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air

design studio

2014


Design Studio: Air Anna Brennan 586745 Tutorial: Philip & Haslett Thursday 4:15 - 7:15

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Introduction

Anna.

From a very early age I discovered an interest for designing, in particular residential design. This interest grew and ecnouraged me to apply for a Bachelor of Environments with intentions of majoring in architecture, as is present. Throughout my undergraduate degree, I have had large exposure to sustainable design and the numerous benefits it has. I hope to expand my knowledge of sustainabile design after completing my studies and entering the workforce.

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My experience with digital design is very limited, with little knowledge of Rhino and not any in regards to Grasshoper. However, I realise computational design is increasing in the design and architecture world, hence am eager to begin learning and hopefully build up a degree of skills for these softwares.


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Design Futuring

Design futuring aims to ensure that the future for our society and the planet we inhabit is secure. Evidence illustrates human existence has had detrimental effects on earth, and it is now that we’re discovering it is too late to return to the beginning. We have abused our planet for too long and must now look for ways to instead maintain it as much we can in order to avoid defuturing. With a growing species, our impacts on earth will only become more severe if cautiousness is not taken.

Design futuring is attempting to resolve this issue, by changing our now innate harmful ways, to ensure a future remains. Hence it requires designers be continually considering the future throughout the design process. I believe the future, if not ours than our next generations, should be forever in our consciousness. If not, then we will exhaust even more of the resources we consume or nature that surrounds us.


Land Art Generator Initiative

Land art generator initiative (LAGI) is a competition with an aim of producing a sculptural and clean energy generating result. In 2010, LAGI called upon the design world of artists, architects, landscape architects, scientist and engineers, wanting to achieve a more artistic approach to renewable energy1. LAGI encourages constructible renewable energy producing designs that educate the viewer or visitor. The main requirement is the submission “captures energy from nature, cleanly converts it to electricity, and transforms and transmits the electrical power to a grid connection point (supplied by the city)”2 This year, 2014, LAGI will hold its competition in the capital of Denmark, Co-

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penhagen. Copenhagen is already moving towards and applying measures to become more environmentally friendly with a goal to be carbon neutral by 2025, hence the competition will be regarded highly. This years brief is in search for a design that will provide for “hundreds to thousands of homes around the world”3. The site, Refshaleoen, originally a shipyard, is now considered to be an important site for new development and holds an elegant position opposite the iconic ‘Little Mermaid’ statue.


Solar Spin

Solar Spin is essentially a project focused on solar and wind technologies. Solar: hut-like wooden structures are placed on the site covered with Kanarka’s organic photovoltaic solar thin film modules to gain energy provided by the sun during the day. To take full advantage of the solar rays, the sculptures have the ability to rotate 360 degrees in accordance to the sun orientation, via a small built-in motor. The energy collected is used to light up the sculptures at night. Wind: Five horizontal axis wind turbines are also located on the site, to utilise the available wind and produce clean energy. The Solar Spin project aims to stregthen the relationship between humans and nature. This is done through the natural use of materials to construct the project as well as the encouragement for one to sit within nature and simply observe the picturisc veiws and peaceful atmosphere. I believe Solar Spin makes an appropriate 11

use of the main environmental features - solar and wind. The designer has researched the site and positioned their project northeast, in accoradance to the highest level of solar and wind the site offers. The designer also encourages the communication between humans and nature through the inclusion of an information centre. I find the design of the sculptures at night quite fun and intriguing. The sculptures are visually pleasing and hence have an attraction to draw people in. I question whether they could have turned into a star gazing opportunity to again emphasise the relationship between humans and nature. I also wonder if it were possible to the two renewable energy technologies together. The huts could instead spin by the use of wind, rather than motor, or possibly the huts could automatically follow the oreitnation of the sun.


Mary-Go-Round 2.0

‘Mary-Go-Round in 2.0’ aims to convereg two leading interests and passions of the 21st century - internet and the environment. Designers Quentin Duvillier and Adrien Piebourg argue that the cyberspace world is competing with the attention to the environment, and it’s winning. Hence the artists have attempted to combine the two subjects in order to lessen the competition and enhance a more team-like approach being able to beneift the environment by using the internet at Freshkills site. The project aims to bring about confrontation between the two user interests. The site offers internet gaming, technology purchase, as well as wild life interaction and scenic observatory platform.

