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This publication was created as a result of the Comenius project “My Future Is Up To Me” 2012 / 2014

Coordinator: Gimnazjum nr 1 w Koszęcinie, Poland Partners: Instituto Torreforta, Spain Agrupamento de Escolas de Torre de Moncorvo, Portugal Scoala cu Clasele I-VIII “Ciresarii”, Romania Merkez Ilkogretim Okulu, Turkey


TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter 1

“The role of advertisement, entrepreneurship and creativity in human’s life………………4 Chapter 2 “Knowing Yourself”………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Chapter 3

“How to prepare to the interview”………………………………………………………………12 Appendix

Information about the labour market in particular countries………………………………….21


Don’t be afraid of tomorrow, take action and fulfill your dreams…

When you're a kid you do not think about what might happen, that’s why you are so eager in taking new challenges gaining new skills every day. When you grow up, you start thinking of a possible failure more and more often , so you prefer not to take risks. If you want to fulfill your dreams, do not be afraid to take on new challenges every day. Keep trying, and if it fails, treat it as a lesson, pull out the consequences and try again. Only this way you can achieve success and fulfill your dreams. Everyone can achieve success. Everyone is good at something. The problem is that we are not fully aware of this. And, we are often ashamed and we prefer to stay in the shade or assume a strange mask that we can hide under and no one can guess who we really are. In this publication you will learn what is the role of creativity and entrepreneurship in human’s life, the influence of advertisement, how to recognize, use and develop your strong points in the world of school, and the work. We will learn how to deal with stress. We will learn the art of self-presentation and self-promotion, in order not to perish in the crowd and become visible and valuable for our future employer.

"Who will I become? - It is still too early to think about it. I'm in high school " It is not too early. It's high time to think about what exactly you want to do. Don’t you still know all the occupations? Don’t you know how to get the perfect education? You will learn the job market and various professions in different European countries. Maybe you can find something interesting for you. Therefore, set the goal for your future which you will strive to and you will see that it is worth to think about the future now. It will definitely help you to enter in adulthood.



The role of advertisement, entrepreneurship and creativity in human’s life


Advertisement gives the most effective message. It uses some materials in order to announce, explain, introduce the features, benefits and attractive sides of a place or a thing.

Ad provides people’s needs, wishes and happiness. If we analyse ad, we see that ad is everywhere in this communication age. TV and internet make ad more important. You can be trapped by ads even in the streets. It’s so ordinary that you can see them everywhere even in leaflets and brochures. We can understand that ad can direct our social lives. Let’s look at the data about ads. The effects of ads on children (according to age)


0-5 age = %20 effect 7-10 age = %62 effect 5-7 age = %55 effect 10-15 age = %70 effect 15-17 age = %85 effect As long as the technology develops , ads will be in our lives. We can use ads to impress people socially and psychologically. In order to create differences and gain superiority we can utilize ads.

Enterprise is to have the ability to feel the opportunities and create dreams from these opportunities and make projects. The enterpreneur must always tend to more rational and productive innovations. According to the dictionary enterprise is a mean of character or behavior that enable to create something new. The most important means are creativity and innovation, carriage in using new ideas, risks, expansion. The enterpreneur must always tend to more rational and productive innovations. We must be enterpreneurs and we must show that we are useful and necessary for his world. We must be ambitious and we must do our best. We have to be creative and brave, if we aren’t others will be better than us. We must study something we like, something that excites us, it must make us feel good, feel alive.


“A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others.”

Ayn Rand.

“Every child is an artist, the problem is staying an artist when you grow up.” Pablo Picasso

Creativity is to make new from known, to find new solutions for some kind of problems. It includes ambiguity, sensitivity, originality and fluency. In the changing world, people need to have abilities to adapt the new situations. It’s unknown what the new age will bring. Creativity helps people to get ready for this. Teaching children and teenagers thinking creatively is important for their personal development. The successful ones in creative productivity are found highly self respected.


Every person has creative intelligence but each one has different limits of creativity. To develop our creativity, We should use our imagination, have different ideas, trust ourselves, try to do different things and we shouldn’t forget that nothing is perfect. Albert Einstein says “Creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” The only way of surviving in the global competitive environment is not to stay behind the race by making differences.



Knowing yourself The importance of knowing your strong points, skills, improving them, and learning new ones, being an open-minded person - tips how to find out our strong points, how to use them in the career.


