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EUROPEAN AUTUMN AND WINTER PRODUCTS WITH LOCAL RECIPES

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CONTENTS Pag. 3School partners Pag. 4

Information about the project

Pag. 5

Geography:Greek Town

Pag. 9Geography: Italian Town Pag. 13The Greek products and dishes Pag. 64The Italian products and dishes Pag. 108The Croatian products and dishes Pag. 117The Estonian products and dishes Pag. 123The Turkish products and dishes

ILLUSTRATED BY STUDENTS REALIZED BY STUDENTS EDITED ON THE NET BY TEACHERS

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ETWINNING PROJECT EUROPEAN COLOURS AND TASTES School partners

4th Highschool of Tripolis, Τρίπολη, Greece http://prezi.com/pisuvcgrc_s9/untitled-prezi/

Istituto Comprensivo Paolo Borsellino Mazara del Vallo http://prezi.com/8xr3ecf-uug7/paolo-borsellino-school/

Väätsa Basic School, Väätsa, Estonia http://vimeo.com/57517696http://prezi.com/1wkndpw1uyoe/vaatsa-basicschool/

Emet Çok Programlı Lisesi, Emet, Turkeyhttp://prezi.com/1phehdvq7ow0/kutahya-turkey/

Virtualna škola, Samobor, Croatia http://prezi.com/a6ldmx-qthhz/european-colours-and-tastes-etwinning-project2012/ 3


INFORMATION The project studies the agricultural products in the European countryside. Each countryside is presented by each European partners. The products are studied from a global point of view that includes: geography, history and science.

SUBJECTS INVOLVED English, Geography, Science, I.C.T

AIMS OF THE PROJECT

Research about the products of the countryside. • Local, regional and national dish • Share experiences and knowledge with youngsters from European countries. • Use of English as the main language for international communication.

WORK PROCESS

The students from each country are grouped in small groups of 3-4 members. Each group of students chooses one season and start the research about the products Then students speak about local, regional or national dish. During the process, the groups stay in contact to discuss all aspects related with the common products. Finally, they draw conclusions together

RESULTS PREDICTED The students learn about the products and typical dish in their countries, and compare differences and similarities between each country participating in the project. Moreover, they improve their skills in English and ICT tools

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TRIPOLIS- ARCADIA Tripolis is located in the center of Peloponnese, in the south of Greece in 650m of altitude . It is

the capital of Arcadia.

Its population is about 25.000

Tripolis, like all Greece, was under the Ottoman possession from 1453 until 1830 when the revolution against the Turks started. Tripolis had a significant role in this war. Theodoros Kolokotronis, born in a small village near Tripolis, was the general of this revolution which started from here and gave the independence gradually to Greece. That’s why he is considered as a national hero. His statue is in the middle of the central square (Areos square).

AREOS SQUARE

The city has a lot of churches (the most well known is the cathedral of Saint-Vassilios). Around the city there are plenty of little churches. The prefecture has many monasteries dating from the 10 th century (Philosophou monastery) with exceptional architecture, built in picturesque areas.

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SAINT VASSILIOS

ELONA’S MONASTERY

Arcadia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The mythology says that the god Panas, symbol of happy life and Nymphs lived in Arcadia. Arcadia symbolized pure, rural, idyllic life. This shepherd life inside the nature was the arcadian ideal ( et in arcadia ego) which had inspired Europe of the 15th century.

NATURE Tripolis is built on a plateau. Near the town there is a plain rich of cherry trees, sour cherry, apple trees, grapes, and vegetables. Our city is surrounded by mountains such as Mainalo, with a ski resort, Artemissio and Parnonas. They are mostly covered by chestnut trees, cypress and firs. You can find there foxes, wolves and different kinds of birds.

MAINALON SKI RESORT

Those mountains end up to the sea. By the coasts where the climate becomes milder, we can find olive trees, tangerine trees, carobs, bushes and laurels. The mountainous scenery is enriched by lakes and rivers. The lakes Taka, Ladona and the wetland habitat of Moustos in where different kinds of birds and animals find shelter. The rivers Alfios, Loussios, Erymanthos are already known from the mythology. Those rivers traverse gorges and are an ideal destination for sports activities like trekking and rafting. 6


LADONA LAKE

RAFTING

LOUSSIOS RIVER

TREKKING

ARCADIAN BEACHES About 80 km from Tripolis there is the sandy beach of Astros and a little further there are many small bays with crystal clear water and pebble beaches, in Tyros and Leonidio.

BEACHES IN TYROS, LEONIDIO

ECONOMY The economic activities are based on agriculture, animal livestock and tourism. Rich in agriculture is the production of grapes. The main are moschofilero and fileri . There are three important wineries: Kambas, Spyropoulos and Nassiakos and a few smaller. The area also provides the country with apples, chestnuts, cherries, potatoes, onions and honey.

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KAMBA WINERY

APPLE TREES

There are also small family companies which produce dairy products: milk, goat and sheep yogurts and cheese. Crafts and works of art are made by wood and silver in the villages near Tripolis.

STEMNITSA

MAKING SILVER JEWELLERY IN STEMNITSA

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Mazaradel Vallo

Mazara del Vallo is an Italian town of 51,466 inhabitants in the province of Trapani in Sicily.It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea, at the mouth of the river Mazaro and Delia, it is less than 200 km from the Tunisian coast of North Africa.The historic old town, once enclosed within the Norman walls, includes several monumental churches, some dating from the eleventh century. Have the typical features of the neighborhoods in urban layout typical of Islamic medinas, called Casbah (also Kasbah), whose narrow streets are a kind of trademark.The first traces of human presence in the territory of Mazara have been found caves along the river Mazaro. Mazara del Vallo is the main fishing port in Italy

THE KASBAH

The Norman CastleThe canal port

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The natural reserve

The natural reserve Preola and Gorghi Round Lake is a regional natural reserve of Sicily, established in 1998.It extends into the territory of the town of Mazara del Vallo. There are Preola Lake, Lake Murana and Gorghi High, Medium and Low. Lake Murana

RoundLake

Lake Preola

The natural vegetation is typically characterized by forests of oak and pine trees, add arbutus, carob, etc ..The most important are: lavender, cypress, laurel, broom. The areas near the coasts are flat, are cultivated citrus, olives and fruit trees, which are adapted to hot, dry climate. The landscape is varied, often characterized by a Mediterranean garden.

Mazara del Vallo beaches Mazara del Vallo overlooks the sea. There are, therefore, many places to take a bath in, relax or spend a day with friends at one of the crowded beaches of Tonnarella orQuarara. If you like the sandy beach, Tonnarella is the ideal place. It is a long beach about 8km starting from the new port into the nature reserve of Capo Feto" a great spot for kite-surfers.

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Crystal clear sea, clean thin white sand always make it one of the busiest places .Tonnarella is about 4km from the center of Mazara and can be reached by bus, but also on foot. Quarara is the rocky beach area of Mazara del Vallo.

Economy in Mazara The economic activities that characterize Mazara del Vallo are mainly fishing, tourism and agriculture. The city economy is driven by the fishing industry, including processing and preserving of fish and shipbuilding. Mazara del Vallo is one of the most important and famous fishing port of the Mediterranean. There are approximately 400 large ships on the high seas ,with about 4,000 fishermen on board.

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Rich in agriculture is the production of grapes The main are inzolia, catarratto

and raisins.Very important is the association “ The wine route�. It is a path that is divided into an area where vineyards and wineries are interspersed with natural beauty, cultural and historical attractions. It is a region with a long history, from ancient times suited to wine production. It is a "journey" through the flavours of tradition and nature, crafts and works of art, scents, marked by the strong sense of welcome, tradition and culture of this area.

Citrus and olives are also grown in this area.

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The map of Peloponnese

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Let’s start… APPLES

The apple is a fruit of the apple tree it is one of the most popular and widely cultivated fruits. The tree has been known since prehistoric times. It comes from south Caucasus. The tree has cultivated since ancient times in Asia and Europe. The apple was mentioned by Theophrastus in 3o c. BC.

In our city Tripoli we produce a lot of varieties of apples. The most popular is “Delicious”. Actually we eat apples in our everyday life, but we also use them to make different kinds of sweets. One of them is apple pie! So I’ll give you the recipe!

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Apple pie

We’ll need: For the filling:    

   

5-6 apples 1 cup of sugar 200g butter 1 stick of cinnamon For the dough:

5 eggs 1 cup sugar 3 vanillas 1 1/2 cup flour.

