rollinâ€™ in the dough Moscow Food Co-op Baking Series Spring 2012
Moscow Food Co-op Class 1: Bread Basics Welcome to the bread bakery at the Moscow Food Co-op. Weâ€™re happy to have you! We are a natural foods bakery specializing in everyday breads that are full of healthful ingredients. While we have many great bakeries in the community, the Co-op Bakery fills a special niche of creating delicious family- friendly sandwich breads, specialty breads, and other gourmet items not found elsewhere in town. We use some of the highest quality ingredients and never preservatives. Bread bakers have the special challenge of working with a product that is alive and has many variables, as well as being able to withstand high temperatures when working the ovens. But it is an extremely rewarding skill to know and is definitely considered an art form. The Moscow Food Co-op wants you to enjoy your time here as well as create beautiful product, and this takes attention to detail and lots of love. So welcome, get ready to get your hands dirty and have some fun!
liquid/dry measure equivalents 1 gallon 4 quarts 8 pints 16 cups 128 ounces 3.8 liters
1 cup 8 ounces 240 milliliters
1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons 1/2 fluid ounce 15 milliliters
1/4 cup 4 tablespoons 12 teaspoons 2 ounces 60 milliliters
1 pint 2 cups 16 ounces 480 milliliters For other baking conversions, visit the following websites:
1. http://www.onlineconversion.com/weight_volume_cooking.htm 2. http://www.dianasdesserts.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/tools.measures/Measures.cfm
bread basics: ingredients flour
Before getting too far into the types of flour, we first need to understand a bit about the protein inherent in all wheat flour (since wheat is the predominant grain in bread baking, unless otherwise noted, the information applies to wheat). Glutenin and gliadin (don’t worry about remembering the names—just know there are two that work together) are two proteins present in flour that interact when hydrated to form gluten. In other words, gluten will not manifest until water is added to the flour. What is gluten? I like to think of gluten as a spider web-like network in the dough that allows the dough to rise, expand, and grow. Imagine taking a piece of dough and kneading it by hand. How does it feel at first? Sticky and lumpy. After kneading, you’ll notice that it begins to feel smooth; that a soft skin-like surface is forming and it is no longer so sticky. That transformation is a result of the gluten fibers lengthening, strengthening, and organizing themselves into a coherent network. It is gluten that enables the baker to roll out a baguette—if there was no gluten developed the dough would simply rip. Now that we have a grasp on gluten, we can look more closely into the different types of flours. In general, flours vary according to their protein quantity and quality, the way they are milled, and their ash content. We will look briefly at the first two factors, and for now, ignore the latter. Since the proteins cause the gluten, you can see that the higher the protein, the higher the gluten. Generally this is true (we’ll explore the exceptions next). So for pastry baking where a crisp, flaky texture is desired, a low protein / low gluten flour is preferred. For bread baking, where we need the dough to be able to stretch and expand, a higher protein / higher gluten is needed. However, this does not mean that the higher the gluten the better the bread. Actually, mid-range protein/gluten flour is best for most bread baking. This mid-level allows for proper gluten formation while still leaving the dough soft enough for the baker to easily shape. Back to the exceptions with high protein / high gluten -- Whole-wheat flour has the entire wheat kernel present in the flour (the bran, the germ, and the endosperm). This makes for a very high protein product. However, the bran and germ act like tiny razor blades in the dough and slice through the gluten strands, which prevents the dough from rising as high as it would without the bran & germ. This is why whole grain breads tend to be denser. But there are ways to work around this issue to make whole grain loaves well risen and delicious, which will be discussed later.