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The system, a three ringed carousel, is powered by wings attached to the rings which utilise the wind. The energy generated from the wind has the ability to provide electricity for 2200 homes. I believe having a connection or relationship involved in the deisgn where one highly employed activity (internet) can encourage the support and interest for a concern (environment). However, in reality people like the easy way out and travelling to Freshkills just to buy technology or use the internet.may be unrealistic. The illumination method of attracting people at night is a logical method people are attracted to lgithting especially in decorative and appealing form.


Renewable Energy

Photovoltaics, Infrared and UV: -potential to convert upto 90% of available light. Although it is still in the research stage, this solar method has great potential. Having the ability to avoid the human eye and still create energy is a prime factor that a wide array of other renewable enrgy technologies lack. I see this technology becoming abundance in use.

High Altitude Wind Power (HAWP): -exposed to high altitude winds - constant. HAWP utilises wind in higg altitude trandfering it to energy. There are already numerous HAWP technologies, with the potential to be both cheap and consistent.

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Wind Turbines: -on-shore or off-shore opportunity. Commonly seen as a three blade turbine, HAWT create renewable energy via the use of wind. The technology of HAWT has already come a long way in development, some modern designs having a single blade and smaller units becoming available (rather than 100m in height). There are both on-shore and off-shore HAWT available, with the off-shore versions taking advantage of the more powerful ocean winds and not limiting on-shore space (HAWT require a significant distance between them hence occupying a wide area of land). Both floating (deep waters) and pylon-mounted (shallow waters) HAWT’s are usable, floating HAWT’s have the advantage of exposure to strong oceanic winds.


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Computational Design

Technology, similary with most other industries, has entered the architecture and design world, and its dependence is rapidly growing. Architecture has developed from the era of not even existing where buildings were simply just constructed with minimal, if any, planning or designing to a heavy reliance on pen and paper to now, a field of work widely encorporating parametric and algorithm computational design tools. Computational desgin has no doubt fastened the process, reducing the number of drawings and re-drawings which would be required without it. It has also allowed for a problem to be solved therough algorithms where solutions lead to more solutions until one is reached that meets all goals and guidelines. Hence, the logic of algoritm

became a thinking for design. The introduction of parametric deign and software like Rhino and Grasshopper led to the construction of many iconic and performance driven architecture projects. Computational design allows for curvilinear and organic designs to be acheived, and unique and complex forms with a limitless supply of techniques. Computational design has no doubt benefitted the architecure field, yet without humans the machines could not work. Technology is good at being told what to do, humans must provide the directions and creativity.


Space, Light, Sound & Drugs Cochenko & Quartorze

This design is aimed at educating people on drug use and abuse. It consists of three stages of which a use of light, sound and space is differed in an attempt to replicate the phases of drug use. One is drawn into the hallucinogenic sense through the architecure, to a personal based experience produced by the visitor’s movements and the use of light, sound and space interaction. There are three stages: -’pleasure’: as the visitor enter the door behind close, soft sounds and

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delicate lighting fill the space. -’repetition’: the sound and lighting quicken and become dense. -’awakening’: th euser exeriences an urge to leave through the deadening bass sound. The organic walls counding the three stages show a use of computation design, as does the exterior and interior wall linings.


Rainbow Gateway Tonkin Liu

The Rainbow Gateway is positioned at the front of Burnley College, in prime location to capture the eyes of the popular intersection drivers.

mination effect is also utilised at night, when the lights from bleow shine upwards creating a rainbow impression into the air.

The town located in a three-forked valley and home to many viaducts is resembled in the Tonkin Liu structure. The function of the Rainbow Gateway is to channel rain into the ground while presenting an artisitc display of natural illumination, via 133 prisms, onto the concrete pavement beneath. This illu-

Computation design methods were highly involved in the production of the bowed, rain measuring sculpture, requiring “advanced digital modelling, analysis and fabrication tools� as well as a strong relationship with the engineering firm Arup.


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Composition Generation Computational design is an incredibly useful tool for designers, however in-depth exploration and practice is required before any extraordinary project can result from it. Digital design is not new to architecture, computer-aided drafting (CAD) has been used for decades by architects. However, parametric and algorithmic design has now escalated the computational design world4 and provides ways of generating design solutions rather than drawing them5. Design through algorithm and parametrics focuses on material information being understood as generative rather than facilitative - as CAD does6.