Grease the baking pan. Wash and clean the apples, Cut into slices and spread into the pan to cover the entire surface. In a pot melt the butter, sugar and cinnamon and pour the mixture apples. In a bowl, beat the eggs with the sugar until fluffy, add the vanilla and flour and beat for a while. Finally pour this mixture into the pan with the apples. Bake at 180 ° for 35-40 minutes.

GOOD LUCK! 15


PEAR The pear is a fruit of the pear tree. Its shape is long and narrow on top and wide at the bottom. Pears are pale green, greenish, yellowish, light yellow, green and red depending on the variety. There are several varieties of pears. In Greece, the main ones are the crystals. They are eaten fresh or used in pastry, to make jams. They contain vitamin C, calcium, niacin, vitamin B6, phosphorus and potassium. Greece has the 6th position in Europe with 140.000 tons per year. The “crystals” are produced in northern Peloponnese (Corinthia), and the variety “Kontoula” in thewestern Peloponnese.

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Pear dessert Ingredients:  Pears small, not ripe 1 1/2 pound  1250 g sugar  1 1/2 teaspoon sour  Juice of three lemons  Armparoriza or vanilla (optional)

Process:  Wash pears and clean them with a tool. Then remove a very small portion from inside with a special tool, otherwise cut them in half and remove the seeds and the hard parts.  Place them in a large bowl with water and the sour juice of two lemons. Leave for 1 to 2 hours.  In a large pot, add 2 cups of water and sugar, boil for 5 minutes, add the pears after the strained juices and cook for 20 to 30 minutes until pears are tender. Check with fork and keep it tapped.  Leave for 24 hours, covered with a tea towel.  Remove the pears from the pan and boil until the syrup thickens.  Add pears again and the juice of one lemon and any of the aromatics.  Start boiling again and then remove from heat.  Put them into sterilized jars and store in a cool place.

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GRAPES In Greece and particularly in our region “Peloponnese” there is a big production of grapes. There is a wide variety of types, such as:  Moschofilero  Mandilaria  Fokiano  Assyrtiko

The majority of this production is cultivatedin Messinia ,

however Nemea, in

Korinthia, plays such an important role, too. These regions' residents usually make a living from them.

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Winter

Summer

Spring

Autumn

Some vineyards through the 4 seasons. Their cultivation begins in January with the pruning and ends in October with their harvest. If you wonder what someone can produce from grapes, here is the answer: o o o o

wine vinegar raisins and tsipouro 20


WINE The whole local area is famous for its wine, so there are lots of wineries. It is remarkable that the great Greek poet Homer had characterized Nemea as polyampelos which means a region with many vineyards.

ďƒź A glass of wine, white or rose, usually accompanies each meal.

VINEGAR Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, the

acetic

acid

being

produced

through

the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. It is today mainly used in the kitchen as a general cooking ingredient, but historically, as the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as a general household cleanser) are still promoted today.

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RAISINS There are two kinds of raisins:  black and  white which are known as sultanas. It is usually added to cakes and pastries or eaten plain. The main production process has to do with the drying of the fruit.  The most popular variety in Peloponnese is the Corinthian raisin.

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TSIPOURO The tsipouro is a Greek spirit which began its course before seven centuries in the monasteries of Mount Athos. It is produced by the distillation of the grapes' residues left after their extraction for wine production.

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ďƒź ďƒź Itis normally served in small glasses and sometimes consumed neat, but usually accompanied with appetizers.

POMEGRANATE

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The pomegranate is a robust bush. It occurs in dry, hard and gravelly soils. It needs regular watering, but can prevail in areas with drought. It does not thrive in cold climates or areas with fog and cold winds. The pomegranate should be planted in sunny areas. It can be used as a medical plant. We can use it like

a

salad

antimicrobial,

decorating.

The

anti-inflammatory,

antitussive, astringent, healing and antidiarrhoeal properties of juice make it a valuable medicine. Pomegranate improves the appearance of skin.

Pomegranate jam

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Ingredients: (For 6-8 people)    

4 cups sugar 2 lemons the juice 4 cups pomegranate juice Spores from 2 pomegranates

How we do it: 1. First, pour lukewarm water in a bowl, cut the pomegranate in half and put them in the bowl, let it soften slightly and slowly - slowly break with fingers but the hard rind of pomegranate. 2. After cleaning all, throw away the excess that exists in our bowl and drain the pomegranate! 3. Then, after we clean our pomegranates to make 3 1/2 cups of juice. Boil the juice in a saucepan with the sugar for 30 minutes over low heat. 4.

Add the seeds and juice of the lemon.

5. Boil for another 30 minutes over low heat until jam thickens us (you may need more time). 6.

Boil to sterilize a jar of jam. Put it in the fridge.

Time required: 60 minutes

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LOTION

Home made beauty recipes A lotion With 1 cotton soakedwith a little pomegranate juice, cross face and rinse with cool water. To shine? Mix in bowl half a cup of pomegranate seeds with 1 tablespoon of yogurt and 1 tablespoon of pomegranate juice. Apply the mask, leave it for 5 minutes and rinse with cool water.

ORANGE In Greece and particularly in our region<<Peloponnese>> there is a big production of oranges. There is a variety of oranges, such as:  Navelina  Merlin

 Salusti 27


The majority of this productionis cultivated, in Messinia, Lakonia and Argolida (1st place in Greece)however Corinthia, plays an important role, too. In Arcadia oranges are produced in Astros and Leonidio. These regions' residents usually make a living from them. Greece has aself-sufficiency in production of oranges. Orange tends to increase as an export product, but the minor producers (and there are many in our country), have a problem of disposal of their products. However Peloponnese and Crete provide the whole country with oranges.

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Their cultivation begins in January with the pruning and ends in winter

with their harvest. Orange is one of the most popular citrus. It is a tropical to semitropical, evergreen, small flowering tree growing to about 5 to 8 m tall. Oranges are classified into two general categories, sweet and bitter, with the former being the type most commonly consumed.

It is round or oval, its peel is thick or thin depending on the variety.

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Orange, like other citrus fruits, is known for vitamin C content. Due to this high amount of vitamin C, orange helps in absorbing calcium into the body and maintaining the health of teeth and bones. It also contains vitamin A and vitamin B. Itis also a good source of minerals such as calcium, iron, sodium, copper, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and sulphur.

TANGERINE

The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the mandarin orange. 30


Tangerines are a good source of vitamin C, folate and betacarotene. They also contain some potassium, magnesium and vitamins B1, B2, B3. This fruit is cultivated in areas near the sea where the climate is temperate.

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LEMON

Lemon is the fruit of the lemon tree. The fruit is used for juice, mainly in cooking. Lemons are often served as lemonade or as a decoration in drinks. It is rich in vitamin C and is especially beneficial for the human body such as the intestine, liver and breathing. It is produced in Corinthia and Argolida.

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BROCCOLI

Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. It’s usually green in colour, arranged in a tree-like structure on branches sprouting flower

heads

is

surrounded

from

by

a thick, edible stalk. The mass of leaves.

Broccoli

most

closely

resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species. Broccoli has a big nutritional value. It is high of vitamin C, as well as a dietary fibber. It, also, contains multiple nutrients with potent anticancer properties. Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C (64 and 73 °F). When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the centre of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners or shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow. We can find it in Argolida, Achaia and Ilia. Here is a traditional recipe with broccoli.

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Casserole Broccoli

Ingredients      

½ k. of broccoli 2-3 carrots 3 cloves of garlic 6 fresh tomatoes 1 cup of oil Salt-pepper

How we do it: Clean and wash the broccoli. Put it in a pan with oil and fry it with the garlic. Cut the carrots and put them into the pan. Add salt and pepper. Then, put the tomato into the pan and add a little oil and water. Put all into a pot. Cover it. Occasionally we get some sauce from the pan and pour over the broccoli. 34


CABBAGE

Cabbage is one of the main vegetables grown in all temperate regions. It is eaten either raw in salads or cooked. The cabbage plant and belongs to the cabbage family. The cultivation of vegetables in our country has significantly expanded and large cabbage harvest occurs in Argolida.

Stuffed cabbage with meat and feta cheese in tomato sauce.