yeast There are two main types of yeast used in bread makingâ€”commercial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and wild yeast, which there are thousands of strains. These two varieties act differently in dough, but have some fundamental similarities. When we realize that yeast is a living organism, we will approach our baking differently. The dry yeast (either active dry or instant) that is often used in baking is in a freeze-dried, dormant state. Yeast requires certain conditions to thrive and they include: moisture, oxygen, food, and appropriate temperature. When these conditions are met, the yeast will become activated, resulting in reproduction and alcoholic fermentation. Fermentation is the conversion of sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This CO2 gas production is what causes the dough to rise. Correct dough temperature is critical for yeast activity. Between 32* F- 50* F and 116* F-131* F there is little yeast activity. Yeast dies around 138* -140* F. Wild yeast is the yeast present in the environment. To capture these wild yeasts, flour and water can be mixed and left exposed. After 2-3 days, the mixture will begin to look bubbly. Hurray, the wild yeasts have colonized! This mixture of flour, water, and natural yeast is typically called a starter in the US. Think of the starter as a pet--- it needs to be fed, watered, and cared for according to acceptable practices. Like the manufactured yeast, it will eat all available flour until its gone, and in the process, the yeast organisms will reproduce.
salt Salt not only helps to bring out the flavor in bread, it serves a highly important function in bread making. Salt slows yeast activity and affects the development of the critical gluten network. Salt â€œtightens the gluten structure. The tightening gives strength to the gluten, enabling the dough to efficiently hold carbon dioxide, which is released into the dough as a by-product of yeast fermentation. When salt is left out, the resulting dough is slack and sticky in texture, work-up is difficult, and bread volume is poor. Too much salt results in very hard dough that does not rise.
water Oh the wonders of water! Water is the one factor in bread production that the baker can use to control the overall dough. The water does not necessarily need to be filtered, but it should not be chlorinated (some municipal water systems). It should also not be excessively hard or excessively soft. The **big** characteristic of the water used in the dough production is its temperature. Our pet yeast likes to be in a dough environment of about 72o-78o, depending on the dough. We have little control over the air temperature of the bakery, the temperature of the flour, or the temperature of the sponges/starters/etc. So we do a simple math formula to figure out what temperature water we should be using to achieve the desired dough temperature.
dough: Now that we have had an intro to basic bread ingredients, lets explore the result of mixing these all together—dough. Some key basics to remember about dough: 1. Dough will begin to dry out the instant it is finished mixing. A skin will begin to form over the surface of the dough. We don’t want this to happen! Once a skin forms, a few things happen. For one, a dry skin acts like a shell and greatly hinders the dough from rising to its full potential. Secondly, once the surface is dry, the natural sugars in the dough cannot react to the oven temps and turn the rich golden hue. Bread baked that has formed a dried out surface layer will tend to be pale, pasty, lacking luster or shine whatsoever. 2. Fermentation happens. Once the flour, water, and yeast combine, fermentation begins. The dough is alive and it will not wait for your schedule. A fairly strict time frame needs to be kept in mind for each dough’s requirements. When the baker adheres to the dough’s schedule, there will be more predictability and consistency in the dough and the final product.
pre-shaping and shaping Firstly, shaping serves more than the function of manipulating the dough into a particular form. Usually when a dough comes off the mixer, it is not developed to the max. Through folding, pre-shaping, and shaping, the baker brings the dough to its ideal developmental stage. Also, pre-shaping takes a lump of dough with sticky coarse edges and forms it into a workable piece of dough. Like our bodies have muscle memory, dough has a memory, too. We do a preshaping to help the dough acquire a memory of which shape it is to ultimately be. For a baguette, we pre-shape the dough into an elongated form, whereas for a round loaf, we pre-shape into a ball-like form. The pre-shaping step is also a tool that the baker uses to manipulate the production schedule. For example, if your second batch of baguette dough is ready to dump, but you won’t have the baguette pans for another hour, then you would pre-shape the baguettes very tightly and let them rest while moving onto the next dough. In contrast, if you need to hurry and get the baguettes in the oven, then you would pre-shape very lightly and start the final shaping as soon as you were through with all the pre-shaping.
