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QUARTERLY NEWS EDITED BY CATAS

YEAR 17 / N. 02 JUNE 2012


Management, Editing and Administration CATAS spa Via Antica, 24/3 33048 San Giovanni al Natisone Udine / Italy Tel. 0432 747211 Fax 0432 747250 www.catas.com President Michele Bressan Managing Director Andrea Giavon Coordination CATAS News Franco Bulian Franco Prete Luca Bertossi

Design Deeper Comunication Udine / Italy Layout and graphics Maurizio Marussi Annamaria Franz

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Reproduction or duplication of the contents of this quarterly on any support is authorized under condition that the source - Š CATAS - San Giovanni al Natisone - Udine - Italy is being cited All rights reserved


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in this issue 04 Agreement between the Zenica Technology Park (BH) and CATAS 05 From today CATAS has become “social“ 06 Meeting CATAS - SolidWorld 08 Laboratory tests and virtual analusis: a new service a new possibility 10 CHAIRS AND TABLES for educational institutions 12 Assistive products for persons with disability. General requirements and test methods. EN 12182:2012 14 The fees for fire reaction homologations have been updated 16 IEC 60601-2-52-2009. Medical electrical equipment 20 Wood impregnation for outdoor use 28 Acoustic and thermal performance of semifinished products...let’s talk 30 Water 31 CATAS opens the MATERIAL CONNEXION POINT FVG 32 The training for Vietnamese technicians at CATAS 33 Publications

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AgreementIlbetween CATAS tra the internazionalizzazione, Zenica Technology innovazione Parke(BH) realtàand quotidiana CATAS Franco Bulian Staff CATAS The 2nd of April 2012 an important agreement between CATAS, the largest Italian research institute in the woodfurniture sector, and the Zenica Technology Park (Bosnia Herzegovina) has been signed. The agreement provides for a close collaboration between the two realities. The first phase will be dedicated to a series of courses and seminars held by CATAS technicians at this emerging reality of the neighboring Republic of Bosnia. The next steps will involve a collaboration in the development of the technology center under construction in Zenica and specifically dedicated to the furniture sector. Both parties aim and also support for a possible future growth of further contacts and joint activities. The awareness of the objective difficulties of the world market has been recognized as a determining factor, however, that currently does not allow an easy evaluation on the premises and the development of the wood and furniture sector. The identity of views on these issues has therefore suggested a collaboration based on a “short steps” process, but made of clear and specific goals. This common feeling about the awareness of a mutual growing process, it is surely the most important element of the signed agreement, beyond the simple formality and resonance for the two Institutes. The delegation visiting CATAS was composed of: • the agency’s director of economic development Zeda; • Mayor of Zenica; • the cantonal Economy Minister; • professors of the faculties in Zenica; • representatives of the Technology Park; • companies.

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Gli From appartamenti today CATAS - palestra has become “social”

Sara Staff Zanchiello CATAS

CATAS enters the world of social networks starting from the most popular, Facebook, and also in the more professional, LinkedIn, to share with industry experts their skills. In order to share its expertise in the

areas in which it operates, CATAS now has a page on Facebook where you can chat directly with the institute, knowing all the appointments that involve its activities and offer interesting insights on the issues of certification, activity in which the institute is leading reference point for several years.

Moreover, thanks to the timeline, you can learn the important moments, the so-called “Milestones”, which marked the history of the research center of San Giovanni al Natisone.

On LinkedIn, however, social network used primarily for professional networking, you can enter more into the details of CATAS offers services to companies operating in the wood and furniture industry, agribusiness or environmental certification. Here, in fact, a section in which all CATAS services for companies are described in detail, accompanied by images, in both Italian and English has been created. Furthermore, in order to share their research and contributions to offer to those who work in the field, CA-

TAS has opened a discussion group called “Security and quality of the wood-furniture”, which will be offered periodically issues on which the experts even outside CATAS, will confront. We are waiting on the two social profiles: become a fan of CATAS on Facebook and begin to follow the research center on LinkedIn!

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Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Meeting CATAS - SolidWorld innovazione e realtà quotidiana Franco Bulian SolidWorld - Staff CATAS INVENT CREATE DESIGN The competition in international market and the needs of even more competent customers, are the main topics that furniture and design companies are facing today, by lowering costs and reducing time-to-market of products. Today, consumers want a aesthetically pleasing product, functional, durable and cheap as possible. The designer’s task is to meet the needs of a increasingly design oriented market, rising up the image of a creative and solid company. Ideas need advanced equipment and technology to become reality and that is where SolidWorks comes into play, an essential tool for creating and improving the quality of furniture. THINKING IN 3D To help the creativity, the technology must first be set up in three dimensions, the two-dimensional drawing is not

sufficient and it does not effectively represent the reality. SOLIDWORKS provides powerful functionality and easy to use that increase productivity and allow for innovative design. It allows to automate repetitive tasks and simplify the workflow for product development. It also lets you define quickly and validate the shape, fit and function of the project and share their ideas with colleagues and customers. SolidWorks combines functions easy to use for a wide range of customizations, allowing new users a quick learning and advanced quick use. ANIMATION AND Photorealistic Rendering, thanks to these extraordinary visualization tools it is possible to communicate clearly the design ideas, creating photo realistic images and animations quickly, even without specific experience graphics, it is also possible to record a video for illustration of the location and movements of product. SoldiCam, through this powerful CAM software is possible to associate to the 3D model the actual path of the machine tool, eliminating errors and interference on the mandrel, having the possibility of having a accurate evaluation of processing times. YOU PROVIDE YOUR IDEAS, WE PROVIDE THE TOOLS Solidworld Srl is leader in Italy in the distribution and development of complete solutions with high technological content, its main mission is to provide services tailored to customer needs with analyzing the evolution of an idea. 6


Gli appartamenti - palestra

SolidWorldSara - Staff Zanchiello CATAS

Excellent understanding of all aspects of a company engaging in the optimization of the product, Solidworld is the ideal partner in assisting businesses even in the traditionally more tied to the experience of the individual craftsman. The historic core of the company works with SolidWorks software since the beginning of the introduction in Italy, back in 1995, forming a generation of experts and engineers who respond promptly to requests from customers, who can count on a regular activity training, assistance and advice. Present in the major Italian industrial districts it is able to offer comprehensive and reliable services without ever losing sight of the commitment to innovation. CATAS SHAKES HANDS WITH SOLIDWORLD Catas Spa is considered the largest Italian Institute for Research and Testing in the wood-furniture, stands as a partner capable of providing necessary services to innovate in a sustainable way, reducing costs and developing products with professional and quality standards always higher. Catas identified SolidWorks Premium, a complete solution for designing test equipment for furniture, and from 2013 will offer new services on the simulation, design validation and analyze the environmental impact of products. Written reports will be given to that the customer in order to add value to their products. A MEETING WITH INNOVATION Catas and SOLIDWORLD annouce that on Thursday the 11th of October at the offices of San Giovanni al Natisone, a meeting will be held on innovation and product development. A meeting to answer your questions on how to address today’s challenges and benefits of adopting solutions for modeling, visualization, and integrated communication in SolidWorks and where CATAS will present new services. Reference person: Annamaria Franz Tel: 0432747241 Mail: franz@catas.com

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Paolo Tirelli Franco Bulian Maurizio Marussi

Laboratory Il CATAS tra tests internazionalizzazione, and virtual analysis: innovazione a new service e realtà a newquotidiana possibility

