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the growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city

Anna Brambilla Marta Michieli


TO OUR PARENTS who have been always besides us, helping us to overcome all the obstacles we faced during our life.


the growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city

STUDENTS

Anna Brambilla Marta Michieli

THESIS SUPERVISOR

Giuseppe Longhi


THESIS “THE GROWING SCENARIO: A GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM FOR A BIOACTIVE CITY” Master of Science in Architecture for Sustainability at the University IUAV of Venice AY 2010/2011

STUDENTS ANNA BRAMBILLA MARTA MICHIELI DEFENCE: 29 March 2012 GRADE: 110/110 and honors

THESIS SUPERVISOR Architect, Professor Giuseppe Longhi

RESEARCH TEAM AND GRAPHIC DESIGN Anna Brambilla Marta Michieli

CONTACT a.plus.m.architects@gmail.com

The growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city by Anna Brambilla and Marta Michieli is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Every effort has been made to trace the original source of copyright material contained in this book. We would be pleased to hear from copyright holders to rectify any errors or omissions. Printed in Italy, 27 March 2012 by GRAFICHE BIESSE, Sas (Andrea Battanoli & C) Via Enzo Ferrari 30037 Scorzè Venezia


Acknowledgements:

TO OUR PARENTS AND FAMILY MEMBERS thanks to them we arrive to this level of instruction and we will remain always grateful toward them for what they have been doing.

TO GIUSEPPE LONGHI life gave us the opportunity to meet Professor Giuseppe Longhi, who, in spite of his numberless committments and tasks, was always near his students, taking into consideration our concerns and suggestions and showing continuously an high willingness to help us. This thesis is a small tribute to an exceptional man from two students still anxious to learn from him.

TO FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES both in Italy and the Netherlands, who supported us and our work giving advises, remarks, suggestions and guidance during the last year.


ABSTRACT A BIOPLAN FOR AMSTERDAM With this thesis we are interested in exploring biologically inspired digital design at the urban scale. How can we contribute to human and environmental good by learning about material and design from nature? The more we invest in human resources the more the creativity and productive level rises. The more we move forward technologically, the more we realize just how brilliant nature is. The efficient biological systems that have evolved over time are proving time and again to be useful blueprints for man and his quest to create more efficient materials, structures and systems. Inspired by nature, our research seeks to integrate urban morphology, behavior, material and structure by combining computational form-finding strategies with biologically inspired technologies. Making architecture nowadays means work with the homogeneus matter of atoms and look into nature from generation processes, growth and adaptation, to learn how does it work. We aim at translate some of this processes into the city planning through a new design approach that takes from the machine’s age to the biological age using parametric design to end up with a real generative architecture. An approach that will introduce us to a more sustainable future and also a new way of expressing form in that future: from masterplan to BIOPLAN. Cities, like the life sciences, do not exhibit one problem in organized complexity, which if understood explains all. They can be analyzed into many such problems or segments which are also related with one another. The variables are many, but they are not helterskelter; they involve dealing simultaneously with a sizable number of factors which are interrelated into an organic whole. The city can be similar to the organic complexity of a leaf, for example, hence investigating the structure of a leaf we should be able to learn how a single material can readjust itself, change directionality, and redistribute its organic matter where necessary to achieve strength in one place, flexibility in another. We observe how urban material behaves and what forms result from that behavior. From a biological standpoint, we consider the functions of the leaf. From the perspective of “urban scientist”, we evaluate the physical construction of its fibers. We refers to this process as translating from scale to scale. And in the end it’s just a matter of moving the dial. For an integrated approach to design, borders between the distinct professional, industrial, and construction territories must be transgressed. The success of this exploration depends on architects understanding of the capacities and constraints of each separate field during the design process. Integrated approach to design requires the professional relationship between architects, biologists and engineers. We would like to demonstrate there is a way to make things more efficient and effective: using the right (high) technology and processes with zero waste, mess and at a very low cost, and investing into human resources we can morph also at architectural scale. Our goal is to enhance the relationship between the human, the built and the natural environments by employing design principles inspired by nature and implementing them in the invention of digital design technologies.


INDEX


TABLE OF CONTENTS

X.1 LINEAR INDEX

C-MAP INDEX


19 57

BIOLOGY AS A DRIVER

PROJECT AIMS | STRATEGIES

89 95

SMART CITY

105 URBAN REFLECT IONS

115 135 155

THE GROWING SCENARIO

AMSTER DAM

REFERENCES

INDEX

STIPO INTERVIEWS

INTRO DUCTION

METABOLIC CITY

SUSTAINABLE CITY

79

METROPOLITAN AREA

63 75

RANDSTAD

GENERAL INFO

X

SUSTAINABLE STANDARDS

11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

12

LINEAR INDEX 0

1

2

193


BIO PLAN

4

243 275

LINKOGRAPHY

PROJECT ABACUS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

233

GROWING SCENARIO

207

FOR A BIOACTIVE CITY

3

A GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM

LINEAR INDEX 13

BIBLIO/ LINKO GRAPHY

279

5


L RESO U URA AT

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_ PROJEC T

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INTRODUCTION


BIOLOGY AS A DRIVER

0.1 BIODIVERSITY BIODIVERSITY AND THE NETHERLANDS THE NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL NETWORK ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY BIOMIMETICS BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS ORGANIC BIOLOGY

BIO MENTAL MAP (I)


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BIODIVERSITY INTRODUCTION WHAT’S BIODIVERSITY AND HOW ARE WE LINKED TO IT? Biodiversity is now in the spotlight more than ever before. But what exactly is biodiversity and how is it changing? Why is biodiversity important to people? Most importantly, what actions can we take to make a difference to the world around us?

BIODIVERSITY

is shorthand for

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY .

Any species can be classified according to the

ecosystem

A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit, such as coral reefs and mangroves.

and the

biome

in which they live.

A major portion of the living environment of a particular region characterized by its distinctive vegetation and maintained by local climatic conditions. They can be divided into marine, terrestrial and freshwater biomes.


BIODIVERSITY

21

BIODIVERSITY, BIOCAPACITY AND DEVELOPMENT BIODIVERSITY & ECO SERVICES Plants, animals and microorganisms form interconnected webs of ecosystems and habitats. These in turn supply ecosystem services – our life-support system. These services provide us with clean water, breathable air, food, medicine, energy and much more. We depend on them for our livelihoods, our health, our lifestyles and our economic development. Although technology can replace some of these services and buffer against their degradation, many cannot be replaced. These are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems and the animals and plants that live within them. The term was first used in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (published in 2005) and there are four broad categories of service: provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural.

*

ecosystem services

• Regu

• Supp

ral serv

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EMOTIONAL BENEFITS GAINED FROM HUMAN RELATIONS WITH ECOSYSTEMS enriching recreational, aesthetic and spiritual experiences

ices •

REGULATION OF BASIC ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR THE PROVISION OF ALL OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES nutrient cycling photosynthesis soil formation

ervices

orting s

BENEFITS OBTAINED FROM THE REGULATION OF NATURAL PROCESSES water filtration waste decomposition climate regulation crop pollination regulation of some human diseases

• Cultu

s•

• Prov

lating s

ervices

GOODS OBTAINED DIRECTLY FROM ECOSYSTEMS food medicine timber fibre biofuel

service

ni isio ng

next page


22

BIODIVERSITY INTERCONNECTIONS People, biodiversity, ecosystem, health and provision of ecosystem services. Population

Agriculture, forestry

Habitat loss

Fishing, hunting

Overexploitation

Terrestrial

*

Supporting services

SOURCE: WWF LIVING PLANET REPORT 2010

Key

Consumption

Causal factors

Resource efficiency (technology)

Urban, industry, mining

Water

Energy, transport

Invasive species

Pollution

Climate change

Freshwater

Provisioning services

Pressures on Biodiversity

State of Global Biodiversity

Marine

Regulating services

Indirect Drivers/ Footprint Sectors

Cultural services

Impacts on Ecological services


BIODIVERSITY 5 MAJOR THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY In large part, these threats stem from human demands for food, drink, energy and materials, as well as the need for space for towns, cities and infrastructure. These demands are largely met by a few key sectors: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mining, industry, water and energy. Together, these sectors form the indirect drivers of biodiversity loss. The scale of their impact on biodiversity depends on three factors: the total number of consumers, or population; the amount each person is consuming; and the efficiency with which natural resources are converted into goods and services.

1_ Habitat loss, alteration, and fragmentation mainly through conversion of land for agricultural, aquaculture, industrial or urban use; damming and other changes to river systems for irrigation, hydropower or flow regulation; and damaging fishing activities

2_ Over-exploitation of wild species populations harvesting of animals and plants for food, materials or medicine at a rate above the reproductive capacity of the population

3_ Pollution mainly from excessive pesticide use in agriculture and aquaculture; urban and industrial effluents; mining waste; and excessive fertilizer use in agriculture

4_ Climate change due to rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, caused mainly by the burning of fossil fuels, forest clearing and industrial processes

5_ Invasive species introduced deliberately or inadvertently to one part of the world from another; they then become competitors, predators or parasites of native species

23


24

BIODIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY

humanity

humanity consumption

human health

wellbeing ecosystem

wealth

natural resources


BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity loss can cause ecosystems to become stressed or degraded, and even eventually to collapse. This threatens the continued provision of ecosystem services, which in turn further threatens biodiversity and ecosystem health. Crucially, the dependency of human society on ecosystem services makes the loss of these services a serious threat to the future well-being and development of all people, all around the world.

25

PROTECTED AREAS AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Protected areas play a vital role in ensuring that ecosystems continue to function and provide ecosystem services, benefiting communities within the boundaries of the protected area, in adjacent ecosystems and around the world. For example, marine protected areas can safeguard a nutritious food supply for local communities by ensuring the sustainability of fisheries. Terrestrial protected areas can ensure a regular supply of clean water downstream. To fully safeguard the biodiversity that supports ecosystem services, an ecologically coherent network of protected and sustainable-use areas needs to be established around the globe. One of the main characteristics of an ecological network is that it aims to establish and maintain the environmental conditions necessary for the long-term conservation of biodiversity via four functions: — Safeguarding assemblages of habitat large enough, and of sufficient quality, to support species’ populations within core areas — Providing opportunities for movement between these reserves via corridors — Protecting the network from potentially damaging activities and the effects of climate change through buffer zones — Promoting sustainable forms of land use within sustainable-use areas The integration of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use is therefore one of the defining features of establishing and maintaining ecological networks. One example of an ecological network is the Vilcabamba-Amboro Conservation Corridor in Peru and Ecuador, where support is being given to low-impact economic enterprises, sustainable hunting practices and the development of ecotourism. Similarly, in the Terai Arc Landscape in the Eastern Himalayas, education courses and subsidies for the construction of livestock pens have been provided for livestock herders, together with improved fuel-efficient cooking stoves and biogas plants. Ecological networks can also help adaptation to climate change by reducing ecological fragmentation and improving the ecological quality of multiple-use areas. Examples include the Gondwana Link in southwest Australia and the Yellowstone-to-Yukon ecoregion.

ECOLOGICAL NETWORK

PAG 32


26

BIODIVERSITY WHY DO WE BOTHER? INTRODUCTION: CITIES ARE ... Cities are bastions of economic, cultural and social growth. Cities are meeting places. People go there to earn money, to learn, to exchange ideas and to create relationships. Cities are focal points for international competition and breeding grounds for future economies. Citie are the carriers of the cultures of yesterday, today and tomorrow. Core values of European cities are the public domain, diversity, exchanges, biodiversity and the re-use of the historical context. THE CHALLENGE The challenge is the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the light of globalisation to achieve a better condition, both for humans and earth’s life.

What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is the diversity of life on earth. Ecosystems, species and genes in their constant interaction ensure that life on earth remains good. Biodiversity is an important ‘natural resource’ which produces raw materials, goods and services that we need to live, work, produce and consume. Examples include fish, wood,water, fertile soil and climate regulation. In addition, biodiversity also has other values in terms of providing aesthetic experiences, enjoyment of nature, science, symbolism and ethics.

BIODIVERSITY CAN BE SEEN AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES ON WHICH PEOPLE DEPEND.


BIODIVERSITY

27

BIODIVERSITY IS CRUCIAL! Many life forms on earth are mutually dependent. Diversity plays an important role in this. Even people cannot survive without other organisms. Biodiversity is not only beautiful, but also useful and necessary. It gives us clean water, fertile soil and a stable climate, but it also gives us food and raw materials for housing, clothing, fuel and medicines. These natural resources safeguard our future and form the basis of our prosperity. Biodiversity contributes to the quality of life and human welfare. Biodiversity is under serious threat from global climate change, increased consumption, pollution, the introduction of exotic species and the overexploitation of natural areas and natural resources. Many species of plants and animals are disappearing and ecosystems are under threat. Clean air and water, fertile soil and a stable climate are no longer guaranteed. This affects people in poor countries, who often depend directly on the fruits of the forests and the land, but it also affects us. Biodiversity loss and the depletion of natural resources ultimately threaten everyone’s survival. This crucial problem can only be addressed through close cooperation between the government, citizens, companies and non-governmental organisations.

SOURCES OF WELFARE WELFARE GROWTH ALSO HAS POSITIVE EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT The Netherlands is a large importer of goods. The production of these goods often results in damage to the environment and depletion of stocks of natural resources. These negative effects occur mainly in developing countries. But by exporting their goods to the Netherlands, developing countries also contribute to the growth of their own welfare in. Growing welfare also has positive effects on the environment. It turns out that as welfare increases, the need for clean surroundings also increases. More welfare leads to investment in better sanitary provisions, stricter environmental regulations for companies and thus cleaner production methods. Moreover, rising welfare means higher education levels. In nearly all countries this is accompanied by lower fertility levels. While women had five children on average some fifty years ago, this figure has now almost halved. In a large number of countries, fertility is already below - in some countries well below - the replacement rate. This will probably eventually lead to a decrease in the world population and pressure on the environment will thus ease step by step.

NATURAL CAPITAL

HUMAN CAPITAL

SOCIAL CAPITAL

ECONOMIC CAPITAL


28

BIODIVERSITY HOW TO HALT THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY AND PROMOTE THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES? 10 EUROPEAN OBJECTIVES GLOBAL POLICIES At global level, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA 2005) has revealed a growing and serious threat to biodiversity and related ecosystem services. As a result, the global Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) may not be met. The MA calls for an ambitious policy with more scope for marketdriven instruments. The fourth Assessment Report (2007) by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) states that climate change is already having a visible impact on biodiversity. A further rise in temperatures by 2-3 degrees would put around 20 to 30% of all species of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Meanwhile, in 2006 the European Commission has published a Communication and Action Plan on the retention and sustainable use of biodiversity (2006).3 In it, member states were invited to transpose the Action Plan into national policy. The MA states that more than 60% of the ecosystem services are used unsustainably. Basic processes that facilitate life on earth – such as the production of clear air and biomass, the preservation of food and water cycles and buffering of the climate system – are consequently no longer guaranteed. It has shown that, right up to today, it has been impossible to reverse the downward spiral of biodiversity loss and growing poverty. The challenge is to turn this situation around. Economic growth and increased prosperity and welfare must be decoupled from the large-scale destruction of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Achieving this not only requires a more coherent policy; it also calls on us to make the sustainable use of biodiversity a key facet of economic activity, development strategies and poverty alleviation. Efforts to combat poverty and halt the loss of biodiversity must be seen in the context of globalisation, changing international relations and new markets.

Biodiversity and the EU To protect the EU’s most important habitats and species. To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU rural areas. To conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU marine environment. To reinforce compatibility of regional and territorial development with biodiversity in the EU. To substantially reduce the impact of invasive alien species and alien genotypes on EU biodiversity. The EU and global biodiversity To substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. To substantially strengthen support for biodiversity and ecosystem services in EU external assistance. To substantially reduce the impact of international trade on global biodiversity and ecosystem services. Biodiversity and climate change To support biodiversity adaptation to climate change. To substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the EU and globally. Source: European Commission, 2006. Communication of the Commission ‘Halting the loss of Biodiversity in 2010 – and beyond. Sustaining ecosystem services for human well-being’.


