Page 1

POTENTIAL

of the

UNUSED

ANNA SOLOMATINA

Studies of the Project Site Co-ordination and editorial supervision: Gabor Stark

Canterbury School

of

Architecture / University 12 / 13

of the

Creative Arts


2


3


4 4


POTENTIAL

Nowadays

leaving

their

footprints without being particularly conscious about the amount of

vacant

wasteland

the

UNUSED

of the

and

contemporary existing

architects

constructions.

keep

Of

on

course

there

is

always

possibility to demolish old to clear up the plot to built new. it

is

worth

asking

before:

Why

not

instead of tiering everything down? of

the

unused

“The

first

and

to

look

at

to

Why all

use

the

existing

resources

not to consider the potential advantages

and

disadvantages?

normal modus operandi* for an architect is to add something

physical to the world; this alternative suggests that, in the spirit of

Price,

a

Though

Cedric

the addition of a building is not necessarily the best solution to

a spacial problem and that there are other ways of making spatial difference.

( Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider, Jeremy Till, Spatial Agency, Other Ways of Doing Architecture)

The

speculations

about

the

new

ways

of

architecture is a very relevant topic in our time.

working

Re-using

and

making

the existing

old building is one of the possible solutions with positive outcomes.

The

work process includes re-usage of these existing buildings, exploiting the

materials that the particular site possesses and taking into consideration all the possible potential that these buildings have, finding new approaches to creating new spaces for public or private needs, making

spaces more

flexible and creative in terms of architectural solutions, moving from the limits of the classical standard term

- ‘

architecture

=

new building’.

5


6


Acquaintance

with a city is different for everyone and depends on

many current things.

But

nevertheless there are some particular

landmarks that meet you straight away as you arrive by train.

For

Ashford started with the trainstation and that building ‘House‘ on top. It is a house indeed, moreover it is the only house you can see coming out of the Ashford International Station. I started my exploration of Ashford from this point and countinued going futher into the city centre and the nearby areas. I took several walks around, having already in my mind that Ashford is me

with the word

in a stage of intense growth and development in many sectors and aspires to become an important hub between the

In

UK

and

Europe.

spite of finding some potential and city voids around the town

centre,

I

came back to the area in proximity of Ashford InSpeculating and analysing all the upcoming development proposed by Ashford Concil, I saw a striking disparity between the proposed and the existed. The most crucial disparity I found in the area of a train station that can be called ‘the entrance to the city. ternation.

7


As Found

8


9


10


11


12


13


14


15


16


URBAN ANALYSIS OF DERELICT ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES AROUND ASHFORD INTERNATIONAL. POTENTIAL OF UNUSED.

17


Programmatic Agenda 3 SECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT demand in terms of city growth and social activities

“Industrial

and

competing

centres

rents in have

been

for three years or longer.

Ashford rising

Agents

re-

port a shortage of modern, good quality property,

with

minimal

void

periods

as

units are let as soon as they come on the market, and difficulty in responding to enquiries.

Start-up

premises and

small workshops are also reported to be in

short

locations,

Ashford,

supply,

as

they

especially do

not

are

those

provide

in

many

that,

like

public

sector

incubators or small business centres.

For

offices, the position seems

less clear-cut.

Kent

industrials, offices. not

Rental

growth throughout

has been smaller and later than for

have

certainly

In Ashford, started

to

in

town

office rise

until the current year.

centre

rents

may

significantly

However,

current

indications suggest that potential demand may exceed supply.

Agents suspect that Ashford is partly a reflection of lack of supply, so that, if more modern good-quality space were available, it could easily be let.” low office take-up in

Ashford Borough Council and partners Ashford’s Future: The Overarching Report October 2002

18


MAKING ANALYSIS OF THE DIAGRAM The highest demand in terms of spaces and infrastructure

19


Programmatic Agenda MEETUPS PROGRAM

About Meetup Meetup is the world’s largest network of local groups. Meetup makes it easy for anyone to organize a local group or find one of the thousands already meeting up face-to-face. More than 9,000 groups get together in local communities each day, each one with the goal of improving themselves or their communities. Meetup’s mission is to revitalize local community and help people around the world self-organize. Meetup believes that people can change their personal world, or the whole world, by organizing themselves into groups that are powerful enough to make a difference.

20


MEETUPS

in

ASHFORD

21


Client: SEEDA Location: Ashford Commercial Quarter Sector: Commercial Start Date: Jan 2011 Cost: ÂŁ182m Services provided: Architecture, M&E, Sustainability, Cost, Flood Risk, Ecology, Highways, Project Management

The

project:

The

brief

for

the

masterplan is to build on the initial

urban

design

of

the

Dover Place area CAAP) to create

an initial

masterplan

the

that

for will

and

(ATarea

facilitate

creation of a new mixed use commercial quarter in the town comprising

retail,

leisure

commercial and residential uses.

22


COMMERCIAL QUATER -CITY PROPOSALS

studioFRACTAL

have been

appointed to develop a lighting masterplan first

and

initial

building

development in

in

designs an

for

the

exciting

new

Ashford.

23


Research Paper Potental

of the

Unused

development is as much an oxymoron as is

(Javier

this clearing in the woods there is no trace of life;

no

surviving

ecosystem.

Modernism

never

reached

such

an

extreme situation.”