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Ingredients :            

Cabbage: 1 long, 1400 g. about Beef mince: 500 g. Chopped onion: 1 medium Egg: 1 large Feta cheese: 1 cup Carolina Rice: 1/2 cup Chopped parsley: 1/2 bunch Salt, pepper: as you like Oregano: 1/2 teaspoon Peeled and grated tomatoes: 2 cups Water or chicken broth: 1 cup Olive oil 1/4 cup

How we do it: 1. Put a large pot of water to boil. Cut 2 to 3 hard outer leaves of cabbage. Carefully remove the stalk. Put the cabbage in boiling water. When the outer leaves become pale and start to stand out from the cabbage, remove from the pan. Continue until you remove all the leaves of cabbage. 2. The large leaves cut them in half and remove the hard center section. Put olive oil in a saucepan. 3. Knead together the minced meat, rice, cheese, parsley, egg, oregano, salt and pepper. You get one to one cabbage leaves and put 2 tablespoons filling in the center of one side. Fold edges inwardly rolled. Put the pot in lachanontolma and continue until all ingredients. 4. Add salt and pepper, add the tomatoes and broth, put a plate on top and put in the fire. 5. Simmer the food until well softened rice for 45 to 50 minutes, making sure the water does need extra. 36


CAULIFLOWER

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Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. Typically, only the head (the white curd) is eaten.

The

cauliflower

head

is

composed

of

a

white

inflorescencemeristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. The cultivation of vegetables in our country has significantly expanded and large cabbage harvest occurs in Argolida.White cauliflower is the most common colour of cauliflower. Cauliflower is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high in dietary fiber, folate, water, and vitamin C, possessing a high nutritional density. Cauliflower contains several phytochemicals, common in the cabbage family,that may be beneficial to human health. In Greece cauliflower is grown in winter mainly in Euboea, Attica, Messenia, Arcadia and Corfu.Casserole Cauliflower

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Ingredients:          

1/3 cup. olive oil 1 ½ kg cauliflower 2 onions, medium chopped 1 carrot, grated 2 potatoes cut into cubes 400 grams. tomatoes 1 bay leaf salt pepper 1 pinch of sugar

How we do it: 1.

Clean the cauliflower and cut into florets. Allow to stand in a basin

with water and 1/4 cup. vinegar for 10 minutes. Rinse and drain. 2.

In saucepan saute in olive oil at low heat until the onion

becomessoft (about 5-6 min). Add the potato, carrot, bay leaf and saute for 2-3’ more. Finally, add the cauliflower and tomatoes. Pepper the stew, add a pinch of sugar and close the pot. 3.

Simmer the stew for 20 min until the sauce gets thicker and the

potatoes soften. The food can be eaten plain as a snack with cheese and crusty bread or served very well with rice.

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SPINACH

Spinach is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. The cold climate of Greece favors the growth of spinach. It is produced in Arcadia and Argolida. Spinach is one of the most nutritious foods. It has a high

nutritional

value

and

is

extremely

rich

in

antioxidants, especially when fresh, steamed or quickly boiled. It is a rich source of vitamins A, B2, B6, C, E, K, magnesium, iron, folic acid, copper, calcium, potassium, niacin, selenium and omega 3 fatty acids.

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Its benefits

Fresh green spinach improves cardiovascular health. Eating spinach combats ovarian, prostate cancers and improves brain function.

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ONION

The ancient world, cultivated onion, not only for flavoring of food but also for its medicinal properties, probably due to the high content of iodine and sulfur. Onion with special fragrance is one of the most important ingredients of Greek dishes, both cooked and raw as in salads. In the market we find it in two types, as fresh onion or chloro, and with the form of the dry bulb. Big Onion production output produced in the prefecture of Ilia in Andravida. The fresh onion is harvested in autumn. The fresh onion contains high amount of polyphenols, vitamin C, manganese, potassium, fiber and potassium.

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Greek Onion soup

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Ingredients: • 2 kilos onions, sliced • 2 cloves of garlic • 80 grams of butter • 1 teaspoon of sugar • 80 grams of flour • 2 liters chicken stock or 2 liters of water with 3 chicken broth • 3/4 cup white wine • pepper • bay leaves To serve: • cognac • croutons with metsovone (a type of cheese from Ipiros)

How we do it: Saute the onions for 30 minutes until caramelised with butter and garlic. Add flour and white wine and stir until wine evaporates completely. Then add the broth and simmer for another 20 minutes until it thickens soup. Serve with a spoonful of brandy and bread that we put in the oven with cheese “metsovone”.

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OLIVES

The olive tree is known since ancient times, and probably originates from the eastern Mediterranean. According to ancient Greek tradition, home of the olive is Athens and the first olive tree was planted by Athena on the Acropolis. The Greeks were the first people who cultivated the olive tree in the European Mediterranean area.

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In Peloponnese there is a big olive production. Olives are produced in the south region of Peloponnesos, because the climate there is more temperate. Especially the region of Laconia and Messinia are very famous for their olives which are called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Kalamonâ&#x20AC;? from the city of Kalamata! Also from these delicious olives we produce olive oil, which is famous all over the world!!!!

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MUSHROOMS

Mushroom is a famous plant which can be found in the mountainous areas of Peloponnese. Mushrooms germinate in the spring and in the autumn. They are very delicious and nutritional because they contain a lot of proteins but also they give a lot of energy. Mushrooms are, also, used as medicines. The locals love it and they use them in a lot of recipes. Here, there are a lot of kinds of mushrooms but the most common and popular are Troufa, Cantharellus Sibarius and Amanitis which is a poisonous mushroom. They can be found in the mountain Eurumanthos in Lakonia and in Achaia.

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Amanitis

Troufa

Cantharellus

Recipes for mushrooms : (a modern one) Ingredients •

4 large mushrooms

7 slices of bacon

2 slices of Gouda

100 ml cream

Salt, pepper, oregano or parsley

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Wash the mushrooms and leave only the head. Heat the oven to 200 degrees. Grease the pan and add the mushrooms. Fry the bacon and add the cream mixture to stuff the mushrooms. Put in the oven and bake for 15 minutes. Then take them out and add over them a half slice of Gouda in each head. Sprinkle with oregano or parsley.

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Mushroom & Onion Stew

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Ingredients:           

1 cup of olive oil 3/4 kilo of onions, sliced in thin rings 2 cloves of garlic, sliced 1 1/2 kilos of fresh mushrooms, cleaned, cut in half 1/2 cup of red wine vinegar 1 1/4 cups of pulped fresh ripe tomatoes 1 stick of cinnamon 1 bay leaf 1 teaspoon of sea salt 1/4 teaspoon of coarsely grated black pepper optional: water

How we do it: Preheat oil over medium heat in a soup or stew pot. Add onion rings and sauté until softened. Add garlic and continue to sauté for 1-2 minutes longer. Add mushrooms and mix in so that all are coated with oil. Continue to cook over medium heat for another 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add vinegar and stir in. Add tomatoes, cinnamon stick, bay leaf, salt, and pepper, and stir to combine well. The liquid should come to just below the top of all ingredients (not covering). If more liquid is needed, add water.

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Cook uncovered over medium heat for about 1 hour, stirring occasionally, until the liquid cooks down and only a little tomato-and-oil sauce remains. Toward the end of cooking, stir frequently to prevent sticking. Serve with pasta, rice, or potatoes, and crusty bread for the sauce.

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Potatowas transferred from South America to Spain by Spanish explorers and quickly spread throughout Europe.

It is widespread in Greece and it is part of the staple diet of the population.Because of the Ottoman occupation Greece was in the eastern sphere of influence and its acquaintance with the potato was postponed some centuries. Particularly during the 19th century Ioannis Kapodistrias the first governor of Greece was the man that brought potatoes in Greece. At the beginning the Greeks were suspicious with this new "vegetable". There were so many rumors about what it could cause when it was eaten or how bad was its taste that no one accepted to take any potato seeds from the government's storeroom. Kapodistrias then thought of making a trick to encourage the Greeks to start producing potatoes. He ordered some soldiers to guard the storeroom with the potato seeds. The rumor spread among the Greeks that Kapodistrias was putting guards in front of the building with the potato seeds. This made them think that these seeds were valuable since the governor was putting guards especially in the front of that building. One by one many farmers were sneaking in the building to steal the potato seeds with the consent of the guards who had orders to turn a blind eye on what was happening.

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Potato salad

Ingredients (6-8 servings)

      

1 kg of potatoes 4 green onions 1 medium sized onion 2-3 sprigs of parsley 1 cup of mayonnaise 1 tsp. tablespoon of mustard salt, white pepper

How we do it:  Wash the potatoes without peeling them. Put them in a pot with plenty of boiling-hot salted water  When pierced easily with a fork, remove from the pan and leave to cool.  Peel and cut into smaller pieces. Put them in a bowl and add the green onions, medium sized onion, parsley, all chopped.  Mix the ingredients and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Mix the mayonnaise with the mustard and when the mixture becomes uniform, pour it over the salad and stir gently before serving.