Increasingly our customers are asking us to evaluate their products before making a physical prototype, this in order to reduce substantially the number of prototypes to be made and consequently the time and cost in production. To answer these questions about a couple of months CATAS has adopted dedicated software, such as SolidWorks and Nei Nastran, which make possible: the realization of three-dimensional drawings of the object to produce, the analysis of its physical and mechanical performance, its environmental sustainability, etc. Like all new activities also this one requires a trial period and, therefore, in this transitional phase that can be defined as “work in progress”, CATAS’s technicians are following training courses and at the same time are carrying out laboratory tests to compare the “virtual” results with the experimental ones, in order to acquire sufficient sensitivity and criticality in the evaluation and comparison of theoretical data with the real ones. In practical terms when talking about to analyze the “physical-mechanical” performance of finished products for furniture, we are saying (with the term “physical performance”) that we want to evaluate the stability of a cabinet, a table, ... understood as a tendency to overturning. While with the term “mechanical” we are thinking, for example: the strength of a metal shelf for shelving or furniture, in this case the virtual analysis, usually called finite element method (FEM), may be used to design the shelf and better define the geometry that would support the loads and respect the maximum deformation limits, provided by the standards. As you can well understand the challenge is not the easiest but the intention of CATAS are those able to be sufficiently operational by 2013. It should be definitely pointed out that the objective of CATAS is not to replace the technical offices of companies but, as far as possible, CATAS wants to try to help and support their customers with a new service that, will hopefully, will give a new point of view at the problems and especially new advice that discuss together, should allow to improve the finished product. To make these concepts simple and clear as possible, below an example of a small study that we have conducting in our finished products department of San Giovanni al Natisone. Study to evaluate the bending of a shelf. Scope: With this work we would like to compare the experimental results, related to the deformations, obtained with a bending test performed on a metal shelf subjected to a uniformly distributed load, according to UNI 8601, with those calculated using the finite element analysis. Operating procedure: Before to performe the test, the shelf was measured and drawn in 3D (Figure 1). Then the calculation was done simulating the reality of the constraints and loads, namely: - Shelf simply rests on the short sides

Fig. 1 Section of the designed shelf

- Distributed load (2.5 kg/cm2) over the entire surface of the shelf 8


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Paolo Tirelli Sara Zanchiello Maurizio Marussi

It‘s also important to emphasize the fact that the material was unknown to us, so in the first instance we have chosen a material that it seemed plausible for this type of application, namely a carbon steel. The graphic results of the simulation can be seen in Figure 2 and is equal to 4,72 mm. Subsequently the test was carried out in the laboratory, and immediately after applying the load was measured the

Fig.2 Graphic of the simulated load deformation of the shelf (Figure 3) which was equal to 4,8 mm.

Fig.3 Laboratory test Considerations: The experimentally result and the simulated ones are quite similar so the result is encouraging and allows us, in general terms, to consider validated the theoretical model. At this point we can make some “virtual� considerations (namely without the need to make physical prototypes to be tested experimentally) comparing quickly and fairly cheap the deformations obtained with various design solutions (eg: changing only the thickness of the sheet, changing only the material used, etc ...)

Contacts: Paolo Tirelli Maurizio Marussi

Tel: 0432.747246 Tel: 0432.747225

Mail: tirelli@catas.com Mail: marussi@catas.com 9


Franco Bulian Arianna Visintin

Il CATAS traCHAIRS internazionalizzazione, AND TABLES innovazione e realtĂ institutions quotidiana for educational

On March 23rd, the European standard EN 1729-2:2012 referring to chairs and tables for use in educational institutions has been implemented by UNI as a national standard. This standard replaces the previous one, published in 2006, and describes the safety requirements and test methods for school chairs and tables. In 2006 this standard was published along with the EN 1729-1 regarding the dimensional requirements of chairs and tables for school. Also the latter is under review, but compared to the part 2, has required more time. Its publication could take place between the end of this year and the beginning of 2013. Therefore we focus on the newly published EN 17292:2012. The most important changes have occurred in the part relating to test methods for chairs. In fact, to take into account the different realities of various educational institutions in European Countries, new tests have been

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inserted considering armrests and footrest. As regards the part relating to tables, the only change in the test methods relates to the assessment of stability that is performed with the application of a vertical load only and no longer with the impact test as in the past. The following table describes the differences (in red colour), with the 2006 version. TABLE The part of Clause 4 relating to the safety requirements, working surfaces, has seen the elimination of tristimulus value requirement and consequentely the measurement according to EN 13721; the reflection requirement and measurement according to EN 13722 has been kept. No other changes for chairs. For further clarification on the matter, CATAS furniture department personnel is available to any sort of question.


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Sara Zanchiello Arianna Visintin

CHAIRS EN 1729-2:2006

EN 1729-2:2012

CLAUSE 5.2.1: FORWARD STABILITY

CLAUSE 5.2.2: FORWARD STABILITY

CLAUSE 5.2.2: SIDEWAYS STABILITY

CLAUSE 5.2.3.1: SIDEWAYS STABILITY WITHOUT ARMRESTS

CLAUSE 5.2.3: REARWARDS STABILITY

CLAUSE 5.2.3.2: SIDEWAYS STABILITY WITH ARMRESTS CLAUSE 5.2.4: REARWARDS STABILITY CLAUSE 5.2.5: CHAIRS WITH BACKREST INCLINATION

CLAUSE 5.3.1: SEAT AND BACK STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.2: SEAT AND BACK STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.2: SEAT AND BACK DURABILITY

CLAUSE 5.3.3: SEAT AND BACK DURABILITY

CLAUSE 5.3.3: SEAT FRONT EDGE DURABILITY

CLAUSE 5.3.4: SEAT FRONT EDGE DURABILITY

CLAUSE 5.3.4: SIDEWAYS STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.5: SIDEWAYS STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.5: FORWARD STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.6: FORWARD STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 5.3.6: SEAT IMPACT

CLAUSE 5.3.7: SEAT IMPACT

CLAUSE 5.3.7: BACK IMPACT

CLAUSE 5.3.8: BACK IMPACT

CLAUSE 5.3.8: STATIC LOAD OF FOOT RAIL

CLAUSE 5.3.9: STATIC LOAD OF FOOT RAIL

CLAUSE 5.3.9: DROP TEST

CLAUSE 5.3.10: DROP TEST CLAUSE 5.3.11: FOOT RAIL DURABILITY CLAUSE 5.3.12: ARMREST VERTICAL STATIC LOAD TABLES

EN 1729-2:2006

EN 1729-2:2012

CLAUSE 6.1.1: STABILITY - HORIZONTAL IMPACT CLAUSE 6.1.2: STABILITY - VERTICAL LOAD

CLAUSE 6.1.2: STABILITY - VERTICAL LOAD

CLAUSE 6.2.1: HORIZONTAL STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 6.2.2: HORIZONTAL STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 6.2.2: HORIZONTAL DURABILITY

CLAUSE 6.2.3: HORIZONTAL DURABILITY

CLAUSE 6.2.3: VERTICAL STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 6.2.4: VERTICAL STATIC LOAD

CLAUSE 6.2.4: VERTICAL DURABILITY

CLAUSE 6.2.5: VERTICAL DURABILITY

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Andrea Giavon Franco Bulian Alberto Gelosa

Assistive products for persons with disability Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, General requirements and test methods innovazione e realtà quotidiana EN 12182:2012

After more than ten years since the previous edition (1999), the new version of the EN 12182 standard is published which covers the general requirements for products for people with disabilities. Before entering into a description of the contents of this important standard we want to explain the legislativenormative scenario of this document. The standard was prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission (and EFTA) thus it is a harmonized standard and supports essential requirements of European Directive 93/42 on Medical Devices. With regard to the normative structure of aids for persons with disabilities, there are three levels of standards:

It is clear that the applicability of this standard will be primarily driven by the fact to be quoted in the normative references of the specific standards, but nevertheless its use as a “guide” is generally possible and we think also it will be very useful. Now we will proceed with the description of the main parts of the standard. The clause about the normative references gives an idea of how wide is the scope of the standard and the many aspects / features that have been taken into account. The list includes references to about forty standards covering aspects ranging from reaction to fire, electrical safety, mechanical, biological, electromagnetic compatibility, acoustics, ergonomics and clinical investigation and risk analysis. To complete this list, which is essential for the use of the standard, the document also reports in bibliography more than twenty other standards that are a source of further information and therefore useful to address the evaluation of an assistive product. Another important clause of the standard is that of terms and definitions. We have all experienced how important is a correct and unambiguous definition of the terms that relates to a particular industry. We would also like to emphasize that the standardization job of the definition of terms is one of the most difficult and delicate and it needs considerable amount of time, patience, knowledge and critical thinking. Among all those listed we find the definitions of terms that are very common and very important as, for example “clinical evaluation”, “inten-

- level 1 (highest): General requirements for assistive products; - level 2: Particular requirements for families of assistive products; - level 3: Specific requirements for types of assistive products. Levels 2 and 3 can be combined into a single document. The standard EN 12182 is a standard of level 1 and contains requirements and recommendations are generally applicable to assistive products for persons with disability. If for a particular aid has a standard of levels 2 or 3 exists, then these requirements have precedence over the this standard and then to address all the requirements of an assistive product, it is necessary to start from the lowest level and then move to level 1 (EN 12182). It is our experience that many special aids, both traditional and innovative, will hardly have a dedicated standard (levels 2 or 3), so this one will have an enorurmous importance for these products. 12

ded use” “normal use”, “technical documentation” and “user”. Everyone who works in this industry has already realized the extreme importance of clarity of these concepts.


Gli appartamenti - palestra Moving now to the general requirements, the first requirement refers to the principle that safety shall be assessed by evaluating the associated risks. For those already identified in this standard, compliance with this can also be used to support compliance with the reference standard on risk analysis (EN ISO 14971). In the very same clause particular emphasis is given to the fact that the performance including the stability, strength and durability shall be fully described in the technical documentation of the aid, together with its intended end use and conditions of use. Another fundamental requirement prescribed by the standard lies in the fact that for all the aids a clinical evaluation shall be carried out. This may also include or not a clinical analysis, in which case this shall be done according to EN ISO 14155-1 and -2 standards. The manufacturer is obliged to specify in the technical documentation the user weight limit of the product. It is important the reference to the fact that the design of the aid shall take into account that this can be used by persons with cognitive impairment. Very large is the part about fire reaction of upholstery, mattresses and bedding. Even aspects of biocompatibility, cleaning and disinfection are treated with their respective requirements and/or with the request that the modalities of treatment are clearly indicated in the technical documentation. The corrosion of metallic materials must be considered in assessing risks and EN ISO 9227 standard, well known to readers of our magazine, can be used as a reference. The standard then comprehensively addresses three important topics of the assistive e products as emmitted sound, electromagnetic compatibility and electrical safety. All these three subjects are highly covered by the respective European standards (EN or EN ISO). Continuing with the reading of the standard we find also requirements on spillage and/or ingress of liquids and those for their sterilization when provided by the manufacturer. As in the previous version, but with a more comprehensive formulation and new editorial shape, the safety distances of moving parts and/or fixed parts (holes, gaps et al.) are defined for the various parts of the body (from head to toe) for both adults and children.

Andrea Giavon Sara Zanchiello Alberto Gelosa We would like to emphasize the great usefulness in other areas, sometimes the dimensions presented in the tables have shown, for example, in risk analysis of new design products. The new standard then sets the mechanical requirements of parts such as handles and support elements for the user, together with the values of the static forces in relation to the maximum workload. It is interesting and important also the requirements for the durability tests, called dynamic forces, the magnitude of which is placed in relation to the expected life time of the aid. For mobile and portable aids there is also a drop test from an height depending on its weight while for those mobile an impact against an obstacle so as to reproduce an ascending or descending step shock and against door frame shock. We consider also very important those points concerning the presence of edges and corners, small parts and their danger to children and risks related to the forces generated in the soft tissues of the human body. For all these aspects an informative annex is provided that can be used as a guide for risk assessment. It is worth noting that in this Annex B, for the first points, many of the requirements developed within the CEN/TC207 “Furniture� are cited. Interesting also the point about the ergonomic principles (forces and distances) to be taken into account in the design of assistive technology, as well as a series of recommendations given in Annex B. Given what has been said many times, it is clear that the chapter concerning the requirements for the information provided by the manufacturer is extensive and very thorough. Among the many things listed that we think is interesting to note also requires information about the expected life of the equipment. Annex B (General Recommendations) have already discussed above. The standard contains, besides the famous Annex ZA (correspondence between standard and directive), two other related cognitive impairment and environmental requirements. We are confident that not only professionals but everyone can recognize the extreme importance of these further aspects.

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Bulian Franco Prete

The fees for the fire reaction Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, homologations have beenquotidiana updated innovazione e realtà

Companies that sell products such as, for example, seating (upholstered or not), mattresses, curtains, which shall be used in fire prevention activities or in premises regulated by specific ministerial decrees (controlled by Fire Brigades), are awared their products, if they are made in series, shall obtain the homologation from the Italian Home Office. It shall be also considered that the authorization shall be renewed every 5 years from the request of the manufacturer. The issue of the homologation, any request for extension and the renewal of these acts in the field of fire reaction, are subjected to the payment of the service provided from the Department V “Passive protection” or by Homologation Office since 2005. In March of this year, with the publication of the DM 02.03.2012 (Official Gazette no. 71 of 24.03.2012), these fees have been increased. Here there are the new values that entered into force March 26, 2012. Request for homologation and further homologation Materials/Construction products 200.00 euros for a single product or a series made in several thicknesses. Furniture, upholstered furniture, sofa beds, upholstered bed bases - 200.00 euros for a single product or for a series consisting of up to 10 models; - 250.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 20 models; - 300.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 30 models; - 350.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 40 models; - 400.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 50 models; - .......................... Criteria: 50.00 euros for every additional 10 models (or fraction) shall be added. Mattresses and pillows - 200.00 euros for a single product or for a series consisting of up to 10 different production thicknesses; - 250.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 20 different thicknesses of production; - .......................... Criteria: 50.00 euros for each 10 different production thicknesses or fraction shall be added. Request for extension of homologation Materials/Construction products 150.00 euros for a single product or a series made in several thicknesses. Furniture, upholstered furniture, sofa beds, upholstered bed bases - 150.00 euros for a single product or for a series consisting of up to 10 models; - 200.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 20 models; - 250.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 30 models; - 300.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 40 models; - 350.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 50 models; - .......................... Criteria: 50.00 euros for every additional 10 models (or fraction) shall be added. Mattresses and pillows - 150.00 euros for a single product or for a series consisting of up to 10 different thicknesses of production; - 200.00 euros for a series consisting of at most 20 different thicknesses of production; - .......................... Criteria: 50.00 euros for each 10 different production thicknesses or fraction shall be added. - 200,00 euro per una serie costituita al massimo da 20 spessori di produzione diversi; - …………………….. Request for renewal of homologation 100.00 euros for each request, regardless of the type of product and if it is approved as a single product or product line. 14


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Franco Prete Sara Zanchiello

How to pay Postal c/c n. 871012 payable to: Tesoreria Provinciale dello Stato - Sezione di Roma - Via dei Mille, n. 52 - 00185 Roma. Causal: “Deposito provvisorio per pratica 3807/OM/xx/yy con vincolo a favore della D.C.P.S.T. “AREA I - COORDINAMENTO E SICUREZZA SUL LAVORO” - Largo Santa Barbara, 2 - 00178 Roma, in applicazione della legge 26.07.1965 n. 966”. xx: the applicant Company yy: product name or series type approval / extension / renewal The number of practice 3807 is always to be mentioned in the causal and has nothing to do with the number of the practice of certification issued by CATAS. As mentioned, the new amounts are clicked on 03/26/2012. Who has made payments from this date onwards with the old amounts, should provide additional payment and this should mention in the causal.