BIODIVERSITY TRENDS ACCORDING TO THE SECOND SUSTAINABILITY OUTLOOK (Environmental Assessment Agency, 2007) There has been a lot of progress in development, but it is not evenly distributed. Development has been at the expense of nature and the environment. Technology has not compensated for population growth and consumption; pressure on land and energy consumption continue to increase. More people, more consumption and more competition for raw materials. The result is further loss of biodiversity and climate change. Climate, biodiversity and development cannot be realised with the existing policy. Consumption is leading to increased CO2 emissions and land use. The public and companies look to the government to compel changes in behaviour. Sustainable development is not yet a guiding principle for the policy.

29

Life on earth is enormously diverse. Every life form,

ecosystem and genetic variety, from the smallest

fungi and plants to the largest the tropical

bacteria,

animals,

rainforests or the Dutch pastureland,

is unique and irreplaceable. This enormous variety is what we call

biodiversity


30

BIODIVERSITY AND THE NETHERLANDS NATIONAL POLICIES IN THE NETHERLANDS In the Netherlands despite the many policy proposals and actions at national and international level, biodiversity is still being lost and threatened by human activity, not only in our immediate environment but around the world. Together we are responsible for the preservation and sustainable use of the earth’s biodiversity. At national level, the IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands (IUCN-NL) also presented a ten-point plan describing the steps it feels are needed to halt the loss of national and international biodiversity. These documents provided a frame of reference and a source of inspiration for the Dutch government’s policy programme. The policy programme “Biodiversity works: for nature, for people forever” also marks the government’s efforts to put the third pillar of its coalition agreement into practice:“a sustainable environment to leave the world better than we found it’”. The Dutch government realises that its policy efforts will only have an effect if changes are accepted by the Dutch society and beyond. The government’s policy programme “Working together, living together” took the first step in this direction by announcing the creation of a task force on ‘biodiversity and natural resources’. The government wishes to use this policy programme to reinforce public commitment to the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. One important point is to highlight and increase public awareness of the value and function of biodiversity for humans. Trend in NL

Position of NL in EU

We leave a large ‘ecological footprint’ in other countries. Mining, energy production, tourism, the financial sector,wood, agricultural raw materials (soya, palm oil, fish meal and biomass) and peat production are particularly important in this respect.

RANKING THE NETHERLANDS

RESOURCES Natural capital

trend with negative effect on sustainability, or low international ranking

Human capital trend with neutral or unknown effect on

Social capital Economic capital

sustainability, or average international ranking

trend with positive effect on sustainability, or high international ranking

NETHERLANDS IN THE WORLD no data available for comparison with

Environment and natural resources

other EU countries


THE NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL NETWORK A CORRIDOR THROUGH THE NETHERLANDS

Natura 2000 Ecological network (land) Ecological network (water)

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Robust connections The Dutch government decided in 1990, following a multi-year Main rivers research programme, to develop a National Ecological Network that could provide the long-term basis for ecological sustainability throughout the country. Given the scale of the initiative, establishing the network is a long-term enterprise, with full implementation scheduled for 2018. The National Ecological Network as originally adopted in 1990 was an “oversized� indicative map of core areas, nature development areas and corridors. It is the task of the 12 provinces to delineate the precise boundaries of the network. This will be done using 132 habitat and landscape types for which minimum aggregate total areas have been fi xed at the national level. Ecological Network Robust connections Natura 2000 The final network is intended to cover about 730,000 hectares, or 17.5 percent of the Dutch countryside. The realization of the ecological network requires cooperation between a wide range of stakeholders: national, provincial and local governments, protectedarea managers, water authorities, farmers, foresters, other land owners and business. Three forms of land management are being applied in order to create the ecological network: protected areas of national or international importance, privately owned areas managed for nature conservation purposes (often agricultural land) and nature development areas. In addition to government regulations and local development plans, financial instruments such as subsidies and payments through voluntary agreements with land owners play an important role in securing implemention. An example of how the ecological network is being implemented is the restoration of a corridor known as the Renkumse Poort. The aim of the Renkumse Poort project is to restore three ecological linkages that connect the raised wooded area known as the Veluwe in the central part of the Netherlands with the Rhine River to the south. Restoring the linkages will increase the habitat available to local populations of wild boar, red deer, small mammals, reptiles and amphibians. However, several obstacles will need to be overcome, such as two motorways and a railway. An industrial complex in the Renkum brook valley has already been demolished and the site is being restored to natural wet grassland. SOURCE: CBD Technical Series No. 23, REVIEW OF EXPERIENCE WITH ECOLOGICALNETWORKS, CORRIDORS AND BUFFER ZONES

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32

ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS THE IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING The unprecedented increase in the human use of natural resources over the last century has adversely affected ecosystems, leading to their fragmentation and loss of biological diversity. Protected areas that remain as isolated units, surrounded by a radically altered habitat, almost always face serious viability problems over the long term. The importance of strengthening ecological coherence and resilience as necessary conditions for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development has been echoed in conservation and development fora for some time. Ecological networks provide an operational model for conserving biological diversity while reconciling the conflicting demand of natural resource use. Ecological networks connect ecosystems and populations of species that are threatened by fragmented habitats, facilitating genetic exchange between different populations and thus increasing the chances of survival of threatened species. The ecological network concept also provides a tool for ecological design and physical planning that facilitates interaction with other types of land use.

ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS

also share a common understanding of how this model should be applied on the ground, namely through the allocation of specific functions to different areas depending on their ecological value and their natural-resource potential. These functions are reflected in a coherent system of areal components:

• CORE AREAS, where the conservation of biodiversity takes primary importance, even if the area is not legally protected

• CORRIDORS, which serve to maintain vital ecological or environmental connections by maintaining physical (though not necessarily linear) linkages between the core areas

• BUFFER ZONES, which protect the network from potentially damaging external influences and which are essentially transitional areas characterized by compatible land uses

• SUSTAINABLE-USE AREAS, where opportunities are exploited within the landscape mozaic for the sustainable use of natural resources together with maintenance of most ecosystem services


ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS

33

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF AN ECOLOGICAL NETWORK

RESTORATION AREA

LANDSCAPE CORRIDOR

CORE AREA STEPPING STONE CORRIDOR

LINEAR CORRIDOR

BUFFER ZONE

SUSTAINABLE-USE AREA


34

ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS

Ecological networks in the Netherlands and elsewhere are designed to ensure that the current and future generations can continue to enjoy nature areas and that we can continue to benefit from the goods and services that biodiversity provides.


THE KIND OF PROBLEM A CITY IS THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES, JANE JACOBS The Death and Life of Great American Cities is her single-most influential book and possibly the most influential American book on urban planning and cities. Widely read by both planning professionals and the general public, the book is a strong critique of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s, which, she claimed, destroyed communities and created isolated, unnatural urban spaces. Jacobs advocated the abolition of zoning laws and restoration of free markets in land, which would result in dense, mixed-use neighborhoods and frequently cited New York City's Greenwich Village as an example of a vibrant urban community. Beyond the practical lessons in city design and planning that Death and Life offers, the theoretical underpinnings of the work challenge the modern development mindset. Jane Jacobs defends her positions with common sense and undeniable anecdote.

“ Human beings are, of course, a part of nature, as much so as grizzly bears or bees or whales or sorghum cane. The cities of human beings are as natural, being a product of one form of nature, as are the colonies of prairie dogs or the beds of oysters.�

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36

THE KIND OF PROBLEM A CITY IS SIMMETRY BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC MODEL AND DESIGN PROBLEMS OF SIMPLICITY_BINARY SYSTEM_TREE MODEL Garden City planning theory: two-variable problem of simplicity. The two major variables in the Garden City concept of planning were the quantity of housing (or population) and the number of jobs. The town as a whole was conceived of, again, as one of the two variables in a direct, simple, town-greenbelt relationship.

two variableS Garden city model, Ebenezer Howard

PROBLEMS OF DISORGANIZED COMPLEXITY_MULTIVARIABLE SYSTEM_MATRIX MODEL A system of disorganized complexity, solvable mathematically. This conception of the city as a collection of separate file drawers, in effect, was suited very well by the Radiant City vision of Le Corbusier.

MULTIPLE variableS Radiant city vision, Le Corbusier


THE KIND OF PROBLEM A CITY IS SIMMETRY BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC MODEL AND DESIGN PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY_ORGANIC SYSTEM_BIOLOGICAL MODEL The variables are many, but they are not helter skelter; they are "interrelated into an organic whole." And so a growing number of people have begun, gradually, to think of cities as problems in organized complexity--organisms that are replete with unexamined, but obviously intricately interconnected, and surely understandable, relationships. Cities happen to be problems in organized complexity, like the life sciences. They present "situations in which a half-dozen or even several dozen quantities are all varying simultaneously and in subtly interconnected ways."

CODE OF DIVERSITY

INTERRELATED variableS

In the life sciences, organized complexity is handled by identifying a specific factor or quantity--say an enzyme--and then painstakingly learning its intricate relationships and interconnections with other factors or quantities. All this is observed in terms of the behavior (not mere presence) of other specific (nor generalized) factors or quantities.

IN THE CASE OF UNDERSTANDING CITIES, I THINK THE MOST IMPORTANT HABITS OF THOUGHT ARE THESE: _TO THINK ABOUT PROCESSES _TO WORK INDUCTIVELY, REASONING FROM PARTICULARS TO THE GENERAL, RATHER THAN THE REVERSE _TO SEEK FOR "UNAVERAGE" CLUES INVOLVING VERY SMALL QUANTIFIES, WHICH REVEAL THE WAY LARGER AND MORE "AVERAGE" QUANTITIES ARE OPERATING


38

BIOMIMETICS BIOMIMICRY GUILD STATEMENT

BIO-MIMICRY [ From the Greek BIOS = life and MIMESIS = imitation ]

+ 30.000.00 SPECIES

+ BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

∞ POSSIBILITIES FOR INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABILITY


BIOMIMETICS

39

FIND A NEW PERSPECTIVE a 21st century design process

SEE THE UNSEEN

go deep

PLAY WITH DEPHT OF FIELD

look beyond the surface

QUIET HUMAN CLEVERNESS

LEAP WITH NATURE

SEE THE INTERCELLULAR


40

BIOMIMETICS “The world will not evolve past its current state of crisis by using the same thinking that created it.” ~ Einstein Biomimicry is a design and leadership discipline that seeks sustainable solutions by emulating nature’s time-tested ideas. The vision is to create products, processes, organizations, and policies - new ways of living - that are well-adapted to life on earth over the long haul.

Our tools - from the computer softwares to online databases and international platforms- bridge the gaps of terminology and specialization that separate biologists, chemists, architects and other researchers from industrial designers, engineers and other developers and strategists.

The Biomimicry allow us to use a deep knowledge of biological adaptations to help implementing sustainable practices that create conditions conducive to all life.

Using those tools, we have discovered how to effectively translate the wisdom of our teachers - the organisms and ecosystems of the natural world - into designs and systems that become sustainable innovations and evolve into a bio-inspired ethos.

The design methodology, complete with effective implementation tools, come from the research developed over a decade of work with companies, entrepreneurial organizations, universities, governments, and non-profits.

As the industrial age moves into the biological age, modern scientific techniques are allowing us to gaze deeper into nature’s secrets and helping us understand and learn from her elegant designs. The expertise allows us to access this constantly expanding knowledge base and to translate it for application to design challenges.

We are interested in creating systematic change that makes a real difference in the world. By translating nature’s genius we hope to reveal a world of potential for our cities.

After 3.85 billion years of R&D, nature has learned: - What works. - What is appropriate. - What lasts.


BIOMIMETICS

41

NATURE AS MEASURE The potential for biomimicry lies far beyond the diret imitation of natural forms. It can be used to create performance metrics from natural technologies and processes for assesting aspects of ecological and sustainable design.

BIOLOGIS T

DESIGNE R

Over the millions of years, nature’s life forms through natural selection have had to live with the constraints of the entropy law on a solar budget.” ~ Wes Jackson

“Biomimicry focuses on finding structures, processes, strategies, and mechanisms that nature has been using for a billion years, that we can emulate and use in modern design.”~ Terry Tempest Williams Biomimetics, also known as Bionics ( a term coined by an American air force officer in 1958), Biognosis, and Biomimicry, has been applied to a number of fields from political science to car design to computer science (cybernetics, swarm intelligence, artificial neurons and artificial neural networks are all derived from biomimetic principles). Generally there are three areas in biology after which technological solutions can be modeled:

Ecological Performance Standards

Taking our cue from native ecosystems, you can set aspirational metrics for large-scale projects. Planners and developers can set aspirational goals for ecological performance that match the local ecology by knowing performance data such as how many tons of CO2 are normally sequestered by local native ecosysReplicating natural manufacturing methods as in the tems per year, how many gallons of water stored per storm or production of chemical compounds by plants and animals filtered per month, and how many species are supported per Mimicking mechanisms found in nature such as Velcro and acre, etc. "Gecko tape" Setting ecological performance standards moves Imitating organizational principles from social behavior of designs toward performing at least as well as the organisms like ants, bees, and microorganisms

local ecosystems displaced.


42

BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS


BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS BIOLOGY + CYBERNETICS CONSTRUCTION BIONICS Light constructions occurring in nature, cable constructons, membranes and shells, transformable constructions, leaf overlays, use of surfaces, etc. . CLIMATE BIONICS Climate bionics is about energy issues, e.g. ventilation concepts, cooling and heating. ROBOTICS - SENSORY BIONICS Sensory bionics, neurobionics and locomotion bionics. LOCOMOTION BIONICS (BIONIC KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS) Walking, swimming and flying as primary forms of movement. Interaction with the surrounding medium. NEUROBIONICS Data analysis and information processing. EVOLUTIONARY BIONICS Evolution techniques and evolution strategies, made useful for technology. PROCEDURAL BIONICS Nature’s procedures or processes. ORGANISATIONAL BIONICS Complex relationship of biological systems.

43


44

BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS PARAMETRIC DESIGN

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN Computational design focuses on the interpretation and creation of design processes through algorithmic logic, regarding properties of spatial morphologies and its formation from a user-inhabitat perspective as the key to understanding sustainable environments.

Soft forms are able to incorporate a degree of adaptive intelligence. They are no longer just forms, but may have gravity or structural constraints, material constraints, performative logics inbuilt that make them intelligent. Parametricism and the Autopoiesis of Architecture Lecture by Patrik Schumacher, SCI-Arc, Los Angeles, September 2010

While spatial designers have managed to assimilate the most salient multidisciplinary patterns research of the past decade or so, there is still much to achieve. With new research into optical illusions and effects, materials advances, progress in computing and other visualisation technologies we can now further expand the ranges of pattern we design to include more critical intangible, immaterial, dynamic, invisible, virtual and conceptual and spaces. But spatial design is lagging behind the spatial patterns revolutions in other disciplines (marketing, advertising, security, defence, retail, finance).


BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS Design Strategy Generative Algorithms are algorithmic and Parametric/Associative ways of dealing with geometry in design problems. More than conventional geometrical objects, with this algorithmic method, now we have all possibilities of computational geometries as well as managing huge amount of data, numbers and calculations. Here the argument is to not limit the design in any predefined experiment, and explore infinite potentials; there are always alternative ways to set up design algorithms. Although it seems that the in-built commands of these parametric modelling softwares could limit some actions or dictate methods, but alternative solutions can always be brought to the table, let our creativity fly away of limitations.

45

Cybernetics intended to embrace universal principles relevant for both engineering and living system, and it has been fruitfully applied in studies of intelligent behaviours based on principles of feedback, autonomy, communication and control at all kinds of systems.