Parametric refers to working with parameters within an identified range7 and to be specific to the design world it regards the operation of parametric modeling software. It allows for curvilinear design as seen in Frank Gehry’s work for instance. Algorithm is a term that must be understood in order to reach an overall understanding of computational design. Briefly, algorithm, as described by Wilson, is a simple recipe, method or technique for doing something. However, to be more accurate, algorithm is an ambiguous, precise, list of simple operations applied mechanically and systematically to a set of symbols or objects, where the original condition of the object is the input and the final condition is the output8. Scripting, on a basic level, refers to computer programming. Furthermore, it allows for software to be modified or completely reconstructed by the user to their preferences9. Scripting has been used ever since computers were invented, used by a specialist to program computers, however only recently has it become apart of design education10. Scripting is

a essential for computational design as, simply put, without it, computation design would not be achievable. Combined, parametric and algorithmic techniques have expanded the possibilities of the architectural field, and although very independent in history, a relationship has been formed between art and science11. The movement to computational design has given architects the digital design tools that lead to opportunites in process, fabrication and construction12. However, computation goes further than this through the use of algorithms. Algorithms are created and modified to allow for architectural exploration in the placement, configuartion and relationships of elements. A potential common question is why? Why move towards computational design, which requres much more prior research than hand design, when we already have an adequate way of designing? The obvious answer would be efficiency.However, it goes beyond this. Computational design does require knowledge and skill, although once understood it can lead to more specific, detailed and performance-based design. Algorithms allow for the best solution to be reached, with all goals and guidelines considered. On top of this, computational design is a way of the future. Just like the development from the era prior to the renaissance where buildings were simply constructed to the period after where degin, planning and blue prints were established.


Smithsonian Institution Foster & Partners

Located on the site of the former United States Patent Building, the Smithsonian Institute was an alternative to a demolishion site. It was transformed by President Eisenhower, where the National Portrait Gallery and Smithsonian American Art Mueseum would reside. The courtyard, found centrally, was adapted to house the largest event space in Washington. The courtyard provides access to the galleries and when the museum closes, provides for a range of social events13. The focus is the glazed roof, which takes a fluid form allowing maximum sunlight into the courtyard throughout the day14.

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The roof of ‘softly curved valleys’15 from the exterior clearly illustrates its latest construction from the ‘Greek Revival architecture’16. The three interconnected vaults that flow into eachother17 to form the roof were constructed by Brady Peters via a single computer program he created18. The program was not only used for the design process, but went beyond and generated additional structural and acoustic information, a visual understanding and fabrication data for physical models19.


The Smithsonian Institution is an example of algorithm, scripting and parametrics. A software program scripted by Brady Peters uses a varitety of problem solving algorithms and parametric design tools to reach this glazed organic roof design. However, as previously

mentioned, it is not only the design which uses these computational methods, but also goes further to fabrication. Hence, this example supports many points mentioned in the previous overview of computation design.


Differentiated Wood Lattice Shell Jian Huang

The aim of this project was to explore lattice geometry through altering the once uniformed cross-sectional length. The project involved numerous procedures using computatuional design methods. Fabrication variables were modified, algorithmic problem solving was utilised and a scripted robotic water jet cutter ensured damage to the wood was avoided. Initially a planar grid is fabricated using computational design, it is then transformed into a strcuturally stable

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double-curved form20 by adjusting the skin actuators in relation to the computationally derived conventions21 Through computational design this project was created. Computational design was used to help design and find a range of solutions for varying cross-sectional area. It was then used to safegaurd and ensure correct manufation and later to produced a curvilinear result.


Peace Pavilion Atelier Zundel Cristea

The Peace Pavilion was the winner for the Triumph Pavilion competition, designed by Paris-based firm Atelier Zundel Cristea. The inflatable pavilion became a temporary built form as an award with an aim of being ‘visually and aesthetically engaging’22. The unique shape invovled the use of

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advanced parametric design tools to acheive the application of tensile membrane and gemometric impression of double-curved surfaces23. The smooth, calm and light weight appearance project required digital fabrication via the CNC cutting machines, ensuring precise manufacturing24.


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Summary

The growing invovlement with computational design is both thrilling and inspiring. The visual of what has been created with the use of these tools and the thought of what is still yet to become provokes an excitement for the future. Computational design offers a new paint pallete to the architect, and in my project I aim to take advantage of these tools that have assisted in the formation of some of the most iconic and entriguing work to date. I hope to provide Copenhagen with a fluid, organic form that is eye-catching, yet subtle in its surroundings. With the combination of renewable energy I hope my design will use these computation design tools to express my learning process.