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Franco Bulian Alberto Gelosa

IEC 60601-2-52-2009 Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Medical electrical innovazione e realtàequipment quotidiana

Part 2: Particular requirements for basic safety and essential performance of medical beds.

In order to meet the needs of having a standard considering the specific hazards related to the safety of hospital beds, in 1996 IEC published the standard 60601-2-38 “Medical electrical equipment. Particular requirements for electrically operated hospital beds”. This document deals with the electrically operated beds and underwent a revision in 1999 for the need to reduce the risk of patient entrapment between the side rails. The standard, however, did not take into account hospi-

It has been included in the list of harmonized standards and therefore it can be used (in conjunction with other applicable standards) to give presumption of conformity with Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices. The use of IEC 60601-2-52 is not easy because it is a special standard and then reading and application of the requirements must always be made taking into account, and also using, the general standard IEC 60601-1 “Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance”. The scope of the standard is to define the special requirements for basic safety and essential performance of medical beds. When we speak of medical bed, we are referring to a “device for which the INTENDED USE is sleeping/resting that contains a MATTRESS SUPPORT PLATFORM and intended to assist in diagnosis, monitoring, prevention, treatment, alleviation of disease or compensation for an injury or handicap”.

tal beds handled manually and those due to other medical areas. In 2000 CEN published EN 1970 “Adjustable beds for disabled persons - Requirements and test methods” which normally would have regulated the beds used by people with disabilities to alleviate or compensate for a disability or handicap. With the publication in 2009 of IEC 60601-2-52, the two existing standards (EN 1970 and IEC 60601-2-38) were merged taking into account the third edition of the standard IEC General 60601-1. In any case EN 1970 and IEC 60601-2-38 standards will remain in force until April 1st, 2013. The IEC 60601-2-52 has also been taken up by UNI as UNI EN 60601-2-52:2010. 16

During the design and development of a new bed, the manufacturer shall define the final destination of the product. The standard defines 5 possible destinations. The working group that drafted the document analyzed the different environments end use in order to differentiate the requirements. For example, a bed for the maternity ward, designed to facilitate childbirth, is used by patients under the age of 50. These patients do not fall in the risk of entrapment, so the guidelines on this aspect may be ignored unless the bed is also designed to be used in different environments during normal use. In any case a foreseeable misuse of the bed must be taken into account. The areas of use provided in the standard are as follows: Application environment 1: intensive/critical care provided in a hospital where 24 h medical supervision and constant monitoring is required and provision of life support system/equipment used in medical procedures is essential to maintain or improve the vital functions of the patient. Application environment 2: acute care provided in a hospital or other medical facility where medical supervision and monitoring are required and ME EQUIPMENT used in medical procedures is often provided to help maintain


Gli appartamenti - palestra

or improve the conditions of the patient. Application environment 3: long-term care in a medical area where medical supervision is required and monitoring is provided if necessary and ME EQUIPMENT used in medical procedures may be provided to help maintain or improve the conditions of the patient. This includes use in nursing homes and in rehabilitation and geriatric facilities. Application environment 4: care provided in a domestic area where ME EQUIPMENT is used to alleviate or compensate for an injury, disability or disease. Note: this excludes use in all other application environments (e.g. nursing homes, rehabilitation and geriatric facilities) when a medical bed is purely designed for application environment 4. Application environment 5: outpatient ambulatory care which is provided in a hospital or other medical facility, under medical supervision where ME EQUIPMENT is provided for the need of persons with illness, injury or disability for treatment, diagnosis or monitoring In drafting the standard, great importance was given to patient safety, particularly as to the potential risk of entrapment. The term “entrapment” identifies an event in which a patient is caught, trapped or gets stuck in the spaces in or around the sides, the mattress or bed frame. In the document there are a series of dimensions that are

Sara Zanchiello Alberto Gelosa intended to restrict the openings within and around the system of the bed, so that the parts of the human body can not penetrate or pass through it easily. All prescriptions were developed based on anthropometric data available and taking into account that patients most at risk of entrapment are those with cognitive disabilities or uncontrolled movements of body and patients are often frail, elderly or confused. The standard requires assessing the risk of entrapment using the procedure of risk analysis for the positions of the manufacturer of the bed is flat, which articulated with the side rails is fully raised position in which intermediate. Of particular interest in this standard is of Annex AA (informative), where the rational of the requirements are given. In this Annex examples of various types of accidents are also listed. Some of these have led to patient death due to entrapment between the side rails and the mattress support platform or between the various bars of the sides. Another fundamental aspect for ensuring the safety of the patient is the limitation of the height and the minimum length of the sides to provide protection against involuntary falls (sliding or rolling involuntary outside the mattress). In any case the aspect of the lateral sides is considered very critical and compliance with the dimensional requirements specified is not considered sufficient to avoid the risks for the patient. In fact the same requirement of minimum height could increase the risk of injury in the

 

EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE ENTANGLEMENT

 

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Alberto Bulian Gelosa Franco

IEC 60601-2-52-2009 Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Medical electrical innovazione e realtĂ equipment quotidiana

event that a patient climb and fall. For this reason the requirement to assess all the potential problems associated with side rails through the Risk Analysis has been added. The definition of minimum size, both in height and length of the sides, are an attempt to find the best compromise among the different risks. There is also a set of static load and durability tests, to verify the strength of the sides and the reliability of the locking mechanism of the sides and of the lifting pole. Also to guarantee the safety of the patient and since the loss of blood flow to the legs due to excessive bending of the torso or the influx of blood or other fluids in the area of the abdomen can cause serious damage, there are requirements relating to the angles between the section of the backrest and the section of the legs/upper legs. The manufacturer shall perform and comply, with requirements related to electrical, mechanical, radiation, electromagnetic compatibility, ingress of water, cleaning and disinfection, etc., also a series of tests to ensure the safety and mechanical strength of the bed. Among the various tests described by the standard there is that of stability that differs from previous standards (EN 1970 and IEC 60601-2-38). The standard describes different test methods to verify

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the instability of the bed according to the use of the bed and according to its function. In fact, there are tests to verify that the instability in case someone sits or stands on it and tests specific to the instability of the beds during transport in the case of beds with castors. Annex BB (normative), prescribes requirements and information for different application environments (from 1 to 5). In this Annex requirements and related test methods are described applicable to the products to verify that medical beds give appropriate levels of protection during their intended entire life. The standard requires the testing in the sequence indicated. The main tests in Annex BB are as follows: - test of strength and durability; - impact on the mattress support platform; - load on the edge of the platform support of the mattress; - durability of the movable sections of the mattress support platform. The above tests are very similar if not identical to that already provided in EN 1970 standard. Furthermore, to ensure that a Medical Bed would allow physician practices and administration of all medical