Introduction “Sustainable

In

Exological Urbanism” Mozas, 2008 : 3)

(Aurora Fernandez Per, Javier Arpa. 2008 : 7) Buildings and spaces are the reflections of society and its ceaseless flow of development. Every change of the world economy, society or environment tends to leave a footprint on the ‘body’ of architecture. In the middle of the 20th century our civilisation was going through

the

transition

post-industrial

to

a

an

evident

period.

mark

The

in

period epoch.

history

from

The as

a

an

industrial

industrial

epoch

epoch

large-scale

left

production

heritage of this period is vast and consists

of former industrial buildings and spaces, that are unique characteristic

Perceiving

oneself

an

architect

in

general

and

particularly in our time is a very difficult task demandingy4 responsibility

for

every

act

undertakes.

one

building at least one construction on our

The

Earth

the

scale

of

contemporary

of

has a strong

impact that it is very important to be aware of. and

act

architectural

The

speed

constructions

in our world shows how few architects seriously take this impact into consideration.

People

started

building

permanent

constructions hundred of centuries ago.

Earth

buildings on

Since all

that

over

time

consequences.

The

natural

is

close space.

land

to

still existing dates from

4850 BCE.

numerous

This

constructions amount

of

have

building

been

placed

has

direct

more buildings that appear the less pure left.

impossible

Some

of the first

world.

the

durable

One

to

In

some

find

countries

unoccupied

nowadays

it

is

architecture-free

countries that still possess undeveloped land

have a rough, irresponsible approach to the usage of it, considering it merely as plots free for new constructions.

The

responsibility concerning the occupation of land becomes

a more intrinsic and critically important question.

“…This

continual

latent

struggle

existing

between

the search for environmental stability and despicable human qualities such as pride and greed which at times go hand in hand with the desire for power and

World

Humanity. Human perversity, as the endpoint ambition, lays waste to everything which lies

domination by of unlimited in its path.

spacious

of

their

time

and

constructions.”The

generally

relocation

quite

of

robust

industrial

production to low-wage countries as well as the advancing rationalisation of the production led to the emergence of

Europe, North America, and Japan.” (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 9) The post-industrial epoch came up with the very intensive capitalistic approach to the construction process, known as well as a ‘construction boom’. “Construction Boom” - is a term that gives architects hope and excitement about new perspectives, new jobs, new possibilities to create and build one more new construction. From one point of view it brings new spaces and facilities to society, vast industrial wastelands in

it

creates

inhabitants

new of

physical

and

place,

the

development and prosperity.

emotional

forms

From

new

experiences

potential

for

for city

the other point of view,

this is not infrequently a wasteful process, spending the last

land

ambitious

resources personal

of

the

Earth,

intentions,

but

motivated

not

the

by

high

intentions

of

effective and rational change in the social, architectural or environmental spheres.

“Hence

the dominance of aesthetics, style,

form and technique in the usual discussion of architecture, and with this the suppression of the more volatile aspects of

buildings:

the

processes

of

their

production,

their

occupation, their temporality, and their relations to the society and nature.

The

definition of architecture in terms


of

object-buildings

thus

includes

just

those

aspects

of

their footprints without being particularly conscious about

world that cause architects discomfort, because these often

the amount of

unpredictable

Of

they

have

and

contingent

limited

power,

aspects

whereas

are

the

those

static

over

which

aspects

are

course

old

to

vacant wasteland and existing constructions.

there

clear

is

up

always

the

a

plot

to

new.

built

demolish

Though

the

it

is

those over which architects still retain nominal control,

worth asking before:

in terms of being able to manipulate form and technique….

instead of tearing everything down?

Building

potential of the unused first and to look at all advantages

and

spaces

are

context of network.

The

treated

as

part

of

a

dynamic

standard tools of aesthetics and

disadvantages?

and

Why

possibility

to

not to use the existing resources

“The

normal

Why

not consider the operandi*

modus

for

an

making are insufficient to negotiate these networks on their

architect is to add something physical to the world; this

own, and so the examples collated here other priorities and

alternative suggests that, in the spirit of

ways of working as part of their toolkit.”

the

( Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider, Jeremy Till, 2011 : 27-28) Reuse as the Alternative Method Naturally, there is an important aspect of architecture such as ‘saying a new word’, inventing and creating

solution to a spacial problem and that there are other ways of making spatial difference.* ( Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider, Jeremy Till, 2011 : 31) The speculation about new ways of working and making architecture is a very relevant topic in our time. Re-using

something totally new and opposite to what has been done

the existing old building is one of the possible solutions

before.

with positive outcomes.

Every

century our world gets a certain number of

addition

of

a

building

The

is

not

Cedric Price,

necessarily

the

best

work process includes re-usage

outstanding masterpieces and most of them in no way could

of these existing buildings, exploiting the materials that

appear inside or out of some existing constructions.

the particular site possesses and taking into consideration

Sagrada

could never imagine

Rouchamp by Le Corbusier Santiago Calatrava being

You Familia by Gaudi, Chapel City of Science and Art by

de

or

built from old constructions or

all

the

possible

potential

that

these

have,

buildings

finding new approaches to creating new spaces for public or private

needs,

making

spaces

more

flexible

and

creative

being the extension or renovation of existing buildings.

in terms of architectural solutions, moving from the limits

Of

of

course

needs

about

creation,

particular

materials.

architecture

clear

space

and

is

sometimes great work starts.

But

and

creation

This

is

how

then the creator takes a

the

classical

1.

“This

have more than

piece

that are

of

produce

work

that

one

more

is

worth

huge

spending

piece

of

the

resources

concrete,

steel

or and

term

- ‘

=

architecture

is very relevant for today.

6 million empty. And you

chance and the risk is either to come out with incredible to

standard

new

building’.