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Learning Objectives

I began the subject with little if any knowledge of computational arhcitecture design, and hence have had the bare minimal involvement with it during my studing. Apart from beginner experience with Sketch Up I have designed purely by hand which forced me to question whether I should be partake in this heavily computational subject.However, aware of the direction architecture is leading towards, technology dependent, I had to expose myself to this side of design, and the sooner the better. I have thoroughly enjoyed learning about computational design, and although it will take some time to familarise and increase skills and knowledge I eager to incorporate it into my future designing.

At the beginning of semester I related computational design only to computer-aided design tools, not considering the possibilites of algorithms and parametrics. I was aware of the software Rhino, yet based it on a tool similar to CAD, hence Grasshopper was a totally new concept. Having, now, a broad idea of parametrics, algorithms and the design outcomes which can be acheived, I realise my past designs could have benefited from the precise, efficient, and problem-solving manner computational design provides. The opportuinity to go back to a saved file to modify and change aspects of a design, rather than re-draw, is also very favourable.


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Material Performance

Material performance focuses on employing the correct and most efficient material for the design and the purpose of the project. Architecture is evidently a practice largely dependent on materials, hence architects should be throughly aware of the relationship between materials and the environment so they can later embed the sppropriate materials and receive the appropriate response from the enterprise25. For a considerate time now, form has been drawn from structural logic, but it should also be largey drawn from materiality too26. In a time where efficiency has become more important than ever and for construction to follow this, materials should be highly discussed regarding their performance in contrast to the specific project. There is the potential for materials to change largely when exposed to dffering environments27 and for this reason if a design is to build from material performance these

differences must be tested. In regards to computational design, material performance is able to be tested through software such as Grasshopper. By testing key parametres of a material (fibre orientation, ratio thickness, etc) to environmental conditions (moisture content, sun exposure, wind levels, etc) a defintion can be established to model the results as parametres and condtions vary, later producing a material efficent outcome28. For these reasons of maximising a material my group decided to explore this material system further. From material performance, tensile membranes were focused on. Tensile mebranse became of interest due to their maximisation of strength through minimisation of material and instant connection with kinetic energy.


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Voussoir Cloud Iwamoto + Scott

The Voussior Cloud by Iwamoto and Scott, is a vaulted pavilion consisting of an array of ‘petals’ in a Delaunay tesselation29. The term ‘voussior’ commonly refers to a heavy wedge-shaped block used for arch construction, however in the case of the Voussoir Cloud it bears a porous light wieght response30. The overall design form of the structure was found through a practice, used by both Frei Otto and Antonio Gaudi, known as the hanging chain method, to find the most effiiceint vault shapes and arrangement31. Instead of modeling this method, a computational hanging chain practice was instead used40. A

stress test was also carried out to highlight the key areas where high strength was required, so a lightwieght material could be used without decontructing consequences41. The Delaunay tesselation exterior follows a logical structural pattern. The bottom of the vaults have a tightly compressed petal arrangment to ensure stability, which grow into a porous light weight design, that is even more emphasised when the structure is illuminated42. The Fabrication applied lazor cutting to produce cut and scoured sections o laminated wood, that were folded and zip tied together43.


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Community Hammock Numen/For Use

The ‘net’ experience by Numen comprises of a layering effect of flexible nets, displayed in the air44. The nets are connected via counterpoints to one another and depend on tensile strength for suspension45. The maze of nets provides a perceptive, spatial and perception experience46 to the visitor hence giving the project somewhat functionality. The ‘floating landscape’47 relies on the strength of the tensile mesh material optimising its performance.

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Hyper-Toroidal Deep Surface Prototype Stuttgart

The project consists of a cylindrical geometry48 that is repeated in an advanced pattern. each having an inner and outer mesh. The mesh relies on a spring and particles simulation engine, where tension is distributed bewteen the surfaces as well as a node network of anchor points connected via cables49. The outcome can be controlled by the anchor point locations and advancement of the geometry50.