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Roast Lamb with Potatoes This is a lovely dish for an Easter meal or Sunday dinner. Make it into a festive occasion with assorted appetizers, salads, and sides, or just serve it with a salad and cheese for a simpler meal. To increase quantities, figure 1 pound of uncooked meat per person for boneless roasts, 1 1/2 to 2 pounds per person for bone-in roasts. Prep Time: 15 minutes Cook Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes Total Time: 1 hour, 45 minutes Ingredients:     

   

4 kilos boned leg of lamb 4 kilos of roasting potatoes juice of 1 lemon 1/3 cup of olive oil 1-2 tablespoons of fresh oregano (1-2 teaspoons of dried Greek oregano) 4-6 cloves of garlic, sliced in half or thirds sea salt freshly ground black pepper 1/2 cup of water

How we do it: Note: The best way to test roasts for doneness is with a meat thermometer. Cooking times are approximate. Preheat the oven to 350F (175C). 55


Rinse the meat with cold water and pat dry. Mix a little salt and pepper in a small bowl. Make small cuts into the meat at various points. Coat the garlic in salt and pepper and insert into the cuts. Using your hands, coat the meat first with lemon juice, then olive oil. Season with salt and pepper and place in a roasting pan. Peel and clean the potatoes and cut into rounds or slices, lengthwise. Salt and place around the lamb. Pour the remaining olive oil and lemon juice over the potatoes, and sprinkle with oregano. Pour 1/2 cup of water into the bottom of the pan (down the side so it doesn't coat the potatoes or meat). Roast at 350F (175C) for 1 hour (about 25 minutes per pound for medium/medium-rare doneness), checking every so often to make sure there's still a little water in the bottom of the pan. If the meat starts getting too brown, cover with foil. Test for doneness.

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GLOBE ARTICHOKE

Artichoke is one of the popular winter-season edible flower bud of the Mediterranean region known since ancient times for its medicinal and health benefiting qualities. ."The most popular variety is the one with the green leaves, called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Argitikiâ&#x20AC;? (from the city of Argos). Artichoke is cultivated in areas such as Crete and Peloponnese where the climate is temperate. The biggest amount of the Greek production comes from Iria in Argolida where it is cultivated in 12.000 acres.

Artichoke hearts

make

an

interesting

addition

to

classic mashed

potatoes. Use canned artichoke hearts, but make sure they are plain and not marinated.

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Artichoke cultivation in Iria - Argolida Artichokes with potatoes Prep Time: 10 minutes Cook Time: 20 minutes Total Time: 30 minutes Ingredients:  4 large Idaho potatoes, peeled and quartered  1 can artichoke hearts (non-marinated)  3 Tablespoons butter  1/4 cup milk  Salt and pepper to taste

How we do it: Boil potatoes for 15 to 20 minutes or until potatoes are tender when pierced with a fork. Drain. In a large mixing bowl, puree artichoke hearts with half the butter and milk, using a hand blender or mixer. Add potatoes and remaining butter and milk and mix until smooth. Add salt and pepper to taste. Yield: 6 (1/2 cup) servings

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CHESTNUTS

The chestnut is the fruit of chestnut. It is located in woody shell having outer spines and opens when the fruits ripen. â&#x20AC;˘ The size of chestnuts depends on the variety, moisture, and soil composition. 59


• Fresh chestnuts contain 50% water, 45% carbohydrates and 5% vegetable oil. Eaten roasted or boiled, are used in baking and cooking and a lot of flour, especially in parts of Asia. • Chestnut grows in Greece in Macedonia and Thessaly. It is grown in the mountainous areas of Crete and is found in several other places in Greece such as Arcadia.

Cod with celery and chestnuts - A recipe of Arcadia Ingredients       

1 sheet of salted cod 1 kilo of chestnuts 1 1/2 kilo of celery 1/2 kilo of tomatoes 4 cloves of garlic Pepper 1/2 cup olive oil

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How to make it: Put cod into water for 48 hours so as to remove its salt, peel and cut it to pieces. Wash the celery and cut it to pieces. Cook celery with all ingredients. When the celery starts to soften, add the cod and chestnuts. When food is left with the sauce, remove from the heat and serve hot.

Recipesource: the book "Traditional Recipesof Arcadia'ofTheresaKontogiannis,2ndEdition,' Mainas', 1999 61


Baked cod with raisins We can make the same meal but instead of celery and chestnut we can put 1 cup of black raisins and 3 onions. It is also very tasty!

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NUTS

Walnut and olive tree

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Nut is called the fruit of the walnut. The interior of the nut, the walnuts, consists of two large cotyledons which are surrounded by a thin shell seminal. The walnuts are eaten plain as a nut, are used in baking and cooking and eaten with honey. The fresh nut is sweet. Just munch a handful of nuts per day, and you will be doing more than good to keep yourself healthy and stay fit. It is rich in energy, protein, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids. Crunchy yet buttery, wonderfully delicious nuts are wonderful gifts to humankind by Mother Nature.

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The articles and photos are selected by : 

       

Antiopi Orfanopoulou Rafaelia Bourtsoukli Nagia Papadimitriou Rose Sini Helen Petridi Stamatina Terzi Charis Kotsiorimpas Danai Panopoulou Marina Karamanou

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The Olive tree was introduced in Sicily by Fenici from IV to VIII a.c there are a lot of varieties of olives :

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Nocellara del Belice

You can find itin the province of Trapani, in particular in Castelvetrano, Campobello di Mazara and Partanna. The production in 1999 represented about 72% of the regional total for oliveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s table.

Biancolilla

It is grown in central-west in particular in the provinces of Palermo and Agrigento. It is resistant to cold, it is excellent for its early entry into production, but the production isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t good.

Cerasuola

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The cultivation of cerasuola is mainly widespread in the nortwest of Sicily, in the adjoining areas of the provinces of Palermo and Trapani, while a narrow spread in the south-western limit of the area of Sciacca

The quince is a plant cultivated for its fruits. It appears as a small delicious tree that can reach 5-8 m in height. The fruit is used for jams, jellies, mustards, spirits and liqueurs.

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The flowers are white or pink, with five petals. The quince contains sugar, malic acid and tannins, calcium, phosphorus and vitaminsB and C.

We use it to make â&#x20AC;&#x153;the cotognata â&#x20AC;&#x153;, a very tipical Sicilian jam. 70


THE PRICKLY PEAR

The prickly pear, produced typical Sicilian, finds its natural habitat on the high hill in Val di Catania, irrigated land and of medium consistency.

Resists heat and drought and multiply who are detached from the parent plant.

Besides being simply consumed as a fruit, is also used in the production of liqueurs or Sicilian sweets, like Buccellato.

The prickly pear, typical Sicilian product, finds its natural habitat on the high hill in Val di Catania, irrigated land and of medium consistency. The fruit, which can be red-fleshed, yellow, or brown, has a berry composed of 68% substance and 32% from a skin with thorns. The plant was introduced in Sicily after the discovery of America and its name derives from the fact that Columbus, when he landed in the new continent, considered to be landed in India. Fig backdrop well in Sicily where it is present in a wild or cultivated. The cultivation of the prickly pear is widespread and easy to implement because it takes root easily and requires no special care. Resists heat and drought and multiply using the blades of approximately 2 years of age who are detached from the parent plant. Besides being simply consumed as a fruit, is also used in the production of liqueurs or Sicilian sweets, like Buccellato.

The plant was introduced in Sicily after the discovery of America and its name derives from the fact that Columbus, when he landed in the new continent, considered to be landed in India.

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POMEGRANATE A fleshy berry fruit

Varieties The pomegranate can be classified according to the acidity of its fruit: sour, bitter-sweet or sweet.

Cultivation technique It grows on very dry land.

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Productions The fruits of pomegranate are astringent and diuretic properties, are generally eaten fresh and are very often used to prepare iced drinks ( "sherbet", "sorbet", "Grenadine") or in some countries the fruits are used for decorating salads served in special cups. The fruit can also be used in the canning industry for the production of juices, jams, syrups and syrups. Also interesting is the use of pomegranate as a medicinal plant, the bark contains alkaloids, flowers and fruit tannins and mucilage. The bark is a powerful tenifugo, is poisonous and used with caution, and the flowers are used in infusion against dysentery.