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Alberto Gelosa Sara Zanchiello affect the safety of operation of the entire system (bed in conjunction with electrical equipment) and the characteristics of the bed that could facilitate the use of the entire system. In this regard they are to consider the following factors: - combination of a Medical Bed with mobile lifting devices; - combination of Medical Bed and mattress; - adjustment range of the movable sections of the platform support of the mattress. Also for these products INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE are very important which shall contain, among the others, the following information: - intended application environment; - weight of the patient and safe working load (sum of the weights of the patient, mattress and accessories if any). For end uses in “application environments” 1 and 2 the safe working load of the bed must be at least 2000 N while for end uses in “application environments” 3, 4 and 5, the safe working load must be at least 1700 N; - an indication of how to disable the functions of the bed if that movement could cause injury to the patient.

procedures for which it is intended to be used and to ensure an effective and safe use, Annex BB lists requirements and test methods for the following factors: - adjustment range for the height of the platform support of the mattress; - size of the handles and pedals; - operating forces required for handles and pedals. The manufacturer shall also assess and take into consideration that the Medical Beds may be used together with other medical equipment therefore it should evaluate both the characteristics of Medical Bed that could

In addition instructions for use must contain all the information concerning the safety, product description, the choice of the mattress, the side rails and the scheduled maintenance. In this article we have treated few topics covered by the standard which, as we have already explained, is a not easy document. CATAS offers to those interested, a training service through specific courses about the use of this standard. This service has been already required in the past months by some companies of this sector.

19


Alessia Matellon Elena FrancoConti Bulian

Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Wood impregnation for outdoor use innovazione e realtà quotidiana

Test methods for evaluating the performance of products used for the wood (or timber) impregnation for outdoor use. Introduction This research derives from the request of producers and users of protective wood impregnants, to ensure adequate performance and outdoor durability by means of preliminar accelerated tests. We considered products to be used outdoor, not in direct contact with the ground, but completely exposed being those products, according to the classification given by the EN 335-1, classified in “Class 3”. The lack of reference standards and test methods, confirm the need for such investigation. Some coating manufacturers have been involved, which have been asked to send liquid products of known efficacy, at least one considered “good” and at least one deemed as “not effective”. The enthusiastic response of the companies has exceeded our expectations and this article represent another opportunity to thank them again for the successful cooperation. Tests The list below shows the tests that were initially considered. They are well-known methods, frequently used to test wood coatings for outdoors: - natural weathering (EN 927-3); Details on test methods The natural weathering according to EN 927-3 provides that specimens of Pinus sylvestris sealed at the edges are exposed outdoors raised from the ground, towards South inclined at 45° with respect to the ground for a period of 12 months.

Artificial weathering by UV lamps provide several cycles divided into: Step 1 - 24 hours of condensation at 45 ± 2 °C Step 2 - 144 hours alternate as follows: - 2.5 hours of UVA 340 nm; - 0.5 hours of water spray. The Step 1 + Step 2 are repeated 12 times. The total duration of the test is, therefore, of 2016 hours (about three months)

The artificial weathering with xenon lamps, according to the American standard ASTM G 155-05, provides cycles of 24 hours divided in 102 minutes of light (xenon lamp) and 18 minutes of light and water spray. The test duration is 1000 hours. The field test of resistance to fungi is carried out by means of a certain number of wood strips impregnated with the product to be tested in two layers. The same number of strips are arranged at the two sides of the same wood specie, raw, arranged in the same way in contact with each other side by side. The raw strips have the function to trigger the fungal degradation. The test lasts for five years. The possible attack by fungi xylophagous is also assessed

- artificial weathering by UV lamps (EN 927-6); - artificial weathering with xenon lamps (ASTM G 155); - in field test of resistance to fungi (double layer method). The products Six companies have answered to CATAS request (in the following tables they are identified by letters from A to F) sending different products, from 2 to 5 types (identified by numbers in the tables). The composition of the products was not known but some of them are water borne and other solvent-borne. Some companies have diversified the products only on the base of their colour, from the assumption that light coloured products tend to be less resistant than dark ones. Another peculiarity is that some of the impregnants tested produce a visible film, while others do not form any evident layer. The application of the products was performed at CATAS by brushing on solid wood specimens of Scots Pine. The choice of the substrate has been addressed by the technical standards of this sector, which require the use of this wood specie to evaluate the effect of weathering, and verify the effectiveness against microorganisms as well. A selection was done in order to use specimens of uniform grain, density, growth rings and avoiding areas of heartwood. 20


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Alessia Matellon Elena Conti Sara Zanchiello Sara Zanchiello (AREA SCIENCE PARK)

Several specimens were prepared for each test and also a specimen to be used as blank, that was maintained in controlled conditions for the comparison with the tested specimens.

Table 1. Classification according to EN 927-1. Evaluation Criteria On the basis of products classification of coating systems for wood for outdoor use, provided by EN 927-1 standard, the impregnants used in our research are considered suitable for the categories “Semi-stable” and “Not stable”, ie applicable to those articles for which more or less pronounced wood movements are allowed (table 1). According to what required by manufacturers, we have focused our research on the following characteristics: - aesthetics (looking for a product as compared to another keep unchanged its appearance over time, in order to reduce the number and frequency of any maintenance); - structural (products for which are used in impregnating finish, ie without any other coating layer, can be load bearing wooden beams but also the outdoor seating (see table 1)). At the end of the accelerated tests the specimens have shown several weathering effects on which we based our conclusions: - It was noted that the behaviour of test specimens is diversified with respect to the presence of more or less evident wood cracks. The presence of cracks is indicated in table 2 with a “X” cross. - Tendency to lighten the colour so it was decided to focus on DL*, the difference in the axis light/dark (the higher the index after weathering, the lighter is the sample compared to the beginning of test. When the value is indicated as negative, it means that the weathered specimen is darker than the initial state. When such value is close to zero the colour change is negligible). - Some products showed a tendency to “chalk”, a symptom of degradation and unaesthetic effect. A research carried out in Africa has demonstrated how the measure of the water absorption of different wood species is important to evaluate the natural durability. We monitored the moisture content of the specimens during the tests, with the intent to compare the water retention of the samples subjected to weathering and to assess whether, for the same wood specie, this parameter was correlated with the protective efficacy of the applied products. After natural exposure, specimens were evaluated for the presence of attack by blue stain fungi. Regarding the test of natural weathering, it was decided to make a deviation from EN 927-3 standard: the outdoor exposure time was reduced from 12 down to 6 months. This change has been considered for several reasons: 1 - a first set of specimens exposed for 12 months did not allow for a meaningful differentiation; 2 - a second set of specimens exposed at different times has allowed a differentiation already after 6 months of 21


Alessia Matellon FrancoConti Bulian Elena

Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Wood impregnation for outdoor use innovazione e realtĂ  quotidiana

exposure; 3 - the standard for the assessment of the effectiveness of the primers against blue stain fungi (EN 152) provides that the natural exposure is conducted for a period of 6 months between March and October while the second set of samples was exposed in this period; 4 - a testing time reduction is one of the demands of producers. In conclusion, we have considered as aesthetic characteristics of a impregnated finished product: - - its ability to maintain the original colour; - the tendency to chalk and the attack by blue stain fungi. For the structural characteristics we compared the specimens for the presence of wood cracking, the tendency to absorb moisture/water, the resistance to rot fungi (double layer method). Company

Sample

A

Chalking (ISO 4628-6)

Wood cracks after weathering

xeno

UV

natural

1

5

3

5

xeno

UV

natural

X

X

Blue stain depth (mm)