Reverse Engineering Hyper-Toroidal Deep Surface Prototype

To reverse engineer it was clear from the protoype explanation that a geometry had to be created with an interior mesh and exterior mesh. We began withthe above geometry and turned it into a mesh. Following that, the anchor points were selected at the openings, and an interior mesh was created. The anchor points were the sites for the relaxtion stimulation to take place, this was done through

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Kangaroo plug-in. When the stimulus was engaged both meshes would relax, the interior more than exterior due to a smaller ‘rest length’, and therefore tension would occur at the selected anchor points and through cable like connections. To manage the final stage, two geometries were used with one vertically flipped, and anchor points manipulated.


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Iterations

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Species 1: Design: The double mesh creates multiple experiences and views from differing angles, as does the numerous circulation opportunites. The openings tend to have a drawing-in effect, celebrating the centre of the form.

Species 2: Design: There is a dramatic experience for the visitor moving within this species, provoked by the strong move from wide to narrow. The form adds onto species one, in the way it draws-in then draws-out, if one moved through.

Species 4: Design: This form takes on an interesting horizontal movement, giving the outside viewer an intriguing perspective.

Species 5: Design: Following on from species 4 the form takes on a snaking formation in also the y direction, further encouraging people to explore the structure

Energy: The inner membrane provides an elestic platform for kinetic energy to be produced. The vertical aperture provides a great ptoential for energy production via wind.

Energy: The highly tensioned internal membrane has potential to elicit high amounts of kinetic energy by human movement.

Energy: Kinetic energy can be harnessed through public interaction. There is potential for solar energy to also be utilised.

Energy: Prompting people to explore the formation allows for kinetic energy to accumulate through human movement. Wind will also affect this, especially in the areas where the structure takes on the y direction.


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Prototyping

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The prototypes aim to represent the differing membrane approaches that could be taken. Figures 14 , 15, 16 and 20 model the final outcome, illustrating three contrasting membrane options. These options were highlighted due to wind generation, the panelling mesh (figure 1 and 2) to bethoguht to generate the most energy. Three panelling systems were prototyped as seen in figure 20. The first in this figure is

indivual panels which would generate the most energy due to the most fluctuation in the wind. The middle prototype is a continual panel attached to the underside of the supports, and the third is large rectangular panels across the length of one structural support to another. To the left (figures 17, 18, 19) is a simple prototype, created to understand the inner and outer mesh structure as seen at the beginning of the case study.

Fig. 14, 15, 16, 17 ,18, 19, 20 (clockwise direction starting at top-


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Proposal

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Through a membrane pavilion weaving through the site our aim is to generate energy via untilisation of the wind. The membrane was chosen for this exact energy generator as it was felt the flexibility the structure could adopt, yet still maintain stength and stability, would be optimised in wind

conditions. The form is generated to give an appealing visual to the viewer, and take advantage of the unoccupied site. The membrane is attached to timber beams which produce appelaing sights when accompanied by the sun.


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Feedback

After presenting, it was evident that we had lost focus on designing for the brief and instead focused too much on what form, shape and look we wanted our structure to take. This loss of focus can be pin-pointed to B4 where we chose outcomes on attractive forms rather than ones best suited for energy production. This is clearly seen as we move away from height in species 1 to a low lying structure in species 5, when height is most beneficial for our primary energy technology - wind.

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It was also clearly understood that we had no evidence or data to back up our proposal. Instead our prototypes, modeling different membranes, were based on our assumption to what would work best regarding wind and hence produce the most energy. Focus needs to be placed back on the intial tensile membrane idea, and with addition of height and experimentation a new form will be created.


Learning Outcomes

Part B encouraged practice of Grasshopper and forced me to comprehend an indepth knowledge of the computer software which I would have struggled to gather from online tutorials and videos. New to the computational design area, it helped to have two partners to provide feedback and assistance when my lack of comptational ability hindered results. I found it beneficial to explore different defintions as it helped to learn the inputs for differing cells and their intended outcome/output.

Overall, I found Part B quite challenging, it challenged my ability to understand one concept then to quickly move on to learning the next. However, I do feel the section was beneficial in this way too. Time became a threatening factor, as some stages occupied more time then intially thought. I have gained a greater knowledge of how to design via computational design and a better understanding to how software like Grasshopper works.


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Reconsidering the brief Following the interim feedback, we throughly needed to reconsider the brief and our design in relevance. Our design seemed to lose track of the brief and lead a direction based on aesthetics and a form we wanted to create. Our main goal was to rethink the formation of our wind harnessing design. based on feed back.

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With a strong goal to avoid creating a wind turbine and a form that didn’t resemble that of a boat, the design process for the sail was extremely drawn out. Finally a form was established and the next step was to create a footing and structural system that would capture the wind, remain stable and harness energy.