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BROCCOLI The edible part of these plants is represented by the leaves (cabbage, cabbage, Chinese, marine, black, Brussels sprouts) or immature inflorescences (broccoli, broccoli, cauliflower). Cabbages are very important as a food because of their distinctive flavor and fewer calories are well placed to be included in the dishes.

Nutritional quality All sprouts contain significant amounts of vitamin C, folic acid, fiber, and it is believed to have a protective effect against bowel cancer. Cooking partially destroys the vitamin content, especially vitamin C. Compounds are formed during cooking sulfur smell typical of cooked cabbage. Like other vegetables, are very satiating foods and therefore are very useful in a low-calorie diet.

Variety The cabbage include a wide variety of plants, here are the most used.

Broccoli

The broccoli and cabbage, broccoli Ramos (pictured), both called broccoli, are two plants of the cabbage family whose edible part is made up of immature inflorescences. The broccoli has a short stem and inflorescences of intense green color, its flowers are white, similar to cauliflower but much smaller. The branching is similar to broccoli cabbage cauliflower, is distinguished by the color of its blue-green heads and side shoots called for the small greens. The broccoli is consumed after cooking, boiled or steam. 74


Broccoli The broccoli are small floral clusters produced by branching broccoli and cabbage turnip greens. Contain higher amounts of minerals and vitamins, but there is to say that their weight is much lower. Prepare boiled or steamed, or sauteed with olive oil and garlic (very famous orecchiette with turnip tops). Cauliflower or green cabbage Cauliflower, also called Cimon, is one of the most common cabbage. The edible part consists of the pedicles dall'ingrossamento floral cluster at the time of maturation. Improvement should be firm and compact, without presenting brown or grayish stains. The cauliflower can be white, creamy white or purple. It is a very versatile food, used to prepare pasta dishes, as a side dish, mashed, in soups, or in oil or vinegar.

Brussels sprouts Are also called Brussels sprouts. Apparently they are from Italy, and only later were taken to Belgium by the Romans. Compared with broccoli contain higher amounts of vitamin E. Must be compact and hard, brilliant color. It is eaten cooked, boiled or steamed, have a characteristic bitter taste that not everyone likes: this feature makes them suitable for matching with sweet foods such as chestnuts, chickpeas, fruit sauces. Cabbage It consists of smooth leaves grouped in a compact block, of variable color (white, red, green, purple). The leaves, very crisp, can be eaten raw or cooked. The cabbage whites are cooked and fermented by raising the sauerkraut. 75


Chinese cabbage Presents a log stretched and leaves curly white or pale green, It is used raw or cooked, fried with other vegetables. We find often within the Chinese spring rolls served in restaurants.

Sea kale

It is a herbaceous plant known mainly in Liguria. The edible part consists of small leaf that become tender and crisp as a result of specific culture techniques.

Black cabbage It is a plant consisting of curly leaves very dark green color and elongated shape. He is best known in Tuscany, where it is used to produce the ribollita, a bean soup with stale bread and various vegetables, including cabbage black.

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Cabbage It has leaves green, wrinkled, forming a compact but less dense clump of cabbage. Contains a rare active ingredient that protects the stomach walls from injury. You can also eat raw, but is mostly used for preparing soups, soups and braised with the meat, as in casoeula Lombardy. Availability The cabbages are typical winter vegetables, when the quality is better and prices fall dramatically. However, are available all year at higher prices. Conservation Cabbages are more compact as cauliflower, broccoli, green Ramos, cabbage and cabbage, brussels sprouts, are preserved well in the refrigerator up to five days. The other varieties, more delicate since it is more exposed to external agents, should be consumed soon.

WHITE GRAPE MUST White grape must is a variation of the more ancient â&#x20AC;&#x153;CognĂ â&#x20AC;? where must from grape is thickened to slow fire with the sugar.it can be served with the tender cheeses,but also tasted on the tarts of fruit or more simply on bread croutons for a healthy

breakfast.

the octagonal form

It is usually proposed in glass vases by

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Chestnut Atypical fruit, because it is rich in complex carbohydrates such as cereals, the chestnut is the fruit of a tree characteristic of the highland forests. For centuries, chestnuts have been the main food source of mountain populations during the autumn and winter, thus also called "bread of the poor."

Availability chestnuts Chestnuts are typical products: they fall naturally from the tree from September to December period in which they are collected twice a day. Derivative products, such as chestnut flour and dried chestnuts, can be stored a long time and are found all year round. The jam or cream of chestnuts is a jam made with chestnut puree.

Conservation chestnuts Chestnuts can be treated by soaking in water for few days and then must be dried and can be kept in this state, in a cool, dry, even for a couple of months. They can be frozen raw and then thawed and cooked immediately, the best results, however, are obtained by freezing the roasted and peeled chestnuts: in this way can be stored for 6 months. Before eating should be done slowly thaw and eat cold or slightly heated in the oven. Chestnut flour, once opened, it should be kept in a cool, dry place and eaten as soon as easily attacked by the larvae. Dried chestnuts are available in two "formats": those soft, suitable for immediate consumption but more perishable, and those hard, that must be put to soak for a few minutes before being consumed. Are the fruits "symbol" of autumn, the chestnut grows abundantly in the Sicilian wood 78


There are many wines in Sicily, they come from different types of grapes

white and

black.

There are many wineries in Sicily especially on the coasts ,in the province of Palermo, in the province of Ragusa,Messina and Catania, but there arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t wineries in central

Sicily where the soil is not conductive to grape growing. The harvest takes place from August to October but some harvest are from August to September

Wine is kept in oak barrels

Some wines are very famous: Nero

dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;avola ,Corvo ,Baglio hopps , cusumano, tasca dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;almerita. In Marsala there is a night harvest. It was invented in Australia, because it allows saving a lot of electricity, because at night the temperature is low and the grapes are kept cool. 79


THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF CHEESE.

Pecorino

pecorino with pepper

pecorino with olives

The Sicilian pecorino is the oldest cheesein Italy and it is produced with milk of sheep

milk of cow

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Caciocavallo from Ragusa

scamorza

Provolone

RICOTTA

Salty ricotta

Ricotta is a dairy productand it is produced in all Sicily. It is made with milk of sheep or cows. We can make many sweets with ricotta or we can eat it with spaghetti instead of parmesan. 81


Ravioli Ravioli are typical Sicilian sweets; ricotta cheese, sugar, chocolate and cinnamon are inside a slice of fried sugary pasta.

Iris Iris are typical and famous old sweet in Sicily, especially in Catania. They are made with flour, sugar, eggs, chocolate pieces and ricotta cheese.

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Cassata Cassata is a typical and famous cake in Sicily. It is made with “Pan di Spagna”, sugar, chocolate, candied fruits and ricotta cheese.

It looks delicious!!!!

Cannoli are typical and very famous in Sicilyin Italy and we hope all over the world… because we like them very much.

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The orange is a fruit tree whose fruit is called orange. It is an old hybrid, possibly between the pomelo and the tangerine, but for centuries it has been grown as aseparate species. The sweet orange is a popular winter fruit that we all know. His homeland is China and seems to have been imported into Europe only in the fourteenth century by Portuguese sailors. Orange is a tall tree up to 12 meters, with oblong, fleshy leaves and white flowers. The shoots are always green, never reddish. The fruits are round and both the skin that the pulp are typical orange colour. Today, the orange is the most popular citrus fruit in the world and there are hundreds of varieties.Only in Italy more than twenty varieties are grown as table fruit and the same for juice and the jam. 84


The lemon is a fruit tree and belongs to the family of Rutaceae.

The common name can refer both to the lemon tree as its fruit. It is an old hybrid, possibly between the pomelo and the cedar, but for centuries is independent species that propagates by cuttings and grafting. Lemon is a tree that reaches 3 to 6 meters in height. The buds and petals are white and violet. The fruit is yellow outside and inside colorless, spherical up to oval, often with a bulge at the apex and pointed at the other end. The part of the fruit most commonly used is the juice that represents up to 50% of its weight. This juice contains 50-80 grams / liter of citric acid, which imparts the characteristic bitter taste, and several other organic acids such as ascorbic acid. It is very rich in vitamins, especially vitamin C. 85


Mandarin is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae. Common name Mandarin can refer both to the plant as to its fruit. It is one of the three original citrus Citrus genus along with the cedar and the pomelo. Mandarin is a shrub slightly more than two meters high in some varieties up to four meters. The leaves are small and fragrant. The fruit is spheroid in shape, a little 'flat all'attaccatura, and can be grasped easily. The flesh is pale orange, made up of cloves easily breakable, very juicy and sweet. The skin is orange, thin and fragrant, with an albedo very thin and gritty that allows easy peeling of the fruit.