The premise of Parametricism is that all urban and architectural elements must be parametrically malleable. The Parametric City, Patrik Schumacher, London 2010


46

BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS ECOSYSTEMIC PATTERNS Today’s spatial design pattern morphologies are mainly digital/parametric or Postmodern reworkings of ancient patterns (like waves) or new ones (like DNA) found or simulated with new and emerging visualisation and design technologies. Among these we find patterns of soap bubbles, Fibonacci series, hydrological and vascular systems, protein folds, cellular automata, attractors, force fields, Sierpinski cubes, skins, moirÊs, knots, messes, fractals, networks, swarms/flocks, atoms and molecular structures (including crystals and quasi-crystals), fluid and gas/smoke/meteorological forms and dynamics, architextiles, viruses and micro-organisms, blobs, Voronoi cells, Lindenmeyer systems, light, fire, landscapes/geology/geography, rhizomes and various hybrids and permutations of these. In many of these designs, the crucial innovation is either technologically enabled patterns and/or patterns as fields, membranes, complex surfaces, deep structures or formless ambient environments and affective atmospheres. The most technically sophisticated are designed using genetic algorithms, and parametrically with software programs such as Grasshopper, Generative Components, Processing and L-Systems. More broadly, the most interesting spatial applications of these new pattern-recognition and application technologies are in the management of urban defence, logistics, transport, resources, services, commodities and crowds, and in disaster control and global communications. This consilience of T h e mathematics, computing and the arts is driving other, high-tech breeds of Voronoi Diagram pattern to create critical new intelligent and high-performance spatial patterns. Some of the most encouraging examples was initially used to are those being used in socially, politically and culturally decompose space by distances of engaged interactive architectures (such as those by specific sets of points in a space. ONL, Jason Bruges, Electroland, Diller Scofidio + The Voronoi Diagram is easily spotted Renfro, ETH Zurich and, particularly, the MIT in biology, physics, nature and is impleSENSEable City Lab and the Sociable Media Group). mented in real-life situations relating to Other examples include space decomposition. developments in new a periodic, fractal and quasi-crystalline structures as well as spaces in which spatial patterns research is A Voronoi Diagram begins with a given set of points cross-fertilising with the fine arts sciences, technology, on a plane called Voronoi SITES. anthropology, ethnography, and cultural and media studies. Each SITE has a cell that contains all the points closest to the site in relationship to all the other Voronoi diagrams and their multiple generalisations are a rich source for the design of spatial structures. They associate nearest neighbour sites in the plane. regions (Voronoi cells) to a set of input points. The concept works in the plane, for input points on a curved surface and in space.


BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS

pi : site points q : free point

e : Voronoi edge v : Voronoi vertex

If the two SITES are equally spaced apart, the Voronoi Edge extends indefinately, will be exactly at the midponit of each SITE point and creates two half planes. If SITES are collinear, the Voronoi Diagram forms a set of parallel lines.

47

VORONOI HISTORY pi

pi

v q

pi

e

SITES that are non-collinear form half lines that meet at a vertex

v

v

The intercection algorithm solves the half plane condition and forms the Voronoi Cell Intercection algorithm: 0 (n² log n)

Also, any point on any Voronoi Vertex intercect three SITES v q

pi

e

collinear sites

As typical of a Voronoi Diagram, any point along any Voronoi Edge will always intercect two SITES

non-collinear sites

v

line extends infinitely

v q

pi

e


48

BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS SOURCE Architectural Design Vol 79, No 6 (November/December 2009)


BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS

49


50

BIOLOGY AND CYBERNETICS

Biomorphic design might take on a new significance if, instead of ignorantly copying the shapes of animals and plants, we were to acknowledge that biomimetics teaches that shape is the most important parameter of all.


ORGANIC BIOLOGY

51

ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE The idea of organic architecture refers not only to the buildings' literal relationship to the natural surroundings, but how the buildings' design is carefully thought about as if it were a unified organism. Let the design: • be inspired by nature and be sustainable, healthy, conserving, and diverse • unfold, like an organism, from the seed within • exist in the "continuous present" and "begin again and again" • follow the flows and be flexible and adaptable • satisfy social, physical, and spiritual needs • "grow out of the site" and be unique • celebrate the spirit of youth, play and surprise • express the rhythm of music and the power of dance


52

ORGANIC BIOLOGY BIOMIMETIC PATTERNS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Biomimetics, also referred to as bionics, biomimicry, bioinspiration or bioinspired design, can be defined as the implementation of design principles derived from biology. These principles can be applied, literally, with a biomorphic approach, or can be applied to an approach that is more orientated towards systems. The more abstract the derivation, the more one relies on the recognition of pattern in the data rather than the shapes of physical objects. Abstraction thus simplifies technology transfer by emphasising the main principles to be used, and so makes the technology more powerful and pervasive: powerful because it introduces techniques from biological systems in a more adaptive manner; pervasive because this adaptive manner makes it easier to blend the biological approach with conventional engineering. Ideally it should also be subversive, since there is little point in introducing new concepts unless they are going to change the fundamental nature of engineering and design. The goal is to produce engineering that has basic attributes of biological systems such as low energy usage, easy recycling, extreme durability and versatility from few readily available starting materials. BIOLOGY Light, common, elements

Na P Cl K Ca

Many heavy elements, some rare

H C N O Si

Fe Ni Al Zn Cr

Growth by adaptive accretion

Fabrication from powders, melts, solutions

Environmentally influenced self-assembly

Externally imposed form

Hierarchical structure

Mostly monolithic; little or no hierarchy

Interfaces allow separate control of stiffness and fracture

Few interfaces, therefore poor fracture control

Environmentally responsive

Very little environmental response

EXTERNAL Adaptive in function and morphology

INTERNAL Growth repair

SOURCE Architectural Design Vol 79, No 6 (November/December 2009)

ENGINEERING

Obsolescent

Comparison of materials processing and properties in biology and technology. We are gradually moving from the technology stream to the biology stream, but at present we have neither a roadmap nor a compelling reason to follow one.

Julian Vincent, Professor of Biomimetics and Director of the Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technologies within the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Bath, identifies three distinct levels at which patterns can be translated from biology to architecture. Emphasising the importance of pattern recognition in the transfer of the most abstract derivations, he demonstrates that the greatest potential for biomimetics lies in its application for problem solving rather than straightforward mimicry of biological shapes and forms.


ORGANIC BIOLOGY

53


54

BIO MENTAL MAP (I) WWF LIVING PLANET REPORT’ MENTAL MAP OVERSHOOT

TERRESTIAL CARBON STORAGE

FRESHWATER PROVISION BIOCAPACITY

INICATORS

GLOBAL MAPS

LIVING PLANET INDEX

HUMAN DEMAND

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

WATER FOOTPRINT

BIODIVERSITY PRESSURE

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

CONSUMPTION

DEVELOPMENT MAIN DRIVERS OF CONSUMPTION

WELLBEING & PROSPERITY

OUR CHOICES

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

YOU FUTURE SCENARIOS

POPULATION


BIO MENTAL MAP (I)

MEASURES OUR IMPACT DRIVERS & CHOICES

55


PROJECT AIMS | STRATEGIES

0.2 A 40 YEAR VISION

PROJECT AIMS

PROJECT STRATEGIES

BIOMENTAL MAP


A 40 YEARS VISION 2012-2050: RESPECT - REINVENT - RENEW A PHILOSOPHICAL SHIFT Reduce simultaneously the carbon emissions of the city while regenerating and creating a vibrant urban environment, through biological systems and learning from nature’ behaviours. HUMAN BALANCE WITH NATURE • VIBRANT ECONOMY • PROTECTED WATERS • RESTORED NATURAL HABITATS • CULTURAL DIVERSITY • ANTICIPATED CLIMATE CHANGE • REINVENTED INFRASTRUCTURE • HEALTHY CITIES (WBCSD, 2010)

58

WWF ONE PLANET STATEMENT

BIODIVERSITY BIOCAPACITY

3.5 billion The number of people living in urban areas in 2010

50% The percentage of people living in cities in 2012

6.3 billion The number of people projected to live in urban areas in 2050

DEVELOPMENT

AWARENESS


PROJECT AIMS

59

MAIN AIMS

• protected areas

• biome-based imperatives

• INVESTMENT IN HUMAN RESOURCES • marine

• INVESTMENT IN NATURAL CAPITAL

• development

• forests • valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services

• wellbeing

• fresh water

• investment in biocapacity

• progress

• LESS PRESSURE ON ECOSYSTEMS

• green jobs

• ENERGY AND FOOD • energy-efficient buildings and transport systems

• investing in technology and innovation

• zero emissions

• food, feed and fuel production

• equitable access to food

• LAND ALLOCATION AND LAND-USE PLANNING

• SHARING LIMITED RESOURCES/INEQUALITY • use the power of the market to drive change

• multi-stakeholder groups

• geopolicy

• DECOUPLING NATURAL RESOURCE USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM ECONOMIC GROWTH • promotion of decoupling • Green Economy Initiative

• local govenance

• land and forests for biofuels and biomaterials

• INSTITUTIONS DECISION MAKING AND GOVERNANCE

• roundtables and certification • resources challenge

• ecological footprint

• International collective action

• societal prosperity and resilience

• voluntary governance


60

PROJECT STRATEGIES BIOLOGICAL STRATEGY

INSPIRATION from Biomimicry Guild

All designs should not only respond to, and integrate into, local ecosystems, but should also begin to create a surplus of ecosystem services.

EVOLVE TO SURVIVE

BE RESOURCE (MATERIAL AND ENERGY) EFFICIENT Skillfully and conservatively take advantage of resources and opportunities.

ADAPT TO CHANGING CONDITIONS

REPLICATE STRATEGIES THAT WORKS Repeat successful approaches.

USE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL DESIGN Meet multiple needs with one elegant solution.

INTEGRATE THE UNEXPECTED Incoroporate mistakes in ways that can lead to new forms and functions.

USE LOW ENERGY PROCESSES Minimize energy consumption by reducing requisite temperatures, pressures, and/or time for reactions.

MANTAIN INTEGRITY THROUGH SELF-RENEWAL Persist by constantly adding energy and matter to heal and improve the system.

Continually incorporate and embody information to enduring performance.

RESHUFFLE INFORMATION Exchange and alter information to create new options.

RECYCLE ALL MATERIALS Keep the materials in a closed loop. FIT FORM TO FUNCTION Select for shape or pattern based on need.

Appropriately respond to dynamic contexts.

EMBODY RESILIENCE THROUGH VARIATION, REDUNDANCY AND DECENTRALIZATION Mantain function following disturbance by incorporating a variety of duplicate forms, processes, or systems that are not located exclusively together. INCORPORATE DIVERSITY Include multiple forms, processes, or systems to meet a functional need.

INTEGRATE DEVELOPMENT WITH GROWTH Invest optimally in strategies that promote both development and growth.

BE LOCALLY ATTUNED AND RESPONSIVE

USE LIFE-FRIENDLY CHEMISTRY

Fit into and interate with the surrounding environment.

Use chemistry that supports life processes.

COMBINE MODULAR AND NESTED COMPONENTS Fit multiple units within each other progressively from simple to complex.

USE READILY AVAILABLE MATERIALS AND ENERGY Build with abundant, accessible materials while harnessing freely avaiable energy.

BUILD SELECTIVELY WITH A SMALL SUBSET OF ELEMENTS Assemble relatively few elements in elegant ways.

BUILT FROM THE BOTTOM UP Assemble components one unit at a time.

CULTIVATE COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS Find value through win-win interactions.

BREAK DOWN PRODUCTS INTO BENIGN CONSTITUENTS Use chemistry in which decomposition results in no harmful by-products.

SELF-ORGANIZE Create conditions to allow components to interact in concert to move towards an enriched system.

LEVERAGE CYCLIC PROCESSES Take advantage of phenomena that repeat themself.

DO CHEMISTRY IN WATER Use water as solvent.

USE FEEDBACK LOOPS Engage in cyclic information flows to modify a reaction appropriately.


PROJECT STRATEGIES DECARBONIZATION STRATEGY

61 INSPIRATION from Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan

In the DeCarbonization Plan's synergistic approach, eight key strategies work together with a parametric model to meet the city’s carbon reduction goals. CHICAGO CENTRAL AREA DE-CARBONIZATION PLAN

The first, Buildings, discourages new construction, and focuses on retrofitting existing structures to increase their energy efficiency, raising the value of aging building stock and tapping into the potential to transfer excess energy loads back to the grid. Urban Matrix, promotes residential use of the Loop area by convert outdated office buildings into homes, schools and other services. Their Smart Infrastructure strategy explores energy generation, storage and distribution. Mobility assesses public transit and connectivity. Water, examines resource conservation, Energy highlights new and existing sources of power, and Waste, looks at the city’s system for processing, reducing, recycling, and disposing of garbage. Lastly, Community Engagement outlines ideas for involving the city’s inhabitants in the greening process.


SUSTAINABLE STANDARDS

0.3 ONE PLANET LIVING

SUSTAINABLE STANDARS

BIO MENTAL MAP (II)


64

ONE PLANET LIVING WE ONLY HAVE ONE PLANET !!

SOURCE One Planet Living (OLP) Principles

SUSTAINABLE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Ecological footprinting measures our consumption of natural resources in global hectares of land and sea. Research tells us that our global footprint now exceeds the world’s capacity to regenerate by about 50%. If our demands on the planet continue at the same rate, by 2030 we will need the equivalent of two planets to maintain our lifestyles.

<1 x1

SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

EVERY HUMAN ACTIVITY USES BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE LAND AND/OR FISHING GROUNDS The Ecological Footprint is the sum of this area, regardless of where it is located on the planet. CARBON CARBON FOOTPRINT

Calculated as the amount of forest land required to absorb CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels, land-use change and chemical processes, other than the portion absorbed by oceans

GRAZING FOOTPRINT

Calculated from the area used to raise livestock for meat, dairy, hide and wool products

GRAZING

FOREST FOOTPRINT

Calculated from the amount of lumber, pulp, timber products and fuel wood consumed by a country each year

FOREST

FISHING FOOTPRINT

Calculated from the estimated primary production required to support the fish and seafood caught, based on catch data for 1,439 different marine species and more than 268 freshwater species

FISHING

CROPLAND FOOTPRINT

Calculated from the area used to produce food and fibre for human consumption, feed for livestock, oil crops and rubber

BUILT-UP LAND FOOTPRINT

SOURCE: WWF LIVING PLANET REPORT 2010

Calculated from the area of land covered by human infrastructure, including transportation, housing, industrial structures, and reservoirs for hydropower

CROPLAND BUILT-UP LAND


ONE PLANET LIVING

65

One Planet Communities make it easy, attractive and affordable for their residents to live within a fair share of the earth’s resources which, according to current calculations, will be no more than 1.2gha per person by 2020. The graph below shows the trajectory for the global ecological footprint if we continue to consume at current levels in comparison to a rapid reduction in footprint. This global trajectory, however, masks the fact that the goal of achieving a One Planet level of consumption will require trajectories which vary greatly depending on the country in which the community is based. For example, in the USA the average footprint is currently 8.0 gha per person whereas in China it is only 2.2 per person. Furthermore average national footprints themselves mask great differences within a country. For example in China the footprint in urban areas is close to the European average of 4.7 gha per person but in rural areas it may be lower than 2.0 gha per person. One Planet Communities aim to follow country specific trajectories, agreed with BioRegional, which take into account differences between and within countries. Humanity is increasingly living beyond our means - we currently consume 50% more natural resources than the Earth's ecosystems can replenish. WWF's One Planet initiatives are about finding ways in which we live and work sustainably. 2.5 1960-2007 Ecological Footprint 2007-2050 Scenario Moderate business as usual

2

2007-2020 One Planet Communities Scenario Rapid reduction

1.5

number of planet earths

1

‘one planet’ level

0.5

0.0

1970 years

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050


66

ONE PLANET LIVING A GLOBAL INITIATIVE One Planet Living is a global initiative based on 10 principles of sustainability aiming to help people, organisations and communities to live and work within a fair share of our planet’s resources. The One Planet Living framework was developed by BioRegional and WWF in 2004. Our consumption of the Earth’s natural resources is depleting the planet’s ability to replenish itself - and to sustain life on earth. • 3/4 of the world’s fisheries are over-fished and faced with commercial extinction • Half of the world’s original forest has been destroyed. We are losing a further 2% every year. • Species extinction is currently 1,000x the natural evolutionary rate • 1/4 of all the birds and mammals on earth are in danger of extinction. • Climate change is already happening, and poses a threat unlike any other facing civilisation.