Concept Our focus is to produce a site populated with sails that harness wind energy and educate the visitor. The array should accompany the historical and already existing context.


Sail Formation

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Site Formation

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Array Iterations Scaling of heights

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Array Iterations Scaling towards the centre

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Array Scaling of heights by line altenation

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Array Summary

The formation and array of our site was created through the use of field charges in grasshopper. Charges were put at the areas we felt were most important to the site and therefore wanted to highlight. These areas were the entrance, the ferry terminal and the view to (or from) the Little Mermaid sculpture. Many iterations were formed until one

was reached that emphasised our three main areas, created a curving channel through the site, was a suitable array for the sail form and was personalluy agreed on. The next step was to produce numerous iterations of the sails arrayed on site, varying in scale.

Scaling of heights (using an average height of 5m): 1. The sails are scaled at 0.3 422 sails are able to fit on site. 2 The sails are scaled at 0.5 274 sails are able to fit on site. 3 The sails are scaled at 0.8 127 sails are able to fit on site 4 The sails are scaled at 1.0 110 sails are able to fit on site. These arrays were produced to analyse whether its beneficial to have more small sails, or less large sails on site.

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Scaling towards the centre: To receive an understanding of how big a sail would be when one experiences the journey through the site, these arrays were produced.

Scaling of heights by line alternation: To have the maximum capacity of sails on site at varying sails and positioned so that no collisions occur, it was questioned whether it would be best to have large sails on one field line and smaller sails on the following field line. Are chosen array stemmed from this idea, although the rule was not followed strictly.


Joint Exploraton

It was important to design a structural system that supports the weight of the sail component as well as allows for movement. After dicussing iterations for the footing and structural system, it was decided that a ball and socket joint would be the most relevant. From here,

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trials of a ball and socket joint were processed. An issue in the process was the problem of the sail falling all the way to the ground. Hence some horizontal supports were added to the ball, to still allow for swaying but to a limited degree.


Prototyping

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Details

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Construction

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1:100 Model

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1:500 Fabrication

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1:100 Fabrication


1:500 Model

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Further Design To further our design, generation of energy output through computation would be beneficial in enhancing and further supporting our proposal. A large amount of time was lost in attempting to 3D print the sails for the 1:500 and 1:100 models. The printing issue was solved through a sectioning method for the 1:100 sails and a simple cut out fabrication for the 1:500 sails, both utilising white perspex. Unfortunately, the time lost could not be solved for and instead we were racing against time from then on.

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Design Concept Our proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition, Copenhagen, presents an array of sails populated over the site, harnessing wind and generating output through piezoelectric energy. The focus of our design is to employ self-optimising tensile sails to utilise wind energy and educate the visitors and residents of Copenhagen on renewable energy. The form of the sail, subsequent to a prolonged design process, was finalised, comprising of a twisted, helix-like structure. Carbon fibre tubes support the tensile fabric sail between, bearing the ability to be flexible enough to adjust in accordance with the wind as well as maintain a high level of strength. The sails are arrayed with the assistance of computational software, and emphasise, what we believe, are the three main viewpoints – the entrance to site, the ferry terminal and the view to the Little Mermaid sculpture. These areas are highlighted throughout the journey by the scaling of the sails and their configuration. Our proposal formation is designed to draw

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people into the site and, in parts, evoke an overwhelming experience for the visitor. The scaling of sails allows one to experience the dominant power of the large sails and also the opportunity for interaction with the smaller forms. The array is enhanced by LED strip lighting within concrete trenches, that follow the sail formation, providing a course for transferring the power to the grid, unifying the sails and eliciting a pulse illumination at night in accordance to the energy generated by the site throughout the day. The strip lighting also extrudes in sections to form benches to sit on across the site. This component further drives the intent of interaction and education throughout the site. In addition to providing an artistic, clean energy producing arrangement, our design presents Copenhagen with an innovative and engaging new monument.


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Technology

Our chosen technology, piezoelectricity, suited our sail form, maintaining our intent of remaining clear of a turbine design. Piezoelectricity converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations then back into an electrical output. Piezoelectric panels surround the interior lining of the sail bases, and are contacted by the bottom stem of the sail when exposed to wind force. The sail is designed not to rotate, but align with the wind to generate a flutter response, and elicit vibrations in the base. The stem is supported by springs to generate a fast paced continuous movement back and forth when exposed to wind forces.