Surface blue stain (EN 152)

Humidity fluctuation (%) (val.max-val.min)

3

2

1,9

A

2

3

3

3

X

6

0

1,5

B

1

4

5

4

X

X

15

1

3

B

2

4

5

4

X

X

20

3

4,1

C

1

4

5

4

X

X

5

3

5,2

C

2

5

5

4

X

X

5

3

2

C

3

4

5

4

X

4

2

1,7

C

4

4

4

5

X

3

0

3,6

D

1

5

5

5

X

6

3

2,2

D

2

4

4

3

X

15

3

/

D

3

4

5

4

X

10

3

6

D

4

5

3

4

X

7

1

6,3

D

5

4

4

5

X

4

3

4,4

F

1

1

1

0

0

0

2,6

F

2

4

3

1

4

1

3

F

3

2

0

0

X

X

0

0

16,1

F

4

5

5

4

X

X

1

3

21

2

0

19,7

0

1

6,5

X

X X X X

F

5

5

5

5

G

1

3

0

0

X

X

G

2

0

0

1

X

3

0

3,2

G

3

0

0

0

X

0

0

2,7

G

4

0

0

2

0

0

2

X

In table 2 the results are shortly reported. The assessment of chalking is in accordance with ISO 4628-6 standard which defines a ranking scale from 0 to 5 where: 0 means that the fault has not occurred; 5 corresponds to a strong chalking. The assessment is performed by gluing the transparent adhesive tape on the area to be verified. Once removed, the tape is examined and compared with the pictorial scale provided by the standard (eg. picture 1).

22


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Alessia Matellon SaraElena Zanchiello Conti

 

Photo 1: Example of chalking grade 4.

After 6 months of natural weathering the blue stain effect was evaluated visually according to the standard EN 152, where 0 means that is not visible presence of blue stain effect and 3 means that the surface of the specimen is strongly bluish (more than half partially altered or more than 1/3 completely altered). Fluttuazione umidità 6 mesi esposizione all'esterno 80,0

70,0

U m id ità p ro vi n i (% )

60,0 104272 104273

50,0

104274 104275

40,0

104276 104277 104278

30,0

104279 104280

20,0

10,0

0,0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Periodo di esposizione (mesi)

Humidity fluctuation in QUV test x-axis = Exposure time (months) y-axis =Specimen humidity (%)

23


Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Wood impregnation for outdoor use innovazione e realtĂ  quotidiana

Alessia Matellon FrancoConti Bulian Elena

Table 2 shows some inconsistencies: in some cases the surface was evaluated with 0, which means that any attack is not visible on the surface, while it is measured along the thickness. This is explained by the fact that some specimens have a so dark colour which has hidden the presence of fungi on the surface. Only after a cross cut of the specimen its presence can be verified. Comparison of data Change of colour

Sample

Sample

DE*

DL* xeno

UV

natural

A1

5,19

0,13

-9,34

11,81

A2

0,61

-2,36

-6,83

17,83

20,34

B1

-5,75

-4,71

-11,2

14,02

19,26

22,43

B2

-2,89

-4,88

-14,21

C1

11,38

8,88

20,86

C1

-1,34

0,89

-13,97

C2

8,73

12,4

20,99

C2

3,02

-0,38

-14,87

C3

5,49

5,78

12,86

C3

0,64

2,07

-8,52

C4

8,68

13,46

17,53

C4

1,85

1,52

-10,96

D1

6,24

7,33

7,82

D1

-0,8

1,29

-6,49

D2

7,31

8,71

8,93

D2

-1,29

0,14

-4,03

D3

6,13

6,43

13,27

D3

-1,56

-1,61

-10,76

D4

10,05

11,46

16,23

D4

5,73

-0,52

-10,83

D5

3,13

4,71

11,09

D5

-0,16

2,35

-9,53

F1

3,71

2,73

6,42

F1

-1,01

0,00

-1,43

F2

11,02

5,93

3,5

F2

0,12

-0,50

-0,46

F3

6,56

4,88

2,89

F3

-0,47

-0,22

-0,67

F4

3,59

8,85

13,28

F4

3,1

0,08

-7,93

F5

7,91

8,47

5,76

F5

5,58

1,61

-0,37

G1

16,64

19,86

10,7

G1

-8,94

-10,10

-5,83

G2

3,63

2,52

2,91

G2

-0,87

0,29

-0,83

G3

8,47

3,96

5,14

G3

-1,95

-1,49

-1,9

G4

3,12

2,49

1,59

G4

1,08

2,24

1,09

xeno

UV

natural

A1

10,45

10,98

16,52

A2

4,8

9,9

B1

20,53

B2

TABLE 3

TABLE 4

The trend of colour changes of the specimens after artificial weathering seems to follow the natural weathering considering the colour as a whole (Table 3 and graph). Considering only the axis light/dark (Table 4 and graph) there seems to be a significant correlation between artificial weathering and natural weathering, except in the case of filmforming primers (F1, for example) more stable in colour (DE * and DL * next to 0). Chalking Both accelerated weathering tests seem to adequately reproduce the effect of natural weathering. In a few cases, weathering with xenon lamps is more severe so in the evaluation of this aspect the weathering with UV lamps seems to be preferred. Wood cracking Wood cracking observed during the natural exposure was not always confirmed after artificial weathering. Only in the case of impregnating filming a comparison is possible, because the breakage of the wood are not detected in any case. 24


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Alessia Matellon SaraElena Zanchiello Conti

DE* comparison 25 20

DE*

15

xenon UV natural

10 5

3 G

G

G

1

F4

F4

F2

D 5

D 3

D 1

C3

C1

B1

A1

0 samples

DL* comparison 10 5

-5

3 G

1

F2

D 5

D 3

D 1

3

1 C

B1

C

DL*

A1

0 xenon UV natural

-10 -15 -20 samples

Presence of blue stain fungal attack The data may be detected only after the outdoor exposure. Here there are no comparisons between different weathering therefore, but, as mentioned earlier, it is necessary to evaluate the specimens along its thickness, since, in the case of impregnating of dark coloration, the only visual evaluation of the surface does not allow to detect the presence of fungal attack (Photo 2). There seems to be a logical relationship between the presence of cracking after natural weathering and the presence of attack by blue stain fungi along the thickness. Fluctuations in humidity To assess the reliability of the measurements of humidity fluctuations as useful data for evaluating the effectiveness of impregnation against wood-decay fungi in a relatively short time, a longer time is needed. The field test, as anticipated, has a duration of 5 years. From a visual inspection of the samples after two years after exposure, the specimens have already noticed that the attack is evident, but not correlated with the moisture fluctuation (this is not that of the specimens in which value is higher than the others). 25


Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Wood impregnation for outdoor use innovazione e realtà quotidiana

Alessia Matellon FrancoConti Bulian Elena

 

Photo2. To the left of the specimen maintained under standard conditions. Top right, side of the sample exposed to natural aging of 6 months. The surface is darker than the unexposed sample. To the right at the bottom, the cross section of the specimen exposed outside allows the evaluation of the attack by blue-stain fungi. Fluttuazione umidità QUV Test

Fluttuazione umidità Xeno Test 70,0

100,0 90,0

60,0

80,0 50,0

104273 104274

40,0

104275 104276 104277

30,0

104278

104272

70,0 U m i di tà (% )

U m i d ità pr o v i n i ( % )

104272

104273 104274

60,0

104275 50,0

104276 104277

40,0

104278

104279 104280

20,0

104279

30,0

104280

20,0 10,0

10,0 0,0

0,0 0

100

200

300

400

500

Periodo di esposizione (h)

