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Anna Petronio


Aquatic Rehabilitation Center Anna Petronio Capstone Research and Programming Jefferson University Fall 2017

CAPSTONE COMMITTEE CAPSTONE R+P PROFESSOR: Lisa Phillips, IIDA Associate Professor at Jefferson P: (215) 518-3535 E: phillipsl@philau.edu ADVISORS: Jennifer Tinsley, NCIDQ Associate, Array Architects P: (610) 765-6414 E: jtinsley@array-architects.com

CAPSTONE PROFESSOR: Martha Anez Associate Professor at Jefferson E: anezm@philau.edu

Colleen Gorman, MA Autism Services, St. Vincent’s Special Needs P: (203) 386-2732 E: colleen.gorman@ascension.org

Trish Cleary, OTR/L Occupational Therapist, St. Vincent’s Special Needs P: (203) 386-2729 E: tcleary@ascension.org


To my mom and dad: for encouraging me on every adventure, especially this one. Everything I am and hope to be, I owe to you. I love you.

My wish for you is that you continue. Continue to be who and how you are, to astonish a mean world with your acts of kindness.� - Maya Angelou


Introduction Section 1

Historiography Section 2

Case Study - Part 1 Section 3

Case Study - Part 2 Section 3

Case Study - Part 3 Section 3

Case Study - Part 4 Section 3

Qualitative + Technical Criteria Section 4


CONTENTS Topical Explorations

Section 5

Existing Site + Context

Section 6

Program Develoment

Section 7

Building Analysis

Section 8

Project Research Summary Section 9

Bibliography + Appendix Section 10


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Introduction

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"I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel." - Maya Angelou

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INTRODUCTION CONTEXT For the profoundly disabled, there are days when everything runs smoothly and other days when it is a little harder to cope. This unsteadiness in well-being can cause stress, agitation and physical pain. During these occurrences, aquatic therapy can be the link to healing. In the state of Pennsylvania, there are 3,369,447 children under the age of 21.1 While the total number of children makes up more than 27% of the entire population, over 14% of children live with a disability.2 5

With more than half of the pediatric population living with some form of a disability, it is necessary to develop a place where they can seek relief. In children, aquatic therapy “has been shown to increase joint mobility and muscle flexibility, improve head and trunk control, increase attention, and improve sensorimotor integration�.3 Evidence has indicated that aquatic therapy is becoming a more desired practice, as its results have proven itself in the healing field. In 2004, there were only 5.8 million people participating in aquatic rehabilitation

activities. However, by 2007, this number rose to over 7.2 million.4 In view of the fact that aquatic therapy is a newly desired healing method, it is fitting that this project emphasizes its practices.

D E S I G N G OA L S The main goal of this project is to design an aquatic outpatient therapy center for profoundly disabled children ages 3 to 21. This facility will create a space where family members can work with their loved ones to heal. The project will provide


Fig. 4

an encouraging environment and promote positive growth for the children who visit. Overall, the facility will establish a sense of community and facilitate interactions among its visitors.

R E S E A RC H When completing research on the topic of aquatic therapy, several different mediums will prove to be valuable. Along with using sites dedicated to the study of aquatic therapy, journals and books on the subject will also be consulted. When completing research,

the high quality of the information is crucial. While these resources will provide scholarly information on the topic, the most effective data will come from first-person observation. In order to complete this project, there will be several case studies that need to be visited. These visits will provide the opportunity to observe how aquatic therapy is practiced and how its patients respond.

the users of the space (the patients and employees) and their needs. Along with becoming a resource, this facility will serve as a place of healing for the children and families who are affected by disability. By employing Universal Design concepts, the designer will apply their knowledge to benefit the users of the space. A responsibility then falls on the designer to deliver a safe, reliable space.

ROLES

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y

The designer of the project will play a key role in creating the link between

The final product of the project will serve as a symbol of sustainability 6


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and conservation. The building will be an adaptive re-use project. Existing materials and finishes will be repurposed into the new project. The open landscape surrounding the site will serve as a home to rainwater collection cisterns, solar panels and community gardens. Inside the space, natural light will be taken advantage of and artificial lighting will be strategic and sparse.

CLIENT Fig. 6 Fig. 7

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For this aquatic therapy center, the hypothetical client is the Federation for Children with Special Needs. Their mission is to provide “information, support and assistance to parents of children with disabilities, their professional partners, and their communities”.5 The company believes placing value on children is the hope for an evolved humankind. In view of the fact they support the health, education and development of their children, the federation places a large amount of importance on the role of parents. The proposed project will obtain many of its goals and design objectives from the federation’s mission, due to its commitment to improving the wellbeing of the disabled in society.6

USERS The users of this space will be children from ages 3 to 21 who are diagnosed as profoundly disabled. These children will have a variety of disabilities including Cerebral Palsy, Autism, Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis, Sensory Processing Issues and many others. The children who visit the facility will have a degree of dependency on their loved ones or care takers, which means there needs to be a concern in the design for the guests. The main design objectives will revolve around the patients and their families, creating a space where they can come together, receive therapy and learn how to live beyond their disability. Another user group of this facility will be the occupational and physical therapists who enhance the well-being of the patients. The design objectives of the project will reflect the therapist’s needs, which will include abundant therapy equipment, ample space to achieve healing, and the design of an overall remedial facility.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC This aquatic therapy facility will not address any specific socio-economic conditions. The services it provides will


be attainable by all income groups. Any patient visiting the facility will attend therapy on the recommendation of their pediatrician or specialist. Due to its preventative nature, therapy sessions will be covered by insurance policies. The goal of the facility is to have the patients attending have little to no out of pocket expenses. There are no budgetary concerns for this project. The equipment needed to benefit clients is costly, so the project will rely on private donors and outside organizations. These benefactors will donate money to build the facility, and also to maintain its state and develop new programs. In regards to design selections, the standards for healthcare design including materials, finishes and furniture will need to be met.

facility will be of rare nature, there is no need to define any other demographics. Although not mandatory, the project will adhere to Universal Design standards. Some of these principles include that the facility requires low physical effort, includes flexibility in use, and is equitable in use.7 Since the users of the space will be profoundly disabled, these three

principles will be key in designingFig. the9 space. Although not definite, there will need to be some psychological design considerations for patients with sensory and tactile disorders. In regards to cultural context, there will be none present in the design. However, the project will aim to reflect its landscape and the patients visiting it.

DEMOGRAPHICS The demographic group includes children ages 3 to 21. Considering the aquatic therapy facility will be of rare nature, there is no need to define any demographics. The project will adhere to Universal Design standards. To accomodate the profoundly disabled, the three key principles include that the facility requires low 8


Fig. 10

physical effort, includes flexibility in use, and is equitable in use.7 There will need to be some psychological design considerations for patients with sensory and tactile disorders. In regards to cultural context, there will be none present in the design. However, the project will aim to reflect its landscape and the patients visiting it.

"In the ancient Sumerian language, the first letter of the alphabet, A, was the word for water and also signified regeneration. Water provides us the means to communicate with each other, with ourselves, with our planet and with the cosmos and to inspire change." - Sara Firman-Pitts 9


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 U.S. Census. July 1, 2016. Raw data. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 2 Yang, K. Lisa, and Hock E. Tan. 2015 Disability Status Report - Pennsylvania . Report. Yang-Tan Institute on Employment and Disability , Cornell University . Ithaca, NY:Cornell University, 2015. 5. 2016. Accessed August 10, 2017. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/StatusReports/2015-PDF/2015-StatusReport_ PA.pdf?CFID=637099. 3 Kucher, Greta , MOTS, Kelsey Moore, MOTS, and Rachel Rodia, MOTS. “Aquatic Therapy for Children.” Edited by Christy Szczech Moser, PhD, OTR, FAOTA. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools & Early Intervention 8, no. 4 (December 11, 2015): 277-91. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.tandfonline.com. ezproxy.philau.edu/doi/full/10.1080/19411243.2015.1113104?scroll=top&need Access=true. 4 Salzman, Andrea , MS, PT. “Aquatic Exercise Statistics - How Popular is Non-swimming Aquatic Exercise?” The Aquatic Therapist. April 30, 2009. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.aquatictherapist.com/index/2009/04/aquatic-exercise-statistics-how-popular-is-nonswimming-aquatic-exercise.html. 5 “About Us - Our Mission .” Federation for Children with Special Needs. 2017. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://fcsn.org/about-us/. 6 IBID. 7 “The 7 Principles.” The Centre for Excellence in Universal Design. 2014. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://universaldesign.ie/What-is-Universal-Design/The-7-Principles/.

I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - 11 Ft Deep Pool, Digital Image, PicQuery, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/GN-U63hmfQ8/maxresdefault.jpg Fig. 2 - Girl Smiling in Pool, Digital Image, St. Edmund’s, Accessed August 30, 2017. http://www.stedmondshome.org/tour-our-home/ Fig. 3 - Baby with Goggles Underwater, Digital Image, CBS Miami, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://cbsmiami.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/kid-swim-lesson_.jpg Fig. 4 - Boy Walking in Physical Therapy, Digital Image, CHOC Children’s, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://www.choc.org/programs-services/rehabilitation/physical- therapy-cancer-treatment/ Fig. 5 - Boy Laughing with Therapist, Digital Image, St. Edmund’s, Accessed August 30, 2017. http://www.stedmondshome.org/tour-our-home/ Fig. 6 - Therapist Holding Boy’s Hands, Digital Image, Semester in Washington, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://www.semesterinwashington.org/upload/images/2017/3/ aquatic-pool-therapy-center-for-pediatric-therapy.jpg Fig. 7 - Boy Looking at Therapist, Digital Image, St. Edmund’s, Accessed August 30, 2017. http://www.stedmondshome.org/tour-our-home/ Fig. 8 - Watsu Therapy for Cerebral Palsy, Digital Image, Aqua for Balance, Accessed August 30, 2017. http://aqua4balance.com/aquatic-study-research/cerebral-palsy/ watsu-therapy-for-cerebral-palsy.html Fig. 9 - Heal the Mind, Digital Image, The Love Warrior, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://thelovewarrior.com/ Fig. 10 - Therapist and Patient Playing in Water, Digital Image, Children’s Therapy T.E.A.M., Accessed August 30, 2017. http://www.childrenstherapyteam.com/wp- contentuploads/2017/02/ChildrensTEAM-5824-1-3.jpg

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Historiography

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"Our bodies are composed primarily of water. Thus, for many, water is a natural place for healing, rehabilitation and exercise." - Jean Irion

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HISTORIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Throughout the existence of human life, water has been used as a medium of therapy in countless cultures.1 Due to its long history, the practice holds numerous titles, including hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, water therapy, spa therapy, aqua therapy, water gymnastics and water exercise.2 Modern medicine now refers to the practice as aquatic rehabilitation.

ANCIENT TIMES Serving as one of the most extensively historical therapeutic practices, the 15

first evidence of aquatic therapy appears as early as 2400 BC. Believe it or not, the birth of Christ occurred after the first public bath system was built. As its benefits became known, people used water for religious, healing, and therapeutic purposes all over the Far East, Middle East, and southern Asia. In fact, it is believed that it was the baths and springs of Ancient Greece that produced the early schools of medicine.3 Using these learning tools, the Greeks discovered that there was a strong correlation between the state of mind and the

physical well-being of their people.4 As the Roman Empire emerged into power, pools were beginning to be used for hygiene, bathing and even injury prevention or treatment. The Romans evolved the functions of the public bath systems to include pools that ranged in temperature. With pools varying from extremely hot to incredibly cold water, they were able to achieve different experiences based on the patron’s needs. While these are massive accomplishments, the Roman’s favorite past-time continued to be inert activities, including sitting


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and drinking around the pools. As the Roman Empire came to fruition, a large amount of progress was lost during the Middle Ages. When the strong influence of Christianity emerged, public baths were banned and eventually disappeared altogether. A common belief during the Middle Ages was that using an outside source for healing, such as water, was a pagan act. These theories continued to be practiced well into the 15th century before water was re-introduced as a healing medium.5

1 7 th + 1 8 th C E N T U R I E S A major perception of 17th and 18th century therapy practices included that rehabilitation via pool was not socially acceptable. However, Sigmund Hahn, a German physician, developed the treatment of “hydrotherapy” early into the 1700s. The therapy consisted of “external application of water in any form for the treatment of disease”6. During this period, most physicians in Europe spent most of their time on diagnosing illnesses, rather than developing cures. However, Winterwitz, a professor, founded the

Institute for Hydrotherapy in Vienna in the mid-1850s. The Austrian educator dedicated the whole of his professional life to completing research on whirlpool baths and underwater exercise. One of the first Americans to begin researching hydrotherapy was Dr. Simon Baruch, who was inspired by Dr. Winterwitz’s findings and traveled to Europe to study under him.7

DEVELOPMENTS Early into the development of the United States, Native Americans 16


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were using the magical, religious and hygienic effects of water to benefit their people.8 White settlers began to visit these natural springs in the mid1750s. Perhaps one of the most famous natural springs was Saratoga Springs in New York, which was established in 1794. Able to accommodate 2,000 people, the facility was a permanent structure that was able to provide services to disabled patrons. The 1900s continued to bring success to hydrotherapy spas all over Europe; however, usage in the United States was quickly declining.9 Aiming to identify the source behind diminishing spa interest, the president of the American Congress of Physical Therapy appointed a committee in 1937. The team was recognized when they established a list of approved health resorts and standards, which lead them to become advisors to the Council on Medicine and Rehabilitation of the American Medical Association.10

2 0 th C E N T U RY The early part of the 20th century was host to the concept of hydrogymnastics, which was the closest precursor to the modern practice of 17


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aquatic therapy.11 Hydro-gymnastics was the first aquatic treatment that uses exercise, as opposed to passive being, in the water.12 When Charles Lowman visited a school for crippled children in Chicago in 1924, he was fascinated by the treatment activities in wooden tanks. Lowman then went on to convert a lily pond into two treatment pools. Noting the positive experience he witnessed in Chicago, Lowman established a pool for paralysis treatment and another for infectious diseases, which used salt water. Shortly after Lowman presented his research at the American Orthopedic Society meeting in Atlanta, Franklin D. Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio. The President served as a massive catalyst for popularization of therapeutic swimming and the organization of medical personnel that were qualified to treat patients.13

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The economy and involvement in war presented a decline in aquatic therapy in the 1950s and 1960s. After the mid-century depicted a deterioration in aquatic therapy, the treatment method resurged in the 1970s. Water aerobics became a staple routine to maintain fitness for 18


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those who were unable to tolerate high-impact work-out methods.14 The arrival of the 1990s introduced new interest in aquatic therapy as a part of in patient and outpatient rehabilitation. Existing rehab facilities found ways to upgrade and renovate to include aquatic accommodations.15

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O RG A N I Z AT I O N S In response to the high demand for aquatic therapy, the Aquatic Physical Therapy Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was founded in 1992. Along with numerous other professional organizations, the APTS worked to improve standards and create educational opportunities.16

Water is as much a part of our language as it is a part of our bodies and our planet. - Sara Firman-Pitt


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 Brody, Lori Thein., and Jean M. Irion. Aquatic Exercise for Rehabilitation and Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. 2009. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=6K8Zj6TR_24C&dq=history of aquatic therapy jean irion&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 2 “Ultimate Guide to Aquatic Therapy.” HydroWorx. 2017. Accessed August 30, 2017. https://www.hydroworx.com/research-education/additional-resources/ aquatic-therapy-guide/. 3 Brody 4 “Ultimate Guide to Aquatic Therapy.” 5 Brody 6 DeLisa, Joel A., Bruce Michael Gans, and Nicholas E. Walsh. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 2010. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=1sWk1GYCvKoC&dq=history of aquatic therapy&source=gbs_ navlinks_s. 7 Brody 8 “Ultimate Guide to Aquatic Therapy” 9 Brody 10 DeLisa 11 “Ultimate Guide to Aquatic Therapy” 12 DeLisa 13 Brody 14 DeLisa 15 Brody 16 IBID I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Tindell, Norm . Drew Quarles (left) and Kevin Rogers assist Dave Millett in the pool. October 1, 1984. Fort Worth Star-Telegram Collection. Series 6: Negatives, Texas Disability History Collection, Fort Worth. Accessed August 29, 2017. http://library.uta.edu/txdisabilityhistory/img/10014544. Fig. 2 - Luyken, Jan. “Aachen Kaiserbad” (German Bathhouse), 1682. Digital Image. SpaGuide. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://www.spaguide.co.uk/ blog/should-men-spa/ Fig. 3 - “Hydrotherapy Cures at Grafenberg, Germany, Full Bath (left) and Luftbad (right)”, 1860. Digital Image. Wellcome Images. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/V0016690.html Fig. 4 - Aerial Neighborhood View, photo courtesy of Google Fig. 5 - “Hydrotherapy Cures at Grafenberg, Germany, Immersion (left) and Abdomen Shower (right)”, 1860. Digital Image. Wellcome Images. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/image/V0016694.html Fig. 6 - “Marny Eulberg”, 1950. Aberdeen, South Dakota. PolioPlace. Accessed August 29, 2017. http://www.polioplace.org/history/artifacts/hubbard-tank Fig. 7 - Patients in bath, 1900. Digital Image. Exposing Truth. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://www.exposingtruth.com/13-shocking-pictures-showing- how-we-used-to-treat-the-mentally-ill/ Fig. 8 - “Child with polio being treated with hydrotherapy”, 1948. The Hospital for Sick Children Archives, Toronto, Canada. Health Heritage Research. Accessed August 29, 2017. http://www.healthheritageresearch.com/Polio-Vaccine/gallery/pages/HSC-973.39.1.html. Fig. 9 - Kellogg, John Harvey. “Rational Hydrotherapy”. 1902. Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School, Philadelphia. In Wikimedia Commons. August 25, 2015. Accessed September 5, 2017. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rational_ hydrotherapy_-_a_manual_of_the_physiological_and_therapeutic_effects_of_hydriatic_procedures,_and_the_technique_of_their_application_ in_the_treatment_of_disease_(1902)_(14760497696).jpg.

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Part 1

St. Vincent’s Special Needs - 95 Merritt Boulevard - Trumbull, CT - 28,000 sq.ft. 22


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OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION To gain information about aquatic therapy clinics, St. Vincent’s Special Needs Services was consulted. St. Vincent’s is a 28,000-square foot facility located in Trumbull, Connecticut. This building serves as a school for children with special needs, as well as an outpatient rehabilitation facility. Considering this facility is designed for disabled children ages 3 to 21, the designer’s choice to make the facility one floor supports the uses of the space. The original building was built in 1991 by an unknown architect. 23

However, the new aquatic center was an addition completed in 2014 by Bismarck Construction. Based on the observations made during the case study visit, the new aquatic center justifies a high construction budget. According to the contractor’s website, the recent addition to the facility cost the school around $1.3 million.