To calculate the energy output of one sail, the surface area of the particular sail is required. This is multiplied with the average wind speed of Copenhagen, 5.8m/s2. The weight of the carbon fibre elements, dependent on the sail height, is combined with gravity, 9.8N. Pythagoras theorem can now be used to calculate the force of the stem on the piezoelectric panel. This result is further multiplied by 0.27kWh, in accordance to the piezoelectric transducer, to receive the kW produced by a particular sail over an hour.


Energy Generation 0.3 Sail Height: Width: Surface Area:

6.94m 5.05m 175.2m2

Base Circumference: 6.19m Able to hold 176 transducers. a = 66.64kg b = 1397.7N c = 1399.3N kWh: 377.8 kWh/day: 9,067.2 kWh/yr: 3,309,528 422 sails:

1,396,620,816kWh/yr

210,842 houses fuelled per year.

0.5 Sail Height: 11.56m Width: 8.4m Surface Area: 485.5m2 Base Circumference: 10.34m Able to hold 295 transducers. a = 133.28kg b = 3876.6N c = 3878.9N kWh: 1,047.3 kWh/day: 25,135.3 kWh/yr: 9,174,374.3 274 sails:

2,513,778,552.7kWh/yr

379,897 houses fuelled per year.

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0.8 Sail Height: Width: Surface Area:

18.5m 13.56m 1254.3m2

Base Circumference: 16.46m Able to hold 470 transducers. a = 188.16kg b = 10020N c = 10021.8N kWh: 2,705.9 kWh/day: 64,941.3 kWh/yr: 23,703,561.4 127 sails:

3,010,352,292.7kWh/yr

454,942 houses fuelled per year.

1.0 Sail Height: Width: Surface Area:

23.11m 13.56m 1928.2m2

Base Circumference: 20.48m Able to hold 585 transducers. a = 243.04kg b = 15404.2N c = 15406.1N kWh: 4,159.7 kWh/day: 99,831.5 kWh/yr: 36,438,507.7 110 sails:

4,008,235,849.2kWh/yr

655,261 houses fuelled per year.


Energy Generation

5.8m/s2

The average wind spped of Copenhagen is 5.8m/s2. This average combined with the sail surface area, gives the the wind force acting on the sail, ‘b’.

5.05m

6.94m

The weight of the carbon fibre tubes is sourced depending on height and thickness. This weight is doubled to consider both tubes and multiplied with gravity, producing ‘a’. 6.8kg

The force produced on the piezoelectric panels by the sail is calculated as ‘c’. b2 =1,953,565.29N

a2 =4,440.89kg

c2 =1,958,006.18N c = 1399.3N kWh = 377.8

109

This force is then multiplied by 0.27kWh (the energy produced by one piezoelectric panel) to receive the energy output of one sail. To find the energy output of the whole site, this output is multiplied by the appropriate number of sails.


Environmental Impact Statement

Our proposal consists of two main materials, being concrete and carbon fibre. A large amount of concrete is required in our design for the footing system of the sails and light and bench array. Cement is an additive of concrete and also one of the primary producers of, the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Cement, dependent on proportion added, creates up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions, 50% of which is from the chemical process and 40% from fuel burning. It is estimated that one tonne of structural concrete will produce 410kg/m3 of carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon fibre is used to support the sails, optimising the materials strength and lightweight composition. The process of manufacturing carbon fibre requires large amounts of slow heating procedures and hence uses a high level

of energy, 25 – 75 kWh/lb . The environmental communities and producers are now heavily regulating carbon fibre manufacturing due to its heat intensive procedure. The production of carbon fibre elicits produces harmful gases including nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide, which both contribute to global warming. Carbon fibre, unlike steel, cannot be melted down and recycled. Therefore, there are large amounts of waste associated with the material, of which mostly ends up in landfills. Although our site uses materials that do have negative effects on the environment, the large amount of renewable energy are site will generate counteracts this.


c

5

111


Learning Objectives

As the semester and subject Studio: Air conclude, I can reflect back to my Introduction and my little experience in computational design. I have most certainly broadened my skills and understanding in deign software and parametric design. I have built up a vocabulary of designers and designs that are generated through paramtrics and algorithms. With such minial experience and knowledge, my outcomes were limited and in some ways disadvantaged, however my understanding for the design area has begun and can only move forward with more practice. I throughly enjoyed the brief of the studio, especially the extra necessity of meeting the renewable energy requirement. I feel this added more depth and, more importantly, reality to the

113

design process. A main disadvantage of having such little knowledge with this area of design was not being able to generate numeric data in regards to the energy production through the use of computation. This would have further supported our design adding more depth to it.