Fluctuation of humidity Xeno test x= Exposure time in hours y=Specimen humidity

26

0

168

336

504

672

Periodo di esposizione (h)

Fluctuation of humidity QUV test x= Exposure time in hours y=Specimen humidity


Gli appartamenti - palestra

Alessia Matellon SaraElena Zanchiello Conti

Conclusions The accelerated aging test method with the UV lamp according to EN 927-6 can be considered a good tool for a first assessment of the maintenance of the appearance of impregnated elements. Even outdoor exposure by adopting the method described by EN 927-3 with a duration of 6 months allows an assessment of this characteristic. Reducing the time to verify the efficacy of impregnants against the fungi responsible for rot is not currently possible through alternative approaches and methods shall comply with the standards currently in force. According to the results, filming impregnants are preferable definitely. Products treated with non film-forming products require more frequent maintenance than products protected by a thin film. We believe that the end of the durability test may provide insight to deepen the relationship between water absorption and attack by wood-decay fungi. Research has however allowed a way out for the formulation of evaluation criteria and hoping that in a near future, a drafting of a technical rules for the certification of products for exterior wood primers can be possible. But this is another chapter of the story.

27


Acoustic Il CATAS and trathermal internazionalizzazione, performance of semi-finished innovazione products e realtà … quotidiana let’s talk

FrancoTirelli Paolo Bulian

Whit this article we do not want to study in deep the legislatives issues, analyzing the requirements or the minimum parameters to be met. Rather we would like to understand, in general, which are the fundamental principles that underlie the acoustic and thermal insulation and in case, analyze the possible connections between them. Thermal conductivity and resistance A document that helps to understand in a simple and clear way which is the fundamental parameter underlying the concept of thermal conductivity is the standard “UNI EN ISO 10456 Buildings materials and products - Hygrothermal properties - Tabulated design values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values” which collects in a table the values of thermal conductivity of the materials as a function of their density. Wood and wood based panels

Density (Kg/m3)

Design thermal conductivity (W/mK)

Solid wood

450 500 700

0,12 0,13 0,18

300 500 700 1000

0,09 0,13 0,17 0,24

Particleboard

300 600 900

0,10 0,14 0,18

Fibreboard (MDF)

250 400 600 800

0,07 0,10 0,14 0,18

Plywood

Extract from table 3 of the UNI EN ISO 10456:2008 standard

As it can be seen from the table, in general, for a low thermal conductivity value corresponds a low value of density too of the wood or the wood base product, and vice versa. In principle, this is explained by the fact that wood species with a low-density have inside a greater presence of “air” (air is known to be a good insulator), while the wood with an high value of density have a good conductivity because they have less “void” and then less “insulation”. At this point someone might think that increasing the thickness of a product its thermal conductivity changes. In principle this is not true because a homogeneous material, regardless of the thickness, has always the same value of thermal conductivity because this is a characteristic of the material. What changes instead is its thermal resistance. The relationship between thermal conductivity (λ) and 28

thermal resistance (R) is ruled by the following formula (1): R = s/λ

(1)

where: s : thickness of the element (m) λ : thermal conductivity (W/mK) According to this formula, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity are inversely proportional, then the higher the thermal resistance the greater the thermal insulation and less then its conductivity and vice versa. Furthermore, the thermal resistance, using the formula (2), allows to calculate the value of the thermal insulation of a panel composed of multiple layers of different materials and thicknesses: Rtot = R1 + R2 + R3 + … Rn = s1/λ1 + s2/λ2 + s3/λ3 + … sn/λn (2)

Here are some examples that should clarify these concepts. Examples of calculation of the thermal resistance as a function of the type of product: 1) Elements in solid wood (oak) with a thickness of 14 mm and an average density of 700 kg/m3 R = 0,014/0,18 = 0,078 (m2K/W) 2) Elements with two layers: - Cover: solid wood (oak) with thickness of 4 mm and mean value of density of 700 kg/m3 - Support: plywood fir with thickness of 6 mm and mean value of density of 500 kg/m3 R = 0,004/0,18 + 0,006/0,13 = 0,022 + 0,046 = 0,068 m2K/W Sound insulation and sound absorption In the acoustic field, usually we refer to two parameters: the sound insulation and the sound absorption. Very often, however these two words are used as synonyms even if they are not. In fact, the term sound insulation means the action that tends to prevent the transmission of sound which propagates between two rooms, while with the term sound absorption is characterized the absorbing action which tends to attenuate the reflection of sound by the rigid bodies inside of the same room. In principle, sound insulation and sound absorption can be achieved with materials having contrasting characteristics, almost opposite. In general a material with good sound absorbing characteristics will not be a good sound insulator material because the sound insulation power is governed by the law of the mass, formula quite complex but which in practice states that a material the more sound insulation is the higher is its mass. While, again in general terms and in principle, the sound ab-


Gli appartamenti - palestra sorption depends on the ability of a material to dissipate the sound energy converting it to heat. In this case a very porous material (and therefore light) and flexible

SaraPaolo Zanchiello Tirelli mal insulators because their are light. In fact, the high porosity of the sound absorbing materials is indicative of a significant presence of air inside them, which, as already mentioned above, is an excellent thermal insulator. Naturally, the considerations are rather coarse and absolutely non-exhaustive, in fact it explains only a very partial acoustic and thermal phenomena. In particular,

for acoustic aspects, the following important parameters have not been taken into account: sound frequencies, the angles of incidence, the dimensions and shapes of the materials used, the dimensions, shapes and volumes of the rooms, etc. has an high capacity to absorb the sound energy given that the absorption is essentially linked to the friction of the sound wave trough the porous structure. Also, if the porous material is flexible and it has a further dissipation of energy related to the motion of the surface of the material. In common practice, however, the sound absorbing and

Curiosity: In the literature there are tables that report the values of the sound absorption coefficient as a function of the frequencies. Interesting to note that in these tables are also furniture products are reported (eg Tab. 1). Sources: Frequency

Material

125

250

500

1.000

2.000

4.000

Wood chair upholstered or partially unoccupied

0,03

0,05

0,05

0,10

0,15

0,10

Wood chair upholstered or partially occupied

0,15

0,25

0,40

0,40

0,45

0,40

Armchair upholstered unoccupied

0,10

0,20

0,30

0,30

0,30

0,35

Armchair upholstered occupied

0,20

0,40

0,45

0,45

0,50

0,45

Tab.1 - Example of sound absorption coefficients for seats – sound insulating materials are used together in that, for a given mass, a partition consisting of several layers (massive and porous) isolate better than a monolithic wall. It is interesting to observe that, again in general terms and theoretical, there is a point of contact between the heat insulation materials and sound absorbing ones. The latter are considered bad sound insulators but good ther-

- www.inquinamentoacustico.it - manuale tecnico pratico “Assorbimento acustico” - www.fonoisolamento.it/fonoisolanti.html - www.fonoisolamento.it/assorbimento-acustico.html - SPAXIA presentation (San Michele all’Adige 8 March 2012).