At the root of these problems is the way that we humans live, work and play. The way we produce and consume resources is simply unsustainable in the long term. We are currently using resources at a rate 25% greater than the Earth’s ability to renew them. Between 1961 and 2003,the impact of human activity on the planet’s ecosystems increased by 150%. If current trends continue, by 2050 we will need a SECOND planet in order to be able to meet our demands for energy, water, food and shelter – and to absorb our wastes. Clearly we do not have a second planet. The challenge therefore is to find a way in which all the world’s people can lead happy and healthy lives within the natural limits of our one planet. We urgently need to build a world in which everyone has a fair share of the Earth’s resources, where there is space for wildlife and wilderness too, and where living sustainably is easy, affordable and attractive.

Our biggest challenge this new century is to take an idea that seems abstract – sustainable development – and turn it into a reality for all the world’s people. Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, 2001

ONE PLANET PRINCIPLES A sustainable future will need to consider environmental, social and economic factors and the 10 One Planet principles and their associated Common International Targets have been developed in recognition of this. However, we subscribe to the view that society or the economy cannot exist long term outside of a healthy environment and consequently there are three overarching environmental drivers behind the One Planet initiative: • sustainable ecological footprint; • sustainable carbon footprint; • clean (non-polluting) activities.


ONE PLANET LIVING

ZERO CARBON ZERO WASTE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS LOCAL AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD SUSTAINABLE WATER LAND USE AND WILDLIFE CULTURE AND HERITAGE EQUITI AND LOCAL ECONOMY HEALTH AND HAPPINESS

67


68

SUSTAINABLE STANDARDS 10 PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY GLOBAL CHALLENGE, GOAL and STRATEGY

ZERO CARBON Making buildings more energy efficient and delivering all energy with renewable technologies.

ZERO WASTE Reducing waste, reusing where possible, and ultimately sending zero waste to landfill.

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT Encouraging low carbon modes of transport to reduce emissions, reducing the need to travel.

SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS Using sustainable healthy products, with low embodied energy, sourced locally, made from renewable or waste resources.

LOCAL & SUSTAINABLE FOOD

Choosing low impact, local, seasonal and organic diets and reducing food waste.

Climate change due to human-induced build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere Achieve net CO2 emissions of zero Implement energy efficiency in buildings and infrastructure; supply energy from on-site renewable sources, topped up by new off-site renewable supply where necessary.

Waste from discarded products and packaging create a huge disposal challenge while squandering valuable resources Eliminate waste flows to landfill and for incineration Reduce waste generation through improved design; encourage re-use, recycling and composting; generate energy from waste cleanly; eliminate the concept of waste as part of a resource-efficient society.

Travel by car and airplane can cause climate change, air & noise pollution, and congestion Reduce reliance on private vehicles and achieve major reductions of CO2 emissions from transport Invest in transport systems and infrastructure that reduce dependence on fossil fuel use, e.g., by cars and airplanes. Neutralise carbon emissions from unavoidable air travel and car travel. Destructive patterns of resource exploitation and use of non-local materials in construction and manufacture increase environmental harm and reduce gains to the local economy Transform materials supply to the point where it has a net positive impact on the environment and local economy Where possible, use local, reclaimed, renewable and recycled materials in construction and products, which minimises transport emissions, spurs investment in local natural resource stocks and boosts the local economy. Industrial agriculture produces food of uncertain quality and harms local ecosystems, consumption of non-local food imposes high transport impacts Transform food supply to the point where it has a net positive impact on the environment, local economy and peoples' well-being Support local and low impact food production that provides healthy, quality food while boosting the local economy in an environmentally beneficial manner; promote low-impact packaging, processing and disposal; and benefits of a low-impact diet.


SUSTAINABLE STANDARDS

69 GLOBAL CHALLENGE, GOAL and STRATEGY

SUSTAINABLE WATER

Local supplies of freshwater are often insufficient to meet human needs due to pollution, disruption of hydrological cycles and depletion of existing stocks Achieve a positive impact on local water resources and supply Implement water use efficiency measures, re-use and recycling; minimise water extraction and pollution; foster sustainable water and sewage management in the landscape; restore natural water cycles.

LAND USE AND WILDLIFE

Loss of biodiversity and habitats due to development in natural areas and overexploitation of natural resources Regenerate degraded environments and halt biodiversity loss Protect or regenerate existing natural environments and the habitats they provide to fauna and flora; create new habitats.

CULTURE AND HERITAGE

Local cultural heritage is being lost throughout the world due to globalisation, resulting in a loss of local identity and wisdom Protect and build on local cultural heritage and diversity Celebrate and revive cultural heritage and the sense of local and regional identity; choose structures and systems that build on this heritage; foster a new culture of sustainability.

Using water more efficiently in buildings and in the products we buy; tackling local flooding and water course pollution.

Protecting and restoring biodiversity and natural habitats through appropriate land use and integration into the built environment.

Reviving local identity and wisdom; supporting and participating in the arts.

EQUITY AND LOCAL ECONOMY Creating bioregional economies that support fair employment, inclusive communities and international fair trade.

HEALTH AND HAPPINESS Encouraging active, sociable, meaningful lives to promote good health and well being.

Some in the industrialised world live in relative poverty, while many in the developing world cannot meet their basic needs from what they produce or sell Ensure that a community's impact on other communities is positive Promote equity and fair trading relationships to ensure a community has a beneficial impact on other communities both locally and globally, notably disadvantaged communities. Rising wealth and greater health and happiness increasingly diverge, raising questions about the true basis of well-being and contentment Increase health and quality of life of community members and others Promote healthy lifestyles and physical, mental & spiritual well-being through well-designed structures and community engagement measures, as well as by delivering on social and environmental targets.


BIO MENTAL MAP (II)

70

OLP INSIPRED’ MENTAL MAP

OU R

OVERSHOOT

ACT P M I

PRESSURE

TERRESTRIAL CARBON STORAGE

MEASURES

CONSUMPTION

FRESHWATER PROVISION MINERAL STORAGE

FOOTPRINT= 4.5

POPULATION

BIODIVERSITY

DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

WELLBEING & PROSPERITY

PEOPLE DEMAND

ES

BIOCAPACITY

PEOPLE PREFERENCES ECOSYSTEM SERVICES FOOTPRINT= 1 SUN

D RI

AIR

V E RS A N

WATER

A

LAND

CARRING CAPACITY

AG

D CH

FUTURE SCENARIOS

D N E

C OI


BIO MENTAL MAP (ii)

71


AMSTERDAM


GENERAL INFO

1.1 GENERAL INFO


GENERAL INFO

cul tur ei n

No. 4 rec ipie ategic locatio Str n

Union

52º2

an ope Eur the

ld wor the

direct invest me reign o f nt f in tn o e p o r u in E N 2’

t investor in the wo rld direc

for openness of natio No. 1 nal

D

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GENERAL INFO

77

Is the capital of the Netherlands and its largest city, with 745,000 inhabitants and 378,000 dwellings. Unlike most other countries, the Dutch national government does not reside in the country’s capital but in The Hague. Amsterdam is the financial heart of the Netherlands. Other important economic sectors are trade, business services, tourism, culture and education. Creativity and innovation are very important pillars for the Amsterdam economy. Amsterdam is located at latitude 52º22’ N and longitude 4º51’ E.


RANDSTAD

1.2 RANDSTAD IN EUROPE RANDSTAD 2040


80

RANDSTAD IN EUROPE

WHat is the randstad? • a polycentric urban area • most important economic motor of NL (GRP: €271,2 billion (2007), 51% of the national GDP) • a green heart • political, administrative, social and cultural heart • 7 million inhabitants; 41,5% of the Dutch population on less than 20% of the Dutch territory • one of the most densely populated areas in the OECD • 4 large cities close to each other


RANDSTAD IN EUROPE Relations within cities 4-5 6-10 11-25 26-50 51-100

Relations between cities 2-5 6-10 11-25 26-40 >40

MONOCENTRIC URBAN AREA London AMSTERDAM

MONOCENTRIC URBAN AREA Paris THE HAGUE

UTRECHT

ROTTERDAM POLYCENTRIC URBAN AREA Ruhr

POLYCENTRIC URBAN AREA Randstad

SOURCE Research Bulletin Urban Studies, OnlineFirst, (2010)

81


82

RANDSTAD IN EUROPE THE ECONOMIC URBAN SYSTEM

From a geographical point of view, the Randstad is known as the urban conurbation in the western part of the Netherlands, in which four major cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht) and a number of smaller towns are located within close proximity of each other. The Randstad constitutes the heart of the Dutch economy, with 50% of the gross national product being generated on approximately 25% of the country’s total land area. Having a population of six million inhabitants, the Randstad houses over one third of the Dutch population. However, in the debate on spatial planning and economic policy in the Netherlands, the ‘Randstad’ stands for more. The name, since it includes the Dutch word for ‘city’ (‘stad’, in the singular), suggests that the Randstad is a single, contiguous urban region. Suggestions that the region functions as an integrated economic entity for basic industries, like manufacturing activities, distribution activities and business services, are numerous. Based on these suggestions, policymakers now more than ever aim at the concentrated location of (inter)national firms and businesses in this networked region in order to have optimal economic growth potentials. Nevertheless, simply assigning a name, such as the Randstad, to a collection of towns and cities does not automatically meld them into a spatial and functional integrated city with economic complementarities and firms benefiting from regionwide agglomeration economies.


RANDSTAD 2040 RANDSTAD: A LEADING REGION IN EUROPE The government’s aim with the ‘Randstad 2040 Structural Vision’ is to turn the Randstad into a sustainable and internationally competitive leading region. The Randstad in 2040 will be a leading region of international significance, and with powerful, attractive cities with convenient access by road and public transport alike. This region will have many different and attractive living environments, and sufficient green space and water for leisure activities. It will be climate resilient and well protected against flooding. Furthermore, the Randstad in 2040 will benefit in full from Amsterdam’s metropolitan diversity and strength, and from the specific commanding international functions located in Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. This factor will help keep the number of jobs and the growth in prosperity high enough to sustain support for the rising costs of social and other services.

WHAT IS A STRUCTURAL VISION?

The Spatial Planning Act (Wro) determines that municipalities, provincial governments and the national government set down the spatial policy for their respective territories in one or more Structural Visions. A Structural Vision is a policy document about spatial structure strategy. A Structural Vision outlines the spatial developments of the area that it covers, also explaining how the policy or developments are to be achieved, which is to say which authorities and instruments will be used. The kinds of authorities involved could be integration plans, project decisions or general rules (in the case of the national government, an order in council, or in the case of a provincial government, a bye-law). Some examples of instruments are money, communication and coordination.

RANDSTAD URGENT PROGRAMME

The Randstad 2040 Structural Vision is part of the Randstad Urgent programme, in which the national and provincial governments, municipalities and metropolitan regions are jointly tackling various issues in the Randstad. The point of the programme is to resolve any difficulties and make decisions, with a view to ensuring the Randstad’s international status as an economically strong region, now and in the future.

PROCESS

The government reached its choices at the end of an extensive process along the following lines. Dialogue: the opinions, views and ideas of the public and stakeholders were gathered in a dialogue conducted on Internet and in physical meetings, and they have contributed to the Randstad 2040 spatial development concept. Design: the detailed discussion and the dialogue about the future of the Randstad were supported with concepts that emerged from research through designing, which is a process of depicting new design issues. Implementation partnerships: several implementation partnerships were established in the course of the process, with the participation of stakeholders, such as public authorities, market parties and social organizations. There were contributions from the national government and the region.

83


RANDSTAD 2040 THE GOVERNMENT’S CHOICES Cities and urban regions have become important players because of the blurring of national borders and the increasing importance of ‘knowledge’ as a factor in the world economy. There is an ongoing process of specialization and concentration. Increasingly, it is in the cities and their surrounding regions that international power is tending to concentrate, in terms of the economy, culture, politics and knowledge. Cities are the venues for people to gather and to exchange knowledge. They are where knowledge, knowledge development and the creative power needed to renew products, services and production processes converge. Cities are developing in this way into the engine of the world economy. The spatial choices made by the government in the Randstad 2040 Structural Vision are derived from the four guiding ‘principles’ set out below. Living in a climate-resilient and green-blue delta_Protecting the Randstad permanently against flooding_Being prepared for increasing salination and water shortages_From Green Heart to GB Delta: protecting, developing and making climate-resilient Creating quality through greater interaction between green, blue and red_Protecting and developing a differentiated landscape_ Agricultural transition_Developing green living and working environments linked to the green-blue issue_Developing a green-blue quality in the cities in the form of ‘metropolitan parks’ Strengthening what is already strong internationally_Utilizing and strengthening international leading functions_Improving the international links between the Randstad and other urban regions Powerful, sustainable cities and regional accessibility_Scaling up the urban regions: accessibility on the level of the northern and southern Randstad_Optimally utilizing city centre space, making it climate-resilient for living, working and providing services, through transformation, restructuring and intensification_Achieving a step change in scale for Almere in relation to developing the Amsterdam region, accessibility and the ecological improvement of IJmeer-Markermeer

Region / Society – Market

CONTROL/IMPLEMENTATION

National government / public authorities

84

LINKING GREEN, BLUE AND RED

LINKING NETWORKS, URBANIZATIONS AND ECONOMICS

(INTER) NATIONAL

Living in a safe, climate-resilient and green-blue delta

Strengthening what is already strong internationally

REGIONAL

Creating quality through greater interaction between green (landsacpe), blue (water) and red (urbanization)

Powerful, sustainable cities and regional accessibility


RANDSTAD 2040

85

“ The officials and authorities in the Netherlands need to show a bit of courage, and start to think and act on a larger scale. We have to leave our parochial outlook behind” SOURCE Summary Randstad 2040 A member of the public at the Madurodam ‘Randstad Session’ in February 2008


86


RANDSTAD 2040

87 Safe, climate-resilient, green-blue delta as an urbanization framework - strengthen diversity and identity - reinforce coast

- space for the river (or waterway) - from southwestern delta to IJsselmeer

- space for green-blue residential environments with a stronger identity for landscapes - metropolitan parks (search areas) Give backing to strengths: strengthen the leading functions - strengthen the leading functions in the cities ( head office s of international organizations and NGOs, * science, international conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions, etc., urban tourism, head offices of multinationals and international banks, ports, airports and international accessibility) - develop port network - strengthen Schiphol’s hub function - strengthen the greenports’ centre function - strengthen clusters around the universities Focus on the city - cities central, with extra effort on consolidation - upscaling ‘daily urban system’ from urban regions to the northern and southern Randstad - step change in scale for Almere - strengthen relations with other national urban networks Improve accessibility (road and rail) - between the cities and their regions - between the northern and southern Randstad Effective and robust national and international road and rail links, with an emphasis on the corridors to the south, east and southeast. - South: A4 Amsterdam – Antwerp, HSL South and possibly an improved Rotterdam – Antwerp (Robel) freight line - Southeast A2 and possibly an improved international train service via Eindhoven to the southeast - East: A2/A12, free passage for the ICE to Cologne, A15 and Betuweroute. - Other: A1 and Schiphol – Lelystad link upgrade SOURCE Summary Randstad 2040


METROPOLITAN AREA

1.3 AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA 2040


90

AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA 2040 RANDSTAD: A LEADING REGION IN EUROPE KEY STATISTICS (2007)

Dimensions 40 x 60 km Surface area 1,815 km2, of which almost 25% is water Population 2.2 million, of whom 33% are of foreign origin Population density 1,568 inhabitants/km2 Dwellings 987,000 units, with an owner-occupied to rental ratio of 43:57 Jobs 1.0 million, of which 85% are in the tertiary sector Amsterdam Airport Schiphol 46 million passengers; 1.5 million tonnes of cargo Port of Amsterdam 84.4 million tonnes in cargo throughput Amsterdam Internet Exchange AMS-IX, the world’s busiest internet exchange

KEY QUESTION

Metropolisation: how can the polycentric Amsterdam region be transformed into a fully fledged metropolitan area that is internationally competitive? • From an international perspective the Amsterdam city region is relatively small and polycentrically dispersed, but it continues to grow and flourish. • Regional collaboration is an absolute necessity if the city region is to remain competitive; the shared challenge is to transform this region into a metropolitan area, building on its unique strengths, potential and opportunities. • The Amsterdam city region is internationally distinctive because of the rich history of the city and the landscape, the diversity of urban milieus and economic sectors, and the region’s spatial configuration, set between the sea, a lake and a diversity of natural and manmade landscapes.