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Clementine The term refers to a group of citrus fruits, namely the hybrid between the tangerine and orange. The soles of mandarin oranges are typical citrus, some more similar to orange, others closer to the mandarins, but the differences are not very significant.

In America the most requested is the tangerine clementine. The clementine is certainly the oldest unshiu, made in Japan more than four centuries ago, but still generally considered a variety of tangerine.

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Grapefruit is full of bitter substances which have a stomach. Stimola reinforced by the secretion of gastric juices and bile and thus having digestive aperitive.Il grapefruit is rich in fiber, flavonoids, vitamins A, B, C and pectin. Grapefruit peel oil is becoming an increasingly important role especially nell'aromaterapia. The grapefruit is the only citrus fruit that is supposed to not come from southeast Asia, but from Centrale.Oggi grapefruit is grown throughout the world. It is the largest the U.S., with plantations in Florida and Texas.

Pink grapefruit, a hybrid with the orange that has raised much interest among buyers, so as to promote further hybridizations especially with the orange brown.

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The blood orange is a variety of orange (Citrus sinensis) with crimson, blood-colored flesh. The fruit is smaller than an average orange; its skin is usually pitted, but can be smooth. Sometimes there is dark coloring on the exterior of the rind as well, depending on the variety of blood orange. The degree of coloration depends on light, temperature and variety. The blood orange is often described as a hybrid between the pomelo and the tangerine, but it is actually just a mutation of a sweet orange. Citrus fruits have been cultivated in Sicily for some time and cultivation has been documented since the time of Moorish rule. Blood oranges, like all citrus fruits, are a good source of vitamin C. The Moro, a recent addition to the blood orange family, is the most colorful of the three types, with a deep purple flesh and reddish orange rind. The flavor is stronger and the aroma is more intense than a normal orange.

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the olive oil is one of the principal Sicilian products and it is almost always present on the Italian table . native of the near east ,and it is used since old times .the bitter

taste is due to the content in polifenoli obtained

beating the leafy branches with batons

,.the olives harvest ,in some regions , is

, and then they are picked.

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ALMOND First cultivated in the Middle East, the almond was probably introduced in Sicily before 1000 BC (BCE). There are several varieties of almond (including bitter and sweet almonds. The idea that sweet almonds grow from white flowers and bitter ones from pinkish blossoms is somewhat misleading, at least in Sicily. In Sicily almonds blossom in February (in the Middle East they bloom in January), when Agrigento celebrates its Almond Blossom Festival. Today Italy is one of the major producers of almonds, surpassed by several nations. Almonds are the world's most widely grown and consumed tree nut. The almond tree grows to a height of about 10 metres (30 feet). After olive trees, almond trees are the most widely grown fruit tree in Sicily, where there are various, subtly-distinguished varieties. Sicilian almonds are harvested in July, if not earlier. Very few find their way into the export market. Most Sicilian almonds, like Sicilian pistachios, are used in confections, though some are used to make sweet liqueur and even almond-flavoured wines, thought to be an aphrodisiac.

Almonds symbolise good fortune, and as sugar-coated confetti

are given at Italian weddings and baptisms. This custom has become international. (The term "confetti" used to describe bits of multicoloured paper is properly coriandoli in Italian.) In Sicily the association of the almond tree with love and fidelity is rooted in Greek mythology. 91


Marzipan

Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar and almond meal.It derives its characteristic flavor from bitter almonds, which constitute 4% to 6% of the total almond content by weight. Some marzipan is also flavored with rosewater. Persipan is a similar, yet less expensive product, for which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels.

Ingredients      

500 g Shreded almonds 200 g Dusting sugar (10 x extra 2 Beated eggs 1 tb Lemon juice (Real one) 1 ts Almond essence 250 g Sugar

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Preparation Place sugar in a bowl with the almonds, add the eggs, lemon juice and the almond essence. Now go and wash your hands very well and wipe them extremly well (very dry). Mix the batter and make a ball with it. Now on a dusting sugar covered place the "ball" and by hand start to knead it until it is soft enough. Now is ready for use. Can be used on top of cakes and then coming the glace in fine stripes.

The production of the typical pastries in Sicily

The production of the typical pastries in Sicily occurs with the religious festivities. It’s the case of the Marzipan Easter Lamb that represents the most peculiar and best known of all our pastries, appreciated in the whole of Sicily. From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century we have not, as yet, found traces of the production of the Easter Lamb. It is at the end of the nineteenth century that we find details of the composition and production of the Marzipan Easter Lamb in a recipe book of pastries and ice cream, which belonged to a rich family of the agricultural and sulphur mining middle-class. Among the numerous recipes of pastries and ice cream we come across our Marzipan Easter Lamb. It is a remarkable document in which for the first time pasta reale – marzipan – is mentioned, ‘a paste of cooked almond flour grounded very finely and rendered semi-solid by adding sugar melted in warm water and kneaded by hand’. The pasta reale represents the external part of the lamb while its centre is composed of a mix of grounded almonds and pistachios, blended with sugar and cooked for a few minutes with little water. A coating of sugar with ornaments and decorations dress the exterior of the Pasta reale 93


Sicilian winter vegetables Chicory,artichokes, spinach, potatoes, broccoli, cabbage, beets, fennel, leeks, radishes, onions are plants thatprefercool weather, which also bearlow temperatures. In Sicily, where frosts do not exist, we can sow and reap in autumn and winter all these vegetables.

artichoke

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asparagus

chicory

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cauliflower

Cabbage

fennel

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SICILIAN BROCCOLI

INGREDIENTS: -a cauliflower -an onion -50 g pitted black olives -4 anchovies boned and rinsed -50 grams of seasoned grated cheese -Extra virgin olive oil -pepper 97


PROCESS: Clean the cauliflower. Put in a saucepan a little olive oil, onion, thinly sliced, some olives, a few pieces of Sardinian salt and a sprinkling of cheese. At this layer overlaying a layer of cauliflower florets, sprinkle with freshly ground pepper and some with cheese, drizzle a little olive oil. Cover again with olives, Sardinian salt, cheese and a drizzle of olive oil. Continue until all the ingredients, finishing with a little olive oil on the layers. Sprinkle with the wine, cover the pan and put on fire very sweet, never mix, so that the cauliflower is well fed. When cooked, the wine must be evaporated.

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Pasta with broccoli

INGREDIENTS: -300 g of broccoli -4 cloves of garlic -2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil -pepper -salt -50 ml of vegetable broth -160 g of pasta 99


PROCESSION: Cook the broccoli for 12-15 minutes to steam or boil for 8 minutes in salted water. In a large pan fry the peeled garlic cloves in oil. When they are golden, remove the pan from the heat a few moments to let a little heat. Return the pan to the heat and add the tops of the broccoli. Fry over high heat for a few minutes, add a pinch of pepper and salt. Turn off the heat and cover. Boil pasta in salted water just before draining, add a ladle of cooking water into the pan with the sauce, then fire. Skip the drained pasta to the sauce in the pan over high heat for a few minutes, stirring frequently, adding another strand of olive oil. Serve immediately.

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SicilianArtichokes Carciofi alla siciliana Ingredients: 4 artichokes, extra virgin Olive Oil, parsley, 1 clove garlic`, or4 salted anchoviesin oil,10 g.bread crumbs,raisinsto taste.pine nutsto taste.salt. Preparation: Removethe outer leavesof the artichokesand plugs, open a little'trying to remove with a boxcutteror asharpdigthe"beard",the inner , taking care not to break them. Then immersein cold water andlemon juice. Fry the chopped garlic, add the anchovies,raisins, pine nuts and breadcrumbs, previously toastedwith a little oil. Stirfor a fewminutes and thenallow to cooland then add thefinely chopped parsley.Putto drainthe artichokesand place them in around baking dishsufficiently tightlynext to each other, after filling them withthe mixture.Season with salt, add the oilandabout half aglass of water.Cook the artichokesinthe oven for abouthalf an hour180째c, thenserve.

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Omelette with wild asparagus Ingredients: ◦ 300 gr. wild asparagus 4 medium eggs ◦ a tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese ◦ onion oil, salt.