J U S T I F I C AT I O N The selection of St. Vincent’s Special Needs Services is very well justified. Similarly to St. Vincent’s, the proposed project aims to benefit children living

with profound disabilities. These disabilities include conditions like cerebral palsy, sensory processing disorders, Downs Syndrome, Autism and traumatic brain and spinal injuries. Taking into account the facilities and visitors at St. Vincent’s, the building is unique in several ways. One of the most stimulating aspects of the pool at St. Vincent’s is that it has the ability to adapt to every patient who visits. Made by HydroWorx, the pool has a zero-depth floor, meaning that the bottom of the pool can be brought up to ground level and


Fig. 3

then dropped to any depth the user requires. This feature is most useful for patients that are confined to a wheelchair. When a patient uses the pool, they are moved to a waterproof wheelchair and then rolled onto the raised pool floor. The pool operator then lowers the therapist and patient into the pool, which requires little effort. The aquatic therapy center at St. Vincent’s is an excellent case study because it is immersed in solutions for contemporary design issues. The facility uses ADA compliances and Universal Design principles to ensure that the pool and its ancillary spaces are accessible and safe to all users.

USERS The owner, client and users are all unique in their intents for the space. The owner of this building is the FEROLETO Children’s Developmental Center. While the FEROLETO building was established in 1991, the Special Needs subsidiary of St. Vincent’s Health Services has been in existence since 1955. That being said, both the FEROLETO Children’s Developmental Center and St. Vincent’s Health Services are responsible for the upkeep and funding of the building.

After some observation, the users and clients of this space are the disabled children who visit the facility to seek treatment. The family, loved ones and guardians are considered to be users and clients of the space. Some additional users of the space include the occupational and physical therapists and the administrative faculty.

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SITE + CONTEXT The location of St. Vincent’s Special Needs is in Trumbull, Connecticut., The setting for the facility can be described as suburban. The campus of St. Vincent’s Special Needs is relatively secluded, as it is situated at the end of a street with no outlet. However, this quiet street is located in an industrial park and is adjacent to Unilever’s national headquarters complex. While the socio-economic conditions of the neighborhood are not obvious, assumptions can be made. After deliberating on the economic status of the neighborhood, the facility is in a middle-working class area. The industrial park is the site of companies ranging from research labs and data centers to a gym and newspaper publisher.

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DESIGN CONCEPT + STYLE STYLE The style of the building can be categorized as industrial. The concept for the aquatic center addition was to give the students at St. Vincent’s a place to go to receive aquatic therapy. This place was required to become a safe, state-of-the-art and unique facility. The exterior and interior design styles of the main building and aquatic center at St. Vincent’s are extremely different. The exterior of the main building can be classified as a mid-century modern office building. Using a masonry construction method, 25

the facility uses sandstone brick to fabricate the exterior. The brick protects the interior of the building, but does not serve any purpose related to climate. The interior of the main building has a typical healthcare and education atmosphere, with long hallways and classrooms. Meanwhile, the exterior of the new aquatic center is modern and sleek. The designers opted to clad the exterior of the new addition with a stained walnut wood. This species was selected because it can withstand weather and assists in warming up the industrial style

of the building. The interior of the aquatic center matches the exterior in its industrial approach and has many exposed structural systems.

O RG A N I Z AT I O N St. Vincent’s Special Needs is a single-floor facility that is made up of private spaces. This is because St. Vincent’s services a population with severe disabilities and most conditions will benefit from privacy. Although the building as a whole can be defined as private, there is still a separation of public and private spaces within


Fig. 8

the building. When analyzing the floorplan, it appears that public spaces are located in the center of the building and private spaces exist around the perimeter. After investigation of the spaces, there are several adjacencies. The private administrative spaces (offices, conference room, mechanical) are all located near each other and span the East and West boundaries of the building. The classrooms, public in nature, are also adjacent to each other. These spaces are situated within the center of the building and share common toilet rooms.

C I RC U L AT I O N Considering there is only one floor, vertical circulation is non-existent. However, horizontal circulation is present throughout the space. The main method of circulation through the building is around the block where classrooms are located. As previously mentioned, classrooms are located within the center of the building. Each classroom has two doors, one for circulation into the main hallway and another for circulation into other classrooms. Although the hallways are the main form of circulation, there are

Fig. 9

also several small corridors that lead to administrative and other private spaces. The wayfinding system in place is extremely successful. Each corridor as signage at the end so that visitors know exactly which direction they should be headed. In the major hallways, signage protrudes from above door frames so that room names can be seen from a distance. Along with the name of the room or area, all signage throughout the hospital includes Braille.

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Fig. 10

CONSTRUCTION Based on the emergency egress plan, the structural system of the main building is supported by loadbearing walls. The system utilized for St. Vincent’s is a typical masonry construction using brick. Unlike other climates, Connecticut does not need to prepare for extreme weather like hurricanes or tornadoes. Therefore, the load-bearing wall structural system is appropriate for the geographical location. In the aquatic center, the structural system consists 27

of cross-bracing. The HVAC system currently in place in the pool room are exposed units. This system is not successful for the needs of the users. Because of the heat and humidity in the pool room, the A/C system is constantly having problems keeping up and requires maintenance quite often. The environmental systems are not informed by the climate or geographic location. Due to solar heat gain into the space, the HVAC system is not able to control the temperature in the aquatic facility.

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y After investigation, it was found that St. Vincent’s Special Needs does not integrate sustainable design principles into its holistic approach. The facility does, however, have numerous design add-ons. These include the use of natural daylight, operable windows, indoor plantings, motion sensors and sustainable artificial lighting options. The climate in southern Connecticut is temperate and the operable windows allow the facility to take advantage of fresh air as much as they can.


Fig. 11

S PA C E

A P P R O X . S . F.

ADJACENCIES

P R I VAC Y

ACOUSTICS

Entry/Reception

600 sq.ft.

Offices, Support

Public

Quiet/Moderate

Offices

3,160 sq.ft.

Entry, Classrooms

Private

Quiet

Classrooms

5,675 sq.ft.

Support, Cafeteria

Public

Loud

Treatment Rooms

825 sq.ft.

Classrooms

Semi-private

Moderate/Loud

Cafeteria

2,120 sq.ft.

Pool, Classrooms

Public

Loud

Pool Room

1,075 sq.ft.

Support, Mechanical

Public

Quiet/Moderate

Mechanical

3,650 sq.ft.

Pool, Mechanical

Private

Quiet

Support

3,670 sq.ft.

Classrooms, Cafeteria

Semi-private

Quiet 28


Fig. 12

LIGHTING

INTERIOR DESIGN 29

In regards to the pool room, both natural and artificial lighting are required. Natural light in the aquatic facility is provided by large windows along the left and rear walls. The significant amount of natural light is necessary in this area because of the effect natural light has on healing process. In order to control the amount of natural light, all of the windows in the pool room feature sun shades to block brightness. However, these shades are not successful because they have a large openness and there is still a good amount of light that comes through. The pool operator and lifeguard at St. Vincent’s, Chris, claims that there are certain points during the day that he is unable to see because of the glare on the water. Because of the large amount of natural light that currently enters the pool facility, only a small amount of artificial light is required. The lights that the designer selected are simple up-lights that be controlled by a dimmer. These lights are successful because the light sensitivity of each patient entering the pool room varies, and the lights can be adjusted as needed.


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F F + E

AC C E S S O R I E S

For the pool room, the main piece of equipment present is the pool itself. Made by HydroWorx, the pool sits in the center of the room and includes stairs, a ladder, a lift and grab-bars. This additional equipment allows patrons of all abilities to enter and exit the pool safely. There are also several pieces of equipment to assist the physical and occupational therapists with their treatments. Most of this equipment includes flotation devices like neck-buoys, noodles and kick-boards. These tools assist the therapists in keeping their patient’s heads above water, since they will not be able to do it themselves. Arguable the most important piece of equipment the facility owns is the pool wheelchair, which is made from PVC pipe and mesh. The chair allows the patient to enter and exit the pool safely and without causing any damage to their own chairs.

The majority of visitors to the pool room will most likely have medical conditions that affect their focus and their senses. Due to the fact that the users of the pool room may be easily distracted, decorative elements are scarce. There is only one piece of art present in the pool room. This piece is a stylistic plaque that mimics the waves of the water. The large plaque lists the donors that helped to make the aquatic center a reality. To increase the effects of biophilic design, there are several potted plants around the aquatic facility. There are accessories present that simply make daily function easier. These pieces include laundry baskets and other common household objects. Any other accessories or decorative elements are not necessary and may become a safety hazard to patients that are profoundly disabled.

"Take care of the patient and everything else will follow."

Fig. 14 Fig. 15

Fig. 16

- Thomas Frist, M.D. 30


M AT E R I A L S All of the materials used in the aquatic therapy center are appropriate for the function of the design. The paint on all four walls is scuff resistant, which is beneficial for when wheelchairs and other equipment in the pool room bumps up against it. In addition, the paint is proving to be extremely durable against the constant humid climate in the pool room and does not bead. While it is not directly sustainable, the paint used is lowVOC. The flooring material in the aquatic facility is the same throughout

Fig. 17

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COLORS the pool room, locker rooms, and storage closet. While the construction documents do not specify, the flooring material is believed to be rubber or some form of poured terrazzo. Because these materials are typically porous, the contractor specified a textured lamination coating on top. The application of this material is successful because it allows the pool deck to become a non-slip surface. Keeping in mind the users of the space and the traffic, this easily-cleanable surface is a successful choice.

Fig. 18

The interior color scheme of the aquatic facility is aesthetically appealing. The designers chose to utilize an analogous color scheme with pastel green and blue on alternating wall faces. Although cool colors like blue and green are being applied to the space, it still creates a warm environment. The designers chose to accentuate the bright nature of the colors by white-washing the revealed ceiling elements. In the end, the overall experience of the aquatic facility is crisp and clean therapeutic center.

Fig. 19


"Every system is perfectly designed to achieve exactly the results it gets." - Donald Berwick, M.D.

Fig. 20

Fig. 21

32


Fig. 22

P O S T O C C U PA N C Y W H AT W O R K S When analyzing St. Vincent’s, many of its successes begin on the exterior of the building. First, the facility is located in a business park that experiences little to no noise or disruptions. When arriving on site, the facility is already convenient due to its private parking lot. Adjacent to the visitor parking, the pool features a private entrance so that visitors do not need to travel through the school. Once inside the pool room, patients experience spacious changing rooms that allow enough space for any type of necessary equipment. Chris, 33

the pool operator and lifeguard, explained that the most successful part of the space is that pool. Because the floor of the pool is zero-depth, there is no need for additional equipment or lifts to get patients into the water.

W H AT D O E S N ’ T While the employees interviewed generally enjoy the pool room, they expressed several things that do not work for day-to-day function. The windows of the pool room cause numerous problems for the users of the space. The first problem that users identified involved the presence of

floor to ceiling windows on the wall that the pool room shares with the cafeteria. This transparency does not provide any privacy to the therapists and patients who use the pool. The windows around the exterior walls of the pool room lead to many problems as well. According to Chris, the glare from the sun at the end of every day causes difficulty seeing. The sun also causes a large amount of solar heat gain in the pool room. Chris reports that because of this, the A/C doesn’t work and must undergo frequent maintenance.


E VA L U AT I O N After visiting the aquatic therapy center at St. Vincent’s, I truly understand what a healing space should look and feel like. The analogous colors, cool blues and greens, work very well for a healing environment and I will strongly consider using them in my space. In addition, the materiality and natural light that exist in the aquatic center work very well with the pool and users of the space. However, when designing my space, one thing I will reconsider is the amount of natural light that is able to penetrate through the windows. Although it adds light to the environment, the

sun also negatively affects the body temperature and eyesight of users. While it was appropriate for St. Vincent’s to only have one pool, I would like to include multiple pools in my design. By adding more pools, it allows for numerous more patients to come through the doors. Along with incorporating a larger pool area, I feel it will be necessary to establish larger changing rooms to accommodate for the large number of patients entering the space.

pieces of equipment that make the user’s experience better, including the zero-depth pool and waterwheelchairs. Although the facility is focused towards an education environment for profoundly disabled children, the overall atmosphere of the school is one that I would like to emanate in my design.

A few of the major things I want to include from St. Vincent’s are the 34


P U B L I C V S . P R I VAT E

C I R C U L AT I O N 35

Fig. 23

Fig. 25

BALANCE / PROPORTION

AXIS

Fig. 24

Fig. 26


C I TAT I O N S I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Corner with Windows, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 2 - Exterior with Sign, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 3 - Aerial Neighborhood View, photo courtesy of Google Fig. 4 - Aerial 3D View, photo courtesy of Google Fig. 5 - Feroleto Main Entrance, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 6 - Exterior with Windows, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 7 - HydroWorx 2000 Pool, Digital Image, Hydroworx, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://www.hydroworx.com/content/ uploads/2015/07/2000_slide-5.jpg Fig. 8 - Corner with Windows and Natural Light, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 9 - Interior of Pool Room with Signage, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 10 - Interior Wall Showing Structure and HVAC, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 11 - Adjacency Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 12 - Interior Windows into Cafeteria, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 13 - Safety Equipment, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 14 - Pool at 0-depth Position, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 15 - Pool with Equipment and Toys, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 16 - Pool at Maximum Depth Position, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 17 - Non-Slip Pool Flooring, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 18 - Wall Paint Color, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 19 - Exterior Teak Paneling, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 20 - Accent Wall Paint Color, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 21 - Concrete Structural Wall, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 22 - Underwater Bubbles, Digital Image, The Gospel Coalition of Australia, Accessed August 30, 2017. https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/tgc-aus/ articleImages/water-pexels.jpeg Fig. 23 - Public vs. Private Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 24 - Balance/Proportion Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 25 - Circulation Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 26 - Axis Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017

36


Fig. 1

37


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Part 2

The Hospital for Special Care - 2150 Corbin Avenue - New Britain, CT - 35,000+ sq.ft. 38


Fig. 2

OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The second case study investigated was the Maximilian E. and Marion O. Hoffman Foundation Aquatic Rehabilitation and Fitness Center at the Hospital for Special Care, which is located in New Britain, Connecticut. Although the building only consists of one floor, it hosts more than 35,000 square feet. The facility was built in 1999 by the Downes Construction Company, but the interior and HVAC system were renovated in 2015 by Kaestle Boos Associates, Inc. Because the aquatic center is privately owned 39

by the Hospital for Special Care, it constitutes a high construction budget.

J U S T I F I C AT I O N The selection of this case study was thoroughly justified. The Hospital for Special Care’s aquatic facility was selected for research because of the uniqueness of its type of building and program. Along with hosting aquatic fitness programs, the facility is also where both inpatients and outpatients of the hospital can come to receive their therapy sessions. The existence of an aquatics facility that

provided a combination of fitness and rehabilitation services was intriguing. With both of these types of activities happening at any given time, having two pools in the facility is justified and something to consider when designing the proposed project. Considering the aquatic rehabilitation and fitness center is adjacent to a major hospital, the design will be relevant to contemporary design issues. Because the majority of its visitors are elderly and/or disabled, the facility is precise and up to date with its ADA compliances. Finally, the


Fig. 3

main source of justification is the Hospital for Special Care is a place where patients and their families can meet with a support system to assist through their difficult points in life.

USERS The owner of the aquatic rehabilitation facility is the Hospital for Special Care. The client and users of the space have been determined to include the same groups of people. That being said, the users of the space are comprised of many diverse groups including the public, inpatients, outpatients, lifeguards and therapists. Because it is rare, the facility has the ability to open its doors to the public for recreational activities including swim meets, exercise classes and even fitness memberships. The Hospital for Special Care, which is connected to the aquatic center, uses the pools for rehabilitation purposes. Outpatients are able to meet their therapists for treatment here, and

inpatients are brought to the aquatic facility to determine if they are ready to be discharged.

SITE + CONTEXT The location of the hospital can be defined as suburban because it is located outside the city of Hartford. While the neighborhood is currently up-and-coming, it can still be defined as having low socio-economic conditions. Adjacent to the aquatic therapy facility is a public housing development that was recently built. The building depends on the geographic conditions of the area, as some entrances are on different levels. However, the design and orientation of the hospital are not influenced by the geographic climate of the area. Just as numerous other buildings in the area, the brick masonry construction suits the climate of the Northeast, considering there is little probability of natural disasters occurring.

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

"In the pool's three-dimensional environment, the water itself becomes the treatment table." - Andrea Salzman, MS, PT 40


Fig. 7

DESIGN CONCEPT + STYLE STYLE The design style of the hospital is modern with hints of industrial in the pool room. The concept for the aquatic fitness and rehabilitation center is to be a seamless addition to the existing hospital. In addition, the architects wanted to create a beautiful, fully accessible facility for people rehabilitating, as well as those who wish to improve their fitness. Based on the architect’s concept, the interior and exterior of the facility are holistic in providing the public a place of healing. On the exterior of 41

the building, the designers chose to use brick, concrete, stucco and glass. These materials are a good choice because the facility is located in an area that has a changing climate. While these materials may seem commonplace, they were selected because they are able to withstand the heat during summer and extreme cold during winter in the Northeast.

O RG A N I Z AT I O N The organization of the aquatic facility at the Hospital for Special Care is simple, even though it

sprawls out across two split levels. Visitors enter into an entry sequence on the ground level, and must choose to either take the elevator or walk up a set of stairs to get to the main floor. The program of the building is organized in a logical way that follows natural circulation patterns. To support this, there is no clear definition between public and private spaces. However, there are several crucial adjacencies in the space. As expected, the pool area is adjacent to the locker rooms, as well as the mechanical rooms and storage areas. Along with the pool,


Fig. 8

the locker rooms are adjacent to the fitness rooms. The main hierarchy for this facility exists within the pool room.

C I RC U L AT I O N The circulation pattern for the aquatic center spans both vertically and horizontally. Upon entering the entry sequence, visitors are immediately ushered up a set of stairs. The top of the stairs introduces a waiting area, accompanied by a long hallway with clear wayfinding. By following natural circulation patterns, users are introduced to the reception desk and

lobby areas. After passing through the check-in area, visitors have the option to go directly into the fitness centers or into the locker rooms. Following circulation within the locker rooms, users are led into the pool room. The articulation of space in the aquatic facility initiates the user’s subconscious desire to proceed throughout the space. The wayfinding system in place is successful. Because of its public nature, signage is present at every place the hospital allows. Throughout the facility, room names are displayed, directional signs are present and

Fig. 9

there is no opportunity for a visitor to become disoriented.

CONSTRUCTION Standard structural systems and methods are used in the construction of the aquatic center. Structural columns are set-up around the perimeter and throughout the building to support the building’s systems. In the pool room, the designers chose to employ trusses to provide support for the ceiling, while also eliminating space-dividing columns. The masonry construction method used on the outside of the 42


facility is typical of commercial buildings in the Northeast.

H VAC The types of HVAC systems in place at the aquatic center vary depending on the use of the space. The pool room is host to an exposed HVAC system. As it was renovated in 2015, users of the space report that this new system circulates air much more efficiently.

Fig. 10

43

On the other hand, all other spaces in the facility feature central HVAC units. As these rooms are smaller and do not require as much air flow, central HVAC suits the needs of the users.

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y After evaluation, it was determined that the Hospital for Special Care employs little to no sustainable design principles. Although there is

strong potential for natural daylight, the designers only incorporated windows into one of the fitness rooms. By including artificial plantings throughout the space, the users of the space attempted to integrate biophilic principles. While the geographic location and climate would allow for the use of operable windows, the facility does not employ them in order to take safety precautions.