In Holland

we

square meters of office buildings can do two things

-

you can tear

them down or you can reuse them in a different way.

So I

glass that is useless wastage of material and exists as a

think the task of architects from now on

signature of an author.

make more office buildings but to think and to be creative,

“Famous architects are usually those developed, through practice, a defining character work. The architectural results can be seen

who

have

to their

is perhaps not to

to see what can be done with all these empty buildings.

May

be you can make it into housing, may be there are ideas

the

to exploit them, to use, to reuse the buildings we have

global research of international modernism to the way that

instead of making endless new buildings, new buildings, new

contemporary icons impose standard formal solutions with the

buildings….”

little

regard

for

local

conditions,

because

it

from

is

these

solutions that constitute the architects signature.”

( Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider, Jeremy Till, 2011 : 29) Nowadays contemporary architects keep on leaving

2. (Hertzberger, 2012) Reuse is very sophisticated and ‘delicate’ in some way process. The approach to work should be based on particular

conditions

existing context.

Such

and

limitations

as, for example:

in

terms

“do

of

the

not destroy


the magic of confronting old and new, do not hold positive or

negative

attempt

to

judgement change

on

the

the

space

character

worked

of

the

on

and

do

There

from the

old

into

advantages

new

of

completely

post-industrial

the

one.

different

heritage,

One is

of

that

the building mostly possess a very flexible and vast in all three

dimensions

light

and

very

space, robust

sufficient

construction

supply

of

elements.

interesting

That

Here

paper place

mill

into

meeting,

for

with

railway

space

meditation

open-air

viaduct

space derelict

into

and stage

and areas

retail

pedestrian into

large-scale factory premises into multipurpose space cooling food

towers laboratory

weakly new

into

used

civil

office

effectively

used

former power station into

Coca

storm-water

into

‘the

Living

in the

to

trying

to

think

about

century’s buildings?

We

What should 21st centrury,

save

some

amount

perceive

do we need of

the

tanks

call

centre

building

into

office

block

house of architecture’

cola depot into town hall and civic centre

extraordinary masterpieces of already classic architecture or the works that have been built centuries ago and have this obvious historic value.

But

what about buildings that

are not outstanding masterpieces but just the examples of the typical architecture of

20th

century?

We

now have a

examples of typical residential and civic architecture of the

beginning of

without a critical need.

So

many superfluous materials have

been utilised not for the matter of necessary constructions but

for

the

matter

of

making

and creating a splendid object.

an

impression

So

the question must be

on

“Is

architecture about beauty?

is about beauty.

theatre

and

former

slaughterhouse

into

music

studio

indoor

car

former

tram

greenhouses former

cargo

and

showroom

city

and

art

public

into

sheds terminal

exhibition

into

I

think the architecture is about

centre,

the fact whether it works or not.

gardens

it might be beautiful.

kindergarden

But

This

And

when it works

not an automatic thing.

when something beautiful,

I

think you are lost.

workshops,

housing into

halls

It

is very nice when something is beautiful, but it’s a great misunderstanding about architecture, that it

into

public

raised:

former

annex

last

tend to perceive heritage as either

existing warehouse structure into sport facilities space

former

business

units

(Hertzberger, 2012)

centre

derelict parking into rest area

Patterns

26

we

time still so many resources are continually being wasted

exhibition

tunnel under disused railway into exhibition space activities

as a heritage?

routs

the rest

former automobile parts warehouse into working space derelict

is a problematic aspect of the rapidly architecture.

of

sheltered-theatre

are just some actual

examples of those.

• former

world

Roman Empire. But we run the risk of ending up in the 21st century having practically no classical examples of 20th century architecture. Is this just because it was so recent and we have so many criticisms about it? Perhaps it’s not a weighty enough reason to tear them down completely and to replace them with new ones? There is another value in terms of Economy of Means and Materials which is as well an important issue nowadays. We have so many discussions going on in the architectural world today in terms of Sustainability. At the same

allows

architect to add and to convert the space into almost all possible programs and activities.

demolishing.

changing

are already numerous variations of conversion

mode

for reconsidering the space instead of

Heritage – This

Part 2 Variations of their Mode Switches

architectural resources.

arguments

space,

existing

indeed instead strengthen its intrinsic qualities.” (Aurora Fernandez Per, Javier Arpa. 2008 : 9)

Existing

Weighty

not

Part 3

of

Reuse / Temporality

of the

Part 3 Reuse Projects


There

are at least two possible temporal modes of reuse

for existing abandoned resources.

a new contemporary

The

which

is

first is a more classical and robust approach,

considered

to

long-term

be

use.

permanent

The

one to it and thus creating a mutually

‘relationship’

beneficial

The

second

between old and new.

strategy

of

reuse

I

that

am

going

to

examine in this research paper is temporary use, which at this point in time has gained a lot of attention and gives

project includes a proper reconstruction and revitalisation

an

of the existing structure and attaching a new architecture

real

to it.

relatively new sphere of architecture and that is proved by

The

design mode aims of this type of project is

to achieve a certain architectural aesthetic of contrasting characters material

through form.

and

combining

old

Thus

sense

the

and of

structure,

new

different

epochs

impulse

to

large

practice.

amounts

High

of

interest

current is

research

being

invested

work

and

in

this

all the urban planning debates that have taken place.

Temporary

use

architecture

‘normal

opposition to the

has

emerged

as

an

use’ due to the big demand boom

can be created in a balanced and harmonious composition.

in alternative ways to get an appropriate space.