References 1. http://landartgenerator.org/project.html 2 http://landartgenerator.org/project.html 3 http://landartgenerator.org/project.html

4. University of Southern California, PARAsite: parametric and algorithmic research in architecture, (Defintions: Parametric and

Algorithmic Design, 2010) < http://parasite.usc.edu/?p=443 > viewed 25th March. 5. Menges, Achim ‘Material Resourcefulness: Activating Material Information in Computational Design’ Architectural Design (2012) pp36. 6 ibid (2012) pp36. 7 ibid 8 Wilson, ‘MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sceience’, Algorithm Defintion from Wilson (2000), pp 11. 9 Mark Burry, ‘Scripting Cultures: architecure design and programming’, On Technology and Computation (2011), pp 008. 10 ibid (2011) pp 010. 11 ibid (2011), pp 230. 12 University of Southern California, 2010 13 Foster + Partners, ‘Projects: Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA 2004-2007’, (2014) < http://www.fosterandpartners. com/projects/smithsonian-institution/ >, viewed 26th March. 14ibid (2014). 15ibid (2014). 16ibid (2014). 17ibid (2014). 18 Peters, Brady ‘Computation Works: The buiding of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, (2013) pp 13. 19ibid (2013). 20 Menges, Achim ‘Material Resourcefulness: Activating Material Information in Computational Design’ Architectural Design (2012) pp41. 21 ibid (2012) pp41. 22 De zeen Magazine, ‘Peace Pavilion by Atelier Zundel Cristea’ (2013) < http://www.dezeen.com/2013/06/05/peace-pavilion-by-atelier-zundel-cristea/ >, viewed 26th March. 23 eVolo, ‘Temporary Parametric Inflated Structure Wins the Triumph Pavilion Competition in London’ (2013) < http://www.evolo. us/architecture/temporary-parametric-inflated-structure-wins-the-triumph-pavilion-competition-in-london/#more-25549 >, viewed 26th March. 24ibid (2013).

25 Michael Hensel, Architectural Design: Versatility and Vicisstude, Vol 78, Issue 2, (2008), pg 36. 26 ibid (2008), pg 38. 27 ibid (2008), pg 39 28 ibid (2008), pg 39. 29 Iwamotoscottarchitecture, Voussoir Cloud, (2008), <http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSIOR-CLOUD> 30 Buro Happold, Voussoir Cloud, (2011), < http://www.burohappold.com/projects/project/voussoir-cloud-142/ > 31 Iwamotto, (2008). 32 ibid, (2008). 33 ibid, (2008). 34 Buro Happold, (2011). 35 ibid, (2011). 36 Numen/For Use, Net Hasslet, (2011), < http://www.numen.eu/installations/net/hasselt/ > 37 ibid, (2011). 38 NewsGallery: Numen/For Use: Avant Garde mixed with play, (2012), < http://www.thenewsgallery. com/2012/03/numenfor-use-avant-garde-mixed-with.html >


Appendix 39 Numen/For Use, Net Hasslet, (2011). 40 Universitat Stuttgart, Achim Menges: Deep Surface Prototype: Project 1, (2011), < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404 > 41 Achimmenges: ICD Universitat Stuttgart, Hyper-Toroidal Deep Surface Prototype, (2011), < http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=5190 > 42 Universitat Stuttgart, (2011).


Images Fig. 1 Achimmenges: ICD Universitat Stuttgart, USC Workshop: Performance Pneus, (2012), < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5074> Fig. 2 Universitat Stuttgart, Achim Menges: Evolving Systems of Material and Performance, (2010), < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=2700> Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7 Iwamotoscottarchitecture, Voussoir Cloud, (2008), <http:// www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSIOR-CLOUD> Fig. 8, 9, 10 Numen/For Use, Net Hasslet, (2011), < http://www.numen.eu/ installations/net/hasselt/ > Fig. 3, 11, 12, 13 Achimmenges: ICD Universitat Stuttgart, Hyper-Toroidal Deep Surface Prototype, (2011), < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5190 > Fig. 14. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 Samuel Bell, Photographs. (2014).

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