desired dough temperature Consistent baking results require many things, not the least of which is consistent temperature control. The importance of spending a few moments calculating water temperature in order to achieve mixed dough in a correct temperature zone CANNOT be overstressed. Once we have the correct water temperature, the actual mixing can proceed. One of the most important skills a baker must learn is that ability to accurately control dough temperature. The benefits are clear and immediate: More consistency in fermentation and in bread flavor, and more predictability in the overall production schedule. DDT (Desired Dough Temp) DDT x Multiplication Factor = Total Temperature Factor DDT is 75°F if not otherwise noted on the recipe Multiplication factor is 3 for straight dough and 4 for one with a pre-ferment DO THE MATH!!!! Total Temperature Factor Minus Flour Temp Minus Room / Air Temp Minus Pre-ferment Temp Minus Friction Factor (Use 26°F) Water Temp is whatever is left after subtracting all factors from Total Temp Factor Example: Salted French – DDT = 72 Air Temp is 54 Flour Temp is 62 Poolish Temp is 61 Friction Factor is 26 Water temp needs to be??? 72 x 4 = 288 288 – 54 (air) = 234 234 – 62 (flour) = 172 172 – 61 (poolish) = 111 111 – 26 (friction) = 85 85 degrees is the temperature we need the water to be to achieve a 72 degree dough.
pre-ferments 1. Strengthens dough structure, aid in development of aroma & flavor of finished bread, lengthens the life/keep time and reduces the overall production time 2. Is made from a combination of the breads overall ingredients a loose batter-like preferment containing equal parts of water and flour with a very small portion of yeast added (.08 to 1%) 3. Increases extensibility (dough’s ability to stretch without tearing) and overall volume. Pate Fermentee: translation- “old dough”; is a piece of white-flour dough that is reserved after mixing and (later) incorporated into the next batch of bread (this dough can also be mixed on its own, this is our general practice) 1. improves flavor and aroma as well as strengthens dough structure 2. of the major yeasted-preferments, this is the only one that contains salt Biga: generic Italian term for “preferment”; is stiff textured, but essentially the same as a poolish with less hydration (a poolish has equal parts water and flour/ 100% hydration, a biga usually only has about 50-60% hydration) 1. contains flour, water and yeast (about .08 to 1%)
Signs of ripeness and expiration in preferments
When ripe: surface will be covered with small bubbles (you should also be able to see bubbles breaking through to the surface, indicating continuing activity of yeast) When expired: If there is evidence that the poolish has risen and then collapsed (you may see a “high-water” mark on the sides of the bucket) then the poolish is past its prime 1. If a poolish is flat or discolored and is more than 24 hours old, throw it away! 2. French poolishes will last 24 hours- discard if not used within this timeframe. 3. Refrigeration only retards the fermentation process, it does not postpone it! Over-fermentation negatively affects all aspects of the bread process and final product, especially taste! Autolyse: the process that allows the gluten to bond; similar to a preferment, it reduces overall mixing time and increases a dough’s strength/extensibility (ability to stretch without tearing)
1. Baked loaves will have greater volume, better flavor, a creamier and more open crumb structure, and more pronounced cuts 2. There is no salt in the autolyse period- salt’s tightening effect counteracts development of gluten bonds that autolyse is trying to develop.
mixing 1. check dough’s hydration and make corrections if necessary, adding small amounts of water or flour as needed-THE FORMULAS ARE BALANCED, but minor adjustments may be necessary; Example: during very humid months you may need to hold back a small portion of water to compensate for extra moisture held by the flour. It is best not to add flour if possible- since it will alter the overall proportion of salt in the formula Preshape: organizes randomly shamed dough pieces (from dividing) into more consistent shapes; makes final shaping easier and more effective. Bulk Fermentation: period that the majority of the dough’s flavor, and structural integrity develops. 1. The ideal temperature (for development of both flavor and volume/gas production) is between 75° and 80°
folding There are three main functions of folding dough during the bulk fermentation process: 1. Degasses the dough- excess carbon dioxide (generated by the yeast) will impair fermentation if not periodically expelled 2. Equalizes dough temperature- allowing fermentation and volume to occur evenly 3. Increases dough strength- by stretching and realigning the gluten strands Final Fermentation (final proof) Phase between shaping and loading loves into the oven; major goal is to raise the bread to the desired degree. 4. If either under-risen or over-risen, the eventual eating quality, as well as visual aspect of the bread will suffer. It is difficult to quantify with unvarying certainty the perfect degree of rise, since there are so many variables involved. However, 85%to 90% of rise is a fair approximation to begin with. (Loaves will have one final “spring” in the oven to gain that final 10-15%) 5. With careful and consistant observation, the baker’s eyes and hands will soon learn the parameters that work best with each individual bread.