PROCESS

Input: an open process involving consultation, conferences and workshops, with the participation of national and international experts, local and regional administrators, and other stakeholders. Output: a coherent development scenario that sets out the tasks for active metropolisation. • In early 2007 the City of Amsterdam and the Province of North Holland embarked upon an adventure: the quest for a development scenario for the Amsterdam region in 2040. • Administrators and civil servants from various municipalities, provinces and other government bodies launched into an open and forthright process to discover the metropolitan strengths, potentials, qualities and opportunities, as well as to pinpoint shortcomings and stumbling blocks the region might face as it evolves into a strong European metropolis. • From children who illustrated their dreams for the future to foreign experts who shared theirconsidered assessments and visions: a great many stakeholders and experts were consulted over the year.


motorway park & ride transfer point regional public transport (rail) regional public transport (bus)

91

high-speed train pedestrian / cyclist ferry car ferry seaway increase in water storage compartmentalization dike

@

intensification of the urban area expansion of the urban area rural settlements offices business parks

N

WATERBERGING EN COMPARTIMENTERCOMPARTIMETERING

WATERBERGING

COMPARTIMENTERING

COMPARTIMENTERING WATER

greenhouse horticulture creative industry knowledge cluster

@

Amsterdam internet exchange

SOURCE DRO Amsterdam www.metropoolregioamsterdam.nl


92

AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA 2040 THE STRENGTH OF THE AMSTERDAM AREA INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY AND ORIENTATION Amsterdam is traditionally the principle Dutch trading centre. The proximity of the world-wide highly rated Amsterdam Airport Schiphol with its global network of connections, and the high concentration of (financial) corporate service providers in the city (many with (world) headquarters in Amsterdam) are just two factors that create an excellent foundation. CREATIVE CITY The creative industry and ICT sector have developed at a whirlwind rate over recent decades. Amsterdam’s urban vibe and cultural climate, but also the nearby media cities Hilversum and Haarlem and the commitment to developing creative ‘breeding grounds’ and new networks, all combine to make the Amsterdam Area an internationally-celebrated creative hotspot. DIVERSE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE AND NUMEROUS CROSSOVERS The strength of the Area is not that there are merely one or two dominant sectors, but instead a fully developed network economy. The Amsterdam Area can therefore offer companies all that this era of globalisation demands in a compact area: logistics, financial and legal services, supported by ICT and creative industries. This also enhances the rapid development of new niches. In this way, the Amsterdam Area makes a significant contribution to the strength of all strong sectors across the whole of the Netherlands – R&D in Food Valley or Brainport, (world) headquarters and logistics in the Amsterdam Area. HIGH LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE Amsterdam is home to three colleges and two leading universities as well as esteemed institutes such as the Duisenberg School of Finance and initiatives such as THNK, the Amsterdam School of Creative Leadership. 18 per cent of the highly-educated population of the Netherlands lives in the Amsterdam Area. ATTRACTIVE CITY Both the city and the region boast a high level of facilities, an impressive range of culture and attractive living and recreation spaces such as the green landscapes surrounding the city. The Amsterdam Area is characterised by variation: for tourists, students, international knowledge migrants, congress visitors and of course for anyone who just fancies being an Amsterdammer for a day, likes visiting the beach or feeling the wind in their hair while sailing on a lake.


93

SOURCE AMSTERDAM 2040


SMART CITY

1.4 SMART CITY AMSTERDAM SMART CITY


96

SMART CITY WHAT IS THE SMART CITY? Smart cities can be identified (and ranked) along six main axes or dimensions. These axes are: a smart economy; smart mobility; a smart environment; smart people; smart living; and, finally, smart governance. These six axes connect with traditional regional and neoclassical theories of urban growth and development. In particular, the axes are based - respectively - on theories of regional competitiveness, transport and ICT economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and participation of citizens in the governance of cities.A city can be defined as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;smartâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance. AN APPROACH TO INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES An alternative approach gives profound attention to the role of social and relational capital in urban development. Here, a smart city will be a city whose community has learned to learn, adapt and innovate. This can include a strong focus on the aim to achieve the social inclusion of various urban residents in public services and emphasis on citizen participation in co-design. Sustainability is seen here as a major strategic component of smart cities. The move towards social sustainability can be seen in the integration of e-participation techniques such as online consultation and deliberation over proposed service changes to support the participation of users as citizens in the democratisation of decisions taken about future levels of provision. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Environmental sustainability is important in a world where resources are scarce, and where cities are increasingly basing their development and wealth on tourism and natural resources: their exploitation must guarantee the safe and renewable use of natural heritage. This last point is linked to business led development, because the wise balance of growth-enhancing measures, on the one hand, and the protection of weak links, on the other, is a SOURCE cornerstone for sustainable urban development. http://en.wikipedia.org


SMART CITY

97 Flexibility

CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMART CITY

SMART PEOPLE

Creativity Affinity to life long learning Social and ethnic plurality

Innovative spirit Entrepreneurship

SMART ECONOMY

Economic image & trademarks Productivity International embeddedness

(Social and Human Capital)

Cosmopolitanism/Openmindedness Participation in public life Level of qualification

(Competitiveness)

Flexibility of labour market Participation in decision-making

Ability to transform

Public and social services

SMART GOVERNANCE

Attractivity of natural conditions Environmental protection

SMART ENVIRONMENT

Pollution

Transparent governance Political strategies & perspectives

(Participation)

Sustainable resource management

(Natural resources)

Cultural facilities Health conditions Individual safety Housing quality Education facilities Touristic attractivity Social cohesion

Availability of ICT-infrastructure

SMART LIVING (Quality of life)

(Inter-)national accessibility Local accessibility Sustainable, innovative and safe transport systems

SMART MOBILITY (Transport and ICT)


98

AMSTERDAM SMART CITY SMART CITY PROJECT The Amsterdam Smart City project is soon on its third year. During this time, Amsterdam Smart City has initiated a large number of innovative projects aiming to create a more sustainable and energy efficient city. Sustainable Cities wanted to take a closer look at the achievements, to analyze what has been produced and what other cities could learn from the project. BACKGROUND Amsterdam Smart City started in 2009 as a collaboration project between Amsterdam Innovation Motor and the grid operator Liander, in close collaboration with the municipality of Amsterdam. Today, the project involves over 70 different partners, and Amsterdam has become known as a Smart City all over the world. The idea of the Amsterdam Smart City is to go from a traditional “knowledge-silo-thinking”, to a holistic information community, where synergies are created through cooperation. Amsterdam Smart City stresses the importance of the Smart City as an inclusive process, where the strength lies in both the quality and quantity of the information shared. PROJECTS In a Smart City perspective, Amsterdam is focusing on the challenge of saving energy to reduce CO2 emissions. To do this, Amsterdam Smart City has during its years introduced and tested a vast amount of energy saving projects, divided into four areas: Sustainable Public Space, Sustainable Mobility, Sustainable Living and Sustainable Working.

in primary schools learn about saving energy, while their school competes with other schools in energy efficiency. The Climate Street is another public space project where a city street works as an incubator and testing place for new climate friendly innovations and experiments. An example of a Sustainable Mobility project is the Moet je Watt, where special electrical battery chargers are relocated all over the city. The special part of this project is that the charging stations, apart from providing easy use services to electrical vehicles, also prevent over charging, creating less energy waste. Under the label Sustainable Living, one of Amsterdam Smart City´s largest projects is found: Onze Energie. Onze Energie, Our Energy in English, is a project aiming to supply 8.000 households with renewable energy, mostly through windmills. Sustainable Working is an area where Amsterdam Smart City has initiated a lot of projects. In the densely populated Netherlands, commuting is very common. To create a more sustainable environment, Amsterdam needed to tackle the many daily trips made by car. A first attempt was made by creating drop-in work places in areas where there where often traffic jams, but due to many factors this was not successful. Today, a very successful project with drop-in offices within 5 minutes biking everywhere in Amsterdam is creating flexibility and reducing car-traffic within the city.

Sustainable Public Space include projects such as Smart School WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED? and the Climate Street. Smart School is a project where children It is clear that Amsterdam Smart has led to a vast amount of


LEARN

AMSTERDAM SMART CITY

CLIMATE STREET

99

INCLUSIVE PROCESS innovative projects during its initial years. The projects are all in different scales and phases, and it is difficult to see exactly what impact they will have on long-term sustainability in the city. What is apparent is that Amsterdam Smart City has functioned as a platform and an inspiration for small and medium enterprises in the search for sustainable options, and this alone makes for a good foundation for a broad change in the way of thinking about city development. Another thing that should not be belittled is that Amsterdam Smart City has succeeded in branding Amsterdam as a forward thinking city with smart ideas, and has made Amsterdam an international example in which other cities can find inspiration. THE FUTURE OF THE PROJECT The challenge now for Amsterdam Smart City is to keep this momentum, and to be able to scale up the projects to a scale where they can make a true impact on the energy efficiency in Amsterdam. Spokespersons for Amsterdam Smart City; Joost Brinkman and Ger Baron, stress the importance of inclusiveness in a Smart City. To be an even smarter Smart City, it is important to find ways in which the inhabitants for whom the new technology is not available can participate and be included in shaping the Smart City.

SUSTAINABLE PUBLICE SPACE

SMART SCHOOL

HOLISTIC REDUCE CO2 EMISSIONS

SUSTAINABLE CITY

collaboration

SMART CITY

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

NEW TECNOLOGY

PARTICIPATE

PARTNERS TESTING PLACE

incubator

SAVING ENERGY

INCLUDED SOURCE Amsterdam Smart City http://sustainablecities.dk/en/

SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY


100

AMSTERDAM SMART CITY SCOPE IN AMSTERDAM ENERGY

MOBILITY

OPEN DATA

PARTNERS INITIATORS

TIME

ACTIVE PARTNERS

INTERESTED

SOURCE Amsterdam Smart City http://www.amsterdamsmartcity.com


AMSTERDAM SMART CITY

101

PROJECT OVERVIEW A COLLABORATIVE APPROACH BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICAL EXECUTION

European Union (2020) • 20% CO 2 reduction compared to 1990 • 20% energy reduction • 20% sustainable energy

The Netherlands (2020) • 30% CO 2 reduction compared to 1990 • Double energy reduction to 2% per year in the following years • 20% sustainable energy

Amsterdam (2025) • 40% CO 2 reduction compared to 1990 • 20 % sustainable energy • Municipal organization climate neutral before 2015

Challenge

Approach

Contribute to ambitious climate goals through technology enabled sustainable solutions and changing behavior

Accenture has been instrumental to city of Amsterdam in new concept development; short listing / prioritizing of initiatives; coordination of multiple partiers and project initiations

Smart Grid Enabler

Current Status • Several pilots launched in 2009 and 2010 • Initiation of ‘Global Smart City Network’ • Over 16 partners engaged

Applied Technologies • Smart meters • Energy displays • Energy advice • Electric vehicles • Recharging stations

Results Amsterdam Smart City contributes to Amsterdam’s climate goals in an economically sustainable way by enabling its partners to apply innovative technologies and stimulate behavioral change with end users in the program’s sustainability projects.


102

AMSTERDAM SMART CITY PROJECT OVERVIEW

Geuzenveld

Test smart technologies in more than 500 households in order to increase awareness on energy use

West Orange

Test smart technologies in 500 households in order to increase awareness on energy use

ITO Tower

Minimize energy use without impacting negatively the functional and living comforts provided by the building to employees

Ship to grid

Install shore power connections for ships in Amsterdam harbor to allow green energy to replace polluting diesel generators onboard

Climate street

Make one of the city’s shopping streets more sustainable by focusing on logistics, entrepreneurs and the public space

• Smart meters that measure energy consumption and can be connected to energy -saving appliances • Energy displays that provide feedback on energy consumption and give personal energy -saving tips based on the information from the smart meters • Wireless energy displays connected to the digital gas and electricity meters, including mobile phone feedback. • Possibility to turn off all appliances at once. • Online thermostat that can be set remotely. • Detailed data analysis of energy use based on information gained by smart plugs. • Sensors that can register energy use and ensure lighting, heating, cooling are operated as energy efficiently as possible.

• 73 shore power stations with a total of 154 connections connected to renewable electricity sources • Pay -by -telephone system

• Waste and goods collected using electric vehicles. • Integrated street -lighting using energy -saving lamps; sustainable tram stops; solar -powered waste bins. • Smart meters, energy displays and smart plugs provided to entrepreneurs.


AMSTERDAM SMART CITY

103

PROJECT OVERVIEW

Onze energie

Energy management

Sustainable monument

Smart schools

Collectively finance 7 windmills with the ambition to have 20% of the Amsterdam population become member of this cooperation

• Local generation of sustainable energy. • All Amsterdam Noord residents can become member for a € 50 membership fee.

Test an energy -management system in 250 households in order to enable the user to gain insight into energy use of each connected appliance

• Smart wall plugs.

Support several monumental buildings in Amsterdam to become more carbon-efficient

• Energy scans; energy monitoring systems; insulation; small scale combined heat and power.

Make 10 primary schools compete on energy efficiency program results, by comparing performance through an online portal

• Online monitoring of energy use. • Possibility for the user to switch the appliances on and off remotely.

Awareness created among users and visitors.

• Online portal with schools performance and ranking. • Tips and tricks sharing.

SOURCE Amsterdam Smart City http://www.amsterdamsmartcity.com


SUSTAINABLE CITY

1.5 SUSTAINABLE CITY EUROPEAN GREEN CITY


106

SUSTAINABLE CITY IS THE NETHERLANDS SUSTAINABLE? CONCERNS ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

From the perspective of sustainable development, there are four areas of concern in the Netherlands: • Environment and nature: climate change is a global threat to the environment and to nature. Biodiversity is declining across the world, and thus also in the Netherlands. Added to this, the Netherlands indirectly uses relatively large amounts of natural resources - such as agricultural land - in other parts of the world. • Financial sustainability: the Dutch government debt is substantial, and costs of health care and social security are increasing. This may put these provisions at risk for future generations. • Knowledge level: knowledge is prerequisite for lasting welfare. In the Netherlands, however, relatively little is invested in research and development (R&D). In addition, the education level of the Dutch population is not very high compared with other countries in Europe. Moreover, relatively many pupils leave school without a basic qualification. • Disadvantaged position of non-westerners: people with a non-western foreign background in the Netherlands are at a disadvantage in a number of respects. Relatively more of them are unemployed and have a low income.

POLICY DECISIONS

Policymakers will have to address these four problem areas. The five main aspect for wich policy decisions must be made are: • Greening the economy: economic qrowth should be accompanied by a minimum use of fossil energy and depletion of natural resources. This requires a global approach. Strongly growing economies like those of China and India use a lot of natural resources, leading to more scarcity and higher prices. The threat to the climate and to biodiversity should be tackled globally. • Public or private funding: costs of public and semi public provisions such as pensions and care continue to increase. Investment is also necessary in other areas such as knowledge and education. Particularly in times of crisis, the questions arise: to what extent is the government completely responsible for financing these areas? And is it possible or desirable to let households and businesses foot the bill directly? • Consequences of the shrinking labour force: the Dutch population will continue to age in the coming decades. Welfare can be maintained by increasing labour participation and increasing productivity. Quality of education plays an important part in this respect. The decrease in the population will also have consequences for spatial planning. • Prevention and freedom of choice: it is easier to manage care spending if people remain healthy to older ages; i.e. if they eat healthily, smoke less and exercise more. People can change their consumption behaviour to reduce the detrimental effects of some forms of consumption on biodiversity and the climate. The government will have to decide on the level of intervention in the lifestyle and consumption pattern of its citizens. • Distribution and inequality: education is an important factor in improving the disadvantaged position of people with a non western foreign background. People with higher education levels have a higher income, have more healthy years to live, and are more satisfied than those with lower education levels.