Fig. 11

S PA C E

A P P R O X . S . F.

ADJACENCIES

P R I VAC Y

ACOUSTICS

Entry/Vestibules

620 sq.ft.

Lobby, Circulation

Public

Quiet

Lobby/Waiting

930 sq.ft.

Offices, Pool Room

Public

Moderate

Pool Room

16,700 sq.ft.

Locker Rooms, Mechanical

Public

Moderate/Loud

Fitness Centers

2,655 sq.ft.

Lobby, Locker Rooms

Public

Quiet/Moderate

Staff Locker Rooms

650 sq.ft.

Pool, Offices

Private

Quiet

Public Locker Rooms

3,520 sq.ft.

Pool, Lobby

Semi-private

Moderate

Offices

700 sq.ft.

Lobby, Pool Room

Private

Quiet/Moderate

Vertical Circulation

500 sq.ft.

Support, Entry

Public

Quiet

Mechanical

2,620 sq.ft.

Pool, Fitness Centers

Private

Moderate

Support

1,445 sq.ft.

Pool Room, Mechanical

Private

Quiet 44


Fig. 12

LIGHTING There is a lack of natural light in the aquatic facility. In the pool room, there is a single strip of windows that is hidden behind the exposed HVAC system. Due to the poor placement of these elements, the pool room automatically becomes dependent on artificial lighting. The presence of numerous down lights that reflect off the water results in a harsh and overwhelmingly bright environment. On the other hand, the main fitness room features an entire glass curtain wall. Even with minimal daylight, the fitness center was still bright enough to require no artificial

Fig. 13

INTERIOR DESIGN 45


lighting. However, the main lobby of the hospital features a two-story atrium complete with clerestories that provide plenty of natural light. While there is occasionally a window that allows users to experience natural light, the space is typically dependent on artificial lighting methods.

F F + E The furniture and equipment needed throughout the space varies. In the entry sequence, lounge furniture is required for patients and their families to wait comfortably. The selection of furniture contains a mix of sofas, armchairs, and bariatric-inclusive furniture. The

furniture layout avoids typical, static functions and offers privacy opportunities to patients. The most essential piece of equipment in the pool room is the Hoyer lift. Located in between both pools, the lift sits in an area that is descends below the level of the pool. This feature allows wheelchair-bound patients to roll down to the edge of the wall, sit on the lift, and maneuver directly into the pool. Overall, all equipment positively benefits the well-being of patients.

AC C E S S O R I E S The use of decorative elements and accessories are scarce and

Fig. 14

strategically placed around the facility. Seeing how patients with varying conditions visit the aquatic rehabilitation center, the designers wanted to ensure that all users are safe when experiencing the space. However, there is a large presence of artwork throughout the facility. The Hospital for Special Care participates in a facility-wide art program, which displays pieces from local artists. The organization rotates the artwork biweekly so that patients throughout the hospital are able to see new pieces. This program reinforces the hospital’s desire to create a positive environment that promotes healing for all users.

Fig. 15

46


Fig. 16

Fig. 17

Fig. 18

47

M AT E R I A L S

COLORS

The designers selected materials and finishes based on the varying types of spaces present in the aquatic wing of the hospital. Throughout the lobby and main circulation areas, the materials used are typical of healthcare spaces. The flooring consists of commercialgrade carpet tiles, while the walls are coated with textured wallcovering. Both materials are durable and achieve success in high traffic areas. The predominant flooring material in both the locker rooms and pool area is ceramic tiles. Although the size of tiles remains the same, spaces are defined by changes in tile color. Because the designer specified an etched surface coating to prevent slippage, the use of tile is extremely successful. Also, the materiality of walls includes cement block coated with paint. Although the paint is deterring any moisture from the air, it is not durable for areas with high traffic. Several locations around the pool feature scuff marks from chairs, wheelchairs, walkers and other equipment that must enter the pool room. At a final glance, the materials selected for the aquatic facility are successful and appropriate for all users of the space.

The overall color scheme of the Hospital for Special Care’s aquatic facility is one that typically exists in a healthcare setting. All circulation and public spaces feature gray monochrome pallettes. Although these cool colors have the potential to create an off-putting environment, the lobby and waiting areas feel soothing. When moving through the space and into the pool room, the environments are drastically diverse. While the neutral color scheme continues on the floor and walls, bright blue and yellow appear in ceiling elements. Aesthetically speaking, the blue and yellow in the pool room are overly saturated and make the environment feel much smaller than it really is.

"You treat a disease: you win, you lose. You treat a person, I guarantee you win - no matter the outcome." - Patch Adams


Fig. 19

48


Fig. 20

P O S T O C C U PA N C Y W H AT W O R K S According to Sarah Cormier, head lifeguard, the facility is “wonderful”. Along with being extremely clean, Sarah appreciated that the locker rooms and offices exist adjacently to the pool room. She also mentioned that her favorite part of the aquatic center is that it was built to accommodate an abundance of diverse activities. The fact that there are two separate pools allows for events like the Special Olympics and local swim meets to take place without effecting patrons in the other pools. The most successful 49

aspect of the aquatic center is that outdoor areas feature walking paths and koi ponds and are able to be used for therapy rehabilitation treatments.

W H AT D O E S N ’ T While Sarah is fond of the aquatic center, she was also able to provide several recommendations to improve it. Several faculty members shared that the main complaint they receive from patrons regards the long walk from the entrance to the pool. Upon arrival, guests must make it through the parking lot and then maneuver through

the building and locker rooms to get to the pool. While there is enough general space in the locker rooms, the circulation areas can become congested. Sarah also mentioned there aren’t nearly enough showers for the number of patrons using the facility. To support this claim, she explained there is only one ADA accessible shower in each locker room. Once entering the pool room, it was clear that there is a need for storage. Patrons that require wheelchairs or walkers have nowhere to leave them and are forced to block the physical entrance to the pool.


Fig. 21

E VA L U AT I O N After visiting this case study, I immediately knew what I did not want to include in my final design. To begin, I did not like the idea of the use of regular fitness pools. Although the pools feature lifts and ramps to assist disabled patrons with entry, they still seem complicated to use. However, I did appreciate that the Hospital for Special Care included a viewing window from the waiting area into the pool room, which allowed family members and care-givers to checkin on their loved one. While natural light appears in circulation spaces

around the facility, I feel that more light should come into the pool room. When designing the proposed project, I will be sure to research creative ways to integrate natural light into the aquatic room. Based on my experiences, I will be sure to include plenty of storage areas in and around the pool facility for equipment. In regards to color choices, I heavily disagreed with almost all the materials this facility used. Both the pool room and locker rooms contained elements that featured extremely saturated blues and yellows. Along with the dim lighting, these dark colors

made relatively large spaces feel heavy and diminutive. In order to benefit employees and users of the space, I will incorporate more staff areas into my design. At the Hospital for Special Care, I did not like how the staff had little to no space for their own. I was shocked to learn that the eleven therapists currently employed at the facility are required to share one desk, which is located in a storage closet.

50


51

F I G U R E 2 2 - P U B L I C V S . P R I VAT E

FIGURE 23 - BALANCE / PROPORTION

F I G U R E 2 4 - C I R C U L AT I O N

F I G U R E 2 5 - DAT U M


C I TAT I O N S I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Main Lobby Circulation, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 2 - Main Hospital Entrance Exterior, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 3 - Aerial Neighborhood View, photo courtesy of Google Fig. 4 - Aerial Site View, photo courtesy of Google Fig. 5 - Aquatic Center Entrance Exterior, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 6 - Exterior of Hospital, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 7 - View of Pool, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 8 - Main lobby, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 9 - Pool from Waiting Room, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 10 - Pool with Ceiling Elements, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 11 - Adjacency Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 12 - Main Hospital Atrium, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 13 - Lift into Pool, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 14 - Artwork Display, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 15 - Artwork Drawn by Local Artist, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 16 - Main Hospital Check-In, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 17 - Flooring Material in Locker Room, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 18 - Pool Room HVAC System, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 19 - Lobby/Waiting Room, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 20 - Outdoor Spaces, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 21 - Koi Pond, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 17, 2017 Fig. 22 - Public vs. Private Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 23 - Balance/Proportion Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 24 - Circulation Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017 Fig. 25 - Datum Diagram, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, August 8, 2017

52


Fig. 1

53


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Part 3

Emerald Hills Leisure Centre - 3555 Emerald Hills Drive - Sherwood Park, AB - 52,000 sq.ft. 54


Fig. 2

OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre is located in Sherwood Park, Alberta, Canada and serves as a community aquatic center.1 With leadership from MJMA (MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects) and MTa (Marshall Tittemore Architects), the building was recently completed in 2016.2 Both design teams involved in the project decided to restrain the building’s construction to one floor, which includes roughly 52,000 sq. ft. of usable space.3 Based on the nature of 55

the building, the project merits an extremely high construction budget. After completion, the architect teams concluded that the Emerald Hills Leisure Centre had a final construction budget of $28.8 million.4

J U S T I F I C AT I O N The selection of this project to research as a case study is justified based on its symbolic status in the community. The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre was an interesting project because of its forms and use of space. While an aquatic

center must be relatively structured to adhere to code, the designers found a way to maintain and reflect the style of the community. This aquatic facility is relevant to the proposed project because of the services it offers. Along with operating as a community forum for recreational activities, the pools are also used for rehabilitation and student programming. The presence of multiple pools allows for each pool to have its own function, one of which is a therapy pool that features an adjustable-depth floor.


The firms involved, MJMA and MTa, ensured that the project was relevant to contemporary design issues. The designers addressed differing gender-identities in the community by establishing inclusive locker rooms.5

USERS Since the project is defined as a “community center”, the owner of this building is Strathcona County in Alberta, Canada. Based on architect’s statements, the client of this project includes any user of the space.6 Upon its construction, the new aquatic facility and adjacent high school agreed to combine their efforts towards implementing Strathcona’s new Aquatic Strategy.7 This partnership delivers opportunities for all users, including aquatic programming for students, recreational facility for local residents, and a rehabilitation therapy location for patients of a nearby hospital. Another set of users includes families of all varieties. The designers insured that men, women and children were given a transparent, genderneutral locker room that is accessible by all.8

SITE + CONTEXT The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre fits in its surroundings. The project is in the suburban neighborhood of Sherwood Park, which is outside the city of Edmonton.9 The building is joined with Archbishop Jordan High School to develop a shared “community center”.10 The building has specific design considerations to respond to the unique climate of Northern Alberta.

The project features triple-glazed openings in four areas, which are formed to emphasize their effect. The designers located glazing low on the west side of the building to deliver views of the landscape to patrons. Towards the front of the building, the designers moved the glazing higher to assist with low-glare light distribution.11 Overall, the project was designed to respond to the surrounding landscape.

Fig. 3

56


Fig. 4

57


"We worked as an integrated team to complete the feasibility study, detailed design and contract administration for this award-winning facility." - MTa + MJMA

58


Fig. 5

DESIGN CONCEPT + STYLE STYLE The holistic design choices of the Emerald Hills Leisure Centre are geometrically modern. The styles of the interior and exterior are successfully integrated and feature similar masses and forms. The lobby and main pool room are designed from the same volume that becomes a social gathering space. The overall concept of the aquatic facility is to create “simple and affordable ‘big box’ volume designed to have a sense of lightness and dynamic movement”.12 Both the exterior and interior of the 59

facility feature triangulated standing seam panels. The exterior also makes use of triple-glazed glass, which only appears in certain areas to emphasize the existing geographic landscape and natural light.13

O RG A N I Z AT I O N The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre currently hosts a footprint of one floor. However, the designers included a second floor above the existing locker rooms to serve as a second-level fitness center in the future. The plan is organized in a trapezoidal method to

maximize the usable footprint of the building. All public areas are located adjacent to the entrance and lobby, while the back of the building is host to all private spaces. The main source of hierarchy is evident in the pool area, which makes up almost 50% of the building’s total square footage. In regards to function, all related spaces are grouped together. For example, the five diverse styles of locker rooms are all adjacent to one another. In addition, the staff areas are situated towards the back of the building and are also adjacent.14


Fig. 6

C I RC U L AT I O N Upon entering, visitors are able to see the general circulation patterns of the space. The entry sequence and main lobby share a transparent glass wall with the pool hall. Circulation patterns naturally leads patrons towards the reception desk, where employees further direct them. Beyond the lobby, a single, narrow hallway leads patrons to the back of the building and to several varying types of changing rooms. Although no obvious signage is present, the wayfinding method used is successful. Locker rooms and other

Fig. 7

designated areas display graphics to express what the purpose of the room is. This uniformity generates a clean and universal wayfinding style.

CONSTRUCTION When it was designed, the architects of the Emerald Hills Leisure Centre chose to employ a steel frame structure. The columns of the steel frame construction permit support for the walls and roof of the facility, while not interrupting the open pool hall. The columns allow for glazing and triangulated standing seam panels to exist.

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y This building has taken a holistic approach to sustainable principles. The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre achieved LEED-Silver status. The facility is equipped with a saltwater filtration system, which requires lower than normal chlorine levels. By adhering to European DIN standards, the aquatic center can provide the highest levels of water clarity and air quality to its patrons. The location of windows were strategically selected to maximize natural daylight and minimize the need for artificial lighting.15 60


A D JAC E N C Y DIAGRAM 61

Fig. 8


S PA C E

A P P R O X . S . F.

ADJACENCIES

P R I VAC Y

ACOUSTICS

Vestibule

240 sq.ft.

Lobby, Viewing Area

Public

Quiet

Lobby/Viewing Area

500 sq.ft.

Pool Room, Admin

Public

Moderate

Pool Room

15,800 sq.ft.

Locker Rooms, Viewing

Public

Moderate/Loud

Universal Locker Room

2,300 sq.ft.

Lobby, Pool

Semi-private

Quiet/Moderate

Private Locker Rooms

2,320 sq.ft.

Lobby, Pool

Semi-private

Quiet/Moderate

Administrative Area

3,520 sq.ft.

Pool, Lobby

Private

Quiet

Staff Areas

1,450 sq.ft.

Pool Room, Support

Private

Moderate

Support Spaces

1,750 sq.ft.

Lobby, Pool Room

Private

Quiet

Vertical Circulation

450 sq.ft.

Lobby, Administrative

Private

Quiet

Existing Building

N/A

Administrative, Support

N/A

N/A

Fig. 9

62


Fig. 10 11

M AT E R I A L S The concept selected for the interior of the aquatic facility reflects cool and rigid materials. The architectural wall and ceiling elements feature metal standing seam panels, while the main ceiling elements are uniform and contain acoustic surfaces. Both wall and ceiling elements are supported by a precast-concrete base. This base features small, hexagonshaped ceramic tiles that form larger hexagonal graphics. In entry spaces and lobby, the designers nominated poured concrete with a polished finish for the flooring material. However, small, square ceramic tiles are introduced as the flooring materiality in the changing rooms and pool hall.

Fig. 11

INTERIOR DESIGN 63


COLOR

LIGHT

AC C E S S O R I E S

In unification with the selected materiality, the colors chosen for this project are very cold in nature. Geometric ceiling elements throughout the aquatic facility remain stark white. However, the color of flooring materials ranges from white and gray based on the program of the space. Although the upper portions of walls are white in color, there is a consistent strip of black around the lower perimeter of the walls. This band runs through the lobby, locker rooms and around the pool hall. The designers chose to emphasize the existing neutral palette with pops of monochromatic blue that appear in materials and in the water of the pools themselves.

The natural and artificial light levels present in the Emerald Hills Leisure Centre are successful and appropriate for the design. Natural light is sourced from four triangulated glazing locations, including low-level and highlevel windows. The front elevation of the project features clerestories that reflect direct natural light off interior structures and successfully re-distributes it with minimum glare effects. Artificial light works with the natural light to efficiently light spaces. Using LEDs, the designers scarcely placed recessed fixtures across the ceilings of the facility. They selected this type of lighting to emphasize the white vastness of ceilings and walls.16

The designers chose to keep the majority of the aquatic facility free of accessories. However, after the project’s completion in 2016, Strathcona County decided that the large wall in the lobby space was too bare. To remediate this, the county held a juried competition for a public art display. Lynn Malin, a local artist, won with piece titled “Waterscape�. The painted glass installation forms a trapezoid and is made up of 21 geometrically-shaped pieces. Malin drew her color choices from the water and surrounding landscape. The art installation adds an aspect of color and sense of community for all patrons entering the space.17

Fig. 12

Fig. 13

64


Fig. 14

E VA L U AT I O N 65


W H AT W O R K S The Emerald Hills Leisure Centre is immensely successful. The simple materiality created a space that was intriguing, but not overwhelming. The use of white materials accented the pops of blue that are around the aquatic building. I enjoyed the approach of making the facility a designated community hub. I plan on incorporating this into my proposed project by offering a variety of services to the public. The most appealing feature was the incorporation of a universal changing room. This allows accessibility that includes all patrons regardless of ability or identity. Ultimately, the transparent nature of volumes in the space were captivating.