Most breads are ready for baking when:
1. they reach 85% to 90% of desired volume (have roughly doubled in size since their final shape) 2. have a loose “skin” on the top that, when pressed with fingertips, does not bounce back. 3. If loaves are developing bubbles on the surface, or are sagging and starting to flatten, they are over-proofed and need to be put into the oven immediately.
Scoring: cuts in the surface of a loaf that create a weak spot/section that allows and encourages a controlled expansion of the bread. Left unscored, bread has difficulty expanding to its fullness and will burst through weak spots in the surface (blowouts) and will generally have a distorted shape. 1. some breads, like baguettes, have a traditional scoring that rarely varies 2. can become a bakers “signature” there are no rules governing “correct” scoring; experimentation/trial and error will ultimately dictate how great an impact different methods have on different breads.
baking 1. “safe zone” for internal temperature of loaf (center) is 180° 2. If the bread has reached the desired internal temperature but not desired crust appearance, give it a few more minutes to achieve that bronze or golden hue. 3. If crust is browning too quickly, or burning, drop the temperature (350° or lower will allow the inside of the loaves to bake without burning the crust)
1. A properly steamed oven results in bread with better volume, color, and sheen. 2. During the early stages of baking, there is a rapid increase in enzymatic activity on the surface of a loaf. These enzymes break down the starches, in the dough, into simple sugars that contribute to the crust’s color. Steaming has a cooling effect on the dough and enables these enzymes to remain active for a longer period of time, yielding a richer color. (In an unsteamed oven, the surface of the loaf quickly becomes too hot for these enzymes to function, and the resulting crust will have a pale lusterless crust. 3. The benefits of steam occur only during the first third or so of the baking cycle. If the baker neglects to inject steam at the time of bread loading, he or she cannot compensate by steaming the oven several minutes later. 4. Always keep a sense of heightened awareness while baking.
eating Most well-made breads should cool fully before eating. Because they have preferments, they tend to keep fairly well - not as well, perhaps, as sourdough breads, but better than straight doughs. We will be experimenting with these breads in the next two baking classes in this series. Once sliced, store the loaves cut side down on a wooden cutting board. If the bread won’t e eaten for a few days, a better storage technique is to wrap the bread tightly in a paper bag, then put the paper bag inside the plastic bag. Leave the plastic bag partially open; the slight air circulation will allow the crust to remain distinct from the crumb, while the plastic will help prevent the loaf from drying out.
salted french This bread is an everyday staple Artisian style dough used to make many baked goods around the world. At the co-op, we make baguettes, batards, loaves, sticks, focaccia and rolls on a daily basis for our customers.
pre-ferment: poolish bread flour water instant yeast total weight
.825 lb .825 lb 1 pinch 1.7 lb
4.95 lb 4.95 lb 1 tsp 9.9 lb
Disperse the instant yeast in water. Add flour and mix until smooth and fully incorporated. Cover the poolish and let sit at ~70* F for 12-16 hours.
final dough bread flour water salt instant yeast poolish total weight yield
1.67 lb .825 lb .05 lb .01 lb 1.7 lb 4.255 lb 2 loaves
10.05 lb 4.95 lb .3 lb .05 lb 9.9 lb 25.25 lb 12 loaves
mix: add all ingredients to the mixing bowl. speed 2 for 3 min. speed 3 for 5 min. DDT: 72* F
bulk ferment: 2 hours, fold after 1 hour. shape: baguettes: 1 lb, pre-shape as rounds on lightly floured sheet pan
and proof for 20-40 min. Final shape as baguettes, put in baguette pans with seams down and proof for another 20-40 min. batards: 1 lb 12 oz, on pan backs with parchment paper, proof for 30-50 min. Spray with water, sprinkle with salt and slash 4 times diagonally prior to baking. sandwich loaves: 1 lb 12 oz, place in large loaf pans.