Your strong points, your skills, what you can do and what you can’t; it’s important to know what you can do and how can you do it. The reason is simple, if you know in which situations you feel comfortable, in the sense that you know how to confront what happens, it will help you to know how you can face a problem. Knowing your strong points makes you gain self-confidence and helps you to keep moving on and progressing too, strengthening your weak points and developing the strong ones even more. It’s really important to identify and minimize your weaknesses too. How well do you know yourself and your possibilities? How high are your goals? What do you expect about yourself? Your strong points are a mixture of your talents, knowledge and skills.


We are born knowing nothing, so, like everything, you can learn new ways of doing things, skills and techniques, and you can improve, encourage and perfection them as long as you have an open mind to new points of view, to new opinions and to other ways of doing things, because you can learn from everything and everyone.

It’s important to know how you can use your strong points in your career. Every person is different, so everyone has different strong and weak points, everybody has different abilities and the way to use them in life is different, but, generally it’s simple, the important thing is to make the most of your natural talents and find the resources that will help you more. Build your career based on your strong points, not on your weaknesses.

But, how can we find and learn new strong points, new abilities? For a start you must want and know what you are going to learn. You must know how much you know about the issue in what you’re interested and how much you want to reach to know. To learn something new you must be patient. The start must be soft, that it’s to say, you must go slowly and increase the difficulty little by little; because you don’t learn everything overnight.

‘Character development is the great, if not the sole, aim of education.’ -William O’Shea.



How to prepare for the interview


A process of obtaining data is by making personal interviews. This process allows access to relevant information you may consider subjective and difficult to access through other instruments. Haguette (1997) defines interview as a process of social interaction between two individuals in which one of them has the purpose to obtain information from the other.

The purpose of the interview should be taken into account so that it presents positive results. Thus, in the educational field this instrument is suitable for: - «Obtaining information about the teaching-learning process and its products;» - «Diagnosing progress and learning of several orders;» - «Providing clues to overcome difficulties and identify solutions.» (Campos, 1994)


It may even be specific to assess behaviors, attitudes and resilience in seeking solutions.The process of preparing an interview should be cautious and take into account some parameters such as: target to be achieved, candidate’s choice, familiarity with the subject – matter in question, availability of the candidate to schedule the interview and the creation of conditions to ensure its confidentiality. It is also necessary to formulate the right questions, and it means not asking ambiguous, biased, arbitrary and absurd questions. According to the requested type of information, structured, semi-structured, non- structured and open interviews can be performed. As far as concerns the non-structured interview, it is conducted without rigid guidelines and standardized questions. It has in mind the aims of the interview, but the dialogue takes place without an inflexible layout. (Campos, 1994) The structured interview obeys to a systematic or structured plan constituted by a series of previously chosen questions integrated in a guideline. This sort of interview is seen as a questionnaire.

The open interview technique presents a free and flexible format. The interviewer launches a topic and the interviewee discusses it. In this field the interviewer should not interfere too much, assuming the role of a listener. This type of interview is used when we want to obtain as much information as possible about the topic, leading to greater openness and closeness between the interviewer and the interviewee. Another type of interview, semi-structured, allows the combination of open and closed answers. In this case the interviewer has a number of previously formulated questions which are applied in a dialogue. When we want to enclose the amount of necessary information and be objective, this type of instrument should be used. 15

The interviewer must take into account that during the interview emotional aspects may condition the whole work. According to Goldberg (1997) it is fundamental to create a friendly and trustful environment, not disagreeing with the interviewee’s opinion and being neutral. The interviewer should also be responsible for the successful implementation of the instrument, paying attention to all the details that could affect the study.The job interview may follow the three types of interview previously mentioned. The choice of type of interview just depends on the employer and the sort of vacancy that shall be filled in the company. Any interview has the primary objective of introducing the candidate in the labour market. Although this process may seem extremely easy, most candidates to a job need to be well prepared in order to succeed. There is absolutely nothing to fear about the interview. On the contrary, this is an opportunity to show qualities and try to demonstrate that our skills are an asset to the company that is hiring people. The job interview has defined purposes for both sides. In order to be well succeeded, the interview must have parameters which shall be followed in order to evaluate the candidate’s performance, type of formulated questions, candidate’s preparation and some cautions that have to be taken into account during the interview.