W H AT D O E S N ’ T While the Emerald Hills Leisure Centre has many positive attributes, I did notice a lack of seating throughout the building. Even in the lobby, the designers failed to include rest for patrons of the aquatic facility. In addition, the glare on the water appears to be intense at some points of the day. In my proposed project, I will make sure to address this issue by installing sun screens and glazing. 66


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F I G U R E 1 5 - P U B L I C V S . P R I VAT E

FIGURE 16 - HIERARCHY

F I G U R E 1 7 - C I R C U L AT I O N

FIGURE 18 - AXIS


Fig. 19

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Fig. 20

69


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” Strathcona County. Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.strathcona.ca/departments/recreation-parks-and-culture/recre ation-centres/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/. 2 “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” Architizer. Accessed September 27, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/. 3 “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” MTa Link. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mtalink.com/project/emerald-hill-aquatic-centre/. 4 IBID. 5 “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre / MJMA MTa.” ArchDaily. September 05, 2017. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills- leisure-centre-mjma-plus-mta. 6 IBID. 7 MTa Link 8 ArchDaily 9 “Emerald Hills Aquatic Centre.” MJMArchitects. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mjmarchitects.com/Portfolio/All-Projects/Emerald-Hills-Aquatic-Centre. 10 Architizer 11 ArchDaily 12 IBID. 13 IBID. 14 IBID. 15 IBID. 16 MTa Link 17 Malin, Lynn. “Public Art.” Lynn Malin Art. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.lynnmalin.com/public-art/. I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Triple-Glazed Openings from Exterior, Digital Image, Marshall Tittemore Architects, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mtalink.com/project/emerald-hill- aquatic-centre/ Fig. 2 - Back View with Water, Digital Image, Architizer, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/ Fig. 3 - Site Plan, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-mjma-plus-mta Fig. 4 - Emerald Hills Longitudinal, Digital Image, Marshall Tittemore Architects, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mtalink.com/project/emerald-hill-aquatic-centre/ Fig. 5 - Landscape View of Pool, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-mjma-plus-mta Fig. 6 - Main Entrance with Glazing, Digital Image, MJMA, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mjmarchitects.com/Portfolio/All-Projects/Emerald-Hills-Aquatic-Centre Fig. 7 - View From Lobby Into Pool Room, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-mjma- plus-mta Fig. 8 - Adjacency Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, Photo courtesy of ArchDaily, September 27, 2017 Fig. 9 - Reception Showing Lobby, Digital Image, Architizer, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/ Fig. 10 - Main Stair View, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-mjma-plus-mta Fig. 11 - View of Empty Pool, Digital Image, Marshall Tittemore Architects, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mtalink.com/project/emerald-hill-aquatic-centre/ Fig. 12 - View from Pool Into Locker Room Digital Image, Architizer, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/ Fig. 13 - Interior Locker Room, Digital Image, MJMA, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mjmarchitects.com/Portfolio/All-Projects/Emerald-Hills-Aquatic-Centre Fig. 14 - Pool with Natural Light & Shadows, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre- mjma-plus-mta Fig. 15 - Public vs. Private Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, Photo courtesy of ArchDaily, September 27, 2017 Fig. 16 - Hierarchy Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, Photo courtesy of ArchDaily, September 27, 2017 Fig. 17 - Circulation Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, Photo courtesy of ArchDaily, September 27, 2017 Fig. 18 - Axis Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, Photo courtesy of ArchDaily, September 27, 2017 Fig. 19 - Pool Room Wall Detail, Digital Image, MJMA, Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mjmarchitects.com/Portfolio/All-Projects/Emerald-Hills-Aquatic-Centre Fig. 20 - Night View of Main Entrance, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-

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Part 4

Regent Park Aquatic Centre - 640 Dundas Street E - Toronto, ON, Canada - 28,000 sq.ft. 72


Fig. 2

OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The Regent Park Aquatic Centre is a “multi-purpose year-round indoor swimming pool facility”1 located in downtown Toronto, Canada. Designed by MacLennon Jaunkalns Miller Architects (MJMA), the project was completed in 2012 as part of a 12-year revitalization expansion plan that the neighborhood began in 2005. Commonly referred to as the “social heart”2 of Regent Park, the building occupies 28,000 square feet of the new development.3 While the actual pool hall exists within a two73

story space, the remainder of the facility exists on one level. According to Lisa Rochon of The Globe and Mail, the project cost the city around $14.8 million, which warrants a medium to high construction budget.4

J U S T I F I C AT I O N The Regent Park Aquatic Center is a justified project to use as a case study. This is because of the accommodations made to benefit the variety of people who reside in Regent Hills and the Toronto area. Upon its construction, the facility became the first project

in Canada to only include universal changing rooms in its design. By no longer separating males and females, the designers enhanced the openness, visibility, and safety of the facility. In addition, the entire pool hall is equipped with a complete system of screens. This element ensures that all patrons, regardless of cultural limitations, are able to use the facility without sacrificing their privacy.5 The facility is also justified to support the proposed project because of its mixed-use nature, including fitness, leisure, and therapeutic uses.6


USERS The owner and client of the Regent Park Aquatic Centre are the city of Toronto and the people who live there. The users of the space vary from day to day. While the project accommodates all types of people, the design is geared specifically towards children and their families. By adapting design principles in changing rooms and other public areas, the facility can welcome people from all gender identities, family structures and cultures. In Regent Park, 41% of people are under the age of 18 and 70% of the population lives below the cut-off of the low-income rate.7 Based on these demographics, the aquatic center serves as a “key civic amenity� and a year-round indoor pool that will revitalize the community.8

Fig. 3

disregarded population. This neglect, paired with poor socio-economic conditions, led to unkempt building complexes across the neighborhood.10 The aquatic building sits in the center of a 69-acre community, which is one of the largest urban redevelopments in North America.11 The orientation and form of the aquatic facility was decided based on solar positioning, which allowed the project to respond to its surroundings and connect to the outdoors.12

Fig. 4

SITE + CONTEXT The Regent Park Aquatic Centre is located in the urban neighborhood of regent Park outside of Toronto, Canada. Built in the 1940s, Regent Park is Canada’s oldest and largest social housing project.9 Although the neighborhood was supposed to become a transitional community for immigrants, poor planning led to a 74


Fig. 5

DESIGN CONCEPT + STYLE STYLE The style of the Regent Park Aquatic Center is modern and architecturallybased. The architects took extreme care to make sure that the designs of interior and exterior spaces are clearly holistic. The designers ensured that the project became a “Pavilion in the Park� and designed the base to be transparent. As users travel around the building, they are able to link interior spaces with the existing exterior. The materials being used inside the space are thrust through vertical planes and 75

continue to occupy exterior faces. The prominent materials include naturallyresistant cedar, Anthra-zinc, concrete, steel, and glass, which are able to successfully exist in a changing climate.

O RG A N I Z AT I O N The Regent Park Aquatic Center is a two-story structure located in the heart of the surrounding urban fabric. Although the entire building can be classified as two-stories, the diverse types of spaces within the facility vary in height.13 Visible from

the exterior of the building and the main concourse, the pool hall is immense and its height occupies both stories. After passing through the main concourse, the remainder of spaces present on the program are organized linearly along the pool hall. Public spaces are positioned adjacent to the main entrance, while private spaces are located in a separate hallway on the east side of the building. The main source of hierarchy exists within the pool room, which features a massive architectural form clad in cedar.


Fig. 6

C I RC U L AT I O N The circulation and wayfinding system established in the aquatic facility is clear and successful. Upon entering the facility, visitors find themselves in the main concourse, which also serves as a viewing area. After reaching the main concourse, patrons have the opportunity to remain in the lobby or continue moving towards the changing rooms. Here, the natural path of circulation leads them directly to the reception area. As they pass through reception, visitors find themselves in the

changing room concourse. This space consists of a long, narrow hallway that connects the universal changing areas. As they pass through the changing rooms, patrons are guided into the pool hall. There is little vertical circulation in the space. The only set of stairs in the facility leads to the mezzanine where the waterslide is located.

STRUCTURE After investigating the floorplans of the building, the Regent Park Aquatic Center can be classified as a steel-

Fig. 7

support columns around the perimeter of the building, the center of the pool hall remains open. By doing this, the designers allow for maximum use of floor space. These columns also permit the lengthy spans of glazing on all facades of the building, including skylights. The columns serve as a support system for the green roof that exists as a fifth elevation. By concealing main structural systems within the cedar-clad volume, the designers were able to support a second level within the pool area.14 76


"Another reason I hold the center in high esteem? Its disarming integrity." - Lisa Rochon

77


Fig. 8

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y When developing the program for the aquatic facility, the architects made sure to achieve the city’s new Green Development Standard. They accomplished this by incorporating environmentally sustainable strategies into the design.15 Considering it was the adaptive re-use of an exisiting outdoor pool, the project was sustainable from the early stages.16 The designers included a green roof during the construction of the project, which was treated as a fifth elevation.17 Other sustainable details that were paramount to the integrity of the design include natural ventilation and lighting. These elements appeared through sliding glass doors that are present throughout the entire building. The aquatic facility runs off a thermal energy supply, which comes from a new “central� plant built specifically for Regent Park.18 In order to minimize solar heat gain, the project was oriented with low, continuous windows facing the west. These windows provide patrons with views of the landscape, while also discouraging direct sun into the pool hall.19 Overall, the building is aware of and responds to its urban surroundings in a sustainable way. 78


Fig. 9

D R AW I N G S + A D JAC E N C I E S 79


S PA C E

A P P R O X . S . F.

ADJACENCIES

P R I VAC Y

ACOUSTICS

Main Entrance

105 sq.ft.

Main Concourse, Reception

Public

Moderate

Main Concourse

1,160 sq.ft.

Reception, Meeting Room

Public

Moderate/Loud

Pool Hall

11,260 sq.ft.

Locker Rooms, Terrace

Public

Loud

Reception

115 sq.ft.

Main Concourse, Admin

Private

Quiet/Moderate

Meeting Room

650 sq.ft.

Support, Main Concourse

Semi-private

Quiet

Administrative Area

1,050 sq.ft.

Pool Hall, Main Concourse

Private

Quiet

Universal Change Area

5,000 sq.ft.

Pool Room, Support

Semi-private

Quiet/Moderate

Support Spaces

1,560 sq.ft.

Pool Hall, Main Concourse

Private

Quiet

Outdoor Terrace

2,230 sq.ft.

Pool Hall

Public

Moderate

Vertical Circulation

260 sq.ft.

Pool Hall, Support

Public

N/A

Fig. 10

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Fig. 11

M AT E R I A L S The materials used in the project were approved by Douglas Giles, manager of the city’s Parks, Forests and Recreation department. Even from the street, materials puncture through masses in the space. All vertical structural elements are clad with black dry-joint Anthra-zinc, which is used because of its matte sleekness. Glass structures are found around the aquatic facility, serving as transparent walls, windows and skylights.20 The roof structure is a cedar-paneled form, which spans the length of the building. The warmth of this element balances out the hardness of the zinc, concrete and glass.21 Along with offering patrons a warm aesthetic, the cedar is ideal

Fig. 12

INTERIOR DESIGN 81


because it is naturally resistant to the harsh destructive air in chlorinetreated aquatic facilities.22

AC C E S S O R I E S Apart from a few selections for seating opportunities, accessories are sparse in the main concourse of the Regent Park Aquatic Center. The main concourse is relatively void of furniture, except for a few architectural benches. The designers built black monolithic benches directly into the walls of the pool to provide parents the opportunity to remain close to playing children. These builtin benches are also present around the perimeter of the pool hall and throughout the changing areas. The designers made sure to provide a

diving board, lap pool, tot pool, leisure pool and hot tub. Unique to this facility, the city chose to include a tarzan swing and water slide.23

COLOR The colors of the Regent Park Aquatic Center is as visually commanding as its architecture. David Miller, principal of MJMA, explained that the designers used “modern minimalism” to define a color scheme. In the pool, nearly everything is a crisp white. However, the lane lines and “monolithic” benches are black and provide an appealing contrast to white elements. While the color palette is monochromatic, the designers introduced warm colors into the space through the cedar paneled ceiling element.24

Fig. 13

LIGHT Due to the amount of skylights, natural light is the primary source of light in the space. The skylights are present on the east side of the facility and are commonly described as a “fin” that bisects the ceiling and the length of the building. These skylights break up the heaviness of the cedarpaneled ceiling element and offer the opportunity for natural light.25 The transparent nature of the changing rooms and lobby allows for natural light to continue through the space.26 When natural light is not enough to illuminate the space, the public areas are equipped with recessed spotlights. Since the ceilings are lower, changing rooms have recessed linear lights that create bright white ambient lighting.27

Fig. 14

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Fig. 15

E VA L U AT I O N 83


W H AT W O R K S The Regent Park Aquatic Centre implements many successful elements. In my opinion, the most important aspect is the facility’s ability to adapt to the needs of all patrons. By including universal changing rooms, the facility has eliminated any possible privacy issues. I will consider religious, cultural and gender differences when detailing the proposed project. Another element that is successful is the addition of natural light and ventilation. Along with having sustainable benefits, these biophilic principles encourage healing in users of the space.

W H AT D O E S N ’ T Because the proposed project will be aimed towards disabled children, the tarzan rope and water slide would not be accessible to all users. However, in the proposed project, I will strive to include a unique element for all users to enjoy. While the universal changing rooms are an excellent addition to the facility, there needs to be more consideration for disabled patrons. In my project, there will be more designated changing areas that are large enough to accommodate wheelchairs and an aide. 84


DIAGRAM 1 - HIERARCHY

D I AG R A M 3 - N AT U R A L DAY L I G H T

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D I A G R A M 2 - P U B L I C V S . P R I VAT E

DIAGRAM 4 - SOLID vs VOID


Fig. 16

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C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” Canadian Architect. May 19, 2016. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://www.canadianarchitect.com 2 “Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” Architizer. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/regent-park-aquatic-centre/. 3 Rinaldi, Marco. “Regent Park Aquatic Centre by MJMA.” A As Architecture. August 31, 2013. Accessed October 04, 2017. http://aasarchitecture.com 4 Rochon, Lisa. “Putting Regent Park in the Swim of Things.” The Globe and Mail. September 14, 2012. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://beta.theglobeandmail.com 5 Architizer. 6 Chong, A. “Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” Archinect. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://archinect.com/firms/project/55003831/regent-park-aquatic-centre/149959060. 7 “Regent Park Aquatic Centre / MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects.” ArchDaily. August 13, 2015. Accessed October 04, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com 8 Architizer. 9 Architizer. 10 “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” 11 IBID. 12 Chong. 13 “Regent Park Aquatic Centre / MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects.” 14 Rinaldi. 15 IBID. 16 “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” 17 “Regent Park Aquatic Centre / MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects.” 18 Rinaldi. 19 “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” 20 Rochon. 21 Rinaldi. 22 Rochon. 23 IBID. 24 IBID. 25 “Regent Park Aquatic Centre / MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects.” 26 “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” 27 Rinaldi. I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects Fig. 2 - https://archinect.com/MJMA/project/regent-park-aquatic-centre Fig. 3 - http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects Fig. 4 - http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects Fig. 5 - https://architizer.com/projects/regent-park-aquatic-centre/ Fig. 6 - http://www.archilovers.com/projects/187635/regent-park-aquatic-centre.html Fig. 7 - https://www.canadianarchitect.com/features/governor-generals-regent-park/ Fig. 8 - https://www.canadianarchitect.com/features/governor-generals-regent-park/ Fig. 9 - http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects Fig. 10 - http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects Fig. 11 - http://www.archilovers.com/projects/187635/regent-park-aquatic-centre.html Fig. 12 - http://aasarchitecture.com/2013/08/regent-park-aquatic-centre-by-mjma.html Fig. 13 - https://www.canadianarchitect.com/features/governor-generals-regent-park/ Fig. 14 - https://www.canadianarchitect.com/features/governor-generals-regent-park/ Fig. 15 - http://aasarchitecture.com/2013/08/regent-park-aquatic-centre-by-mjma.html Fig. 16 - http://www.archilovers.com/projects/187635/regent-park-aquatic-centre.html Fig. 17 - http://www.archilovers.com/projects/187635/regent-park-aquatic-centre.html

87


Fig. 17

88


Fig. 1

"A functional design can promote skill, economy, conveniences, and comforts; a non-functional design can impede activities of all types, detract from quality of care, and raise costs to intolerable levels." - Hardy and Lammers 89


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Qualitative and Technical Criteria

90


INTRODUCTION The process of designing an aquatic therapy center based on universal design principles poses many challenges. Although the pool room will be the focus of the project, all design choices need to reflect into the community spaces, therapy rooms and other areas. Choices will be made using universal design concepts for furniture, materiality, lighting and accessibility. In order to successfully design an aquatic therapy center for disabled children, ergonomic and technical criteria will be researched and consulted throughout the project. Fig. 2

91

INTERIOR C O N S I D E R AT I O N S The interior of the proposed pediatric aquatic facility features varying types of spaces that all require different design considerations. The pool room is the main design focus and will showcase state-of-the-art equipment, including pools from Hydroworx that feature an adjustable floor height, underwater treadmill and resistance jets. The pool measures 8’ x 12’ and can accommodate anywhere from 1 to 4 people. The recommended minimum dimensions of a pool room are 17’ wide and 28’ long. To allow for the Fig. 3

depth changes as well as maintenance, a mechanical room must be located directly under the pool.1 The material selections for the pool area must be insusceptible by moisture and easily cleaned. A potential flooring material is SignaFlex Aqua, a slip-resistant vinyl flooring that is completely watertight. Along with meeting LEED certification, the flooring contains a bacteriostat agent that prevents the growth of microorganisms and bacteria.2 When selecting materials to coat walls, it is crucial that a vaporbarrier be installed to eliminate any possible consequences of humidity.3


The other major space incorporated into the design of the aquatic rehabilitation center are the therapy treatment rooms. These rooms facilitate the “dry land” portion of rehabilitation and focus on occupational and physical therapy treatments. Generic equipment necessary for these rooms include a large treatment table, floor mats, and various types of equipment. ADA requirements state that a 30”x48” clear space must surround the treatment table.4 Because the children receiving treatment will have physical and mental disabilities, the treatment rooms will feature sensory

toys. These toys mentally stimulate the patients while therapists treat physical problems. In addition, each therapy room will sit adjacent to a universal, ADA compliant restroom that enables ease of access. As in any healthcare setting, the materials used in the therapy space need to meet HIPPA requirements.5 All materials selected for the proposed project must be sterile, easily cleanable and welcoming to patients. In addition, the therapy treatment rooms will benefit from materials that absorb sound that therapy sessions may produce.6

ERGONOMICS The increasing need for spaces designed for children requires an aquatic therapy center dedicated exclusively to benefitting their health. Based on the pediatric age level of the user group, the limitations of users of the proposed project must be very carefully considered. The final design decisions must take into account the visual range, reaching heights and overall ergonomic concerns of the children visiting the facility. While all patients will be diagnosed as profoundly disabled, there will be a select group of users who will be

Fig. 4

92


Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

physically restricted. With these patients requiring mobility devices, it is crucial that they are able to access counters, sinks, tables and the pool. It is important to also take into consideration the needs of parents and guardians as well. In areas where children and adults will visit together, it is vital that both parties are accommodated. This includes seating options, work surfaces, and restroom apparatuses. By introducing furniture that is accessible and adaptable to all users, the proposed aquatic facility will prove to be an effective and successful design milestone.

thought out. To best light the pool room, natural daylight will be used throughout the space, while artificial lighting will enhance darker areas. While artificial lighting will continue to be beneficial, natural daylight will be the main source of brightness in the natatorium. Natural lighting sources will also appear in the treatment rooms and main public areas to assist with the healing process. Due to the environment of the pool room, artificial lighting must be strategically selected and placed. The most successful form of artificial lighting are LED lamps because of their durability and sustainable nature. Any fixtures must be corrosion-resistant to minimize the impact of chlorine and humidity. Considering the reflectivity

of water, any artificial lighting must be placed with the consideration of glare. Dimpled optics and aiming angles are valuable resources to eliminate any possibilities of glare.7

LIGHTING The approach to lighting design in the proposed project needs to be well93

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y After completing research on sustainable methods of design, the proposed aquatic facility has the potential to become a leader in environmental stewardship. This will be accomplished by reducing energy consumption, conserving water, and preventing material waste during construction. When completing the demolition phase of the project, construction waste will be diverted from landfills. All materials used in the project will be sourced based on


Fig. 9

Fig. 8

Fig. 11

Fig. 10

Fig. 12 Fig. 14

Fig. 13 94


geographic location. The achievement of LEED standard acknowledges any materials extracted or manufactured within a 500-mile radius of the construction.8 The project will use highefficiency glazing to prevent solar heat gain and provide natural light. By installing a rooftop solar thermal system, the facility provides its own domestic hot water. The proposed project will feature a state-of-theart water treatment system that uses ultra-violet light and CO2 to filter water instead of chlorine. This process eliminates the need for harsh chemicals in the pool and immediately improves the air quality of the pool room.9

95

Fig. 15

AC O U S T I C C O N T RO L

Fig. 16

When considering noise, indoor pools are full of echo and reverberation. This results in the user’s inability to comprehend voices and makes other noises, such as music, hard to interpret. Frequent users of these spaces are exposed to a difficult work environment and safety concerns.10 These common acoustic issues need to be addressed in the proposed project because users of the space will potentially be diagnosed with varying degrees of sound sensitivity.