bake: 480* F, steam 2x
425* F for 18-20 min.
multigrain Gathering whole grains, seeds and whole wheat flour for this filling loaf, Multigrain is one of our most nutrient rich, healthy breads at the co-op.
whole wheat flour When wheat is milled to make white flour, the bran - or outer coat of the wheat berry - is removed. Most often the germ, or seed, of the berry is removed too - itâ€™s at the bottom or widest tip of the kernel. The bulk of what remains and becomes white flour is called the endosperm. In whole-wheat flour, however, all the bran and all the germ are always preserved and milled. You can get whole-wheat milled in varying degrees of coarseness. The most common whole-wheat flour milled in varying degrees of coarseness. Coarsely ground whole-wheat flour (milled from hard wheat) will leave visible flecks of bran in the bread. Finely ground whole-wheat flour produces a loaf with more volume but without the hearty texture of breads made with coarser flour. Whole-wheat flour needs to be used fairly quickly after you buy it; the extra oils generated by the germ tend to make whole-wheat flour go rancid after a couple of months. For longer storage, keep whole-wheat flour refrigerated. Breads made with a substantial amount of whole-wheat flour will never have the volume of those made with white flour. The bran contributes weight to the loaf, but helps neither with the fermenting nor the rising of the bread. If you use 100% whole-wheat flour, youâ€™ll have dense, heavy bread. The most common way to prevent this is to blend in white flour as well as other seeds and nuts, which is how we developed multigrain.
pre-ferment: soaker rolled oats millet sunflower seeds flax seeds water (very hot) total weight
.1 lb .1 lb .1 lb .1 lb .5 lb .9 lb
.5 lb .5 lb .5 lb .5 lb 2.5 lb 4.5 lb
Combine all ingredients. Cover the poolish and let sit at ~70* F for 12-16 hours.
pre-ferment: pate bread flour water instant yeast salt total weight
.7 lb .46 lb 1 pinch .02 lb 1.18 lb
3.5 lb 2.3 lb 1 tsp .1 lb 5.9 lb
Disperse the instant yeast in water. Add flour and mix until smooth and fully incorporated. Cover the poolish and let sit at ~70* F for 12-16 hours.
final dough whole wheat flour water salt instant yeast honey soaker pate total weight yield
1.3 lb .6 lb .04 lb 1 pinch .1 lb .9 lb 1.18 lb 4.12 lb 2 loaves
6.5 lb 3 lb .2 lb .04 lb .5 lb 4.5 lb 5.9 lb 20.7 lb 10 loaves
mix: add all ingredients to the mixing bowl.
speed 2 for 3 min. speed 3 for 4 min.
bulk ferment: 2 hours, fold after 1 hour. shape: rolls: 4 oz, place on a sheet pan; top with oil.
sandwich loaves: 2 lb, place in large loaf pans.
bake: 480* F, steam 2x
350* F for 30-35 min.
Rollin’ in the Dough 3-class series: March 29, April 19, May 10 This 3-class bread baking series includes information on the function of basic ingredients, pre-ferments, shaping techniques, proofing and steaming, slashing and baking. There will be extensive hands-on work from basic bread techniques through whole grains and sourdough starter-based breads as well as small item snacks. Bake your own loaf of yeast bread and learn shaping techniques for other loaves. In this series, you will learn to understand how different ingredients affect the outcome of your loaves. Yeasted Bread Basics: March 29. The most basic of our 3-class series, Yeasted Bread Basics 101, is for anyone interested in the process of bread baking. During this course you will mix both traditional French dough and multigrain dough, learning how to work with basic ingredients and pre-ferments to achieve the maximum flavor and texture preferred. Participants will experience shaping loaves, baguettes, sticks and rolls, as well as slashing, steaming and baking techniques for desired results. You will go home with an informational “Baking Basics and Recipes” packet, beautiful handmade breads and knowledge to bake your own at home!
This resource was given to the participants of my beginners baking class.