Preparation: Fry the onion in a little oil and add the asparagus, cut into pieces. Salt and cook in covered pan for about 15 minutes. If you feel that they dry add a little water. Meanwhile, in a container, beat the eggs with a fork, add the Parmesan cheese and a pinch of salt. Join asparagus, mix everything and pour the content into the pan with the fried asparagus. Reduce heat and cover. Cook for about 5 minutes.

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Omelette with cheese and olive.

Use: 3 eggs, pear, Pitted green olives, salt, pepper, olive oil and fresh tomatoes for decoration. Separate the yolks from the whites and Whip the egg whites. Stir in chopped egg, olives, oregano, salt and pepper. Pour this mixture over the egg whites until stiff and mix well. Light a fire under a non-stick pan with a diameter of about 22 cm, put a little oil and pour the mixture. When the fund will be solidified put the oliveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and cheese cubes on the surface of the omelette and fold it in half. Rotate with the stirrers and make sure that the centre does not become completely solid. Remove from fire and decorate with fresh tomatoes.

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Coleslaw and spicy orange in a pressure cooker Ingredients: 1 small white cauliflower, 1 small roman cauliflower,500 g Sicilian broccoli,2 seedless oranges, peeled and sliced,1 orange, zest and juice,4 anchovies,1 pepper (fresh if possible), sliced or chopped as you prefer,1 tablespoon salted capers (not rinsed),salt and pepper.

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Preparation: Start preparing the sauce, so all the ingredients have time to marinate. Put the peel and orange juice, chilli, capers, olive oil, anchovies, salt and pepper. You can chop or cut grossly these ingredients as you prefer. Shake well and set aside. Peel the oranges and peel them to live, remove all the pith and cut into slices. If there are seeds, remove them with a knife. Prepare the pressure cooker by putting a cup of water at the bottom and enter the steam cookers. Add the cabbage, cut into small pieces.Close the lid of the pot. Raise the heat to the maximum. When the pan reaches pressure, lower the heat to low and start counting 2-3 minutes.

pasta with endive (escarole and pasta) The endive is a very popular winter vegetable in the center and south of Italy where it is prepared in many ways, as well as boiled and served "sour" with olive oil and lemon juice or eaten raw. In the south is often called escarole. In Naples we speak of "pasta and escarole", "escarole pizza", "stuffed endive", but it is endive. The reality of the endive is distinguished by having leaves dilated, with less finely jagged edges and cooked to be eaten exclusively. And 'yet another terminological confusion due to the discrepancy between local names and Italian-national. Unfortunately cannot be overcome, but the import300 g of spaghetti 105


Ingredients 1 endive,16 black olives, 4 anchovy fillets in oil or salt,1 tablespoon of currants 1 tablespoon pine nuts,1 slice of stale bread,Chilli,1 clove of garlic, extra virgin olive oil,Salt

preparation Soak the raisins in warm water to revive it. Cut the slices of bread into small cubes. Put a tablespoon of oil in a pan and toast the bread cubes until they are golden brown. Keep aside. Peel the endive discarding the outer leaves, wash well and put to drain. Fill a pot with water and bring to a boil. Add salt and let down the vegetables. Cook for 3 minutes the recovery of the boil and drain well. Let cool, cut coarsely and keep it aside. Put in heat 3 tablespoons of olive oil a large pan to contain the pasta. Let melt the chopped anchovies (help with a wooden spoon) together with the chilli and garlic and whole tee. When the garlic refers to color add the vegetables, olives, pine nuts and raisins drained. Cook for 5 minutes over low heat, then turn off the heat and remove the garlic and chilli. Cook the pasta al dente and keep aside a little 'cooking water. Pass it in a pan and sautĂŠ to soften the high heat for a minute, if necessary, with a little 'god cooking water and a little oil. Serve immediately sprinkled with toasted bread cubes.

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Pasta with broccoli Ingredients for 4 people:

1) 250 grams of feathers 2) 1 cauliflower 3) breadcrumbs to taste oil 4) 1 onion 5) 2-3 anchovies 6) raisins to taste pine nuts to taste 7) 1 sachet of saffron 8) cooking water has tomato paste to taste butter and Parmesan cheese to taste. Process recipe Penne with broccoli Boil the cauliflower in boiling water, then drain and put in the same water to cook pasta. Toast the breadcrumbs in a pan. In another pan, fry the chopped onion in oil, then add the anchovies and let them dissolve. Add raisins, pine nuts and cauliflower to the mixture. Add saffron dissolved in a little of the cooking water and the tomato paste. Mash the cauliflower slightly in the pan. Drain the pasta in the sauce and pass it to the cauliflower. Stir in butter and Parmesan cheese and add the breadcrumbs. Complete with freshly ground pepper. 107


European products grown on Croatian gardens, meadows and pastures SPRING Dandelion growing in spring-harvest leaves for salads and bowls of flowers syrups and juicesdandelion growing in spring-harvest leaves for salads and bowls of flowers syrups and juicesandelion growing in spring-harvest leaves for salads and bowls of flowers syrups and juices

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SUMMER Potatoes grow in the summer. The cooking is used for baking, frying and salad preparation. Used even for making sweets

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AU T U M N Mushrooms grow by woods. We like to prepare them as a condiment. frozen and preserved throughout the winter.

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WINTER Horseradish growing for years before being picked. Remarkable is the hot and cold sauces

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Recipes from Croatian kitchen-specialties of home

RECIPES FROM DANDELION Directions: In a medium bowl, toss together dandelion greens, red onion, and tomatoes. Season with basil, salt, and pepper.

RECIPES FROM POTATOES Directions: Ingredients for 4 people 500 g grated potatoes 2 spring onions, finely chopped 1 green pepper, finely chopped 2 tablespoons of corn flour salt pepper 1 finely chopped onion oil food Preparation First Preheat oven to 240 degrees.

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Second Dip potatoes in water. After 5 minutes, drain it well. 3rd Mix potatoes with onions and peppers. Add flour, salt, pepper, onion and mix. 4th On a baking sheet aluminum foil and put a little grease. Form patties and place them on the foil. 5th Bake for 25-30 minutes or until fritters dobe not brown.

RECIPES FROM MUSHROOMS

Directions: • Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). • Place half of the mushrooms in a 9x13 inch pan. Dip chicken into beaten eggs, then roll in bread crumbs. • In skillet, melt butter over medium heat. Brown both sides of chicken in skillet. Place chicken on top of mushrooms, arrange remaining mushrooms on chicken, and top with mozzarella cheese. Add chicken broth to pan. • Bake in preheated oven for 30 to 35 minutes, or until chicken is no longer pink and juices run clear.

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RECIPES FROM HORSERADISH

Directions: 1 If you have access to a garden horseradish plant, use a sturdy shovel to dig up an 8-10-inch long tuber of horseradish. (You can't pull it up.) The plant itself, once established, propagates with tubers, and is very hardy. Remove the leaves from the root and rinse the dirt off of the root.

2 Use a vegetable peeler to peel the surface skin off of the tuber. Chop into pieces.

3 Put into a food processor. Add a couple tablespoons of water. Process until well ground. At this point be careful. A ground up fresh horseradish is many times as potent as freshly chopped onions and can really hurt your eyes if you get too close. Keep at arms length away, and work in a well ventilated room. Strain out some of the water if the mixture is too liquidy. Add a tablespoon of white vinegar and a pinch of salt to the mixture. Pulse to combine. Note that the vinegar will stabilize the level of hotness of the ground horseradish, so do not wait too long to add it to the mixture.

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4 Using a rubber spatula, carefully transfer the grated horseradish to a jar. It will keep for 3 to 4 weeks in the refrigerator.