A successful setting for all users addresses the deflection, absorption and isolation of noise. According to Ron Witherspoon of the AIA, noise can be deflected by establishing nonparallel surfaces throughout the pool hall. Recessed openings and offset ceilings can be established as sound-deflective design elements. In addition to deflecting sound waves, the absorption of sound can help to lower noise levels. This can be done through design elements including inset areas, wall panels and acoustical banners. The final step to lowering noise levels in an indoor pool facility is the isolation of HVAC, water treatment systems and other loud equipment from the main space.11

VISUAL CONTROL While visual control is not mandatory, there are several spaces that would benefit. Considering the existing building allows for it, the proposed project will feature a viewing deck in the main pool room. This area allows for therapists, family members and administrative staff to observe therapy sessions from above the pool. The level change between the pool and viewing decks ensure that


Fig. 17

patients will not become distracted by any guests that may look in on therapy sessions. Another positive aspect of visual control in an aquatic facility is for safety purposes. The offices and other spaces for pool staff located immediately adjacent to the pool room will feature windows or glazing. This allows for an atmosphere privacy and seclusion, while also establishing a visual connection between the two spaces.12 In addition, the lifeguard will need to sit in a position where he or she has visual control of the space. This location must ensure they are able to see all areas of the pool deck.

W AY F I N D I N G The wayfinding methods used in the proposed project must be strategically planned for the users of the space. Because the facility will appeal to children, visibility throughout the space needs to be high. Narrow corridors and heavily-walled plans are intimidating to children and even have the potential to frighten them. Wayfinding in this type of project should be designed as a visual landmark to assist visitors in finding their way. Wayfinding methods should be fun design elements and can feature pictograms or other easily recognizable symbols.13

Fig. 18

Adhering with universal design, all signage present in the proposed project must be comprehendible by children with physical and mental disabilities, as well as their parents and loved ones. According to Linda Cain of the AIA, recommended signage heights for children are roughly 48 inches above the finished floor.14 However, signage should also exist at the recommended height between 48 and 60 inches for adult visitors. It is essential these signage methods are ADA compliant and must include braille and tactile letters. 96


SECURITY The security and well-being of any patron of the proposed project is of the utmost importance. Upon entering the building, visitors will first approach a check-in desk to ensure their intentions are valid. From there, surveillance systems will be established to keep a watchful eye on visitors. All rooms containing private records or medical equipment will be locked from the outside. Although the entire facility will be under surveillance, security will be heightened at entrances and exits, in the reception area, and in the pool

Fig. 19 97

room itself. Because a pool has the potential to become a dangerous place for disabled children, all doors immediately adjacent to the pool room will require a key card for entry. Each patient visiting the pool must have a therapist or other staff member accompany them at all time to prevent accidents.

UNIVERSAL DESIGN The entire design of the aquatic therapy center will adhere to universal design principles, ADA compliances and code requirements. To ensure the safety and well-being of all users, the latest editions of Pennsylvania code

requirements will be applied to the construction of the space. According to its mission, the proposed project focuses on improving the lives of the profoundly disabled through the use of water. Following ADA compliances, the aquatic facility will be accessible by all users, regardless of disability, or lack thereof. In addition, universal design principles will be applied through design elements in the aquatic facility. These principles ensure that everyone who visits the space, regardless of age, race, or disability, is able to experience and enjoy the aquatic facility equally.15

Fig. 20


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 ”Commercial Aquatic Therapy Pool - HydroWorx® 2000.” HydroWorx. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.hydroworx.com/products/hydroworx-2000/. 2 “Buy Floors for Swimming Pool Perimeters & Wet Areas.” Signature Sports Flooring. Accessed October 12, 2017. http://www.signaturesportsflooring.com/swimming-pool- flooring.php. 3 Kilmer, Barrett . “Indoor Pools, Potential Problems?” AQUA. July 2008. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://aquamagazine.com/indoor-pools-potential-problems.html. 4 United States. United States Department of Justice. Disability Rights Section . Access To Medical Care For Individuals With Mobility Disabilities. ADA, 2010. July 22, 2010. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.ada.gov/medcare_mobility_ta/medcare_ta.htm#accessibleexamrm. 5 “Building Materials for Health Care Applications.” Interior Supply. Accessed October 12, 2017. http://www.interiorsupplyinc.com/solutions-health-care/. 6 Carr, Robert F. . “Design Recommendations - Hospital.” Whole Building Design Guide, April 6, 2017. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.wbdg.org/building-types/ health-care 7 “Natatorium Lighting Solutions.” SpecGrade LED. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.specgradeled.com/led-lighting-applications/natatorium-led-lighting/. 8 “Regional Materials.” U.S. Green Building Council. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.usgbc.org/credits/new-construction-schools/v2009/mrc5. 9 “Smith Aquatic Center.” City of Charlottesville, Virginia . Accessed October 12, 2017. http://www.charlottesville.org/departments-and-services/departments-h-z/public- works/environmental-sustainability/sustainable-buildings/smith-aquatic-center. 10 “Public Spaces - Gyms & Pools.” Acoustic Sciences Corporation. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.acousticsciences.com/public-spaces/gyms-pools. 11 Witherspoon, Ron. “Technical Challenges of Indoor Natatorium Design.” Lecture. Accessed October 12, 2017. www.dpsdesign.org. 12 Perkins, Bradford , David J. Hoglund, Douglas King, Eric Cohen, and Stephen A. Kliment. Building Type Basics for Senior Living. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. January 6, 2004. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=JJPDzG52aEYC&dq=visual control pool&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 13 United States. 14 United States. 15 United States . Department of Justice. 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. ADA, 2010. Accessed September 15, 2010. https://www.ada.gov I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - https://www.google.com/patents/US20130014321 Fig. 2 - https://www.ada.gov/medcare_mobility_ta/medcare_ta.htm#accessibleexamrm Fig. 3 - http://www.endlesspools.co.nz/waterwell.php Fig. 4 - https://designyourdesign.wordpress.com/2014/08/29/observations-on-site-and-its-impact-on-design/ Fig. 5 - http://serescodehumidifiers.com/engineers/indoor-pool-design/condensation-control.php Fig. 6 - http://serescodehumidifiers.com/engineers/indoor-pool-design/condensation-control.php Fig. 7 - http://serescodehumidifiers.com/engineers/indoor-pool-design/condensation-control.php Fig. 8 - https://www.winterbluemusic.com/drink-fountain/ Fig. 9 - http://celebratetheworld.info/chair-anthropometrics/# Fig. 10 - https://www.scienceforsport.com/cold-water-immersion/figure-1-approximate-percentage-of-body-weight-with-immersion-depth-science-for-sport-2/ Fig. 11 - http://www.archdaily.com/872710/a-simple-guide-to-using-the-ada-standards-for-accessible-design-guidelines Fig. 12 - http://perriconedesign-designworks.blogspot.com/2014/02/universal-design.html Fig. 13 - https://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAStandards.pdf Fig. 14 - http://www.designingforhumans.com/idsa/anthropometric_data/ Fig. 15 - http://afasiaarchzine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/BIG-.-Honeycomb-Albany-Marina-Residences-Building-1-.-Bahamas-15-1200x900.jpg Fig. 16 - https://home.fatare.com/window-height-from-floor/ Fig. 17 - https://leadingedgephysio.com/services/aquatic-therapy/ Fig. 18 - https://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAStandards.pdf Fig. 19 - http://www.utechpark.net/14219306/diagrams-ada-on-pinterest-restroom-design-ada-bathroom-and-toilet.html Fig. 20 - http://www.imgrum.org/user/revestirprime/1426798084/886358229786834799_1426798084Fig. 21 -

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Fig. 2

HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN INTRODUCTION This aquatic therapy center will accommodate children that that are profoundly disabled. In terms of environmental requirements, aquatic rehabilitation centers are similar to typical healthcare facilities. Because the users of the space are mentally and physically disabled children ages 3 to 21, specific behavior and psychological considerations need to be made. The goal is to design a rehabilitation space that children are able to adapt to, as well as thrive in. To successfully achieve this, human101

centered design, light and color, and the psychology of water will be taken into account.

DESIGN NEEDS The needs of this aquatic facility revolve around healing design. The target demographic group for the proposed project are children aged 3 to 21 who have been diagnosed as “profoundly disabled�. Although this is a broad diagnosis, prominent conditions that will benefit include Down Syndrome, autism, cerebral palsy, and Ehlers-Dahlos Syndrome.

While the physical conditions of patients vary, all visitors have one commonality: their values. Family members and caregivers have a large emphasis because the users of the space are disabled. The proposed facility will require intricate spatial planning to ensure that both the patient and family are considered in the design process. Examples include family changing areas, viewing rooms, support group areas and other areas were families can interact with each other while experiencing universal design considerations.


Fig. 3

Due to the behavioral and physiological norms of the demographic group, materiality and lighting will need to be carefully controlled. All materials must be healthcare-grade and easily cleanable. In the pool room, the flooring material must be non-slip because of the possibility that patients have balance disorders. For users with sensory processing disabilities, such as Autism, sound control is an extensive obstacle. Areas near water are naturally loud and prone to echoing, which will negatively affect the patient’s therapy session. In addition,

patients with conditions like Cerebral Palsy have little control over their body and will not be able to make changes in their position if they are uncomfortable. For this reason, glare and direct sunlight will need to be taken into account and controlled.

N AT U R E V S. B U I LT While most aquatic rehabilitation facilities target the physical limitations of its patients, therapy methods also have the potential to benefit overall well-being. To assist its patients, the proposed facility will feature strong

connections between the natural and built environments. The existing site is currently used as a community center and nature preserve and features an abundance of land. The New York Times expressed their support of natural environments saying that exposure “not only quiets the mind, but stimulates the physical relaxation response and our immune systems�.1 The proposed project will feature outdoor walking paths and sitting areas for patients and their families to experience. A recent study published in National Geographic found that 102


only 10% of American teens spend time outside every day.2 However, research from the Natural Resources Institute Finland suggests that three 40-minute outdoor walks per week can positively affect physiological changes, mood changes and attention spans. Outdoor areas will benefit the overall well-being of all users. In order to unify the exterior and interior of the building, biophilic principles will be put into place. Biophilia can be defined as the human tendency to seek connections with nature and other forms of life.3 By

Fig. 4

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incorporating windows into the exterior walls, users will be able to experience views of nature. The presence of clerestories and skylights also introduce the opportunity to make vital connections with the site. Roger Ulrich of the Department of Architecture and Centre for Healthcare Architecture at Chalmers University of Technology, believes that biophilic design alleviates pain. When exposed to nature, patients become distracted from their current situation. This mechanism reduces stress and absorbs the patient’s attention to pain, accelerating the healing process.4

I N T E R AC T I O N The design principles showcased in the aquatic facility will encourage social interaction between all users of the space. First and foremost, the design of the project will be centered around the children who are receiving treatment. By focusing on creating an enjoyable environment, the main users of the space will feel safe and secure. This stability will result in an eagerness to interact with others. The goal of the project is to create a space where children with profound disabilities and their families can come and seek support through interaction.


Fig. 5

One interactive relationship is the one that exists between the patients. To aid in their development, it is crucial that young children are exposed to social environments. However, it is common that families with disabled children have difficulties finding places to make these connections. To encourage interaction, designated community and recreational spaces will be established throughout the space. By establishing the aquatic center, families can connect with other children that are going through the same treatments and find a network of support. The second and most important interaction in the space is the one between the parent or caregiver and the child. After observation, it is clear that parent engagement results in positive feedback and reduced anxiety levels from the child. To assist this interaction, there will be a viewing panel from the waiting area into the pool area. In addition, a balcony above the pool will provide parents with a different method to interact with their child’s treatment sessions. These spaces will be indirect, which eliminates the chance for distractions. 104


Fig. 6

S T R AT E G I E S The recommended artificial light source for indoor pool rooms are LED luminaires. This type is ideal because of their durability, which is helpful for maintenance costs. After an impressive evolution, today’s LED lamps project less heat, use less energy, and have a longer lifespan than any other luminaire on the market. In addition, the lights in the pool area effect the safety of users and should always be high-quality. Any reflection or glare on the pool’s surface and surroundings can result in discomfort and dizziness to patrons. To control this, luminaires should be installed around the perimeter of the space. Glare can also be resolved by an artificial lighting system that projects light both upwards and downwards.5

LIGHT + COLOR 105

Natural lighting comes from windows, clerestories, and skylights. Exposure to more light leads to better sleep quality, more physical activity, and better quality of life.6 In fact, the full spectrum of daylight is needed to stimulate our endocrine systems properly.7 While natural light presents many advantages to spaces of healing, it can also introduce several problems.


Fig. 7

To combat these issues, natural light must be modulated to reduce or eliminate sun glare. This can be done through lighting-control systems such as films on glass, shading, or reflectors. Regardless of the approach taken to control glare, the system must be semitranslucent and give users visibility to the outdoor landscape.

COLOR + USERS Color will have an imperative role defining the aquatic center and its user group. Like adults, children are aware of and affected by color. Color studies have found that the presence of color in an environment is closely correlated with brain development, decreased absenteeism, enhanced productivity and even the transition from child to adult.8 While paint will introduce necessary color to the facility and its users, color will be best utilized through architectural elements.

Fig. 8

Recent scientific studies at the University of Alberta show that children with learning disabilities, such as autism and ADHD, experience distorted color discrimination. Researchers concluded that the simple change of light type and color in a space can influence 106


mood and behavior in children. Exposure to intense color and light leads to high blood pressure and aggressive behavior. Due to this, color and light throughout the space will need to be adjusted to accommodate universal design principles.9

C O LO R P S YC H O LO G Y In the proposed aquatic therapy facility, color will be used to create a healing environment and help positively affect the users of the space. To gain insight on color psychology, analysis was completed on general indoor pool facilities. This research continuously identified blue, green and white as prominent colors, with the occurrence of warm browns.

the prominent used in aquatic facility design. These facilities often feature wood that introduces brown to the color pallette. This repetition corresponds with a worldwide survey by YouGov, which reports that blue is the most popular color in 10 countries across 4 continents. The survey identified that blue is associated with water, comfort, relaxation, calmness and cleanliness.10 It is also suggested that using varying shades of blue in a space can prevent boredom and depression. From a physiological standpoint, the calming nature of blue will slow the user’s heartbeat, decrease body temperature, and relax muscles. Based on the fact

that blue assists with equilibrium and balance, its presence is relevant in the proposed project.11 Green presents several positive attributes of its own. Green is commonly known as the most “natural� color and is an excellent addition when trying to bring the outdoors inside. In regard to its composition, green is the warmest of the cool colors and offers numerous psychological benefits. According to psychologists, it is believed that exposure to green elements promotes relaxation, renewal, growth and eternal life. In its entirety, green has a strong association with health and well-being and is frequently used in healthcare settings to calm patients.12

"Just as water is necessary for life, color sustains our souls. Color is emotionally subjective." - "Color Design"

Fig. 9 107


Fig. 10

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Fig. 11

HOW IS THIS BENEFICIAL? P S YC H O LO G I C A L Maps of the world’s population show the bulk of human civilization lives near water.13 It is believed that exposure to water results in relief from daily stressors by invigorating the senses. As hydrotherapy is classified as exercise, it triggers the release of endorphins and will benefit the minds of patients. Hydrotherapy promotes overall wellbeing and assists to reduce tension, anxiety and depression.14 Hydrotherapy is an appropriate treatment for the profoundly disabled because of its monumental 109

efforts towards reducing depression. As a disabled citizen, feelings of hopelessness and discouragement have the potential to take over all aspects of life. However, aquatic therapy treatments reverse this mindset by building confidence. Unlike treatment on land, hydrotherapy allows patients to display their selfefficacy. As a result, hydrotherapy restores hope and reduces symptoms of depression.15 Just as hydrotherapy can reduce the risks of depression, it can also diminish feelings of anxiety and apprehension.

Warm water and water pressure can be used to comfort and reassure any nervous visitors. Sensory stimulating environments in aquatic therapy facilities distract patients, allowing positive feelings and thoughts to emerge. Social interaction between patient and therapist will enable patients to gain support, which is imperative to the healing process. Overall, the utilization of water’s properties causes the emergence of a positive state of mind and consequently reduces anxiety.16


Fig. 12

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Fig. 13

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"IT IS A LOELY EISTECE TO BE A CHILD WITH A DISABILITY WHICH O-OE CA DERSTAD. YO EASPERATE YOR TEACHERS, YO DISAPPOIT YOR PARETS, AD WORST OF ALL YO OW THAT YO ARE OT JST STPID." - SSA HAMPSHIRE 112


Fig. 14

PHYSIOLOGICAL While the psychological effects of hydrotherapy are distinct, the physiological effects are as well. Hydrostatic pressure results in buoyancy and reduces the body’s gravitational load.17 When immersed up to the chest, 75% of the patient’s body mass is off-loaded, and when they are lowered to their neck, this number reaches 90%.18 Hydrostatic pressure also places compression on all body tissues, benefitting overall well-being. Muscle metabolism is improved because the pressure creates an increased blood supply to the areas. In addition, respiration rates increase, dropping blood pressure. The hydrostatic pressure places resistance on the diaphragm, enabling the lungs to take in more oxygen. In response, more oxygen is delivered to tissues and blood circulation is drastically improved.19 Throughout history, hydrotherapy has made up a significant portion of physical therapy agendas. Its success is due to five influences: gravity, buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure, turbulence and temperature. These factors affect several body systems and allow patients to experience 113

relief, if only for a moment. It has been found that patients have freedom of their body movements and are able to perform activities with more ease when immersed in water. The physical properties of water offer

weightlessness and liberation to disabled patients, who are otherwise hindered by gravity. In all, the water creates an alternate environment in which there is a decreased impact and stress on bones and tissue.20


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 Edwards, Jennifer . “Nature’s Healing Effects on Your Body & Your Mind.” HuffPost (web log), November 11, 2011. Accessed October 20, 2017. https://www.huffington post.com/jennifer-edwards/natures-healing-effects-o_b_640887.html. 2 Williams, Florence . “This Is Your Brain on Nature.” National Geographic. Accessed October 20, 2017. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/call-to-wild/. 3 Browning, William, Catherine Ryan, and Joseph Clancy. “14 Patterns of Biophilic Design.” Terrapin Bright Green. September 12, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www.terrapinbrightgreen.com/reports/14-patterns/. 4 Heerwagen, Judith H., Stephen R. Kellert, and Martin L. Mador. Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. September 26, 2011. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://books.google.com/books?id=FyNer_nQrW4C&dq=BIOPHILIA CAN BE EXPLAINED AS THE HUMAN TENDENCY TO SEEK CONNECTIONS WITH NATURE AND OTHER FORMS OF LIFE.&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 5 “Challenges and Solutions for Indoor Pool Lighting.” STANDARD . August 24, 2017. Accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.standardpro.com/challenges-and-solutions- for-indoor-pool-lighting/. 6 Rentals, Allsite Structure. “Swimming Pool Structure, Natural Light is a Smart Choice.” Allsite Structure Rentals. May 06, 2016. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://allsites tructures.com/swimming-pool-structure-natural-light/. 7 Reed, Don . Color Design: Transforming Interior Spaces . China: Conde Nast Publications , 2010. 8 Olesen, Jacob . “Color Psychology: Child Behavior And Learning Through Colors.” Color-Meanings.com. February 10, 2016. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www. color-meanings.com/color-psychology-child-behavior-and-learning-through-colors/. 9 Olesen 10 Jordan, William. “Why Is Blue the World’s Favorite Color?” YouGov US. May 12, 2015. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://today.yougov.com/blue-favorite-color/. 11 Reed 12 IBID. 13 Small, Meredith F. “Hit the Beach: Why Humans Love Water.” LiveScience. August 24, 2007. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/7342-hit-beach- humans-love-water.html. 14 Pulliam , Christina M. The Physical and Psychological Benefits of Hydrotherapy . Master’s thesis, Texas Tech University , 1999-2005. 1999. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/ttu-ir/handle/2346/23172. 15 Pulliam 16 IBID. 17 “Cold Water Immersion.” Science for Sport. April 09, 2017. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www.scienceforsport.com/cold-water-immersion/. 18 IBID. 19 Pulliam 20 IBID. I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - https://gabyrobbins.com/why-inspirenigma/ Fig. 2 - http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/male-and-female-feet-in-a-swimming-pool-royalty-free-image/112295215 Fig. 3 - https://alfa-img.com/show/springboard-diving-wallpapers.html Fig. 4 - http://www.courant.com/features/hc-adoption-advice-for-parents-20150520-story.html Fig. 5 - https://www.archdaily.com/775884/baubotanik-the-botanically-inspired-design-system-that-creates-living-buildings Fig. 6 - https://architizer.com/blog/indoor-pools/ Fig. 7 - https://architizer.com/blog/hotel-castell-dels-hams-majorca/ Fig. 8 - http://wiwuewi.blogspot.com/2014/07/ Fig. 9 - http://graphicdesignjunction.com/2013/09/water-drop-photography/ Fig. 10 - https://archinect.imgix.net/uploads/i0/i0lqdzu5jg1eee0d.jpg?auto=compress%2Cformat Fig. 11 - https://www.awarenessdays.com/awareness-days-calendar/international-day-of-the-disappeared/ Fig. 12 - https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-27872134-stock-footage-portrait-disabled-person-with-laptop-on-wheel-chair-leads-video-chat-looks-camera-alone. Fig. 13 - http://abroadship.org/training-course-more-education-less-discrimination-romania/ Fig. 14 - https://500px.com/photo/81014835/pure-de-montagne-by-constantin-pappas?utm_medium=pinterest&utm_campaign=content=web&utm_source=500px

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INTRODUCTION

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When considering possible locations for the proposed project, there are numerous elements that need to be taken into account. By examining the existing site, zoning maps, and climate conditions, valuable information about the area will be obtained. This information will justify and give insight to the selection of Haverford, Pennsylvania as the proposed site.