Some

Lots

intensively growing demand for space for a range of social

of factors should be considered within the design project

uses, club activities, spaces for children and young people,

and

projects have more bold and extreme solutions.

I

think this makes this process more sophisticated as

There

is

various city communities and other general activities that

well as more exiting compared to the designing process from

need space but not for a long time.

scratch.

term occupation no longer supplies adequate conditions for

There

The

system of a long-

a big spectrum of urban activities and programs.

Hence

vacant or the existing building with its function doesn’t

shift

market

properly respond to the needs or supply enough space for

the

local communities.

social

is

also

a

case

Therefore

when

the

building

stands

an expansion the old building

is needed, adding a new part to it.

Instead

of clearing up

The

of

attention

spaces or

that

from

the

private

vacant

social

unpredictable flowing process

These

types

of

projects

are

usually

very

costly.

project and a long construction period.

Certain

types of

estate

the to

and

exploitation of these city gaps and niches mostly for

the existing function and supplying a new one. is always a well planned procedure with a proper design

real

“lie in the shadows of attention”. ( Temporary P.S. p-31)

stand

the plot the project is about reconsidering and replacing

It

formal

of the

urban

purposes

for

an

indefinite

term

and

with

an

- that is the basic definition term. The field of temporary uses is

Temporary Use

not strong and too unpredictable to work out the patterns of strategy and to integrate them into urban planning policies.

investors invest their money and expect a certain outcome.

The

The

is still rather difficult consider temporary uses as formal

program of the future building is usually defined in

advance.

It

can be a particular governmental program or can

programmatic concepts are so diverse and vibrant that it

urban planning solutions.

However,

quite a great spectrum

be a property of some major well-developed organisation.

of existing and developing temporary use sites and related

Both

practises shows big potential and perspectives for temporary

customers are basically reliable to work with and it

can be predicted that the final outcome will be well built

use to become a relevant planning feature.

and fit for purpose.

This is definitely a positive side of this reuse project type. However, it has a very realistic negative aspect. Specificity of the site and certain

For

building

engaged planners of the leftist-scene.

structure

conditions all

make

related the

to

the

building

existing

process

architectural

more

complicated

a long time and partly at the moment still most urban

development use

“simply

developers,

and sometimes makes investors turn their attention to an

woken-up

easier building plot. It is a type that can be called ‘symbiotic architecture’ - which is a way to approach an existing precious architectural object, saving the old structure and attaching

development

to

consideration

decision as

a

makers hobby

municipalities the of

fact urban

of

and for

and

investors some

the

life

cannot

contextual

But

property

that

be

temporary

and

achieved

This

socially

today, business

owners

sustainable

aspect.

see

left-wing,

is

alike

have

successful without true

a for

physical structures, as well as for existing activities and programs.

Traditionally

seen as threatening the interests of

27


owners and developers, informal uses are now increasingly

Second

embraced as valuable indicators for potential growth.

scene as a place for self-realisation and time-

(Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 5) Relevant The

aspects of

main main actors and participators of temporary use

project.

that

Researching occupy

old

the scope of the architectural projects

abandoned

industrial

areas

and

buildings

these are those actors who use the

spending or for a particular kind of hobby. actors but

Part 5 Temporary Use

-

group

belongs

parallel

pursue

to

to

established

these

experimental

they

seek

“These

structures,

social the

freedom

to

practices.”

(Philipp Misselwitz.

life

Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp 2013 : 58) Third group - these are the ‘gypsy’ type of people, like trailer owners, houseboat-owners, people with poor social life conditions. This type is relatively small part and it drops out from the mainstream of temporary use projects.

and then develop their own industries within, it becomes new cultural, innovative and social industries.

Other possible participators Of course there are many other

the sphere of temporary architecture and can be interested

clear that the main protagonists in this field are mostly

Local urban authorities resources, plan and produce

usually, considering these gentrified

and

sanitised

in creating temporary projects.

people who are involved in

Each of them follows On the other hand

projects that come up with stylish form and clear the space

her own interests on the one hand.

for new functions, but do not provide an appropriate milieu

can

for potential users of these industries.

contract or financial incentive”.

“…The

actors in

the new cultural industries that are increasingly inhabiting

“have

his/ they

purely idealistic motivations and act without a

(Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 57)

these former industrial ares reject this gentrified style of

‘revitalisation’,

preferring

instead

a

different

cultural

landscape.”

(Jan Verwijnen. 1999 : 12) Hence here come the main actors of temporary uses scene - the design makers of space and programs. “The heroes of our epoch are the garage do-it-yourselfs. With solid know-how, with ideas and their power of imagination yet

⁃ Municipal agents They organise, initiate and support the social and cultural intentions, help to find opportunity to launch temporary use. In this case agents mostly have a sympathy with temporary

users

and

help

them

to

local authorities and the owners.

find

Usually

a

contact

with few means they succeed in developing the innovations

anything from it, acting from personal intensions.

of our new age.”

⁃ Private In recent

(Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 12) Main actors. 3 major types of temporary users can be defined. (By the Urban Catalyst researchers.) • First group - these young entrepreneurs who use the vacant niches to express themselves, to realise

their

like-minded ups a

28

who very

innovative

community.

possesses high

ideas

They

little

potential

in

and

are

mostly

starting terms

to

find

start-

capital of

a but

concept.

with

they do not get

agents years

some

private

and

official

agencies

have

emerged to coordinate temporary uses due to high demand.

They

work

on

behalf

of

owners

and

municipalities

bring spaces together with temporary use. organisation

whose

direct

job

is

to

It

to

is a formal

curate,

plan

and

support particular promising temporary projects.