And indispensable meat specialties-HUNTING KITCHEN

2 pounds boneless venison or beef chuck roast, cut in 1-inch cubes 2 tablespoons canola oil 4-1/4 cups water, divided 1/2 cup tomato juice 2 medium onions, cut in wedges 2 celery ribs, sliced 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 2 bay leaves 2 to 3 teaspoons salt 1/2 teaspoon pepper 6 medium carrots, quartered 1 large rutabaga, peeled and cubed

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6 medium potatoes, peeled and quartered 1 cup frozen peas 1 tablespoon cornstarch Directions • In a Dutch oven, brown meat in oil over medium heat. Add 4 cups water and scrape to loosen any browned drippings from pan. Add the tomato juice, onions, celery, Worcestershire sauce, bay leaves, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover and cook for 2 hours, stirring occasionally. • Discard bay leaves; add the carrots, rutabaga and potatoes. Cover and cook for 4060 minutes. • Stir in the peas; cook for 10 minutes. Combine cornstarch and remaining water until smooth; stir into stew. Bring to a boil. Cook and stir for 2 minutes or until thickened. Yield: 8 servings. Nutritional Facts 1 serving (1 cup) equals 351 calories, 7 g fat (2 g saturated fat), 96 mg cholesterol, 778 mg sodium, 42 g carbohydrate, 7 g fiber, 31 g protein. 2 pounds boneless venison or beef chuck roast, cut in 1-inch cubes 2 tablespoons canola oil 4-1/4 cups water, divided 1/2 cup tomato juice 2 medium onions, cut in wedges 2 celery ribs, sliced 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 2 bay leaves 2 to 3 teaspoons salt 1/2 teaspoon pepper 6 medium carrots, quartered 1 large rutabaga, peeled and cubed 6 medium potatoes, peeled and quartered 1 cup frozen peas 1 tablespoon cornstarch Directions • In a Dutch oven, brown meat in oil over medium heat. Add 4 cups water and scrape to loosen any browned drippings from pan. Add the tomato juice, onions, celery, Worcestershire sauce, bay leaves, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover and cook for 2 hours, stirring occasionally. • Discard bay leaves; add the carrots, rutabaga and potatoes. Cover and cook for 4060 minutes. • Stir in the peas; cook for 10 minutes. Combine cornstarch and remaining water until smooth; stir into stew. Bring to a boil. Cook and stir for 2 minutes or until thickened. Yield: 8 servings. Nutritional Facts 1 serving (1 cup) equals 351 calories, 7 g fat (2 g saturated fat), 96 mg cholesterol, 778 mg sodium, 42 g carbohydrate, 7 g fiber, 31 g protein. 116


Fruits and Vegetables in Estonia Kartul - Potato It is the common vegetable in Estonia that is planted on the fields all over the country.We eat it with meat and sauce but also make different dishes from it. There are different types of potato.

Kaalikas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Swede Comes from Central and Northern Europe. Eaten boiled, baked, raw.

Sibul â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Onion Used for making food, to give it better taste. Also very good medicine.

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Kßßslauk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Carlic Used as a medicine to treat people against illnesses. Also to give food a better taste. Called as a stinking rose because of its strong smell.

Porgand - Carrot Very popular vegetable. Eaten boiled, baked, raw.

Punane pipar - Red pepper Used to give food spicy taste. Burns calories.

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Peet - Beetroot Grown in the gardens. Dark red. Eaten baked, boiled, raw.

Kurk - Cucumber Eaten raw with meat. Salads are made of it.

Tomato Eaten raw and baked.

Cabbage Grown in the gardens. Eaten boiled and raw. Different food, pies are made of it.

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Apple Common fruit in Estonian gardens. Used also to make juice, sider.

Mashed potatoes 5-6 potatoes Butter Milk Salt Pile and boil potatoes, then add some milk, butter, salt and mash them. Eat with meat, minced meat, chicken or just with some sauce. Carrot/Cabbage Pie 500 g flour 3 dl milk 12 g yeast 2 ts sugar Salt Oil Filling 500-600 g carrots or medium cabbage 1 egg 1 boiled egg Salt Apple pie 100g butter 2 dl sugar 1 egg 2 dl flour 6-8 apple Baked apples Take ca 10 apples and put them to the stove. Bake ca 20 minutes. Eat with ice-cream, whipped cream or vanilla cream Mashed swede Pile a swede and boil it in salty water. Then mash it, mix with egg, cream and spices, put into cake pan. Bake it in a stove. Eat with meat or chicken.

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Autumn and winter products in Turkey

Turkish Dolma Instructions Prepare the Leaves 1.The grapes are very thin and break easily, so be careful. 2.Remove the stems of the leaves with a sharp knife. 3.Place the leaves in a pot of boiling water. Let them boil for approximately 15 minutes. This both removes the salty brine from the leaves and makes them more durable. 4.Cut the lemons into thin, circular slices.

Making the Filling 5.Soak the rice in hot water with a pinch of salt for 20 to 25 minutes. It should be softer, but not soft enough to eat. 6.Use the oil to sautĂŠ the garlic, onion and parsley. Remove from heat. 7.Add the drained meat, rice, allspice, red pepper and black pepper to the sautĂŠ pan. Mix the ingredients thoroughly. Stuffing the Leaves 8.Place a grape leaf on a cutting board or clean countertop, with the cut-off stem end facing you. Add about 2 tablespoons of the meat mixture to the leaf near where the stem used to be. Fold in the left and right sides of the leaf and then roll it up. Repeat until all but 20 leaves are stuffed. 9.Use the remaining leaves to line the bottom of a large pot. 10.Arrange the stuffed leaves in the pot as tightly as possible, placing slices of lemon between each layer of leaves. 11.Pour in the water or stock. 12.Place a heat-proof dish on the leaves to keep them from coming loose. 13.Simmer until the leaves are soft and the meat and rice mixture is tender-usually about 1 hour.

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Turkish Pide with Cheese/Meat Filling

3 cups of plain flour 1 tablesp sugar 1 teasp salt 2 teasp instant yeast (or 1/2 tablesp fresh yeast) 1.25 cup water 1 egg, lightly beaten, for glazing For the filling 250 gr minced meat (preferably lamb) 1 onion, diced 2 tablesp vegetable oil 1 teasp tomato paste 100 gr capsicum, diced finely salt and black pepper, to taste 1/2 teasp dried mint 1/2 teasp sweet paprika 400 gr grated cheese salami, or sucuk (Turkish spiced-salami) 1. Mix flour, salt, sugar, yeast and water in a bowl, knead until well-mixed. Cover, and let it rest for an hour until it has risen. 2. For meat filling, stir-fry the onion, add meat, continue stirring from time to time. Add capsicum and tomato paste. Add salt and blackpepper to taste, along with paprika and mint. When the meat has cooked well (at least 20 minutes), set aside to cool slightly. 3. Set the oven to 200 degrees. Divide the dough into four pieces. (Rub some vegetable oil to your hands beforehand so that the dough is easier to handle). Using a rolling pin, obtain circular flat pieces. Then extend each piece from the sides, using your hands, and obtain oval shaped pieces. 4. For cheese pide, brush the flat dough with egg, sprinkle with grated cheese. Add salami, if using. For meat pide, spread the filling directly onto the flat dough. 5. Fold one cm. of the dough from the sides. Bring together at the tips. Brush with egg. Cook on lightly greased oven trays at 200 degrees, for about 20 minutes until the dough starts changing colour, and the cheese is bubbling. When out of the oven, brush with olive oil or butter, before serving.

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Turkish Lamb and Bean Güveç/(Kuzu Etli Kuru Fasülye Güveç)

Ingredients: 2 oz. unsalted butter 1 T. Turkish olive oil 1 ea. large onion, diced 4-6 ea. garlic cloves, chopped 3 ea. carrots, medium diced 1 lg. potato, medium diced 1 kilo (2.2 #) lamb shoulder, cut into 1-inch cubes (kuzu kol kuşbaşı) 1 400 g. can of diced tomatoes 1 large can white beans or 2 cups dried white beans soaked overnight, drained 1 T. tomato paste 1 tsp. ground cumin 1 tsp. pul biber (optional) 2 cups beef/lamb stock or water 2 cups green peppers, sliced (4-5 dolma biber) TT salt and freshly ground black pepper 1. In a large, heavy casserole dish, heat the butter and oil. Add the onions and garlic. Sweat the vegetables until they begin to soften, about 5 minutes. 2. Next, add the carrots, potato and lamb. Cook for several minutes until the lamb is browned. (I added the lamb bones too for extra flavor.) 3. Then, add the tomatoes, beans, tomato paste, spices, beef stock or water. Season with salt and pepper. Cover the pot with a lid and simmer for 45 minutes-1 hour. While cooking, check to see if you may need to add more liquid. 4. If you used dried beans, the casserole will need about another hour to cook the beans until they are tender. If you want, you can transfer the pot to the oven and continue cooking at 350F/175C. 5. Since I used canned beans, I just added the green peppers towards the end of the 1 hour and let cook for 5-10 minutes. 6. Serve the güveç with chopped parsley and rice pilaf on the side. 123


EUROPEAN AUTUMN AND WINTER PRODUCTS