SUSTAINABLE CITY

107

AMSTERDAM SUSTAINABLE CITY The City of Amsterdam has an ambitious climate and energy programme and wants to play a leading role in Europe. The City is working hard to make Amsterdam a clean, healthy, accessible and liveable city and one the most sustainable cities in the world by 2020. The City of Amsterdam believes that the combination of creative entrepreneurship and confidence in a sustainable economic progress will create a sustainable urban environment. Sustainability is one of the 3 main priorities of the City Council, together with urban planning & accessibility and economy & innovation. SOME FACTS • Two thirds of the city administration uses green energy • Most civil servants travel to work by bicycle • Many civil buildings have the highest energy efficiency classification • There is a steady increase electric transport usage in the city • Strong foothold in business community when it comes to sustainable issues and projects

‘Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations both here and in other parts of the world to meet their own needs.’ (Our Common Future, Brundtland Commission, 1987)


108

EUROPEAN GREEN CITY AMSTERDAM’ INITIATIVES CO2 EMISSIONS_The city has targeted an aggressive reduction of 40% of its CO2 emissions by 2025 (compared with 1990 levels), equivalent to a to reduction of 34% by 2020, far beyond the EU target of 20% by 2020. This will require the sustained co-operation of residents and business. The city government has pledged to make all municipal buildings CO2-neutral by 2015, both as a means of reducing city CO2 emissions and to lead the way in terms of the city’s CO2 reduction efforts. Much of the progress in this area comes from using renewable energy from the city waste incinerators. ENERGY_A Dutch energy company, Nuon, is using cold water pumped from the bottom of a man-made lake southwest of Amsterdam to provide cooling to businesses in the south of Amsterdam. The use of a natural resource saves energy (and CO2 emissions) and provides 60 mw of cooling energy, which businesses use in their air conditioning installations. As part of a wider Smart City initiative (see highlight project), 700 houses in the suburb of Geuzenveld are being fitted with smart energy meters, which give detailed feedback and analysis of household energy use, thus allowing residents to reduce their energy consumption. This is a trial project with the potential for a wider rollout. Sustainable energy production from biomass and waste. Amsterdam has one of the most energy-efficient district heating networks in Europe. Most of the heat is produced by the Waste and Energy Company, by converting biomass and biogas from waste and sewage into heat and electricity. BUILDINGS_Amsterdam runs a so-called cutting-edge alliance (koplopersalliantie) in cooperation with local housing corporations. These are required to employ energy-saving and efficient measures across their housing portfolio and especially for new-builds. The city is committed to converting all municipal buildings to CO2-neutrality by 2015, mainly through the use of renewable energy. The central borough of the city (Centrum) has organised conferences and events on how to achieve energy efficiency for protected city buildings, without affecting the character of the premises. TRANSPORT_With over 500,000 bikes in the city, safe cycling is a priority. An extensive network of cycle paths takes cyclists all over the city, and the city has used various technologies to promote safe cycling. This includes displays indicating how long until traffic lights will turn green; coordination of traffic lights to achieve “green waves” down major thoroughfares; and socalled Dynamic Information Panels at ferry terminals to Amsterdam Noord. In order to encourage the use of bicycles, which are prone to being stolen easily, there must be facilities for cyclists to leave their bikes securely. The city of Amsterdam provides a network of secure, protected bicycle parking facilities, which are free for the first 24 hours and only €0.5 per day thereafter. WATER_The city is working to fit every home in the city with water meters, in order to make water use more efficient and equitable. The original decision was taken in 1998, and since then, thousands of homes have had one fitted every year. The goal is to fit 300,000 homes by 2010, leaving 100,000 homes that are unsuitable for water meters — for these, further solutions are being sought. A differentiated tariff system for water (linked to a sewage water production tax) was introduced in 2009, and is intended to contribute to more intelligent water consumption habits. WASTE AND LAND USE_Much of the city bus network uses fuel from the Waste and Energy Company, which has been generated from waste. An information campaign — Platform for Information about Waste products — has long been the main


EUROPEAN GREEN CITY

109 CO 2

AMSTERDAM’ INITIATIVES Environmental governance

instrument for reducing municipal waste. A green subsidies plan provides financing for investment in green spaces, such as the city parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. The city provided €20 million for this fund in 2007-08. AIR_The Action Plan Air Quality 2009 is the comprehensive city initiative for cleaner air. This envisages reducing transport bottlenecks, extending park and ride facilities, encouraging electric vehicles and other measures. This should allow Amsterdam to meet legal standards for particulate matter by 2010, and those for nitrogen dioxide by 2015. In many of the action areas, the city is working to be a leading adopter of measures for its own buildings and vehicles.

Energy

Air Quality

Buildings

Waste and Land Use

Transport Average Amsterdam Best

Water

Quantitative Indicators: Amsterdam Average CO2 emissions per capita (tonnes/inhabitant)

Amsterdam

Year

Source

5.21

6.66

2006

Green Capital Award Application (CO2 emissions); Dienst Onderzoek (population).

356.12

150.49

2006

Green Capital Award Application (CO2 emissions); CBS (GDP)

CO2 reduction target to 2020 (% pa, from yr in which target set)

14.48

34.29

2007

Amsterdam Climate Office

Energy consumption per capita (GJ/inhabitant)

80.87

74.51

2006

CE Delft (energy consumption); Dienst Onderzoek (population)

Energy consumption per unit GDP (MJ/€ GDP)

5.25

1.68

2006

CE Delft (energy consumption); CBS (GDP)

% of renewable energy consumed by the city (%)

7.30

5.80

2007

CE Delft

CO2 emissions per unit GDP (g/€)

908.88

720.34

2007

CE Delft (energy consumption); ministry of housing (residential space)

Share of people walking or cycling to work (%)

Energy consumption of residential buildings (MJ/m 2)

20.94

38.00

2006

Green Capital Award Application

Share of people taking public transport to work (%)

41.56

24.00

2006

Green Capital Award Application

Length of cycle lanes (km/km 2)

1.15

2.75

2006

Green Capital Award Application

Length of public transport network (km/km 2)

2.33

3.24

2006

Green Capital Award Application Calculation based on data from Green Capital Award Application

Annual water consumption per capita (m 3/inhabitant)

105.43

53.47

2007

Water system leakages (%)

22.63

3.49

2007

Green Capital Award Application

Dwellings connected to the sewage system (%)

95.02

99.00

2009

Waternet

510.93

487.07

2006

Green Capital Award Application

17.62

43.00

2006

Green Capital Award Application

Municipal waste per capita (kg/inhabitant) Share of waste recycled (%) Average daily nitrogen dioxide emissions (ug/m 3)

35.18

28.42

2007

EEA airbase

Average daily ozone emissions (ug/m 3)

40.38

32.60

2007

EEA airbase

Average daily particulate matter (ug/m 3)

34.86

35.45

2007

EEA airbase

6.96

4.78

2005

EEA airbase

Average daily SO 2 emissions (ug/m 3)

SOURCE European Green City Index | Amsterdam_Netherlands


110

Amsterdam Innovation Motor

1

Amsterdam Innovation Motor (AIM) was established to maintain and consolidate the leading position of the Am sterdam Area in the knowledge-based economy. Directed by the Economic Development Board Amsterdam (EDBA), AIM promotes innovation, cooperation and new business in the Amsterdam Area. AIM focuses on developing the sectors that offer the most potential for strengthening the region’s position. The sustainability sector is represented by the Eco Cluster Amsterdam which is open to all com panies and organisations offering green products or services. Eco Cluster Amsterdam is looking for new markets by matching large and small businesses, identifying new opportunities and supporting start-ups. www.aimsterdam.nl

RAI

Zuidas

2

3

4

The Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences is dedi cated to ensuring that sustainability remains high on the agenda. In 2010, a successful curriculum was introduced which featured a minor entitled ’Sustainable Advisory Board’. Students worked on actual business challenges in sustainability, such as logistics. www.hva.nl De Groene Bocht (DGB, The Green Curve) is an initiative by a group of entrepreneurs in the centre of Amsterdam.

7

The City of Amsterdam’s ‘Waste to Energy Company’ (AEB) now has one of the most

powered by electricity generated by AEB. A district heat ing system created in collaboration with energy utility Nuon provides 55,000 households with heat from waste. www.aebamsterdam.com

www.e-nemo.nl

De Groene Bocht

AEB Amsterdam

world. The entire Amsterdam tram and metro network is

Science Center NEMO opened its innovation room in February 2011. It is currently home to an exhibition that examines the past and present of electric mobility and

University of Applied Sciences

6

Amsterdam Metropolitan Area, is committed to sustainable buildings and electric mobility. Many companies are united in the Green Business Club. Zuidas works together with the Vrije Universiteit and major companies in their drive to improve sustainability. www.zuidas.nl/en

Amsterdam RAI is the largest exhibition and conference centre in the Amsterdam Area. The RAI Elicium was constructed in 2008, boasting sustainable technology in cluding thermal storage 187 metres underground. The Elicium is the most sus tainable conference building in Europe. www.rai-elicium.nl

Science Center NEMO

The characteristic canal-side property is home to various businesses and initiatives who are working towards a sus tainable economy. DGB is currently home to eight compa nies and there are plans for a second DGB building a few hundred metres down the road. www.degroenebocht.nl

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is one of the world’s major passenger hubs, handling 48 million passengers in 2010. It is a waste management leader and currently the largest producer of algae in the world. In 2010, Schiphol launched theGROUNDS, a knowledge centre to facilitate institu tions to develop innovative applications for sustainable aviation. www.schipholgroup.com

Park 20|20

5

8

Park 20|20 is a full-service cradle to cradle business park in the area of Haarlemmermeer. American architect William McDonough is re sponsible for development at the site, which will primarily be home to sust. buildings. www.park2020.nl

9


Holland Financial Centre

10

Climate Street

11

140 entrepreneurs in Amster dam set about creating their Climate Street using the latest technology, sustainable trans port and a new public space. Climate Street is part of the Amsterdam Smart City project, in which new technologies are tested to reduce CO2 and learn more about smart grids. www.amsterdamsmartcity.com

Holland Financial Centre’s Climate and Sustainability desk is dedicated to increasing knowledge of sustainable www.hollandfinancialcenter.com

The Bank

Following renovations completed in 2011, this old bank building in Amsterdam now boasts the highest energy companies including Marqt - a supermarket selling a huge range of organic products. www.thebankamsterdam.nl

Restaurant Fifteen

Conscious Hotel Vondelpark

12

The brainchild of British chef Jamie Oliver, Fifteen serves organic food. The restaurant is also socially responsible - every year, it hires 25 youngsters www.fifteen.nl/en

City of the Sun

13

The City of the Sun is formed by 2,900 houses in the city of Heerhugowaard. Covering 120 acres, the district has achieved CO2 neutral status through the introduction of

First in Food

14

First in Food is the organisation uniting more than 70 companies and municipalities in the Zaanstreek. The food industry in this area is dedicated to improving food sustainability. www.firstinfood.nl

Passive homes Almere Keys to homes in the Columbuskwartier, the newly built ‘passive home’ district in Almere, were given to 103 new homeowners in October 2010. Such a series of homes built according to this standard of energy is unique in the Netherlands. www.almerepoort.org

15

17

With Amsterdam’s largest park on their back doorstep opportunities to stay healthy at Vondelpark. From the C2C-carpet to the organic wines in the bar, this hotel is one of the most sustainable hotels in the city. This new kid on the block with two hotels received the Golden Green Key for sustainable hotels (www.couscioushotels.nl). Green Key combines CSR and sustainability to make hotels sustainable, looking at areas ranging from water savings to management. Currently, 45% of all beds in Amsterdam have the Green Key label, making Amsterdam an international leader in sustainable hotels. wwww.greenkey.nl

Highway Windmills

www.heerhugowaardstadvandezon.nl

16

18

A windmill park was created next to Highway A27 near Almere in 2007. The ten windmills each have a capacity of 2 megawatts, providing green electricity to over 15,000 households in Almere. english.almere.nl

Amsterdam ArenA A high-class multipurpose stadium, Amsterdam ArenA is not only home to AFC Ajax football club, it’s also an excel lent conference and concert venue. The roof is retractable and, thanks to LED lights and solar panels, it is also ambitious sustainability plans with regard to logistics, IT and business. www.amsterdamarena.nl/en

19

111


112

ROC Amsterdam

20

The Regional Community College of Amsterdam has inte grated sustainability into all of its courses, especially those of a technical nature. The technical talent of tomor row will therefore be fully informed about sustainable working methods and eco-innovations. Watch this short www.iamtv.nl/video/rocva-duurzaamheid-deel-ii www.rocva.nl

Stopera

21

Located on Waterlooplein at the heart of the city, the Stopera is home to the City Hall of Amsterdam as well as the Amsterdam Music Theatre. The building has a

Together with Amsterdams Steunpunt Wonen (Amsterdam Neighborhood and Housing Support), Amsterdam’s District of Zuidoost initiated the ‘Energy box’, an innova tive way to save energy in households. Residents of a huge apartment building organised sort of ‘Tupperware parties’. Friends and family were invited to share informa -

Evoswitch

22

Situated in Haarlem, the greenest data centre in the Netherlands is fully CO2 neutral. Evoswitch also designed

Food Center Amsterdam

roof. www.oba.nl

Shell

26

that intelligently utilises the cooler outside air. www.evoswitch.com

2008, it was voted the most sustainable public building in Amsterdam. The building was constructed primarily using renewable materials, and solar

23

Two of the driving concepts that underpin the Shell Technology Centre Amsterdam are technology and inno the problem of rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, Shell is researching clean, affordable alternatives such as second generation biofuels (made from non-food produce) and the capture and storage of CO2. The

24

27

The Food Center Amsterdam (FCA) is a wholesale market selling food produced in, and for use in the Amsterdam Area. They provide food for the retail and catering indus tries and supply care institutions. The FCA has the largest and most diverse assortment of fresh products in the Netherlands and is used by some of the most sustainable distributors, such as De Kweker. Electric mobility is also a key concern at FCA. www.foodcenter.nl

Waternet

www.shell.nl Amsterdam Zuidoost is renowned for its luscious green-

25

www.asw.nl

Completed in 2007, the Amsterdam Public Library (OBA) now welcomes more than 5,000 visitors every day. The ultimate in user-friendly design, it features free inter -

Greenery in Amsterdam Zuidoost

Neighbours in Amsterdam Zuidoost

box, which resulted in enormous savings for 1140 people.

heating system that provides heat in the winter and cool air in the summer. www.amsterdam.nl

OBA

trees and bushes. The council maintain the greenery using sustainable gardening methods and avoid using chemicals wherever possible. www.zuidoost.amsterdam.nl

Lead by principles of sustainability, Waternet focuses on the complete cycle: from producing drinking water to purifying wastewater. To demonstrate that water in the canals can be just as clean as swimming water, a swimming pool is situated next to their headquarters. www.badbuiten.nl - www.waternet.nl

28


13 26

hospital

Noor

W FC

W orld Fashion Centre

W TC

W orld Trade Centre

RA I

exhibition and convention centre

A1 0

highway

S 100

centre ring road

dz ee k a na al

A1

W a terl a n d

0

train

113

SOURCE www.aimsterdam.nl amsterdam metropolitan ECOCLUSTER

metro 0

1 2 km W esterpoor t

BovenIJ

Amste r dam-Noo r d

7

Amsterdam Sloterdijk

W esterpar k 20

Bos en Lomme r

Geuzenvel d

23 Central Station 1

Sloterm e e r

22

27

De Baarsje s

A 10

te

rp

la

s

Sint Luca s Andrea s

Zeebur g

3

A M S T E 4R D 21A M 11

Oud- W es t

S1 0 0

WF C

Oos t

O.L. V. Gas thuis

Pijp/ O u d -Z u i d

6

2

Nieuwe Meer

VU

A4

Sc h ipho l Airp o r t

A M S T E LV E E N

am

-R

i jn

ka

na

Diemen-Zuid

Zuideramste l

Amst e r da mse Bo s

d

28

VU UN IVERS IT Y

9

er

Diemen

Di e me n

Amsterdam RAI

Amsterdam Zuid WTC

9

st

1

10

RA I

WT C

Am

A

Slotervaart

S CIEN CE PAR K

W at e rgra a fsmee r Amstel

Slotervaar t

Schiphol

18

Muiderpoort

A1 0

Amsterdam Lelylaan

Antonie va n Leeuwenhoek

A

IJmee

16

17

lo

S

Osdor p

5 Old Amste r da m

Het IJ

12

Am

Duivendrecht st e

l

Amst e rd a m Ar e n a (Aj ax )

19

Amsterdam Bijlmer Arena

A9

24 25

Zuidoos t

Gaasperlp

8

A2

A9 Amsterdam Holendrecht

O u der k er k a/d Amst e l

AM C


METABOLIC CITY

1.6 URBAN FLOWS USER TRAFFIC NATURE MONEY LABOUR CULTURE KNOWLEDGE INORGANIC MATERIALS BIT SPACE


URBAN FLOWS FOOD AND ORGANICS WATER AND LIQUIDS AIR NATURE

ENERGY SOUND TRAFFIC

USER MONEY LABOUR

C

116


117 CULTURE KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION

INORGANIC MATERIAL BIT SPACE

C

EV Z

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S) www.thewindpower.net www.wikipedia.org


118

URBAN FLOWS USER Since the baby boom following World War II the population of Amsterdam has never grown so quickly as in recent years. On 1 January 2011 Amsterdam had a population of 780,559, an increase of nearly 13,000 in 2010 after an increase of more than 11,000 in 2009. The group of native inhabitants of Amsterdam accounts for a large share of this increase; for many years the number of natives who left Amsterdam outnumbered the natives who took up residence in Amsterdam. This has been different in the past three years. The number of native inhabitants of Amsterdam is increasing; but their share in the Amsterdam population is still decreasing. The share of the Amsterdam population belonging to a non-Western ethnic minority is still growing, albeit less quickly in recent years. The share of the Amsterdam population belonging to a Western ethnic minority has increased strongly in recent years. Women in Amsterdam have more and more children; from 1.35 children in 1993 to an average of 1.65 children in 2010. In the 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s especially women belonging to non-Western ethnic minorities were responsible for the natural growth in Amsterdam, in 1993 they had 2.2 children on average, but this decreased to 1.98 in 2010. On the other hand native Amsterdam women have more and more children; in the same period their fertility figure rose from van 1.05 to 1.53 children. Everything points at a continued strong growth in the time to come. According to the latest Amsterdam population forecast, the population of Amsterdam will have grown to 850,000 inhabitants by the year 2030. This means that in the years to come the population of Amsterdam will increase on average by three hundred persons per month.