J U S T I F I C AT I O N After further research and analyzation was completed on the Haverford Community Center, the selection of its site was thoroughly justified. Situated just 12 miles outside of Philadelphia, the site is conveniently located in the suburb of Haverford. Because it is not inside city limits, the site is removed from the chaos and noise of the city.

H AV E R F O R D , PA 117


DESCRIPTION Haverford is a small town in Eastern Pennsylvania that is located in the middle of Delaware and Montgomery counties. Well known for its historical past, the town is situated on the affluent “Main Line” of Philadelphia.1 Up until the mid-20th century, the area was known for its contributions to the agricultural field. However, the industrial revolution brought mills and mining to Haverford. Presently, the township’s buildings are mainly residential, with some retail, service and light industry. As of 2015, Haverford Township owned 237.5 acres of recreational land.2

DEMOGRAPHICS As of 2017, the population of Haverford sits at 9,608 people. Of this total, one of the largest demographic groups is people aged 65 and older, which makes up 24.6% of the total population. In addition, 33.1% of residents are between the ages of birth and 24 years old. Considering the proposed aquatic facility will target the youth of the area, the young demographic makeup of Haverford confirms it is an exceptional site location.3

There is not an immense amount of cultural diversity in Haverford. Of the people living here, 87.8% are white. When combined, the African American, Hispanic and Latino, and Asian populations make up the remaining 12.2%. The most common language spoken in Haverford is English at 90.1%, and is followed by Spanish at 3.8%. Most of the population’s ancestry lines lead back to Europe, specifically Eastern Europe. The most common heritages are Irish, which makes up 26.9% and German, which appears in 16.5% of people.4 As of 2017, the overall socio-economic condition of Haverford’s population sits well above the United States’ average. The per capita income of Haverford’s population is $72,339 and the median household income continues to exceed $116,000 annually. As compared to the 26.4% of people living below the poverty level in Philadelphia, only 4% of Haverford’s population lives in poverty.5 The town of Haverford has endless unique features, but the overall ambiances are its most treasured. While the township lays only 10 118


Fig. 3

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miles outside of Philadelphia, the rural qualities of the town center and main roads are heavily influenced by Quaker and colonial styles.6 One of Haverford’s most notable attributes is Haverford College, which was founded in 1833. The campus accommodates more than 25 buildings that are significant to the township’s history.7

W E AT H E R Comparable to the Greater Philadelphia area, Haverford is located a temperate climate zone and experiences all seasons and weather patterns. Over the course of the year, daily temperatures average around 54 degrees. Average temperatures tend to hover around 30 degrees in January and 77 degrees in July. Annually, Haverford accumulates 41 inches of rain, which averages out to 3.5 inches of precipitation per month. Considering the site is located on an overlook, wind is a common element and averages about 9.5 miles per hour. Most wind gusts on the site come from the West and Northwest directions, which coincide with the lack of tree coverage.8

A RC H I T E C T U R E S T Y L E Overall, the architectural style of Haverford Township has been shaped by local climate. Historically, three Welsh families established Haverford upon their arrival to Philadelphia in 1682. Because of this, the main building style of Haverford was derived from native Welsh farmhouses.9 According to the Main Line Times, Haverford’s modern builders still refer back to these historic roots, along with gaining inspiration from French cottages and English villages.10

INFLUENCE The qualities of Haverford Township will have a strong influence on the design of the proposed project. After investigating the demographics and economic standing of Haverford’s population, the aquatic facility will be a high-budget project. While the design of the proposed project will support the upper-class style of Haverford, it will target users from all economic classes. The construction will place emphasis on bio-building and will accentuate the surrounding natural environment. However, the design will also pay homage to the historical past of Haverford. 120


NEIGHBORHOOD DESCRIPTION The Haverford Community Recreation and Environmental Center is positioned in a neighborhood at the Southwest boundary of Haverford Township. Although the Veterans Memorial Highway (I-476) is immediately adjacent to the West side of the building, the site is in a generally serene neighborhood. The existing building and recreational facilities are the only clear zones in the 121

neighborhood, as the rest is heavily populated by trees. The majority of the neighborhood is made up of residential buildings, leaving the recreation center the only building of its kind in the area.

SURROUNDINGS The Haverford Township Community Center is currently surrounded by many residential neighborhoods. When looking to the Northeast, a large

Fig. 4

residential development, The Carriage Homes, are directly in view. The North boundary of Parkview Drive is represented by The Quadrangle, a luxurious senior living community. Apart from residential function, Parkview Drive also has an abundance of facilities that operate for recreational purposes. These amenities include a golf driving range, multiple sports fields, a dog park, and a nature reserve with walking trails.


Fig. 5

Although Haverford is a notoriously historic area, the architectural style of Parkview Drive is slightly different. The buildings that exist on the street have a heavy influence from the colonial and Quaker styles. However, the entire development surrounding the site are all new constructions. While the immediate surrounding buildings have relatively variable story-heights, the average story count is three floors. The senior living community features

Laurel Lane, Haverford

buildings that range from four to five stories, while the single-family residences stay around two or three stories.

F E AT U R E S While the entirety of Haverford Township is notable, the Parkview Drive neighborhood encompasses a number of unique, community-based recreation areas. Open to the public, miles of walking trails traverse the

woodlands that surround the current facility. The existing building is located across from a sports complex that features two baseball fields, a football field, three soccer fields and a dog park. Just beyond these recreational fields, a full-size golf course is positioned East of the existing site. While the proposed building itself is a note-worthy element, Parkview Drive contains several public amenities that make the site unique. 122


INFLUENCE The styles of Parkview Drive and the neighborhood around the existing building will have a large influence on the design of the proposed project. The current site is surrounded by several acres of wooded land used for recreation and a nature reserve. Considering the exceptional facilities that are present, the proposed project will be sure to make use of them. In addition, the proposed project will be sure to address the neighborhood’s roots to Quaker beliefs of environmental stewardship.

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SITE

ZONING The site of the Haverford Community Center is currently zoned as a Special Residential Development, which continues throughout Parkview Drive. The area also contains plots of land zoned as Low Density Residential and Recreational/Open Space.11 124


Fig. 8

S I T E A N A LY S I S TRAFFIC While traffic patterns around the site need to be taken into consideration, they do not hinder the functions of the community center. In fact, vehicular access to the site is extremely convenient. The main route to the site, Parkview Drive, is a quiet, side road that runs one mile in length from North to South. This street has two-way traffic and is accessible by two main Haverford roads, Marple Road and Darby Road. On arrival to the site, users have access to a large parking 125

lot on site, as well as two smaller lots across the street near the recreation fields. When travelling around the site, pedestrians have easy and safe access to paths and sidewalks. These means of travel are accessible from the parking lot, Parkview Road and several points in the building. The site has endless opportunities for foot traffic, which is emphasized by the elaborate walking trails available throughout the reserve.

VIEWS Depending on location, visitors are subjected a mix of positive and negative views. For the most part, the area immediately surrounding the site presents positive views. When looking to the North, East and South, users will experience peaceful views of the nature reserve, walking trails, dog park and recreation fields. However, views to the West of the site are less appealing. This direction reveals a cell phone tower and the Veteran’s Memorial Highway (I-476).


SUN + WIND

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

   

Fig. 10



  



 

















For the Haverford Community Center, wind patterns are a valued asset. During the warm summer months, wind gusts will come from the Southwest. However, these patterns change during the winter months and come from the Northwest. Because the building is situated at a higher grade than its surroundings, wind will be especially prevalent throughout the year.

Fig. 9



Natural light is an element that needs to be carefully studied and controlled. Because the Haverford Community Center will be used year-round, both summer and winter sun patterns will be analyzed. Regardless of the season, the sun travels from East to West. The main entrance to the building is in the sun’s path and features an overhang to block sun from shining directly into the building. In addition, the perimeter of the building features clerestories to let light in and incorporates overhangs to block direct rays.

 

SOUND 



Comparable to any building site, sources of sound, along with the quality of those sounds, need to be addressed and controlled. The area surrounding the site

  

  

126


is currently home to a dog park, nature preserve and recreation complex that produce noises including dogs barking, children screaming and basic nature noises. These sounds may be loud, but they are a part of the landscape and can be identified as positive noise. However, there is the potential for negative noise from the

127

Veterans Memorial Highway (I-476), located to the immediate West of the site. Overall, noise pollution on the site will not be a main concern.

D E S I R A B L E F E AT U R E S Unique outdoor amenities, especially community recreation facilities, are prevalent all around the

Haverford Community Center. The lots immediately adjacent to the site conveniently accommodate a playground, sports fields and a dog park. The landscape surrounding the building is rich with greenery. In accordance with the nature reserve on the premises, the site is home to numerous acres of dense trees.

Fig. 11


Although the parking lot is paved, sidewalks and medians are lined with shrubs and plantings. Outdoor seating is offered all around the building, but the north side of the building has a terrace specifically for this function.

SAFETY CONCERNS Based on its location and surroundings, the site of the Haverford Community Center has some safety concerns. Because there is a cell phone tower located on the premises, that area

will need to be equipped with specific security equipment. In addition, safety considerations need to be taken on the North side of the building. The grade drastically changes here and guard rails or barriers will be required.

128


Fig. 12

129


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 “Haverford, Pennsylvania.” Wikipedia. December 06, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haverford,_Pennsylvania. 2 “Haverford Township, Pennsylvania.” Haverford Township: History of Haverford Township. January 29, 2008. Accessed December 12, 2017. http://www.haverfordtownship. org/egov/docs/120164522361.htm. 3 “Haverford, PA.” NeighborhoodScout. 2017. Accessed December 12, 2017. https://www.neighborhoodscout.com/pa/haverford/demographics. 4 IBID. 5 IBID. 6 “Haverford Township, Pennsylvania.” 7 “Why Haverford?” Haverford College. Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.haverford.edu/why-haverford. 8 “Philadelphia.” Climate Information for Philadelphia - Pennsylvania - Mid-Atlantic - United States. Accessed November 28, 2017. http://climate-zone.com/climate/united- states/pennsylvania/philadelphia/. 9 “Haverford Township, Pennsylvania.” 10 O’Loughlin, Kathy. “Building Legacies: Notable Architecture of the Main Line.” Main Line Media News. December 16, 2013. Accessed November 7, 2017. http://www. mainlinemedianews.com/mainlinetimes/life/building-legacies-notable-architecture-of-the-main-line/article_4cc6cf61-79f0-52da-ade0-595b5551ac59.html. 11 “Haverford Township, Pennsylvania.”

I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Haverford Map 1862, Delaware County History, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://delawarecountyhistory.com/haverfordtownship/images/haverfordfull.jpg Fig. 2 - Nitre Hall, Painting, Delaware County History, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://haverfordhistoricalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/101sm_eckfeldt_ nitre_hall.jpg Fig. 3 - Winter Flyover, Digital Image, Haverford College, Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.haverford.edu/sites/default/files/Homepage/winter-flyover.jpg Fig. 4 - Haverford College Sign, Digital Image, Main Line Real Estate, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://www.phillymainlinerealestate.com/img/haverfordb1.jpg Fig. 5 - Laurel Lane, Digital Image, Zillow, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://premiereestates.com/site/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/LaurelFExN-copyCROP.jpg Fig. 6 - Reserve Entrance, Digital Image, Athertyn, Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.athertyn.com/winter-scenes-at-athertyn/ Fig. 7 - Haverford Zoning Plan, Digital Image, Haverford Township, November 28, 2017. http://www.haverfordtownship.org/ Fig. 8 - Front Entrance, Digital Image, Kimmel Bogrette, November 28, 2017. http://kimmel-bogrette.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/haverford_rec_ext_4a- 1467x1050.jpg Fig. 9 - Site Analysis 1, Drawing by Anna Petronio and Alli McCabe, November 28, 2017. Fig. 10 - Site Analysis 2, Drawing by Anna Petronio and Alli McCabe, November 28, 2017. Fig. 11 - Front Entrance at Night, Digital Image, Kimmel Bogrette, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://kimmel-bogrette.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/haverford_ rec_ext_4a-1467x1050.jpg Fig. 12 - Natural Light Front Entrance, Digital Image, Photo by Anna Petronio, Accessed November 17, 2017.

130


Fig. 1

131


/

Programming Development

132


INTRODUCTION While projects within the same discipline share many commonalities, they can also be incredibly diverse when it comes to program. Between identifying the building type and its users’ needs, the program of a space

Fig. 2

133

is responsible for defining how the project will function. The objective of this section is to identify the goals of an aquatic therapy center. A formal list of needs

can be devised by looking at the building’s required accommodations, occupancies and adjacencies. This list also addresses any design needs of the project type, including lighting, materiality and necessary equipment.


A D JAC E N C Y M AT R I X

Fig. 3

134


Q U A N T I TAT I V E P RO G R A M ROOM

CIRCULATION

Q T Y.

S . F. E A C H

S . F. T O T A L

A D JAC E N C I E S

P R I VAC Y

N/A

20-30%

10,400 S.F.

N/A

N/A

400 S.F.

LOBBY/WAITING, RECEPTION,

N/A

OF TOTAL

ENTRY/VESTIBULE

1

400 S.F.

PUBLIC RESTROOMS

LOBBY/WAITING

1

300 S.F.

300 S.F.

ENTRY/VESTIBULE, RECEPTION,

N/A

PUBLIC RESTROOMS

RECEPTION

1

300 S.F.

300 S.F.

ENTRY, WAITING AREA, ADMIN OFFICES,

ACOUSTIC & VISUAL

THERAPIST OFFICES

POOL ROOM

1

5,000 S.F.

8,000 S.F.

LOCKER ROOMS, VIEWING AREA, DRY

N/A

THERAPY ROOMS, TOWEL ROOM

GUEST LOCKER

3

500 S.F.

1,500 S.F.

ROOMS

EMPLOYEE LOCKER ROOMS 135

POOL ROOM, TOWEL ROOM, DRY

ACOUSTIC & VISUAL

THERAPY ROOM, STORAGE

2

250 S.F.

500 S.F.

POOL ROOM, TOWEL ROOM, DRY THERAPY ROOM, THERAPIST OFFICES

ACOUSTIC & VISUAL


LIGHTING

FURN/EQUIP

FINISHES

AC O U S T I C CRITERIA

P E RC E P T I O N

NATURAL &

WAYFINDING

DURABLE FOR

ABSORB, BLOCK

EXPANSIVE

HIGH-TRAFFIC

& COVER

WALK-OFF MATS, SECURITY

GLASS

N/A

INTIMATE

LOUNGE FURNITURE

EASILY CLEANABLE

ABSORB

EXPANSIVE

FLOORING

& BLOCK

TBD

ABSORB

ARTIFICIAL

NATURAL &

REMARKS

USING EXISTING

ARTIFICIAL

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL

NATURAL &

STORAGE, COMPUTER, FILING

ARTIFICIAL

CABINETS, SECURITY

NATURAL &

SAFETY EQUIPMENT, HYDRO

NON-SLIP FLOORING,

ABSORB, BLOCK

ARTIFICIAL

WORX POOL, THERAPY TOYS

HUMIDITY-RESISTANT

& COVER

ARTIFICIAL

TOILETS, SHOWERS, LOCKERS,

EASILY CLEANBALE

ABSORB

CHANGING ROOMS

SURFACES, NON-SLIP

& BLOCK

TOILETS, SHOWERS, LOCKERS,

EASILY CLEANBALE

ABSORB

CHANGING ROOMS

SURFACES, NON-SLIP

& BLOCK

ARTIFICIAL

INTIMATE

& BLOCK

INCLUDES DESK & PRIV. CHART ROOM

EXPANSIVE

INCLUDES PUMP ROOM AND EQUIPMENT

EXPANSIVE

WILL INCLUDE MEN, WOMEN AND FAMILY

EXPANSIVE

WILL INCLUDE MEN AND WOMEN 136


ROOM

DRY THERAPY

Q T Y.