Interview assessment

A job interview assesses essential aspects that the interviewee should take into account when preparing for it. The assessment, among others, focuses mainly on the personality, technical knowledge and the candidate’s psycho-social behavior. In the personality parameter certain traits are generally evaluated, such as: - Psychological adjustment. - Observation of visible or subliminal behavior. - Way of moving, facial expression, gestures, eye contact, attitude, physical activity, nervous twitches, verbal fluency, etc. In the technical knowledge these parameters are emphasized: - Academic achievements - Professional achievements In the psycho-social behavior several parameters are evaluated, such as: - Sociability - Responsibility - Leadership - Communication - Social integration - Life philosophy - Principles and values All these parameters depend on the place one is applying for.


Planning the interview

The interview is the higher level one can reach when applying for a job, so the candidate should always think about the purpose of it. After sending the CV and presentation letter, the candidate’s personal interview usually creates major tension. Therefore, the applicant may role-play an interview with friends. In fact, the human factor cannot be controlled and a real situation will certainly be different, however there are always some points which may be recreated. A good knowledge about the company will help the candidate to gather as much information as possible. This information can be about its facilities, type of salary, company’s viability, what clothes to wear, working environment and any important and relevant information to prepare the interview.

These are important questions that should be taken into account: - Where am I going to work? - Who am I going to work for? - Which transport will be provided? - Do they pay meal and/or travel allowances? - Is there overtime or/and weekend work? - Where is the company located? - What are the career prospects? - Which sort of job is it? - Which are the company’s sales and distribution strategies? 18

After gathering data and answering every doubt or query, the candidate will be better prepared to show the interviewer he knows the company and demonstrate that his hiring will be an asset. The candidate should reread his CV, prepare the necessary documents and choose suitable clothes for the interview. During the interview The candidate should take a CV to the interview because the interviewer may not have read it recently and it may be necessary to remind some information. He may also take his portfolio, which is not the same thing as a CV, which can be useful to display while describing and detailing experience. A CV is a brief of the candidate’s academic achievements and experience; the portfolio is a collection of material you believe best demonstrates the quality of your career. All the candidates have the right to be treated with elegance and perfect manners, be heard with attention and delicacy and also have the right to be taken seriously. Always stand up for your rights. The interviewer has also the right to be treated politely. During the interview adopt a positive attitude. Never mention people (former employers, for example) to defame, complain or criticize.

Here is a list of things the candidate should do during the interview: - Introduce himself/herself, greeting the host. - Wait until he/she is invited to be seated. He/she should look to the interviewer. - Keep a correct posture/attitude. - Answer with resoluteness.


- Give real examples of the skills and evidence the qualities related to the job. - Be friendly and cheerful. - Be cautious in the personal information. - Quote the information about the company that he/she has previously collected. - Prove to the interviewer how his/her experience/ability can contribute to the success of the organization. - Show interest in the place proposed/suggested. In the same way, there are things the candidate shouldn’t do: - He/she shouldn’t be late. - Arrive too soon. - Sit on the edge of the chair. - Answer to the cell phone/mobile phone. - Smoke without permission. - Look to his/her watch. - Say that is the only interview he/she could get. - Try to read the documents/papers on the desk. - Speak badly about the current or former employer. - Introduce himself/herself as a superman or a superwoman. - Introduce himself/herself as someone who has too many doubts about himself/herself. - Introduce himself/herself as someone with low ability/skills of initiative. - Get involved in discussions/arguments during the interview. - Give secret information about former jobs. - Answer with only a word or sound. - Speak too much about personal issues. - Interrupt the interviewer. - Try to deceive or mislead. During the interview it is fundamental to control anxiety. One of the main problems during the interview is the candidate’s tension before and after the conversation. He/she should bear in mind that he/she was selected because his/her CV was considered important for the place he/she may occupy. Anxiety can be controlled: - Take a deep breath, slowly. - Answer the questions, calmly. 20

- Speak in a normal tone of voice, not too high or too low. - Always ask if you don’t understand something. - Avoid emotional reactions. The interview should be regarded as an opportunity to achieve the desired job the candidate has been looking for, and a way to show skills in a limited period of time.