The owners These are one

of the properties of the most important participators who are

responsible for their property and take a risk, giving it up to a temporary use. advantages

for

the

On

the other hand there are certain

owners,

such

as

a

positive

image

and


development of location, public awareness of the site and a state of a certain security of the property.

There

Premises

Temporary Use

that led to the

emergence

is a possibility to try to persuade the owners of

the site to take part in the development and consciously

What

to integrate temporary uses in the location’s development.

helps and provides the certain conditions that make these

If

projects

the

temporary

neighbourhood

use

makers

examine

the

surrounding

they may come to the conclusion that their

“act as a motor for quality urban “create affordable spaces for projects from neighbouring districts’. (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 52) • Policymakers and administrators • There is a possibility of multiply reaction of the temporary project can living

and

policymakers of

and

use.

temporary

authorities

administrators

“Depending

interpret

regulations

more

easily

faster?

and

What Where

“breeding ground” for temporary Temporary is a phenomenon that arose

gives

was the major

use growth? due

of

premises

and

technologies, experiments.

conditions

media,

It

is

of

our

network

difficult

era

and to

all

Here

to

lots

information,

of

cultural

cover

premises for temporary use to arise.

creative

the

possible

are some major

ones that had a weighty influence.

on

how

the

in

regarding

fire

The the

1920s

first patterns of temporary use were developing the Great Depression. “In the late 1930s squatter settlements and selfflourished. After World War II, emergency

period and

of

early

built structures

more, temporary uses can be enabled or prevented…

housing

Although

development

Europe’s devastated cities.” (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 9) All developed countries in the world experienced the massive impact of the post-industrial revolution, and is

administrators…

still witnessing the results and remains of the industrial

temporary

uses

largely

go

against

the

classical control and organisational practices

of

government entities, for a number of reasons they have

now

option

become for

Temporary

an

attractive

policymakers

urban

and

use milieus create new images for entire

neighbourhoods,

images

that

are

usually

viewed

period.

subsistence

And

industrial

it

is

food

no

buildings

cultivation

wonder,

that

had

because been

widespread

of

built

the and

in

number

of

intensively

quite positively by the majority of residents as

used at that time.

well as being attractive to investors.

constructions are usually enormously big and occupy a large

Moreover

were

the size and scale of these

• (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 58) “In contrast to classical economic and cultural life, the

scope of land, sometimes in the very city centres.

boundaries

nowadays is complicated and demands attention.

between

suppliers

and

demanders

are

often

not

clearly drawn; a single person can switch sides quickly or even

a

and what

emergence

protection, health and safety, and a great deal

appear

powerful incentive to start temporary use?

the

on

makes these temporary projects possible, what

play

(Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Misselwitz. 2013 : 60)

both

roles

at

once.”

However

the

In in

minded

urbanisation

from

members

good

planning

of

initiators different

method

that

and

varying

organisations can

essential seems

fundamentally

to

support be

improve

utilisation of the derelict place within a city.

a the

situation

the

world

with

these

context

in

architectural terms

of

resources

economic

and

geographical aspects the most active processes are happening

Overmeyer, Philipp The more rich a mix of people triggered and involved in the project, the more interesting and innovative the program achieved can be. The very idea of having freecreative

That

was logical for the industrial production of those times.

the

Northern Hemisphere

growing metropolises in the

now, compared to the rapidly Southern Hemisphere, where the

economic state and architectural resources are not ready to host

temporary

projects.

and

In

historical

terms

of

industrial

uses are much more intrinsic for the

Perhaps

in the

South

advanced

levels

periods,

Northern

of

temporary

hemisphere.

architecture should become less about

producing constant large amounts of

new buildings but more

29


about reconsidering and exploiting old resources.

It

is a

current state of economic, social and urban conditions in

Northern Hemisphere

the

that provides a breeding ground for

a multitude of temporary uses.

-

business of cities

the basis of their tourist attractions

and their unique, competitive edge.

(of

consumption

The

growth of cultural

art, food, fashion, music, tourism) and

the industries that cater to it fuels the city’s symbolic

The decisive impact for European countries migration. Local authorities of the particular city

was

economy, its visible ability to produce both symbols and

and

their planning policies play a crucial role in initiating

space.” (Zukin 1995:1-2 / 1999 - 14) In addition to the traditional

temporary projects.

there

The

fact that many of these abandoned

are

new

currently

cultural industries

increasing

cultural

industries

resources stay untouched and neglected by the local urban

such as design activities, digital imaging and multimedia

development decision makers plays a very important role in

oriented

the

development

‘flaws’

in

policies

becomes

of

the

architecture.

temporary

city a

fabric

most

and

in

valuable

The

the

so

urban

resource.

As

called

planning

On

well

adequate

as

slow economic development, low standards of development in different of

the

space

creative real

and

estate

projects.

for

environments

that

social

make

it

Hence

are

so

industries,

and

prohibitive

to

the

lack

essential

of

for

high get

the

the

rates

a

good

appropriate

young

enterprises and non-commercial public spaces.

growing

P l a ces

that are currently to interesting to city administration come into

the

There

foreground

for

the

vibrant

temporary

scene.

use

is neglect of integration the existing city space and

at the same time a huge amount of non-implemented plans for urban developments. beyond result

reality.”

-

“Planning seemed increasingly to operate (Jan Verwijnen. 1999 : 15). The

Internet

based activities.