S . F. E A C H

S . F. T O T A L

A D JAC E N C I E S

P R I VAC Y

4

200 S.F.

800 S.F.

POOL ROOM, LOCKER ROOMS,

ACOUSTIC

OT & PT OFFICES, LOBBY

& VISUAL

VIEWING AREA, POOL ROOM,

N/A

ROOMS

CAFE

1

400 S.F.

400 S.F.

RESTROOMS

VIEWING AREA

1

200 S.F.

200 S.F.

POOL ROOM, CAFE, RESTROOMS

N/A

PT AND OT STAFF

4

100 S.F.

400 S.F.

DRY THERAPY ROOMS, POOL, LOBBY,

ACOUSTIC

ADMIN OFFICES, CHART ROOM

& VISUAL

ADMIN OFFICES, STAFF LOUNGE,

ACOUSTIC

RECEPTION

& VISUAL

OFFICES

ADMIN OFFICES

MULTI-PURPOSE

2

150 S.F.

300 S.F.

1

400 S.F.

400 S.F.

ENTRY, RECEPTION, CAFE

ACOUSTIC

1

200 S.F.

200 S.F.

STAFF LOCKER ROOMS, POOL ROOM,

ACOUSTIC & VISUAL

ROOM

STAFF LOUNGE

OFFICES

STAFF RESTROOMS

2

64 S.F.

128 S.F.

STAFF OFFICES, STAFF LOUNGE, STAFF LOCKER ROOMS

137

ACOUSTIC & VISUAL


LIGHTING

FURN/EQUIP

FINISHES

AC O U S T I C CRITERIA

P E RC E P T I O N

REMARKS

ARTIFICIAL

GYMNASTICS MAT, THERAPY

EASILY CLEANABLE,

ABSORB

INTIMATE

INCLUDES PRIVATE

TABLE, COUNTER W/ SINK

TACTILE SURFACES

& BLOCK

NATURAL &

LOUNGE FURNITURE, TABLES,

EASILY CLEANBLE,

ABSORB, BLOCK

ARTIFICIAL

FOOD PREP & SERVING EQUIP.

RESIDENTIAL-STYLE

& COVER

ARTIFICIAL

LOUNGE FURNITURE, VIEWING

RESIDENTIAL-STYLE

ABSORB

PANEL

ARTIFICIAL

DESK, 2 GUEST CHAIRS,

DESK, GUEST CHAIRS,

GENERAL FINISHES

WILL ONLY SERVE FRESH FOOD/DRINK

EXPANSIVE

ABSORB

INTIMATE

& BLOCK

GENERAL FINISHES

FILING CABINETS

ABSORB

STACKABLE CHAIRS, MOVEABLE

GENERAL FINISHES

ABSORB, BLOCK

ARTIFICIAL

FURNITURE, MEDIA SET-UP

ARTIFICIAL

FULL KITCHEN, LARGE DINING

EASILY CLEANABLE,

ABSORB, BLOCK

TABLES, CHAIRS

STANDARD FINISHES

& COVER

SINK, TOILET, URINAL, ADA

NON-SLIP, HIGHLY

ABSORB

ACCESSIBILITIES

DURABLE, EASY-CLEAN

PLACE TO MEET WITH FAMILIES IN PRIVATE

INTIMATE

& BLOCK

NATURAL &

ARTIFICIAL

EXPANSIVE

& COVER

FILING CABINETS

ARTIFICIAL

BATHROOM

OFFICES FOR MANAGEMENT

EXPANSIVE

& COVER

CAN HOST COMMUNITY EVENTS

INTIMATE

WILL DOUBLE AS CONFERENCE ROOM

INTIMATE

UNISEX FOR EASE OF ACCESS

138


ROOM

PUBLIC RESTROOMS

TOWEL ROOM

VENDING AREA

Q T Y.

S . F. E A C H

S . F. T O T A L

A D JAC E N C I E S

P R I VAC Y

2

250 S.F.

500 S.F.

ENTRY/LOBBY, CAFE, WAITING ROOM,

ACOUSTIC

VIEWING AREA

& VISUAL

POOL ROOM, LOCKER ROOMS, DRY

ACOUSTIC

THERAPY ROOMS

& VISUAL

LOBBY/ENTRY, VIEWING AREA, STAFF

VISUAL

1

1

120 S.F.

50 S.F.

120 S.F.

50 S.F.

LOUNGE, CAFE

DATA AND

1

100 S.F.

100 S.F.

SECURITY ROOM

MECHANICAL

1

250 S.F.

250 S.F.

ROOM

ELECTRICAL CLOSET

GENERAL STORAGE

1

1

100 S.F.

300 S.F.

100 S.F.

300 S.F.

MECHANICAL ROOM, RECEPTION,

ACOUSTIC

CHART ROOM, STAFF AREAS

& VISUAL

DATA ROOM, STAFF AREAS,

ACOUSTIC

POOL ROOM

& VISUAL

MECHANICAL ROOM, DATA

ACOUSTIC

ROOM, RECEPTION

& VISUAL

MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM, STAFF AREAS,

VISUAL

THERAPY ROOMS, CAFE

JANITOR’S CLOSET

139

1

80 S.F.

80 S.F.

PUBLIC RESTROOMS, LOBBY, ELEVATOR

VISUAL


LIGHTING

FURN/EQUIP

FINISHES

AC O U S T I C CRITERIA

P E RC E P T I O N

REMARKS

ARTIFICIAL

ADA ACCESSIBILITIES, TOILET,

NON-SLIP, HIGHLY

ABSORB

INTIMATE

INCLUDES 1 MALE, 1

SINK, URINAL, 4-5 STALLS

DURABLE, EASY-CLEAN

& BLOCK

SHELVES, WASHER/DRYER,

STANDARD FINISHES

ABSORB

ARTIFICIAL

TABLES, CLEAN/DIRTY STORAGE

ARTIFICIAL

ARTIFICIAL

1 DRINK MACHINE, 1 FOOD

NON-SLIP, EASILY

MACHINE

CLEANABLE

SECURITY CONTROLS, SERVERS

STANDARD FINISHES

HVAC UNITS,

INTIMATE

& BLOCK

FOR COMPUTERS & TECH

ARTIFICIAL

FEMALE

ABSORB

STAFF ACCESS AND DISTRIBUTE TOWELS

INTIMATE

SERVE PACKAGED FOOD ONLY

ABSORB

INTIMATE

& BLOCK

ONLY STAFF CAN ACCESS WTH SWIPE

GENERAL FINISHES

ABSORB

INTIMATE

GENERAL FINISHES

ABSORB

INTIMATE

GENERAL FINISHES

N/A

INTIMATE

ELEVATOR CONTROLS

ARTIFICIAL

ELECTRICAL UNITS, CIRCUIT BREAKERS

ARTIFICIAL

LOCKING DOORS, SHELVES, ROOM FOR LARGE ITEMS

ARTIFICIAL

SHELVING, CLOSED STORAGE, DEEP SINK

CAN BE SPREAD OUT AROUND BUILDING

GENERAL FINISHES

N/A

INTIMATE

CONSIDER 1 ON EACH FLOOR

140


Q U A L I TAT I V E P RO G R A M ROOM

CIRCULATION

PROX.

COLOR

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

P O W E R , H VAC , DATA / VOICE, PLUMB’G NEEDS

THERMAL COMFORT

2, 3

TBD

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS IN CORRIDORS

HVAC & AIR CIRCULATION

ENTRY/VESTIBULE

3

N/A

OPERABLE WINDOWS

POWER OUTLETS

SHADING CONTROLS, OPERABLE WINDOWS

LOBBY/WAITING

RECEPTION

POOL ROOM

GUEST LOCKER

2, 3, 4

1, 2

1, 2, 3, 4

3, 4

ROOMS

EMPLOYEE LOCKER ROOMS 141

3, 4

TBD

TBD

PLANTS, OPERABLE

POWER OUTLETS, WIRELESS

AIR CIRCULATION,

WINDOWS

INTERNET ACCESS FOR GUESTS

SHADING CONTROLS

PLANTS

POWER OUTLETS & DATA/VOICE

USERS CAN ADJUST

CONNECTION NEEEDED FOR COMPUTERS

THEIR OWN TEMP

MAINLY WHITE,

PLANTS, SEMI

POWER OUTLETS, HUMIDITY-RESISTANT

SHADING, OPERABLE

BLUE & GREEN

OPERABLE WINDOWS

HVAC SYSTEM, CONSIDER PLUMBING

WINDOWS, HVAC

WHITE W/

VENT SYSTEM,

HVAC FOR VENTS, EXTRA PLUMBING FOR

VENTILATION

GREEN & BLUE

NON-VOC PAINT

SHOWERS & TOILETS, POWER OUTLETS

SYSTEMS

WHITE W/

VENT SYSTEM,

HVAC FOR VENTS, EXTRA PLUMBING FOR

VENTILATION

GREEN & BLUE

NON-VOC PAINT

SHOWERS & TOILETS, POWER OUTLETS

SYSTEMS


E N V I RO N M E N TA L QUALITIES

ERGONOMICS

W AY F I N D I N G

GROWTH + PERMANENCE

REMARKS

TBD

ALLOWS USERS TO FOLLOW

GENERAL SIGNAGE AT

N/A

PROVIDE SPACE FOR

NATURAL PATH OF CIRCULATION MAJOR DECISION POINTS

REUSE EXISTING MATERIALS

N/A

ENTRY SIGNAGE

WHEELCHAIRS, ETC.

N/A

(WITH LOGO AND NAME)

WHEELCHAIRS, ETC.

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

UTILIZE ERGONOMIC FURNITURE

DIRECTING VISITORS

NATURAL LIGHT

AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN

TOWARDS RECEPTION

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

USE GENERAL PRACTICES FOR

GENERAL WAYFINDING AT

NATURAL LIGHT

OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

COUNTER (MAP)

DAYLIGHT SYSTEM, FILTER &

ELEMENTS ARE GEARED

REUSE WATER, NO CHEMICALS

TOWARDS KIDS & DISABLED

TO LOCKER ROOMS

FOR NEW POOL EQUIP.

DUAL-FLUSH TOILETS

SHOWER, TOILET, SINK ARE AT

PICTOGRAM BATHROOM

N/A

HEIGHT FOR ADULT & CHILD

SIGNAGE (WITH BRAILLE)

SHOWER, TOILET, SINK ARE AT

PICTOGRAM BATHROOM

HEIGHT FOR ALL ADULTS (ADA)

SIGNAGE (WITH BRAILLE)

DUAL-FLUSH TOILETS

PROVIDE SPACE FOR

N/A

N/A

COUNTERS MUST BE ADA ACCESSIBLE

GENERAL ROOM SIGNAGE, INCLUDE EXTRA STORAGE

CONSIDER COLOR SENSITIVITIES

N/A

142


ROOM

DRY THERAPY

PROX.

COLOR

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

P O W E R , H VAC , DATA / VOICE, PLUMB’G NEEDS

THERMAL COMFORT

1, 2

CALMING, NO

NON-VOC PAINT,

POWER OUTLET, INTERNET CONNECTION,

HVAC & AIR

YELLOW

GOOD VENTILATION

PLUMBING FOR SINK & TOILET

CIRCULATION

ORGANIC

PLANTS

POWER OUTLETS, DATA FOR REGISTER,

OPEN AIR

PLUMBING FOR FOOD PREP

CIRCULATION

POWER OUTLETS, WIRELESS

AIR CIRCULATION,

INTERNET ACCESS FOR GUESTS

SHADING CONTROLS

ROOMS

CAFE

2, 3, 4

COLORS

VIEWING AREA

2, 3

ORGANIC

PLANTS

COLORS

PT AND OT

1, 2

STAFF OFFICES

ADMIN OFFICES

MULTI-PURPOSE

1, 2,

2, 3, 4

ROOM

STAFF LOUNGE

STAFF RESTROOMS

143

1, 2, 3

1

VIBRANT

PLANTS, OPERABLE

POWER OUTLETS & DATA/VOICE

USERS CAN ADJUST

COLORS

WINDOWS

CONNECTION NEEEDED FOR COMPUTERS

THEIR OWN TEMP

VIBRANT

PLANTS, OPERABLE

POWER OUTLETS & DATA/VOICE

USERS CAN ADJUST

COLORS

WINDOWS

CONNECTION NEEEDED FOR COMPUTERS

THEIR OWN TEMP

NEUTRAL

OPERABLE WINDOWS,

DATA/VOICE CONNECTION, WIFI

SHADING CONTROLS,

COLORS

PLANTS

CONNECTION, POWER OUTLETS

OPERABLE WINDOWS

VIBRANT

OPERABLE WINDOWS,

POWER OUTLETS, DATA/VOICE

USERS CONTROL,

COLORS

NON-VOC PAINT

CONNECTION, PLUMBING FOR KITCHEN

SHADING, WINDOWS

WHITE W/

VENT SYSTEM,

HVAC FOR VENTS, PLUMBING FOR

VENTILATION

GREEN & BLUE

NON-VOC PAINT

TOILETS, POWER OUTLETS

SYSTEMS


E N V I RO N M E N TA L QUALITIES

ERGONOMICS

W AY F I N D I N G

LED LIGHTING, USE GREEN

ALL TABLE HEIGHTS ADA

GENERAL ROOM

EQUIP FOR DEVELOPMT

MATERIALITY

ACCESISBLE

SIGNAGE

IN THERAPY EQUIPMENT

SERVE LOCALLY SOURCED

ADA ACCESSIBLE COUNTER

MENU SIGNAGE,

WILL BE EQUIP TO SERVE

FOODS, GREEN FINISHES

AND TABLE HEIGHTS

LOGO

FULL MEALS IN FUTURE

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

UTILIZE ERGONOMIC

N/A

CAN TURN INTO MULTI-

CONSIDER GLARE

NATURAL LIGHT

LOUNGE FURNITURE

PURPOSE SPC IF NEEDED

INTO POOL ROOM

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

USE GENERAL PRACTICES FOR

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

CAN SHARE OFFICES IN

NATURAL LIGHT

OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

(NAME AND TITLE)

FUTURE, FREE UP SPACE

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

USE GENERAL PRACTICES FOR

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

NATURAL LIGHT

OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

(NAME AND TITLE)

DAYLIGHTING SYSTEM,

FLEXIBLE-USE SPACE FOR ALL

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE,

ABLE TO FIT COMMUNITY

CONSIDER SUN

OPERABLE WINDOWS

OCCASIONS

W/ BRAILLE

FOR FUTURE EVENTS

BLOCKING SHADES

DUAL-FLUSH TOILETS

OUTFITTED FOR STAFF

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

MEETING/LOUNGE SPACE

W/ BRAILLE

TOILET, SINK ARE AT HEIGHT FOR

PICTOGRAM BATHROOM

ALL STAFF (ADA)

SIGNAGE (WITH BRAILLE)

DUAL-FLUSH TOILETS

GROWTH + PERMANENCE

REMARKS

N/A

144


ROOM

PUBLIC

PROX.

COLOR

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

P O W E R , H VAC , DATA / VOICE, PLUMB’G NEEDS

THERMAL COMFORT

3, 4

WHITE W/

VENT SYSTEM,

HVAC FOR VENTS, PLUMBING FOR

VENTILATION

GREEN & BLUE

NON-VOC PAINT

TOILETS AND SINKS, POWER OUTLETS

SYSTEMS

NEUTRAL

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS, PLUMBING

AIR

FOR WASHERS

VENTILATION

RESTROOMS

TOWEL ROOM

3

COLORS

VENDING AREA

DATA AND

3, 4

TBD

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS, DATA FOR VENDING

N/A

2

NEUTRAL

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS, DATA/VOICE

VENTILATION FOR

CONNECTION NEEEDED FOR COMPUTERS

COMPUTERS

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS, HVAC UNITS

N/A

NON-VOC PAINT

DATA/VOICE CONNECTION, POWER

N/A

SECURITY ROOM

MECHANICAL

COLORS

2

ROOM

ELECTRICAL

COLORS

2

CLOSET

GENERAL

CLOSET

145

NEUTRAL COLORS

2

STORAGE

JANITOR’S

NEUTRAL

NEUTRAL

OUTLETS

NON-VOC PAINT

POWER OUTLETS

N/A

NON-VOC PAINT

PLUMBING FOR SINK,

N/A

COLORS

2

NEUTRAL COLORS

POWER OUTLETS


E N V I RO N M E N TA L QUALITIES

ERGONOMICS

W AY F I N D I N G

GROWTH + PERMANENCE

DUAL-FLUSH TOILETS

TOILET, SINK ARE AT HEIGHT FOR

PICTOGRAM BATHROOM

N/A

ALL GUESTS (ADA)

SIGNAGE (WITH BRAILLE)

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

USE OF

ENOUGH TO FIT MORE FUTURE WASHER/DRYER

ECO-WASHERS/DRYERS

AUTO-SHUT OFF MACHINES

REMARKS

N/A

GEN AREA SIGNAGE

N/A

NOT A CLOSED ROOM, MORE OF AN AREA

N/A

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

N/A

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

WILL ALSO HOUSE POOL PUMP EQUIP.

N/A

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

WILL ALSO HOUSE POOL PUMP EQUIP.

N/A

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

SOME STORAGE USED AS OFFICES IF NEEDED

N/A

N/A

GEN ROOM SIGNAGE

N/A

146


TEST-FIT

Fig. 4

LOWER LEVEL PLAN 147


VESTIBULE

ENTRY/LOBBY

GATHERING AREAS

RESTROOMS

SUPPORT

ADMIN AREAS

DRY THERAPY ROOMS

HORIZON. CIRC.

VERT. CIRC.

POOL ROOM

LOCKER ROOMS

Fig. 5

UPPER LEVEL PLAN 148


Fig. 6

149


C I TAT I O N S I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - Construction Document Roll, Digital Image, Every Investor, Accessed December 12, 2017. http://everyin vestor.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/architect_plans.jpg Fig. 2 - Construction Document with Pencil, Digital Image, Wallpaper, Accessed December 12, 2017. https:// wallpaperscraft.com/image/work_pencil_drawing_4505_2560x1080.jpg Fig. 3 - Adjacency Matrix, Drawing by Anna Petronio, December 12, 2017. Fig. 4 - Ground Floor Test Fit, Drawing by Anna Petronio, December 12, 2017. Fig. 5 - Upper Floor Test Fit, Drawing by Anna Petronio, December 12, 2017. Fig. 6 - Construction Document with Compass, Digital Image, HR Review, Accessed December 12, 2017. http:// www.hrreview.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/xengineering300.gif.pagespeed.ic.pRblnh8o_o.jpg

150


Fig. 1

151


/

Building Analysis, Code, Regulation & Standards

152


Fig. 2

W R I T T E N A N A LY S I S

153

INTRODUCTION

BUILDING

CONCEPT

When selecting a building to serve as the site for the proposed aquatic therapy center, several things must be taken into account. Important features of the existing building are identified and then explained in both the written and visual analysis sections. The final task is to perform a code search that classifies limits placed on the building by the proposed project type. The goal of this section is to determine the needs and restrictions of an aquatic therapy center of this size.

The Haverford Township Community Recreation and Environmental Center is located in Haverford, Pennsylvania. The township commissioned KimmelBogrette Architects to design and build the facility. In order to develop a successful community center, the firm consulted Ballard*King and Associates to assist with recreation planning and operations. After its competition in June 2012, the building’s footprint occupies 34,975 square feet that is distributed between two floors.1

In historical and contemporary terms, the interior and exterior of the Haverford Township Community Recreation and Environmental Center can be defined as green building and sustainable architecture. According to the architects, the facility was designed as an indoor and outdoor environmental lab that incorporates the surrounding landscape. The building would include interactive energy consumption displays and nature labs in its features. After collaborating with


Fig. 3

Ballard*King Associates, the concept of the facility emerged as creating a space that fulfills a “long-held dream for increased indoor recreational offerings for community residents”.2

STRUCTURE/ENVELOPE The structural makeup of the Haverford Recreation and Environmental Center varies throughout the space. The main structural system throughout the building are architectural columns, with occasional bracing present along the roof line. In addition, the two-

story space that currently serves as a gymnasium is supported by steel trusses. The walking track above the basketball court in the gym is supported by metal decking and columns around the perimeter of the space.