The labour market in particular countries


PORTUGAL Career prospects in Portugal The younger generations at our schools are particularly worried about their career prospects. The transition from school to the real world is a very important step and there are difficulties related to getting a job. The difficulty about finding a stable employment or a job where the academic expertise is valued and explored to its full potential is a common concern not only among the younger population. Schooling is an important factor but does not mean a guarantee employment. The difficulties related to getting the first job are fairly closed to continuous changes in the labour market.Portugal is crossing a major economical and financial crisis and it is important to motivate young people to the labour market, encouraging them to choose areas that are more economically developed in the country or areas requiring major investment and innovative projects. In the second semester of 2013 the labour force in Portugal was officially estimated to be 5391.6 thousand people, decreased 2.2% over the same period of 2012 and increased 0.1% in comparison with the previous quarter (6.2 thousand according to the Portuguese National Statistics Institute) and the unemployment rate by gender and quarter from 2011 to 2013 is shown in the following graph.

Employment rate by gender


Woman 23

People aged mainly between 18 and 34 years old and presenting a schooling level corresponding to primary education have contributed to the decrease in the same period of time of the labour force in the second quarter of 2013, due to the fact of becoming unemployed. However, the early school leaving population between 18 and 24 years old with at most lower secondary education and no further education or training has been diminishing since 2002 as compared to other EU countries data. It is very important to focus on education and training for qualified young people in order to improve labour productivity in our country. The analysis of Portuguese statistical data reveals that in each age group ÂŤthe active population comprising those having a maximum of 9 years of schooling decreased 5.4% (175.8 thousand people), the number of people who have qualifications corresponding to secondary or post-secondary school (university) increased 4.9% (57,9 thousand)Âť (INE,2013). In Portugal the employment is distributed in different sectors, particularly in industry, services and agriculture. According to the INE data, the secondary sector is the one which employs more people but it is also the one where most jobs disappeared due to the Portuguese economic crisis. Industry, construction and energy provide almost 60% of employment, these employers are still the main source of employment in the country, as stated before, but the services also contribute to 64% of total job creation.

weight of Industry in National Employment









Graph 2 shows the weight of Industry in national employment and the activity sectors which provide more career prospects. At a regional level, more specifically in the Bragança district, industry does not play a leading role in the labour market. The younger generations have career prospects in the services, mainly in education, wholesale and retail services, agriculture as producers, exporters and entrepreneurs, livestock producers and animal care. The technical specialization and dedication to these areas certainly will contribute to new development prospects to the region and to the implementation of new technologies that will allow the creation of new jobs, diminishing the depopulation that has been growing over the last years in this region.

SPAIN THE LABOUR MARKET IN SPAIN The impact of the current economic crisis has had two main consequences on the Spanish labour market. The first one is the dramatic increase of the unemployment rate. The second one is the widespread idea that labour market regulation is the main cause of such a dramatic loss of jobs. 1. THE PREVIOUS YEARS TO THE OUTBURST OF THE CRISIS. In a very short time, the Spanish economy went from intense growth and job creation to a sharp slowdown with a strong negative impact on business activity and employment. During the previous years to the outburst of the global crisis in 2008, Spain had one third of total job creation in the European Union. However, such a spectacular increase of employment had unstable foundations on which no one – neither the public administrations nor the economic actors– paid sufficient attention until it was too late. Among these precarious grounds, the most relevant one was, undoubtedly, that such high economic growth was fostered by an enormous housing bubble. Spain has historically had a very high unemployment rate; actually in 2007 it reached its lowest peak without descending beyond 8%, an anomaly that the


Spanish public opinion – and the European authorities– mostly connected with the supposedly rigid regulation on the labour market, but probably more closely related to the type of industry and businesses characteristic of our economy. The main problem of the Spanish labour market before the crisis was job instability due to a very high proportion of temporary work. In spite of a strict regulation, an abusive practice had and still continues to provoke a segmentation between temporary and permanent workers, becoming a key feature of our ill labour market. Temporary work has indeed very negative effects in terms of job instability and low productivity. Although those are not exclusive problems to fix-term contracts, this type of workers are much more affected by them than workers with open-ended contracts. The outburst of the 2008 crisis in Spain led to a quick and dramatic increase of unemployment. In less than five years it has increased almost 20 points (around 4 million unemployed persons) driving the Spanish society to the edge of social convulsion with 6.2 million unemployed workers and no perspective of job creation in the next two years. It is also important to note the strong impact that the housing bubble has had on the rise of unemployment. Almost three out of four jobs lost since 2008 belonged to the housing sector; but it is even more striking that the outburst of the bubble has not exhausted its negative effects: in 2012 one fifth part of the new unemployed was linked to the branch of construction. Moreover, the relevance of the job destruction in the housing sector is a key fact in order to explain why the crisis has hit so severely young workers under 30. 2. A NEW REGULATION OF DISMISSAL: AN EASIER AND CHEAPER LAYOFF It is a widespread idea that the Spanish labour market is rigid mainly because it is difficult and/or expensive to dismiss permanent workers. Quite the opposite, “OECD Indicators of Employment Protection”26 shows that such a conclusion is not accurate. And, likewise, should it be so difficult to layoff it would strange that companies have decided more than four millions dismissals since the