IMAGE SOURCE http://www.flickr.com/


USER

URBAN FLOWS

BY AGE 2011 0-4 yrs 5-19 yrs 20-34 yrs 35-49 yrs 50-64 yrs 65 + yrs

TOT

2020

6.2% 14.4% 27.2%

6% 14.4% 26.6%

23.8% 17.4% 11% 780.559

22.1% 18% 12.9% 813.718

2030 5.8% 14% 26.7% 21.3% 17.2% 15% 850.616

BY SEX 2011

TOT

2020

2030

384.283

402.631

420.314

396.276

411.087

430.302

780.559

POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX 1 January 2011 and the projections, 1 January 2020-2030

813.718

850.616 DATA SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

119


120

URBAN FLOWS USER BY ETHNIC ORIGIN

moroccan non-western foreigners (other)

western foreigners

TOT DATA SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

IMAGE SOURCE http://www.flickr.com/

TOT

9.6%

10.3%

12.4%

TOT

36.7%

46.5%

49.7% 15.3% 780.559

POPULATION BY ETHINC ORIGIN 1 January 2011 and the projections, 1 January 2020-2030

1.5%

5.4%

9.1%

35.0%

6.9%

1.5%

5.3%

turkish

2030

7.9%

1.5%

antillean

native Dutch

2020

8.8%

surinam

NON-WESTERN FOREIGNERS

2011

5.3% 9.7% 14.4%

37.7%

TOT 44.2%

16.8% 813.718

18.1% 850.616


TRAFFIC

URBAN FLOWS

Amsterdam scored a 7.3 (on a scale from 1 to 10) as a city in which to ride a bicycle in 2010. The bicycle owners use their bicycles very frequently: almost half (47%) of them state that they use their bicycles daily or several times a day and in addition one third of them use their bicycles once or several times a week. Measurements performed by the Infrastructure, Traffic and Transportation Department show that the number of bicycles is increasing all the time: from 62 bicycles per 100 inhabitants aged 12 years and over in the period 1986-1991 to 73 in the period 2005-2008. The appreciation for the traffic safety of the cyclists increased between 2006 and 2010 from 6.3 to 6.7. Nevertheless, improvement of traffic safety is mentioned the most frequently as a theme which should be given the highest priority, more so than an extension of the number of parking places or the repression of bicycle thefts. Accessible Amsterdam Amsterdam stands out as one of the cities where motorists can get around with few delays. Amsterdam ranks 15th on the list of most congested cities in Europe. Drivers will experience less delays than in other European capitals (such as Paris, London, Luxemburg and Milan). The results of the study by Tomtom highlight Amsterdam's position as a very accessible city. Getting around is both comfortable and can be done quickly. Not only by car. The city has developed a strong cycling culture that promotes a healthier, more active lifestyle for its residents including the expat community. Amsterdam also has an excellent network of cycle routes. This means less time spent commuting, and more time enjoying what the city has to offer.

DATA SOURCE http://www.flickr.com/

121


122

URBAN FLOWS TRAFFIC Superior transportation Thanks to the excellent transport services the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area has in place, the rest of the world is never far away. Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, one of Europe's top airports, is just 15 minutes from the city centre. That is as great for keeping in touch with family and friends as it is for work. Trains, sea and road connections are as equally reliable. By train, Antwerp, Brussels and Paris are within easy reach. Amsterdam is a great base to explore the whole of Europe. Public transportation is excellent in the area as well. Amsterdam's train station for example is the largest public transportation hub in the Netherlands. From here approximately 300,000 passengers per day come and go by bus, tram, metro or train. Amsterdam electric Amsterdam is gearing up towards becoming a green transportation hub. In total, three billion euros have been reserved for the scheme within the plan 'Amsterdam electric'. The subsidy scheme will reimburse businesses in Amsterdam for up to 50% of the additional cost of purchasing an electric vehicle. This additional cost is the purchase price of an electric vehicle, minus the purchase price of a comparable vehicle with a petrol or diesel engine.

DATA SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

IMAGE SOURCE http://www.flickr.com/

E-TICKETING SYSTEM

AMSTERDAM WORLDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S MOST BIKE-FRIENDLY CAPITAL

!

!


TRAFFIC

URBAN FLOWS

VEHICLES

trams busses

2007

2009

2011

236

216

216

246

275

258

11

11

13

106

106

106

ferries subway/express tram

ROUTES

2007

tram routes bus routes

2009

16

16

16

45

43

night bus routes

2011

12

47 11

12

ferries

6

5

6

subway/ express tram routes

4

4

4

VEHICLES AND ROUTES PUBLIC TRANSPORT 1 January 2007-2011

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

123


124

URBAN FLOWS NATURE The house density and the population density are increasing in Amsterdam. Whereas there were fewer than 2,200 houses per square kilometre of land in 1998, this number is almost 2,400 in 2011. The population density increased as well: from 4,347 persons per square kilometre of land to 4,730. These kept in step until 2008: the more houses, the more people in Amsterdam. The population density increased strongly since 2008, but the house density hardly increased. The most densely populated neighbourhoods are Jordaan, large parts of West, De Pijp and the Indische Buurt. The population density is the lowest in (parts of) Nieuw-West, Buitenveldert, Noord and Zuidoost. The population density decreased in almost all neighbourhoods in the past three years.

LAND USE 2010

DATA SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

internal waters forest and natural land agricultural land 2659.11 ha

12.1% 2.1% 12.1%

5431.95 ha 468.97 ha

10.4%

2276.59 ha

7.8%

1716.32 ha

recreation land semi-cultivated land

35.6%

7812.00 ha

cultivated land

7.1%

1567.93 ha

traffic area

100%

21932.87 ha

total area


NATURE

URBAN FLOWS

POPULATION AND DWELLING 2006

2011

AREA IN KM² (in TOTAL)

219.39

219.33

=

AREA IN KM² (in LAND)

166.63

165.01

- 0.1%

POPULATION

743027

780559

+ 1.7%

DWELLING STOCK

378507

394468

+ 0.5%

DWELLING DENSITY PER KM² LAND d/km²

d/km²

POPULATION DENSITY PER KM² LAND

4730 4459

2006

2272 2010 2011

TERRITORY, POPULATION DENSITY AND DWELLING DENSITY 1 January 2006-2011

2006

2391

2010 2011 DATA SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

125


126

URBAN FLOWS MONEY BY DISTRICTS

27.500 25.400

17.000

K_south M_east

35.400 31.850

29.800 27.400

F_new-west

26.200 24.300

N_north T_southeast

DISPOSABLE INCOME Average disposable income per household in dollars SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

31.500 28.050

E_west

27.200 24.300

B_westpoort

34.200 30.000

A_center

2006 2008


LABOUR

URBAN FLOWS

BY DISTRICTS

2009

A_center

2010

143

145 17

B_westpoort

18

42

E_west

47 17

F_new-west

17

57

K_south M_east

61 29

N_north

30 6

6

31

T_southeast

AVERAGE

31

42

B

44.4

N E

A

F

M K

T JOBS Average number of at least 12 hours per week per hectare of land. Reference date 1 January 2010

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

127


128

URBAN FLOWS CULTURE MUSEUMS

2010

visitors (x 1.000)

Amsterdam Museum

198

Anna Frank House

1051

Hermitage

650

Jewish Historical Museum

177

Rijksmuseum ‘National Museum’

896

Rijksmuseum ‘Vincent van Gogh’

1430

TOT

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

4.402


KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION BY STUDENTS men women primary schools schools for special education

2006/2007 99.661

URBAN FLOWS

2009/2010 111.234

103.850

116.171

56.437

58.458

5.276

pratical training

1.640

general secondary education

33.377

senior vocational secondary education

23.296

apprenticeship training

4.999 1.386 33.523 21.818 7.411

6.225

vocational colleges

32.918

46.248

universities

44.342

53.562

TOT

203.511

227.405

BY SCHOOLS primary schools

209

general secondary education

207 31

31

vocational colleges

5

4

universities

2

2

TOT

247

244

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

129


130

URBAN FLOWS INORGANIC MATERIALS INWARD

t (x 1.000)

Amsterdam Airport Schipol Port of Amsterdam TOT

2009

690.257

t (x 1.000)

2010

790.393

49.410

739.667

increase

%

+14.5% 48.827

-1.2%

839.220

OUTWARD

t (x 1.000)

Amsterdam Airport Schipol Port of Amsterdam SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

TOT

2009

596.115 23.983

620.098

t (x 1.000)

2010

721.862

increase

%

+21.1% 23.872

745.734

-0.5%


BIT SPACE

URBAN FLOWS

DISPOSES OF THE INTERNET

INTERNET AT HOME

AMONG WHICH AT HOME

2010

88%

2009

85%

2008

84%

2007

81%

2006

78%

94%

16-24 yrs

92%

25-34 yrs

92%

35-44 yrs

91%

45-54 yrs

86%

55-64 yrs

63%

65 + yrs

SOURCE www.os.amsterdam.nl Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (O+S)

131


URBAN REFLECTIONS


STIPO INTERVIEWS

2.1 STIPO.NL

What is the for cities? Why is it important to into cities?

What changes

RerbA

STATEMENT FOR STRONG CITIES Peter Hall Alain De Botton Wolfgang Kil Rudy Stroink Joost Schrijnen Danuta H체bner Alan Simpson Arnold Reijndrop Reinier De Graaf Alexander Rinnoooy Kan Tracy Metz Hardt-Waltherr H채mer

should we make in our

in cities?

LISTING MAP


136

STIPO.nl STIPO > TEAM FOR URBAN STRATEGY AND CITY DEVELOPMENT INNOVATOR, DEVELOPER, KNOWLEDGE DISTRIBUTOR, TRAINER AND PROJECT MANAGER. Stipo advises, develops, coaches and supplies training. Its operating area consists of combinations of spatial planning and strategy with economic development, culture, welfare, sport, recreation and tourism. The Stipo approach was developed at the planology department of the University of Amsterdam and it is the basis for tackling spatial and social problems in innovative and practical ways that are solution-driven. The operating area for Stipo projects is urban development and social-spatial strategy. People's lifes are central, now and in the future. Stipo has acquired expertise in community issues such

as economic and financial development, culture, welfare and sports. In 1995 Stipo became an independent knowledge and consultancy team for urban development and strategy. Stipo supplies consultancy and coaching, and it develops tailor-made products and training. Its experience with special strategies is combined with its insights in the field of economic and financial development, culture, welfare and sports. Stipo vision is inextricably linked to process development and management. The Stipo approach is geared on all fronts to ensuring that results don't end up being shelved. It is only by integrating content, process and management that they believe they can safeguard real innovation.


STIPO.nl

137

STIPO ACADEMY

STIPO WEBSITE SCREENSHOT

Stipo is not only advisor but exchange knowledge. Kowledge is the key and above all: sharing it. APPROACH

PHILOSOPHY

Solution-driven Understanding Co-makership

Rooted in the context The client as the co-maker New and enduring Responsibility Extra impetus where necessary

ReUrbA, European project for Restructuring Urbanised: sharing insights, learning form eachothers methods, and developing a shared innovative method.

!


138

RESTRUCTURING URBANISED AREAS ReUrbA²’s VISION FOR THE FUTURE OF THE CITY ReUrbA is an EU project, an innovative method for urban restructuring. Cities are bastions of economic, cultural and social growth. Cities are meeting places. People go there to earn money, to learn, to exchange ideas and to create relationships. Cities are focal points for international competition and breeding grounds for future economies. Cities are the carriers of the cultures of yesterday, today and tomorrow. Core values of European cities are the public domain, diversity, exchanges and the re-use of the historical context. SOURCE http://www.reurba.org

THE ReUrbA² METHOD INVOLVES FOUR STRATEGIES: 1. from supply to demand orientation, including lifestyles 2. from government to governance

3. from demolition to creative transformation 4. from budget to value orientation

URBAN CONDITIONS 1. URBAN DEVELOPMENT= PEOPLE

2. URBAN DEVELOPMENT= STIMULUS

Urban development must focus on investing in PEOPLE and then on investing in areas. It must always understand the undercurrents: the economic, cultural and social forces in and around the urban area.

Urban development must facilitate dynamic social and economic networks, using cohesion and habitability as catalysts. It needs to tap into and ACTIVATE urban potential, talents and energy.

3. URBAN DEVELOPMENT= SMART COALITIONS

4. URBAN DEVELOPMENT= FUTURE

Urban development needs to focus on smart coalitions of USERS and INVESTORS. It should create the conditions for quality and bring new inspiration. In that way, it brokers between stakeholders and links different scales of activity.

Urban development needs to focus on quality for now and for 30 years from now. New value-oriented investment STRATEGIES are needed. These strategies assume active steering and returns in the long term.


STATEMENT FOR STRONG CITIES

139

WHAT IS NECESSARY TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN STRONG CITIES IN EUROPE? WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO INVEST IN OUR CITIES? THE Statement for Strong Cities ANSWERS THIS QUESTION. THE STATEMENT MAKES CLEAR WHY IT'S IMPORTANT TO INVEST IN OUR CITIES AND HOW ReUrbA² STRATEGIES AND EXPERIENCES CAN CONTRIBUTE TO SOLVING CITY PROBLEMS. It explains why there is a sense of urgency to invest – and keep investing – in our cities. These investments need to deal with more than the physical issues alone; they must also address social, cultural and economic issues. In the light of the need for urgency, the statement describes the tasks awaiting the different parties involved in urban regeneration. The goal of the statement is to establish an active attitude in the process of urban regeneration from the different parties involved. This active thinking results from a recognition and understanding of the problems (present and future) in our cities. Against this background, different parties are encouraged to define their own positions within the process and to develop a strategy for participating in urban regeneration. To back up the content of the statement, INTERVIEWS took place with various prominent persons involved in urban regeneration. Since ReUrbA² is a cooperative venture between partners from the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands, the interviews are with prominent people from those countries. In line with the broad scope of the statement, the interviews are from the physical, social, economic and cultural fields.