Fig. 4

E X T E R I O R M AT E R I A L S

permanently alters the landscape and destroys habitats. Simulated stone was selected because it is immune to the “blistering, peeling, corrosion, rust, rot, delamination, flaking and excessive fading”3 of natural stone. This simulated stone is influenced by the site’s temperate climate because it is waterproof and durable.

Along the lower portion of the exterior walls, the designers used rough-hewn simulated stone to clad the building. The harvesting of natural rock and stone was avoided because it

The overhangs, as well as the paneling on the upper portion of the exterior walls, are made of wood certified by the Forest Stewardship 154


Council (FSC). The council ensures that products are harvested in an “environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable”4 manner. Based on location, wood is viable for a temperate climate because it is able to adapt to both warm and cold weather conditions. The final material included in the Haverford Recreation and Environmental Center’s exterior construction is glazing. To provide optimum natural light conditions to main interior spaces, glazing occupies most of the Southeast and Northwest sides of the building. Clerestory windows are present along the top portion of exterior walls to give residual light to the remainder of the building. The inclusion of extensive glazing was influenced by the site’s geographic location within a reserve. Glazing enhances the users’ experience by exposing them to natural light and the natural environment.

S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y The Haverford Recreation and Environmental Center takes a holistic approach to its sustainable design practices. The designers incorporated 155

numerous green features that earned the finished building LEED Gold certification upon its completion. These include, but are not limited to, the use of recycled content, a reflective white roof, geothermal energy, daylight systems and water-efficient landscaping. In addition, the building integrates materials that have been extracted, harvested or manufactured within 500 miles of the site. This consciousness supports indigenous resources and reduces the impact from material transportation.5

Fig. 5

U T I L I Z AT I O N The existing Haverford Recreation and Environmental Center will be used in its entirety to complete the proposed project. That being said, both the lower floor and main entry floor will be utilized in the design of an aquatic therapy center. On the interior, main design characteristics that make the building unique will be preserved. These elements include the glulam “tree” columns, entry atrium and clerestory windows around the perimeter of the building. In addition, the two-story gymnasium space on the lower floor will be repurposed as the future pool room and viewing area.

Fig. 6


Fig. 7

Fig. 8

156


EXISTING BUILDING

Fig. 9 - Two-Story Gymnasium

Fig. 12 - Natural Light in Vestibule 157

Fig. 10 - Lower Gym Atrium

Fig. 13 - Multi-Purpose Exercise Room

Fig. 11 - Entry Sequence

Fig. 14 - Lounge Area on Mezzanine


Fig. 17

Fig. 15 - Entry Level Floorplan

Fig. 16 - Lower Level Floorplan 158


Fig. 18 - Cross Section

Fig. 19 - Cross Section

Fig. 20 - Longitudinal Section 159


Fig. 21 - Site Plan

160


C O D E A N A LY S I S 1 . P RO J E C T DATA

D RY T H E R A P Y R O O M S :

Project Name: Aquatic Therapy Center Address: 9000 Parkview Drive Haverford, PA 19041 Date of Completion: June 2012 Number of Stories: 2 Total Gross Square Feet: 34,976 S.F. 30% Circulation: 10,500 S.F.

Gross Square Footage: 1,226 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 50 gross (Exercise Rooms) Number of Occupants: 25 Occupants

2. APPLICABLE BUILDING INFO Zoning Ordinance: Haverford Township Fire Code: International Fire Code (IFC) Building Code/Date: Internt’l Building Code (IBC) 2009 Energy Code: Energy Conservation Code

3 . U S E G RO U P C L A S S I F I C AT I O N Assembly A-3

4. MEANS OF EGRESS

Gross Square Footage: 4,400 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 15 net (Assembly w/o Fixed Seats – Standing Space) Number of Occupants: 294 Occupants

A D M I N I S T R AT I V E O F F I C E S : Gross Square Footage: 2,650 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 100 gross (Business Areas) Number of Occupants: 27 Occupants

G AT H E R I N G S PAC E S :

Sprinklered Dead End Limit: 20’-0” to 50’-0”

Gross Square Footage: 8,000 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 15 net (Assembly w/o Fixed Seats – Unconcentrated) Number of Occupants: 534 Occupants

Minimum Corridor Width: 44 inches Number of Exits: 4 Exit Access Travel Distance: 250’-0” with Sprinklers

S U P P O R T S PAC E S :

POOL ROOM: Gross Square Footage: 5,700 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 50 gross (Pool Deck) Number of Occupants: 114 Occupants 161

LOCKER ROOMS:

Gross Square Footage: 2,500 S.F. S.F. Per Occupant: 300 gross (Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room) Number of Occupants: 9 Occupants


Fig. 22

5 . S A N I TAT I O N Male/Female: 501/501 WC Male: 3 WC Female: 8 Urinals Male: 2 Lavatories Male: 3 Lavatories Female: 3 Drinking Fountains: 2 Service Sinks: 1

6. FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS Fire Exit Enclosures: 2 Hours Shafts and Elevator Hoistways: 2 Hours Tenant Space Separations: 2 Hours Smoke Barriers: Assume 30 minutes Corridor Fire-Resistance Rating: 1 w/o or 0 with Sprinkler System

I N C I D E N TA L U S E A R E A S : Furnace Room: 1 hour or automatic fire-extinguishing system Boiler Room: 1 hour or automatic fire-extinguishing system Laundry Rooms (over 100 S.F.): 1 hour or automatic fire-extinguishing system Storage Rooms (over 100 S.F.): 1 hour or automatic fire-extinguishing system

7 . B U I L D I N G L I M I TAT I O N S Ecological Site Reservation Indoor Water Safety

162


V I S UA L A N A LY S I S SOLID VOID Fig. 23 - Solid vs. Void

Fig. 24 - Daylighting

Fig. 25 - Division of Space 163


Fig. 26 Solid vs. Void

Fig. 27 Daylighting

Fig. 28 Division of Space 164


Fig. 29 - Structural Analysis

Fig. 30 - Structural Analysis

165


C I TAT I O N S T E X T S O U RC E S : 1 “Haverford Township Community Recreation and Environmental Center.” Kimmel Bogrette - Architecture Site. Accessed November 19, 2017. http://kimmel-bogrette. com/?portfolio=haverford-township-community-recreation-environmental-center#. 2 IBID. 3 “CREC Green Features.” The Township of Haverford, Pennsylvania. Accessed November 19, 2017. https://www.haverfordtownship.org/department/division. php?fDD=10-204. 4 IBID. 5 IBID.

I M AG E S O U RC E S : Fig. 1 - CREC Entrance Sign, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 2 - Building - Front View, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 3 - Building - Rear View, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 4 - Main Entrance and Vestibule, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 5 - Aerial View - Whole Building, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 6 - Structural Column with Pumpkins, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 7 - Front Facade with Stone, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 8 - Main Entrance with Natural Light, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 9 - Gym from Above, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 10 - Wellness Center with Window, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 11 - Entrance Lobby, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 12 - Interior Vestibule with Natural Light, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 13 - Private Exercise Room, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 14 - Lobby and Lounge Space Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 15 - Lower Level Floorplan, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 16 - Upper Level Floorplan, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 17 - Structural Column Detail, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 18 - Cross Section 1, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 19 - Cross Section 2, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 20 - Longitudinal Section, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 21 - Site Plan w/ Legend, Courtesy of Kimmel Bogrette, November 17, 2017 Fig. 22 - Leaf Floor Pattern Detail, Personal photograph by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 23 - Solid vs. Void Section Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 24 - Natural Lighting Section Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 25 - Division of Space Section Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 26 - Solid vs. Void Plan Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 27 - Natural Lighting Plan Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 28 - Division of Space Plan Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 29 - Structural Analysis Section Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017 Fig. 30 - Structural Analysis Plan Diagram, Drawing by Anna Petronio, November 17, 2017

166


Fig. 1

167


/

Project Research Summary & Conclusions

168


169

R E S E A RC H

CONCEPTUAL

Research on the proposed aquatic therapy center has revealed valuable information. Based on existing precedents, the proposed project must account for all aspects of design. The process of developing the proposed program provoked the incorporation of universal design principles. The facility must take a holistic approach to universal design to provide a supportive and safe environment. This research has also introduced an immense amount of restrictions that are placed on pool facilities. The project will need to have detailed conduct regulations to ensure the safety of all users. Further research and communication with users, shows that glare is an issue in pool facilities with windows. Stemming from the ideologies of ancient Roman thermal baths, water has been thought to have healing properties for centuries. Not only does water have a history in healing, but it also has a future. The topical exploration found that color can either stimulate or overwhelm children. Research suggests that children with sensory impairment respond better to materials that have tactile qualities.

Completion of research for the proposed aquatic therapy center introduced several conceptual ideas. After interviewing therapists about methods of aquatic rehabilitation, the concept of interaction was prominent. The target audience for the proposed aquatic therapy center is profoundly disabled children aged 3 to 21. Because of their diagnosis, these patients require an elevated level of compassion and patience.

R E L E VA N C Y The research gathered over the course of this class was relevant and reliable. Any information obtained regarding the project will assist in all future design solutions. Looking back, the steps taken to complete the research process were well thought out and essential to the design progression. The proposed project will benefit from research because it will use existing projects as examples of successful, as well as failed, design choices. The proposed aquatic therapy center will make the world a better place because it will provide disabled children and their families a refuge where they can seek relief and support.


Fig. 2

"We don't have to do it all alone. We were never meant to." - Brene Brown 170


Fig. 1

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Bibliography & Appendix

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DeLisa, Joel A., Bruce Michael Gans, and Nicholas E. Walsh. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 2010. Accessed August 29, 2017. https://books. google.com/books?id=1sWk1GYCvKoC&dq=history of aquatic therapy&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Edwards, Jennifer. “Nature’s Healing Effects on Your Body & Your Mind.” HuffPost (web log), November 11, 2011. Accessed October 20, 2017. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/jennifer-edwards/natures-healing-effects- o_b_640887.html. “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” Architizer. Accessed September 27, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/. “Emerald Hills Aquatic Centre.” MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mjmarchitects.com/Portfolio/All-Projects/Emerald-Hills-Aquatic-Centre. “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” MTa Link. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.mtalink.com/project/emerald-hill-aquatic-centre/. “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre / MJMA MTa.” ArchDaily. September 05, 2017. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com/878969/emerald-hills-leisure-centre-mjma-plus-mta. “Emerald Hills Leisure Centre.” Strathcona County. Accessed September 27, 2017. https://www.strathcona.ca/ departments/recreation-parks-and-culture/recreation-centres/emerald-hills-leisure-centre/. “Governor General’s Medal Winner: Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” Canadian Architect. May 19, 2016. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://www.canadianarchitect.com/features/governor-generals-regent-park/. “Haverford Township Community Recreation and Environmental Center.” Kimmel Bogrette - Architecture Site. Accessed November 19, 2017. http://kimmel-bogrette.com/?portfolio=haverford-township-community-recreation- environmental-center#. “Haverford Township, Pennsylvania.” Haverford Township: History of Haverford Township. January 28, 2008. Accessed November 28, 2017. http://www.haverfordtownship.org/egov/docs/120164522361.htm. “Haverford, PA.” Haverford, PA - Demographics and Population Statistics. Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.neighborhoodscout.com/pa/haverford/demographics. 174


“Haverford, Pennsylvania.” Wikipedia. November 1, 2017. Accessed November 7, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haverford,_Pennsylvania. Heerwagen, Judith H., Stephen R. Kellert, and Martin L. Mador. Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. September 26, 2011. Accessed October 27, 2017. https:// books.google.com/books?id=FyNer_nQrW4C&dq=BIOPHILIA CAN BE EXPLAINED AS THE HUMAN TENDENCY TO SEEK CONNECTIONS WITH NATURE AND OTHER FORMS OF LIFE.&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Jordan, William. “Why Is Blue the World’s Favorite Color?” YouGov US. May 12, 2015. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://today.yougov.com/news/2015/05/12/why-blue-worlds-favorite-color/. Kilmer, Barrett. “Indoor Pools, Potential Problems?” AQUA. July 2008. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://aquamagazine.com/builder/indoor-pools-potential-problems.html. Kucher, Greta, MOTS, Kelsey Moore, MOTS, and Rachel Rodia, MOTS. “Aquatic Therapy for Children.” Edited by Christy Szczech Moser, PhD, OTR, FAOTA. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools & Early Intervention8, no. 4 (December 11, 2015): 277-91. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.philau.edu/doi/ full/10.1080/19411243.2015.1113104?scroll=top&need Access=true. Malin, Lynn. “Public Art.” Lynn Malin Art. Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.lynnmalin.com/public-art/. “Natatorium Lighting Solutions.” SpecGrade LED. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.specgradeled.com/led- lighting-applications/natatorium-led-lighting/. O’Loughlin, Kathy. “Building Legacies: Notable Architecture of the Main Line.” Main Line Media News. December 16, 2013. Accessed November 7, 2017. http://www.mainlinemedianews.com/mainlinetimes/life/building-legacies- notable-architecture-of-the-main-line/article_4cc6cf61-79f0-52da-ade0-595b5551ac59.html. Olesen, Jacob. “Color Psychology: Child Behavior And Learning Through Colors.” Color-Meanings.com. February 10, 2016. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www.color-meanings.com/color-psychology-child-behavior-and-learning- through-colors/. Perkins, Bradford, David J. Hoglund, Douglas King, Eric Cohen, and Stephen A. Kliment. Building Type Basics for Senior Living. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. January 6, 2004. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://books.google.com/ books?id=JJPDzG52aEYC&dq=visual control pool&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 175


“Philadelphia.” Climate Information for Philadelphia - Pennsylvania - Mid-Atlantic - United States. Accessed November 28, 2017. http://climate-zone.com/climate/united-states/pennsylvania/philadelphia/. “Public Spaces - Gyms & Pools.” Acoustic Sciences Corporation. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.acousticsciences. com/public-spaces/gyms-pools. Pulliam, Christina M. The Physical and Psychological Benefits of Hydrotherapy. Master’s thesis, Texas Tech University, 1999- 2005. 1999. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/ttu-ir/handle/2346/23172. Reed, Don. Color Design: Transforming Interior Spaces. China: Conde Nast Publications, 2010. “Regent Park Aquatic Centre.” Architizer. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://architizer.com/projects/regent-park- aquatic-centre/. “Regent Park Aquatic Centre / MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects.” ArchDaily. August 13, 2015. Accessed October 04, 2017. http://www.archdaily.com/771720/regent-park-aquatic-centre-maclennan-jaunkalns-miller-architects. “Regional Materials.” U.S. Green Building Council. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.usgbc.org/credits/new- construction-schools/v2009/mrc5. Rentals, Allsite Structure. “Swimming Pool Structure, Natural Light is a Smart Choice.” Allsite Structure Rentals. May 06, 2016. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://allsitestructures.com/swimming-pool-structure-natural-light/. Rinaldi, Marco. “Regent Park Aquatic Centre by MJMA.” A As Architecture. August 31, 2013. Accessed October 04, 2017. http://aasarchitecture.com/2013/08/regent-park-aquatic-centre-by-mjma.html. Rochon, Lisa. “Putting Regent Park in the Swim of Things.” The Globe and Mail. September 14, 2012. Accessed October 04, 2017. https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/arts/art-and-architecture/putting-regent-park-in-the-swim-of things/article4543003/?ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.theglobeandmail.com&. Salzman, Andrea, MS, PT. “Aquatic Exercise Statistics - How Popular is Non-swimming Aquatic Exercise?” The Aquatic Therapist. April 30, 2009. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.aquatictherapist.com/index/2009/04/aquatic- exercise-statistics-how-popular-is-nonswimming-aquatic-exercise.html.

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Small, Meredith F. “Hit the Beach: Why Humans Love Water.” LiveScience. August 24, 2007. Accessed October 27, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/7342-hit-beach-humans-love-water.html. “Smith Aquatic Center.” City of Charlottesville, Virginia. Accessed October 12, 2017. http://www.charlottesville.org/ departments-and-services/departments-h-z/public-works/environmental-sustainability/sustainable-buildings/smith- aquatic-center. “The 7 Principles.” The Centre for Excellence in Universal Design. 2014. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://universaldesign.ie/What-is-Universal-Design/The-7-Principles/. “Ultimate Guide To Aquatic Therapy.” HydroWorx. 2017. Accessed August 30, 2017. https://www.hydroworx.com/research-education/additional-resources/aquatic-therapy-guide/. United States. Department of Justice. 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. ADA, 2010. Accessed September 15, 2010. https://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAStandards.pdf. United States. United States Department of Justice. Disability Rights Section . Access To Medical Care For Individuals With Mobility Disabilities. ADA, 2010. July 22, 2010. Accessed October 12, 2017. https://www.ada.gov/medcare_ mobility_ta/medcare_ta.htm#accessibleexamrm. U.S. Census. July 1, 2016. Raw data. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. “Why Haverford?” Haverford College. Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.haverford.edu/why-haverford. Williams, Florence. “This Is Your Brain on Nature.” National Geographic. Accessed October 20, 2017. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/01/call-to-wild/. Witherspoon, Ron. “Technical Challenges of Indoor Natatorium Design.” Lecture. Accessed October 12, 2017. www.dpsdesign.org. Yang, K. Lisa, and Hock E. Tan. 2015 Disability Status Report - Pennsylvania. Report. Yang-Tan Institute on Employment and Disability, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2015. 5. 2016. Accessed August 10, 2017. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/StatusReports/2015-PDF/2015-StatusReport_PA.pdf?CFID=637099.

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APPENDIX: Chris. “Interview with Chris - Pool Operator.” Interview by author. August 8, 2017. Gorman, Colleen. “Interview with Colleen.” Interview by author. August 8, 2017.

CHAPTER 9 PHOTOS: Fig. 1 - Sports Center in Leonberg, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://www.troldtekt.com/Press/2016/January_2016 Fig. 2 - Holmen Aquatics Center, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/882123/holmen-aquatics-center-arkis-architects

CHAPTER 10 PHOTOS: Fig. 1 - blu, Digital Image, ArchDaily, Accessed November 28, 2017. https://www.archdaily.com/873534/blu-gmp-architekten/593f7dcce58ece96bd0003b1-blu-gmp-architekten- photo

FRONT COVER PHOTO:

Underwater Feet, Digital Image, Claire Deacon Portfolio, Accessed November 28, 2017. http://2.bp.blogspot. com/_6ZK01boVlSc/TTiOhaR7ziI/AAAAAAAAAJI/hzZgb0UDjcgs1600/7.+Underwater+Feet.JPG

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Profile for Anna Petronio

Capstone Research - Aquatic Rehabilitation Center  

Capstone Research - Aquatic Rehabilitation Center  

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