beginning of the crisis. Three major changes in favour of more (company) flexibility have to do with collective redundancies. Firstly, we must mention the new definition of economic reasons that allow companies to layoff workers on such grounds. With the intention of eliminating the uncertainty of a hypothetical judicial control, the 2012 reform includes two relevant novelties: one consists of erasing the requirement of justifying the dismissal’s reasonability; the other refers to a specific provision whereby a negative economic situation exists when the level of ordinary revenues or sales is lower during three consecutive quarters. Secondly, the administrative authorization of collective redundancies is no longer required. That condition used to be original in the European context and its singularity was harshly criticized by the employers’ representatives, among others, as a determining factor that raised compensation costs. But it had likewise a positive effect, since it favoured settlements between the parties. The reinforced position of employers as a consequence of the authorization’s elimination is presumably going to provoke a very important reduction of agreements. And, thirdly, another significant novelty is the possible application of collective redundancies on economic, technical, organizational or productive grounds when it affects organizations and entities in the public sector. 3. 2013: MORE THAN DESPERATE MEASURES AGAINST AN INCREASING UNEMPLOYMENT A long year after its approval, the results offered by the 2012 labor market reform are very unsatisfying in terms of (un)employment29. So much that the Spanish Government yields to the pressure of the EU and passes a new Royal Decree-law 4/2013, of February 22, 2013, on measures to support entrepreneurs, stimulate growth and create employment. Surprisingly enough, it is the first legal initiative specifically addressed to young workers, even though they are the main victims of the loss of employment in the unfolding of the economic crisis. From a general perspective, three comments are to be made on the content of this Decree-law. Firstly, most of the measures seek an immediate effect; they are early impact measures that try to create any job, no matter how unstable it might be. Secondly, 27

one might speak of an strengthening of business-leaned flexibility. Thirdly, although the Strategy and this legal initiative are allegedly in line with the objectives of the Youth Guarantee recently proposed by the European Commission, the results fall far short of what it is outlined in the Youth Employment Package. And, finally, not less relevant is that this series of legal changes was not agreed with the social partners. The attention of the measures contained in the Decree-law 4/2013 focus on two main areas: one, incentives for hiring –basically– young workers; the other, promotion of entrepreneurship and self-employment. Presented as early impact measures, the ones aiming at promoting entrepreneurship and self - employment have in fact a more structural dimension in so far as they form a significant part of an emerging frame for developing this sort of activities. These new legal provisions are not very ambitious, but apparently harmless. However, there are reasons to be more critical, because they seem to ignore the current circumstances of economic adversity and skip the measures urgently needed to keep businesses alive, i.e. easier access to credit more than a limited reduction in Social Security contributions. That is precisely the most relevant new rule: when a young person –under 30– starts a self-employed activity registering with the RETA (Special Regime for Self-Employed Workers) he/she will pay a reduced contribution to Social Security during the first year; that is helpful, but certainly not enough to overcome the current difficulties –mostly financial ones– that someone must face when starting up a business in the current circumstances. The rest of the new regulations to promote self-employment mostly refer to different aspects that have much to do with unemployment benefits. Thus, it is made compatible for those under 30 to start a new activity that requires registration with the RETA (Special Regime for Self-Employed Workers) maintaining the unemployment benefits previously accrued for a maximum of nine months, again a provision that falls short from an effective measure to favour entrepreneurship. Furthermore, young self-employed workers that previously were entitled to unemployment benefits will have the opportunity to collect them again if the new activity fails and he is forced to deregister with the RETA as long as no more than five years have passed. However this purposed “safety-net” will have a very limited impact given the fact that few young workers usually do not accrue such benefits. As far as the incentives for (precarious) hiring of young people under 30 is concerned, 28

