml

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Figure 83:. Vector mapping December 21 at 10h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 84: Vector mapping December 21 at 11h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 85: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 12h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 86: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 13h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 87: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 14h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 88: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 15h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 89: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 16h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 90: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 17h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 91: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 18h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 92: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 19h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 93: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 20h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 94: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 21h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 95: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 22h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 96: Sandy Storm Vector mapping October 29 at 23h, http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/ maritimeforecast/maincontrol.shtml Figure 97: Locust transformation, Anne Pham Figure 98: Circulation Floorplan Close Up, Anne Pham Figure 99: Street Level Floorplan, Anne Pham Figure 100: Second Level Floorplan, Anne Pham Figure 101: Multi Program, Anne Pham, Anne Pham Figure 102: Salt Mash Plant Location, Anne Pham Figure 103: Phragmites, beavercreek.nau.edu Figure 104: Beaded Glasswort, www.enviroactive.com.au Figure 105: Saltmeadow, www.chesapeakebay.net Figure 106: “Green� Plants, Anne Pham

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Figure 107: Salt Marsh Aster, gallery.nen.gov.uk Figure 108: Groundsel Bush, buckleyplantecologylab.wordpress.com Figure 109: Seaside Goldenrod, hanstoom.com Figure 110: “Yellow” Plants, Anne Pham Figure 111: Sea Lavender, blog.pacificnorthwestphotography.com Figure 112: Marsh Hibiscus, greenplace-chapelhill.blogspot.com Figure 113: Beaded Glasswort, commons.wikimedia.org Figure 114: “Purple” Plants, Anne Pham Figure 115: Render Floorplan, Anne Pham Figure 116: Render, Anne Pham Figure 117: Render, Anne Pham Figure 118: Render, Anne Pham Figure 119: Render, Anne Pham Figure 120: Render, Anne Pham Figure 121: Render, Anne Pham Figure 122: Render, Anne Pham Figure 123: Render, Anne Pham Figure 124: Render, Anne Pham Figure 125: Render, Anne Pham

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Navarro, Mireya. “New York Faces Rising Seas and Slow City Action.” 2012. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/11/nyregion/new-york-faces-rising-seas-and-slow-city-action. html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>. New York - New Jersey Harbor & Estuary Program. The State of the Estuary 2012: Environmental Health and Trends of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary . 2012. E-book. New York City Panel On Climate Change. Climate Risk Information. New York City: nyc.gov, 2009. E-book. Nordenson, Guy and Catherine Seavitt et al. “On the Water: The New York/New Jersey Harbor: Places: Design Observer.” 2005. Web. 11 May 2013. <http://places.designobserver.com/feature/ on-the-water-the-new-york-new-jersey-harbor/678/>. Patrikschumacher.com. “Parametricism as Style - Parametricist Manifesto.” 2008. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20as%20Style.htm>. Resalliance.org. “Resilience Alliance - Holling Memoir.” 2006. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www. resalliance.org/index.php/holling_memoir>. Scapestudio.com. “SCAPE: Oyster-tecture.” 2010. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://www.scapestudio. com/projects/oyster-tecture/>. Schumacher, Patrik. “Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’.” 2010. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article>. Singh, Timon. “Oyster-tecture: Scape Studio Plans to Build a Park Filled with Millions of Oysters to Clean the Gowanus Canal | Inhabitat New York City.” 2012. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://inhabitat.com/nyc/oyster-tecture-scape-studio-plans-to-build-a-park-filled-with-millions-of-oysters-toclean-the-gowanus-canal/>. Stockholmresilience.org. “Buzz Holling, father of the resilience theory - Stockholm Resilience Centre.” 2012. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandeventvideos/buzzhollingfatheroftheresiliencetheory.5.aeea46911a3127427980003713. html>. Stockholmresilience.org. “Buzz Holling awarded Volvo Environment Prize 2008 - Stockholm

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Anne pham's thesis