In major megapolises ‘mega-industries’.

art and cultural industries are becoming the

hand,

one

despite

infrastructure

for

the

importance

these

of

industries,

creating

there

is

a

lack of means to effectively support an innovative milieu and

a

misunderstanding

authorities.

On

the

of

its

other

importance

hand

already

by

the

local

functioning

and

prospering examples of the regenerated abandoned industrial areas

which

host

these

types

of

activities

show

the

potential to start temporary use independently,

“even in opposition to the developers’ cultural model.” (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 56) That’s how the idea of temporary uses started to arise. Planned

and

Unplanned

lots of derelict spaces and buildings remain empty

and vacant.

All

that encourages for temporary projects to

The

temporary use project is not about elaborating and

appear and to develop.

realising the design project for a certain use.

it is about creating and providing opportunities for users

The

other result of the neglect of local authorities

Conversely,

is the importance of the cultural industries and start-up

to develop the space during the process themselves.

enterprises.

themselves become producers of the urban environment

The

evidence

of

their

growth

is

not

taken

“Users “. Misselwitz.

and communities, that can have a great local importance for

(Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp 2013 : 33) The process of formation of the innovative

the city economy and social conditions, face difficulty in

milieu

mostly

goes

develop ing their potential.

itself

during

the

into consideration in many countries and there is a lack of funding and support.

“As

role

in

of

local

government

30

a result, arising small industries

a set of architectural themes it plays a leading

urban

preservation

As

or

development local

manufacturing and

strategies

based

‘heritage’. With industries

finance,

culture

and is

the

on

disappearance

periodic more

historic

and

crises

in

more

the

enterprises

Mostly

worked

in

a

very

unexpected

development. out

and

Rarely

precisely

way

are

planned

creative

and

defines

such

creative

in

advance.

some certain type of the environment comes together

with the new pop-up programmes which are usually difficult to predict and to plan.

Though

in

some

cases

it

could

become

possible

to

exert


influence

on

the

process

and

to

make

it

work

in

more

making films or creating websites, but are usually not as

guaranteed planned way.

efficient when it comes to finding customers.

presented the idea of transforming this amazing building

There

are possible cases where there is no obvious

danger to the site or that the building should be demolished or

damaged

due

to

current

conditions,

bad

when

certain

into a Creative Factory (Leo Van Loon. 2012)

We

went and

to the city administration.”

research has been made and it has been proved that there is no better possible use for this space for the foreseeable future. data

When

has

been

done

there

is

a

chance

to

prove

further

robust future perspectives and to trigger additional funding for the project development.

Moreover

the program itself

and its audience should be defined so the investor can be more

precise

in

spending

this

funding

for

the

particular

use and to attract a particular crowd.

Due

to this funding one can create more appealing designs

and infrastructure, can develop media and network programs, can

find

and

industries.

Legal

and

Illegal State

all that work supplying research and analysis

arrange

All

these

useful actions

collaborations can

lead

to

with

other

more

robust

One

of the implicit features of initial temporary uses

is a state of illegality.

The first movements of temporary 80s were mostly represented by subcultures or countercultures. Their actions were strongly “oriented towards utopia of liberated society”. (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 13) Obviously their state was unstable and often substandard. Today’s temporary uses are generally oriented either toward use

1960s, 70s

in

expression

of

ideas,

and

personal

plan it more successfully.

environment.

Some European

freedom

possibilities

The Creative Factory

Rotterdam -

in

the project initially

could claim the title of the temporary project, though at the same time it has developed intensively over the last

5

and

especially

to

creating

collective

and

Case study: Netherlands, Rotterdam, project - The Creative Factory, Leo Van Loon, cultural producers and architects Use - Start-up offices and enterprises

or

or

project development and can make it possible to control and

those

neighbourhoods.

projects.

that

prevent these project is

emerges

on

the

not

creative industry market of

Europe.

processes.

In

started when the owner of the

a

developing

“Creative Factory

club that is based in the building and

I

realised that

there are a lot of young, creative people in who need spaces to work.

However,

Rotterdam

are

in

high

have

not

cultural

giving

demand only

by

more uses,

temporary

entire

become

more

enable temporary uses in other ways. “ (Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz. 2013 : 59) However, in some less advanced cities the municipal are

officially

started

developing

projects

and

tolerant in their licensing practices but also stipulate and

unpredictable

and

to

innovative social

countries

cities

policymakers

operates

positive

which

“Many

years and got to the state of a very robust stable project, productively

a

risk

in

eager

to

support

new

bold

and

Conversely, they actively try to appearing, avoiding any uncontrolled

this case the creators of temporary use take the

space

and

tend

to

exist

‘under

the radar’ of formal policies, hoping for a change of the status quo during the project term.

they do not want

to be tied by long-term tenancies because they do not know whether their business will still be around in five years’ time.

What

these people need are flexible

short-term contracts and open spaces where they can meet

Ways

of

Further Development

other companies and where they can get advice to help them develop.

These

people tend to be very good at

The

further

stages

of

development

can

come

either

31


suddenly, completely changing the whole use of the place, or

can

come

(/

incrementally

),

gradually

replacing

one

use after another over a period of time.

could imagine that partial plots, on the commercial strip on the east side of the site, might be rented at a prise

the space and remove their program completely to some other

that start-ups could afford.” (A conversation with Dr. Elmar Schultz, Fritz Schumacher, Matthias Burgin and Philip p Cabane. 2007 : 116) Temporary uses cultural project in Basle on the nt* / site is a very vivid example of such an approach. “nt* stands for non-territorial and describes the open character conveyed by the circa 18 hectare disused rail-freight

location.

deport since its original purpose was revoked and until its

is

The the

major reason for temporary uses to fall apart

appearance

of

new

replace the informal ones.

formal

In

planning

processes

to

some cases the concept of the

planning project is contrary to the existing uses and takes priority.