the most significant measures are the ones conceived to encourage the enrolment of workers without a previous labour experience. Here it are to be included the following ones. Firstly, a new type of temporary contract –from 3 to 6 months– which simply requires a lack of experience of the young employee, ignoring the “principle of causality” that rules the short-term employment in the Spanish Labour Law. Secondly, incentives for work experience contracts for youngsters under 30 that have completed their training no matter when –an exception to the limit of five years – through a reduction in the employer’s Social Security contribution for common contingencies of up to 50%. And, thirdly, an incentive for part-time employment of young people under 30 with no work experience –or, alternatively, who come from a different productive sector or have been unemployed for more than twelve months–, providing that they went through a process of training in the previous six months or that they reconcile the job with accredited training or any type of training in languages or information and communication technologies even when it has nothing to do with the job itself. Additionally, the Royal Decree-law 4/2013 contains two measures to stimulate openended hiring. The main one, focused on young people under 30, sets out a one-year 100% reduction on the employer’s contribution to the Social Security for the first open-ended contract concluded by micro-enterprises –self-employed workers and companies having up to nine employees– with an specific kind of worker – unemployed aged under 30–. The other one tries to encourage young self-employed workers to take on long-duration unemployed workers aged over 45 through openended contracts that benefit from a, again, one-year 100% reduction on the employer’s contribution to the Social Security; a certainly imaginative way of conciliating the interests of both parties that probably will have no significant impact. These measures seek to stimulate the enrolment of young people –generally without previous labour experience– trying to fulfill the employer’s expectation to have labour costs reduced. So we cannot consider them really provisional measures; on the contrary, they are the evidence of a political failure. This is a turning back to the “old bad recipes” that have decisively contributed to the endemic problem of employment instability, especially among young workers.


TURKEY Labour market of last two years is searched via Turkey Statistical Agency’s data. According to this, labour market in our country has been seen as 23,8% in agriculture, 19,0% in industry, 7,2% in construction and 50.0% in service sector in November 2012. It has been seen as 22,5% in agriculture, 19,4% in industry, 7 % in construction and 51.1 % in service sector in November 2013. It is observed that labour in agriculture has decreased while the labour in other sectors has increased. It can be thought that the reasons of this are immigration to cities from villages and getting smaller of agriculture fields. The data are shown at the given table.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2012 2013

Labour market in our environment has similarities with these data. We direct our pupils to service sector by these data. The service sector includes electricity, natural gas,insurance, trade, restaurants, hotels and public services etc. We lead our pupils to these branches in accordance with their ability and interests with the help of multiple intelligence theory. For instance, we lead the pupils with logical intelligence to public services like health,education, religion etc. And the pupils with visual intelligence to art, fashion, architecture etc. Because of the reduction in agriculture and the low employment rate in construction, we shouldn’t direct our pupils to these sectors. The industry sector in our environment has been increasing rapidly, so we are leading our pupils who get lower marks to this sector. We mentor our pupils in planning a career by sharing these data with them.


POLAND In a district of Lublibniec in the end of 2013 there were 3641 unamployed. The unemployed rate in a district was 13,7% when the rate of unemployed in the country was 13,4% and in Silesian province was 11,2%. It is said that the people with degree of higher education have more perspectives for finding a job than people with vocational education. But the statistics say that people with vocational education and a job experience can find a job easier than the others.

What is the deficit profession ? It is the profession where there are not enough workers with such qualifications. The employers in 2013 were mostly looking for slaughter and financial advisor. This is a graph showing the deficit professions in 2013:

Deficit professions in Lubliniec district in 2013 Indicator of deficit professions




financial advisor plasterer




15,5 13


8 7,5 6,3 5,5 5 4 4

10 0

roommaid constrution estimator employee on insurance

Indicator of deficit profession

Deficit profession in Slask region in 2013 control of electronic

4 4 3 2

3,8 3,1 3 3

physical protection worker without a license


backhoe operator

2,6 2,5



1,9 financial advisor

1 tinsmith construction



Deficit profession in Poland in 2013 140

traffic manager in the mining plant



asistant of judge

100 80


employeephysical protection I st.

60 40 20

construction electrician 20,42 13,4 12


10 9


employee social security

8 7,89

What is the surplus profession?