29


Flaviano Franco Bulian Collavini

Il CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, Water innovazione e realtà quotidiana

Water is an essential element for human life and accompanies us in every moment of our day with the many uses we make of it. It’s very important that water quality is adequate for each specific use. Strict rules about controls exist referring both to the analysis of water and to a series of physico-chemical and biological characteristics that different types of water must have. Such list starts with the suitability of water for human consumption (drinking), regulated by D. Lgs. 31/2001, which defines these “waters treated or untreated, for drinking, for preparing food and drinks, or for other domestic purposes ...” for which controls are envisaged for the fulfillment of a number of chemical and microbiological parameters. The sanitary control of drinking water for testing is mandatory for “water used in a food business for manufacturing, processing, storage or marketing of products or substances intended for human consumption” so for all companies that produce and market food. CATAS is inserted in the official list of laboratories authorized to carry out these inspections on behalf of food companies under the EC Regulations n. 852/2004 and 853/2004. Verification of drinking water is also advisable in home networks, particularly those served by the public service who has responsibility for the quality of municipal water only up to the counter input, while any contamination occurring in the internal distribution network must be controlled by the owners with the coordination of building managers. Verification of drinking water is also expected in the case of homes that have permission to use private wells: control is required in case of newly constructed wells at the beginning of water use, but is recommended for a periodic verification in order to exclude possible contamination of the aquifer from which it picks up the precious substance. In some parts of Italy, especially in high tourist resorts, health controls and the proper management of the pool’s water, are mandatory for hotels and spa facilities. Also all the swimming facilities for sports use are subject to control. Particular attention should be paid to Legionella, the dangerous bacterium that grows in nature, being also able to find optimal conditions for its proliferation in plumbing, air conditioning, fountains, especially in accommodation facilities or spas, nursing homes and hospitals where water may stagnate in some parts of the plant due to the non-daily use. Legionella infection strikes through inhalation of droplets and aerosols can cause, especially in elderly or debilitated people, serious respiratory problems. To avoid any risk, CATAS is able to perform the sampling and analysis in accordance with the Ruling 13/01/2005 aiming to achieve “Guidelines containing information on legionellosis for operators of tourist and spa facilities”. Recently such controls have started in the medical field with a series of checks to ensure the quality of treated water for dialysis in the hospital wards. The Italian Society of Nephrology in 2005 issued the “Guidelines on water and dialysis solutions” that provide for strict controls on chemical and microbiological water inlet and those treated by osmosis. CATAS works with several hospitals in the planning and execution of inspections and sampling and analysis provided by the guidelines. Water we use in both domestic and productive activities inevitably is finally collected to drains. The sewage of the houses are managed through municipal sewer systems and is not normally asked citizens to verify the quality of their effluent. Conversely, companies that use water in their manufacturing processes are required to seek authorization to discharge: the demand must be made to the competent body (in most Italian regions is the Province) which defines the terms of authorization in accordance with the transmission system and sewage treatment plants. Very often the authorization involves the granting of an obligation by the company owner of the discharge to run analyzes for the calibration of the parameters prescribed by the regulations. Also in this area CATAS has a long experience of performing sampling and analysis and can also assist companies in the step of requesting authorization to the competent body.

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CATAS opens the Gli appartamenti - palestra MATERIAL CONNEXION POINT FVG

Annamaria Sara Zanchiello Franz

On 12 April CATAS has opened, at its office, the new Material ConneXion point FVG: an area organized with a wide material exposition with hundreds of samples of different materials. A place where it is possible to see and touch the materials, studying the existing and possible future uses, exploring the known and potential performance yet to be discovered. Material ConneXion is the largest center of expertise and research on advanced materials, with eight locations around the world: New York, Cologne, Istanbul, Bangkok, Beijing, Daegu, Seoul and Milan. Over the years the store has come to rely on a selection of over 6.000 materials and processes from around the world. Material ConneXion point FVG, being the Friuli branch of Material ConneXion Italy based in Milan, is therefore a new and interesting information and collection point of the latest news on innovative materials and processes, as well as a meeting place for businesses and professionals willing to receive new ideas for their business and finding material solutions for their projects. An international database is also associated to this physical space with, on-line access, consisting of technical information that contains images, references, and technical characteristics, performance and environmental impact of materials. The annual subscription price to the database, which entitles access to all technical information on materials and references of suppliers, is reduced for CATAS members.

The material exibition at CATAS is always open for customers who come and want to visit and consult it. Every Thursday afternoon there is also a reference person to request specific information; in collaboration with Material ConneXion Italy, CATAS will organize periodically study days with the presence of MCI technicians at the site of San Giovanni al Natisone. There is also the opportunity to propose materials and innovative processes for the Material collection, by directly contacting CATAS, which will provide support for the preparation of documentation and samples for the selection by the jury of Material ConneXion, which meets once a month in New York for the evaluation of the materials to be included.

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CATAS tra internazionalizzazione, The training forIl Vietnamese technicians at CATAS innovazione e realtĂ  quotidiana Franco Staff CATAS Bulian From the 19 to the 23 April, 14 technicians from Vietnam were hosted at CATAS for a theoretical and practical course on materials and technologies about furniture. During the week they had the opportunity to learn the properties of wood, panels, covering materials, coatings and adhesives. The chance to closely observe the tests being performed on the raw materials and finished products at the CATAS laboratories was a unique opportunity to understand, with direct experiences, the behaviour and the characteristics of various materials used in the furniture sector. This uniqueness, recognized and appreciated also by the Vietnamese guests, is raising considerably the general interest to the courses of CATAS, especially at in this crucial period for the industry in which “knowledgeâ€? has increasingly become the foundation on which to build a possible future.

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Title GLUING WOOD Author Alberto Bandel Editor CATAS SpA

Purchase CATAS (lab@catas.com) CATAS Subscriber € 35,00 + IVA Non CATAS Subscriber € 45,00 + IVA

Gluing Wood was written by dr. Alberto Bandel, one of the greatest European experts in the field of wood adhesives thecnology. Since the first edition (1994), the book has represented a good theoretical basis but, moreover, a significant working tool for all the manufacturers. The book is written in a simple style, with many practical examples, pictures and tables. The collaboration with CATAS (and in particular with ing. Speranza, dr. Giavon and dr. Bulian), especially for the normative parts, has completed the book also with some useful references to test methods and standards. The book is divided into three chapters: Adhesives in the wood Industry- Materials in the Wood Industry and Gluing Technologies) which contain different pharagraphs about subjects related both to the raw materials and the working processes.

Title THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF WOOD. A scanning Electron Microscope Study Authors B.A. Meylan and B.G. Butterfield Purchase CATAS (lab@catas.com) (Italian translation by Angelo Speranza) CATAS Subscriber € 25,00 + IVA Editor CATAS SpA Non CATAS Subscriber € 45,00 + IVA This book is a collection of scanning electron microscope photographs selected to illustrate various features of the structure of wood. Althought is intended to supplement general plant anatomy texts for Botany and Foresty students at the upergraduate level, it should also be useful work for anyone interested in wood science. The lists of further reading included in each section contain only general texts and revelant paper on each topic.

Title WOOD COATINGS. THEORY AND PRACTICE Authors Franco Bulian and Jon Graystone Language English Editor Elsevier

Purchase Specialised bookstores Internet web sites: www.elsevier.com, www.amazon.com

Wood Coatings, written by Franco Bulian (CATAS) and Jon Graystone (Paint Research Association) addresses the factors responsible for the performance of wood coatings in both domestic and industrial situations. The term ‘wood coatings’ covers a broad range of products including stains, varnishes, paints and supporting ancillary products that may be used indoors or outdoors. Techniques for coating wood go back many centuries but in recent decades there has been a move towards more environmentally-friendly materials, for example, the use of water-borne rather than solvent-borne chemicals. A major objective of Wood Coatings is to explain the underlying factors that influence selection, application and general operational issues. Basic information on the chemistry and technology of coatings is included for the benefit of students and laboratory technicians. Additionally, the book includes individual chapters of interest to architects, specifiers, and industrial users.

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Notiziecatas2 2012eng