Usually

the temporary uses are obliged to vacate

planned redevelopment takes place.

Case study: Germany, Berlin, project - Zwischenpalastnutzung Cultural producers and architects (Urban Catalyst, ZwischenPalastNutzung e.V; Volkpalast) Use - cultural, theatre, dance, music exhibition, discussion

One

East Germany’s

Erlkonig

Converting

a canteen into

restaurant was the initial spark for a whole

string of projects, open-air gastronomy and playing fields

“ (A Dr. Elmar Schultz, Fritz Schumacher, Matthias Burgin and Philip p Cabane. 2007 : 116) The example of temporary project in Basle shows now for trend sports draw a large and diverse public conversation

with

most important building

temporary projects can be maintained during a certain term

was reconstructed and became a temporary zone of artistic

and afterwards see a successful further development of the

development.

best

Then

of the

the

“For

a long time it stood as an empty shell.

the idea of the provisional use arose.

Since 2003

it

parts

it.

of

During

the

term

of

was broadly used as multifunctional urban public space and

could

a cultural centre.

ones could be filtered out and developed.

000

“Thanks

to that initiative, over

300 concerts,

visitors enjoying many activities including

the

temporary

use

maintenance, the potential of viability of the current uses be

identified

and

as

a

result

the

most

Some

successful

projects can

definitely show financial potential and that gives a chance

art installations, exhibitions and sport events.”

for the use to become permanent.

( Zwischenpalastnutzung. 2006 : 214) There are also models of compromised consequences. It

investments that will put this particular program on a new is

The Success

can trigger

level of development.

very important for the owners of the site to get adequate returns from the real estate they possess.

It

is fair, when

temporary uses are carefully considered.

Case study: Switzerland, Basle, project - NT*Areal, Philippe Cabane (urbanist), Matthias Burgin (geographer) Use - Over twenty projects from the areas of socioculture

and art

the

owner

tries

to

avoid

the

risks

of

irrational

wastage

of his property, especially when new more beneficial uses arise.

In

this

“If

case

the

different

aspects

of

existing

the demand is there then temporary users could

become permanent users, but only if they are in the position to buy a part of the site at a regular market price.”

It

is

very

feasible,

so

important that

young

that

the

growing

prices

for

enterprises

lease

could

are

afford

Department Head of real estate agency, the owner of site in Basle, where temporal cultural project is maintained, Dr. Elmar Schutz speculates: “It doesn’t always have to be a matter of buying building plots. I

Other

projects

can

play

a

crucial

maintaining public space conditions.

role

in

Created

creating

it.

public space, it can grow and attract a large and

the

crowd,

32

from

tourists.

the

local

Recreational

neighbourhoods

to

and

as a temporary the

diverse visiting

zones with a certain infrastructure

are an integral component of any urban development concept.


Due

to that, local public authorities are obliged to support

and to run them. use,

proving

That

its

makes it easier to maintain temporary demand,

high

topicality

and

popularity

many of

I

sides

thoughts

in

came

terms

up of

against the

contradictory

possible

this architectural segment.

On

feelings

potential

and

development

one hand aesthetics and

among people.

robustness are not the strongest features of the projects.

Case study: UK, London, 100 Union Street in Southwork, project - Reunion, EXYZT, 2012 Use - Installation of Public House grew into Public House

quick result and sustainable approaches to the material and

From

“Inspired

the

other

side

there

are

particular

features

like

flexibility, that definitely respond to the requirements of the environment. a permanent

I

than the first one. way

-

that is where

find this side more crucial for today

In using these I see the pure

features in the right potential.

by the playful aspects in the history of the

public houses, the reunion was an outdoor place where families could meet as neighbours, where kids would enjoy a simple paddling pool or hang out in that playful space…. …The 100 Union now

because

its

street owner

has

has

worked out some ideas.

It moment,

idea in the right

… Meanwhile, how not to The idea of hosting some as

help

to

clearly

been

vacant

identified

for

some

some

years

potentials

and

is all about finding the right but that could happen later on

have a vacant and dormant site

4

temporary use throughout

identify

other

potentials,

?

years

probably

better connected with the specificity of the site and its location.”

(EXYZT. 2012.)

There

project’s

are more than two prospects for the temporary

future,

which

are

completely

turning it into a permanent one.

There

demolishing

are not only

or

‘black

and white’ consequences and temporary uses can be equally valuable despite different timing and budget.

Conclusion The all

major

relevant

aim

aspects

of of

wthe

research

temporary

use

was

and

to

to

look

ask

at

whether

temporary use has a positive future and a strong potential for

our

permanent

still sector

unsustainable in

society.

architecture,

Can

despite

it it’s

become

a

temporary

character or it is just the interim stage as a reflection of our time.

Looking

at

the

phenomena

of

temporary

use

from

33


34


ASHFORD CITY CENTER

FUTURE COMMERTIAL QUATER

ASHFORD INTERNATIONAL HOUSE

ASHFORD INTERNATIONAL STATION - ENTRANCE

ASHFORD INTERNATIONAL STATION

35


CAR PARKS Amount and rational usage of car parks nearby Ashford International Station.

1 2

36


CAR

PARKS

AS

THE

POTENTIAL

OF

THE

ASHZFORD INTERNATIONAL AREA. THE NEARBY AREA AROUND ASHFORD INTERNATIONAL STATION IS SURROUwNDED BY AROUND 5-6 CAR PARKS, THE TOTAL AREA OF OCCUPIED SPACE - AROUND 28 100 sq.m.