Indicator of surplus profession

It is the profession where there are more candidates than vacancies. In 2013 in district of Lubliniec the most unemploymentd was among storekeepers and forestry techniques. This is the graph showing the surplus profession in 2013:

Surplus profession in Lubliniec district in warehouseman 2013 woodsman



0,860,830,83 0,8


0,75 0,75


0,71 0,69




backhoe operator cabinetmaker



Indicator of surplus profession

Surplus profession in Slask region in 2013 0,02

cultural studies



0,015 0,01 0,005 0

postal clerk


history teacher

0,007 0,006

techniques for the orkanization of catering services

0,003 0,003 0,002 0,001

economist hospitality management techniques

Surplus profession in Poland in 2013 1 0,8 0,6

accounting assistant

0,850,830,83 0,82 0,79 0,75 0,71 0,7

masseur shopping agent


lorry driver legal assistent beautician


0,2 0

medical guardian barista bookmaker travel agent

To define the scared or surplus profession you have to compare its surplus ratio of the profession to the data: 

Indicator <0,9 shows tthe surpluse profession


Indicator <0,9 and > 1,1 shows the balanced profession


Indicator <1,1 shows the scared profession

The higher indicator the greater demand at a defined period of time at the labor market. The less indicator the more difficulties in finding job in profession.


ROMANIA A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE LABOUR MARKET The labour market in all five countries (Poland, Portugal, Spain, Romania and Turkey) shows several similarities, because the economic conditions have been more or less the same in the last few years. The economies of all the countries mentioned above have undergone major changes due to the economic crisis that had a negative impact in many respects. This serious economic crisis produced the following effects: -high unemployment rate; -worse career prospects for high school and college graduates; -difficulties related to getting a stable job; -the depopulation of certain areas, due to the decrease of the labour market. Consequently, all countries have tried to overcome these difficulties by conceiving various strategies, in accordance with the specific changes that have taken place in the national and regional economies. Poland will most probably enjoy a more visible recovery on the labour market as the manufacturing sector is expected to be the main source of employment increase. Labour demand has been on the rise since 2013 and this trend is also visible in 2014. This growth means a slow reversal of the hitherto negative tendency, observed from the beginning of 2011 to Q1 2013- the Central Bank NBP report wrote. In Portugal, in order to improve labour productivity, the emphasis has been laid on education and training for qualified young people. Therefore, statistics show that there has been a decrease of the number of people having a maximum of nine years of schooling by 5.4%, and an increase of the number of people who have qualifications corresponding to secondary or post-secondary school (university) by 4.9%. In Portugal, industry, construction and energy provide almost 60% of employment, but in the Braganca district, the younger generations have career prospects in the services, mainly in education, wholesale and retail services, agriculture as producers, exporters and entrepreneurs, livestock producers and animal care. In Spain, the outburst of the 2008 crisis led to a quick and dramatic increase of unemployment and no perspective of job creation in the next few years. It is important to note that three out of four jobs lost since 2008 belonged to the housing sector, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why the crisis hit so severely young workers under 30. Therefore, Spain seeks desperate measures against increasing unemployment. One of them is the Royal Decree-law 4/2013, by which it is attempted to create any job, no matter how unstable it might be. This decree focuses on two 34

main areas-incentives for hiring mostly young workers and the promotion of entrepreneurship and self-employment (by paying reduced contribution to social security and a one year 100% reduction of the employer’s contribution to the Social Security). In Romania, the most important characteristic of the labour market is the reduction of the number of unemployed population from the total of active population, this being the result of the following causes: -the restructuring of enterprises -significant immigration (including temporary migration) The changes in the labour market are the decrease os the population working in agriculture and manufacturing industry and an increase of the number of people working in commerce, public administration, finances, banks, insurance, education, tourism. In Turkey, statistics show that labour in agriculture has decreased, while the labour in service sectors has increased (electricity, natural gas, insurance, trade, restaurants, hotels, public services). The situation in the area around Burdur is similar. Consequently, because of the reduction in agriculture and the low employment rate in construction, students are not directed to these sectors, but to the rapidly growing industrial sector. In conclusion, at present, in all five countries of the Comenius Project, “MY FUTURE IS UP TO ME”, the labour market is rather insecure and even though schooling is an important factor, it does not offer guarantees for employment. You can also visit the webpage and study the presentation:

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