OCCUPIED BY PARKING LAND IS NOT OFTEN RATIONALLY USED. THE CARPARKS USE TO STAY VACANT, PARTICULARLY ON WEEKENDS. SOME OF THOSE CAR PARKS CAN BE RECONSIDERED AND BE REUSED OR ADDITIONALLY USED, BRINGING SOME NEW PROGRAM IN THE AREA.

PROJECT SITE CAR PARKS MAIN LANDMARKS AROUND AREA OF POTENTIAL

37


180ยบ viewpoint from ashford international station

1 2

38


finding a site

- 5

min walk from station

-

next after ashford international house

1

2

39


SIDE 1 Approaching

40

to the site from

Ashford International


41


SIDE 1 - CHARACTERS Character state - used intensively, uses: Club “Hustle“ Club halls, spaces for hire, private events and venues. 4 floors

42


Negative buildings

aspect is

-

the

covered

by

most

part

of

billboards,

the that

prevents from finding and exploring the site.

43


SIDE 2 From the

44

bridge towards the town centre.


45


SIDE 2 - CHARACTERS Character state - used intensively, uses: - Bar and Restourant “PLATFORM 5“ - Pizzeria “PapaJones“ - Business Office “ABC“ 4 building, 2 floors

46


Courner Courtyard - Tents for events and Restouranrt “Platform 5“ - every friday

venues for the

Bar

and

and weekends

47


SIDE 3 Exploring

48

the site form the

Dover

place street.


49


SIDE 3 - CHARACTERS Charecter 1 state - unused Brickwall building, from both courtyards, Several entrances

Character 2 state - used entances

partly,

online shop

“Gateway Furniture 2 floors,

Ashford“

Character 3 state - used very poorly, for 1 car or 1 bicycle, almost unused. shelter for

cars and bicycles

for worker of center

small business

“ABC”

1

2

50

3


51


SIDE 4 Approaching

52

site from the

Ashford International House.


53


SIDE 3 - CHARACTERS Charecter 1 state - unused Brickwall building, entrances from Dover Place street and back entrance from courtyard. Former use - Drama school. 4-storey building.

2

54

Character 2 state - used partly, One-storeyed building with roof windows, big gate entrance from Dover Place street. Temporary is used as a space for clup activities and performances.

1


55


drama school building

4

Plans

1:50

4

Plans

1:50

4

56

Plans


1:50

57


former drama school building - interior space

58


59


defining characters as the main aspects of the potential

character

1 -

buildings

character

2 -

spaces/couryards

character

3 -

gaps

60

/

potential points of access


building as a characters

courtyards as a characters

gaps as a characters

61


POTENTIAL OF THE COURTYARDS AS A VACANT SPACE RESOURCES

blocked access to the buldings blocked access to the site territory opened access to the site territory potential for access to the site existing access to the site vacant spaces on the site

4 3

1 2

62


1

2

4

3

63


Dead Ends

64


65


MATERIALITY Sense of the place - Existing

66

texture and material of the site as found


67


Gaps in the night time in terms of form and light Dark spot between two lightened buildings: Club Hustle building and Ashford International House

68


69


70


Buildings

around the site each

have a specific lighting mode, that

even

more

unravels

the

city void in the night.

71


72 -

long-term rent or

How

rent?

communities can be

there any communities

Europe?

programs?

for short term temporary

that demand large spaces

Is

ies or even

triggered from other cit-

communities can be

Ashford ?

What

in

interested in this space

What

COMMUNITIES

communities can need rented spaces and what type of rent?

What

there a demand to have spaces for rent?

Is

DESIGN

be provided in a shared

what extend should the facilities

To

funding?

to attract the

daily/weekly short-term

be

type of rent it can

What

many units of space

can be rented?

How

FINANCE

questions to find a right solution for the project proposal.


73

what extend then should the spaces fit in

or provide their needs?

To

COMMUNITIES

there are certain community groups that

are interested in space?

If

FINANCE

the architecture

what extend some

the sense of enterprise on the site?

social working creative

/

to develop the sense of place

How

accord?

process on their own

to develop the design

communities are able

To

stages can be taken?

incremental, what

design process be

Should

DESIGN


SKETCHES, CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT SPECULATIONS ABOUT FRONTLINE CONCEPT PUBLIC REALM CIRCULATION AND WAYS OF ACCESS TO THE SITE

74


75


SKETCHES, CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT

76

PROGRAMMATIC AGENDA / TEMPORARY <----> PERMANENT


77


USe

of the

POTENTIAL

FRONTLINE CREATING A BETTER CIRCULATION AROUND AND THROUGH THE SITE THE IDEA OF A FRONTLINE, THAT CAN BE A TRANSITION BETWEEN INNER SITE SPACE AND THE OUTER WORLD

78


Outdoor public spaces and new structures - intervantions.

79


4 TYPES OF INTERVANTIONS

2

1

80


3

4

81


4 TYPES OF INTERVANTIONS

82


83


POSSIBLE OBJECTS TO DEMOLISH

84


85


PHYSICAL MODEL Experimenting with material Breeze blocks, acrylic

86


87


Canterbury School

of

Architecture / University 12 / 13

of the

Creative Arts

POTENTIAL of the UNUSED  

Urban Research Book / Finding the potential in the unused, vacant and abandoned areas in Ashford, UK. / Analysis of urban decay / MA Archit...