ECONOMIC

EU Danuta Hübner

NL

NL

NL

CULTURAL

Alan Simpson

Arnold Reijndorp

NL

PHYSICAL

Alain de Botton NL Tracy Metz

UK

Joost Schrijnen

Rinnooy Kan

Rudy Stroink

SOCIAL

UK

Peter Hall Wolfgang Kil

UK

DE NL

DE Hardt-Waltherr Hämer

Reinier de Graaf


140

THE POLYCENTRIC MEGA-CITY

"CITIES: ENORMOUS LIBRARIES FILLED NOT WITH BOOKS BUT WITH PEOPLE." ALAIN DE BOTTON

He was one of the collaborators on The Polycentric Metropolis. “We studied the internal structures of these cities and compared them to the relationships between cities in these mega-city regions.

FASCINATED BY CITIES “An important factor is transport. Cities are meant to bring people together. But if you put too many people in one place, you push them apart. Cities that are too large endanger their main purpose: the opportunities for easy communications. They become as impenetrable as jungles or deserts.”

PETER HALL

POLYCENTRICITY “In all mega-city regions, services are the engine of the economy. One of the conclusions is that the Randstad is not as polycentric as we thought, because Amsterdam is becoming increasingly dominant. RELATIVE DECLINE OF CITIES Europe is witnessing the relative decline of its cities. “It’s all about the growth of places that are located in the network of links around the larger cities. What happens outside this area? A very small number of ‘core cities’ are relatively successful at the moment. But around these cities, the urban regions with old industrial places are getting smaller. NEW GEOGRAPHY Is a new economic geography, a new social geography and a new demographic geography, with an ethnic component. Another challenge relates to culture. “Large numbers of cultures and lifestyles are moving into cities. It is striking that immigrants and native-born people are moving in from everywhere in similar numbers.” CULTURAL COMPONENT “You can’t just carry on building. There comes a time when you have to switch to the economic component, to a more social infrastructure.” The main problem is that we are not reaching a section of the people. In the long term, diversity will prove to be an advantage. “It will result in mixing, in a kind of clash of cultures. And that is positive; it will lead to something exciting. But a lot of work will be needed before we can pluck the fruits.”

THE CONNECTED CITY A simple concept that is repeated regularly possesses a certain intelligence and beauty. “The role of architecture and urban planning is to limit the risk of a lack of connectedness.” THE LIVELY CITY "In a good city, transport and architecture link up with each other.” THE CITY AS KNOWLEDGE CENTRE “Cities are not for everybody. But internet, the telephone and ordinary mail can’t replace the city, because these channels can only do certain things. Meeting people face-to-face is, and will remain, important. We are facing the issue of how to make economically prosperous cities cheaper when cities becoming cheaper is generally a sign of decline. THE COMMERCIAL CITY Commerce involves another danger, in the retail sector. Large chains push out interesting local shops. This makes cities less attractive and public life more monotonous. INVESTING IN PEOPLE Urban regeneration must go beyond the purely physical: it also has to be psychological and cultural. Investments must give individuals the opportunity to develop. A LOCAL VERSION OF THE INTERNET AS A MEETING PLACE The more they do, the better. If things can be done locally, then they should be. Government can encourage urban development by introducing more flexible regulations. Individuals have a lot of energy, but you have to create a playing field where that energy can be exploited.


PETER

HALL

ALAIN

DE

BOTTON

141

CULTURAL COMPONENT

DEMOGRAPHI C GEOGRAPHY FUNCTIONAL POLICENTRICITY

DIVERSITY = ADVANTAGE PRIVATE INVESTOR NATURAL GROWTH

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY CORE CITIY

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

SERVICE-BASED ECONOMY

FACE TO FACE CONTACT

MIXING

SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY

TIME

MORPHOLOGICAL POLICENTRICITY PHYSICAL POLICENTRICITY CENTRE OF KNOWLEDGE

GOOD ARCHITECTURE PHSYCOLOGICAL REGENERATION NO LONELINESS CONNECTION

LIVELY ATMOSPHERE

CULTURAL REGENERATION

SMALL CITY

LINK TRANSPORT - ARCHITECTURE

LOCAL SHOP ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCUTRE FACE TO FACE CONTACT

MOBILITY

CITY CHEAPER

COHESION

REGULARITY

TAX BENEFIT


142

WOLFGANG

KIL

RUDY

PUBLIC RESOURCE

PLANNING BY WAITING

POLITICAL EXPERT

STROINK

NEW KIND OF VALUE ATTRACTIVE FEATURE

CENTRALIZATION OF PRODUCTION

CRITICAL MASS

CULTURAL COMPONENT

COLLABORATION SHRINKING CITY

ARTISTIC STIMULI CULTURAL QUALITY

ECONOMIC MOTIVES FLEXIBLE APPROACH QUALITY DEMAND BALANCE: GROWTH/DEVELOPMENT

CITY IS TEMPORARY

ECONOMIC QUALITY

CREATIVITY

SPECIFIC INTERVENTION STRATEGIC PLAN STRUCTURED GROWTH UNDERSTAND THE STRUCTURE

PRIVATE INITIATIVE

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

IDEAL CITY

URBAN COALITION SOCIAL QUALITY DIALOGUE WITH THE MARKET PROGRAMME

CREATIVE MIND

MANAGE THE EXCESS CAPACITY

EXPERIMENTAL PLANNING ATTENTION TO STRENGHTLESS


THE SHRINKING CITY

WOLFGANG KIL

THE CITY OF PRIVATE INITIATIVE RUDY STROINK

The familiar distinctions between the capitalist, communist and He quotes Jane Jacobs: “You needed a programme first: an developing countries (the ‘first’, ‘second’ and ‘third’ worlds) economic, social and community structure to give shape to the city.” have disappeared. A NEW REVOLUTION? Throughout Europe, numerous cities are shrinking. We need new planning approaches to replace our current development and growth models. The gap between richer, expanding cities and shrinking areas is continually increasing. Some cities are getting smaller, but they are managing to maintain their ‘critical mass’ so that they can remain strong enough to ‘survive’. DISPLACEMENT OF PRODUCTION More changes will result from the globalisation of the world economy, which establishes new hot spots of economic success. LOSERS There isn’t a single good method for dealing with shrinkage. Every city has to find its own way. Each city should have its own attractive features for residents and visitors. Only Venice can exist by being beautiful! HIGHLY TRAINED EXPERTS People with few qualifications and the less prosperous are in urgent need of our attention. We will have to work on the stabilisation of what we have and manage the excess capacity. COMPLETELY EMPTY STREETS Property and land values drop towards zero. So value capturing or value oriented planning are not viable options in shrinking cities. Who will be the new actors and what will be the new urban structures, the new urban sense? Creative minds will come up with lifestyle ideas instead of business plans. I hope they will generate totally new kinds of value! LEIPZIG AS A SHINING EXAMPLE The local government asked young creative bureaus to come up with experimental planning. The planning should not be directed by predetermined objectives.

ECONOMIC MOTIVES The development of the social structure of the city is primarily determined by the economy. Urban planners and architects believe that the world changes when they make something that pleases the eye. They’re wrong. All you can do is provide the conditions, make adjustments and demand quality. THE CITY AS PRIVATE INITIATIVE As an experiment, we should try leaving most things - or even everything - to the market. We’ve been trying it the other way round for long enough. There is equilibrium to be found in steady growth. TECHNOCRACY The worst thing is that the business community has adapted completely to this system because it can’t manage without the government. As a result, there is a lack of creativity in the market and the system has become very technocratic. The government has become a multi-headed monster that is turning into an urban monopolist. Everything is governed and planned on the basis of risk management. We need to look for the tricky balance between dreams and practical implementation. Let’s stop being careful and start getting exciting! STRATEGIC PLANS The government’s tasks when it comes to making plans are: encouraging urban coalitions, identifying quality requirements and introducing regional structures. People have to be trained in visualising and describing quality: economic, social and cultural. EVERYTHING IS TEMPORARY We have to learn to develop the process strategically. This is only possible if there is a final quality goal that you can aim for. The entire city is temporary. Cities will never be completed, however hard we work on them.

143


144

THE CITY IS WORTH EUROPEAN CITY: DRIVER INVESTING IN! JOOST SCHRIJNEN OF CHANGE DANUTA HÜBNER If the Lisbon agreement (encouraging the knowledge economy) She sees cities as vital for shaping the future of Europe. She and Gothenburg agreement (sustainable development) are to pleads for them to share their knowledge better. “The most succeed, the city must play a central role! important challenge for all of us who care for cities, is to understand that there is a huge capital accumulated in Europe in the THE REALIGNMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE CITY In the sense of success stories. I think that SHARING with others, past years, it is not only cities that have changed in nature, the networking, opening yourselves to others, wanting to work with surroundings of the city have also altered: in the west of the them – this is I think the most important challenge for all of us.” Netherlands, we spoke of autonomous cities in a green setting. Now the cities in the western Netherlands, including the green CITIES AS DRIVERS FOR CHANGE AND GROWTH Relation spaces, are part of a larger whole: the Randstad' which has between cities and economy. “Cities in Europe will be the major again taken its place among the world's metropolises. But that drivers for change and growth. If we are serious about innovais not how the residents see their city. They still see the city as tion, we know this in fact that the place where it is born are the an autonomous phenomenon and not as part of a larger whole. cities and their surrounding regions.” She believes the EU was THE DYNAMICS OF URBAN IDENTITY There is a strange focussed too much for too long on agriculture and that a shift in chemistry between the physical appearance of cities and European investments is necessary, and helped get more of the cultural life. Both were fixed long ago and they still play a role in total budget focussed on urban development. how people see cities. The entire metropolis concept is unique in STRONG REGIONS NEED STRONG CITIES, STRONG CITIES the world, precisely because of the various identities: the whole is NEED STRONG REGIONS It is not only about investments into more than the sum of the parts. cities, but also their surrounding regions. “The space outside INVESTMENTS IN SPACE In the past years, most investments cities should not just be treated by the city as a place where you were made in the outlying areas of the city. Now, the money will go on Friday and you leave on Sunday night, because those mostly go to the development of existing urban space. There will people who live outside, they also have to live between Monday be a search for new functions. and Friday.” THE INTEGRAL APPROACH Investments in outlying areas had PEOPLE BEFORE PHYSICAL INVESTMENTS Investments into another far-reaching effect: the strict separation between home cities should not be physical only, but social, cultural and and work. Living, working and mobility are once again being economic too. She finds it’s important to review the relation seen as a whole. between the so-called ‘old’ and ‘new’ member states of the EU. LESSONS LEARNT The city needs smart coalitions for which “We should forget about this assumption that the new member completely new skills have to be developed. It is the task of states can only learn from the old. In my view, the learning government to monitor quality. Above all, urban development should go both ways. Networks that work both ways is an must be highly imaginative and creative in order to produce new important key for success of cities in the future.” urban concepts of a highly distinctive nature.


JOOST

SCHRIJNEN

DANUTA

INVESTMENT IN SPACE COMPACT

HÜBNER

145

CULTURAL EXCHANGE

LEARNING FROM HISTORY

DIVERSITY

IMAGINATIVE & CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT

INVESTMENT IN PEOPLE

PRIVATE INITIATIVE

DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING URBAN SPACE

SEARCH FOR NEW FUNCTION

COMPACT

SMART COALITION AUTONOMOUS CITY

URBAN IDENTITY LEARNING FROM HISTORY CHANGE GROWTH ECONOMICAL INVESTMENT

EU

INNOVATION CULTURAL INVESTMENT

LINK REGION - CITY

PHYSICAL INVESTMENT

MORE BUDGET FOR CITY

SOCIAL INVESTMENT

NETWORKING

COLLABORATION

LESS BUDGET FOR AGRICULTURAL

GREEN SPACE INTEGRAL APPROACH


146

ALAN

SIMPSON

ARNOLD

REIJNDORP

COMBINE AESTHETIC/SUSTAINABLE LOCAL ENERGY NETWORK

EQUITY

CLIMATE CHANGE = CREATIVE RESOURCE

SUSTAINABLE APPROACH PARTICIPATORY PLANNING LOCAL ENERGY NETWORK SHARING BENEFIT RENEWABLE ENERGY PLAN FOR A DIFFERENT FUTUTRE

URBAN REGENERATION GOOD GOVERNANCE VISION SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY

RADI CAL CHANGE ESTABLISHING COOPERATIVE NEW STANDARD OF ENERGY GENERATION SELF-SUSTAINING SOLUTION

SOCIAL DYNAMISM

CITY = EMANCIPATION MACHINE URBAN FACILITIES QUALITY SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS MIDDLE CLASS = SOCIAL CAPITAL LINKING NETWORK

SOCIAL MOBILITY

STRATEGIC APPROACH

INVESTMENT IN URBAN REGENERATION

COLLABORATION

REORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION

CREATIVITY

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS


THE CITY THAT DOESN’T STEAL FROM ITS CHILDREN

THE CITY AS CREATIVE EMANCIPATION MACHINE

Every new home should have to supply at least ten per cent of its own energy, have a water reuse system and be equipped with a recycling system. In this age, we should actually be thinking further than our own boxes and looking for renewable energy without waste. We need visions to make our cities sustainable.

“New links, new networks are constantly being established. I believe that is the innovative quality of urban life. Administrators should be focusing on dynamics and linking those networks.”

ALAN SIMPSON

CLIMATE CHANGE We can’t sit around and wait. Large amounts of rain now fall in short periods of time. The drains can’t cope, water costs are spiralling, sea levels are rising and we give little thought of how to turn this from a problem to a creative resource. CONSUMERS AND PARASITES Humanity thinks we can carry on using fossil fuels forever, that is madness. We are sacrificing future generations and endangering the planet. We have to plan and build for a different future. SELF-SUSTAINING SOLUTIONS One of the solutions is for cities to take ownership of their own energy supply, and to think up self-sustaining and creative solutions for dealing with energy flows. The energy input has to be in proportion to the energy output. We need to work together, in local energy networks. Stand-alone solutions to climate change won’t work. GOOD GOVERNANCE Good governance means listening to city residents. But their voices are often drowned out by the shortterm nature of markets. At present, change is not driven by political leaders. The real pressure for change is from communities and social movements who can see how life itself is threatened. MESSAGE FOR URBAN REGENERATION The challenge is to combine the aesthetic with the sustainable, in ways that require buildings to become answers to the climate change challenge rather than just contributions to the problem.

ARNOLD REIJNDORP

CREATIVE CITY The creative city repeatedly succeeds in tapping in to new potential and finding creative, innovative and sustainable solutions to problems. The challenge is to link different networks. That is where the creative class has a role to play. New links can create additional dynamism of an evolving kind.” MIDDLE CLASS The city is just like a continuous performance: people come into the city when they are poor, climb up the social ladder and leave. “But if the entire lower middle class moves out, that represents a loss. Some of the middle class actually want to stay in the city! They want a lively city, with enough facilities and good schools.” RESIDENTIAL CITY To keep people in the city, “Cities should concentrate more on the city as the residential city, where lots of groups come together. That is much more than housing alone.” SOCIAL DYNAMISM AS GUIDING PRINCIPLE “Supporting people’s talents: take social dynamism as the guiding principle and look for new forms of collaboration between housing corporations, schools, sports clubs, associations and educational institutions.” A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO URBAN FACILITIES Cities are not about collectivity. Cities actually need to be based on conflict, adaptability and dynamism.” Adopt a much more strategic approach to urban facilities, more than a strategy for urban public spaces, education, links between networks and culture.

147


148

THE CITY AS PREDICTOR OF CITY OF UNPLANNED THE FUTURE REINIER DE GRAAF ENERGY ALEXANDER RINNOOY KAN “Investment in the city is important because the city is ‘the BATTLEFIELD’ where all today’s important issues are fought out. In terms of population profile and economic problems, cities were the first to come up against a certain inequality in society. The city is where integration has to happen. There, you can see that integration can also work out in unexpected ways. Cities have got so much to tell us.”

The intellectual and cultural innovation generated by cities is important. People can meet each other there, stimulate and motivate each other. The economic and cultural opportunities are definitely in the urban area. A city has to go through a clear development process. Visible decline is a part of that process. Reversing the decline often results in decline elsewhere. That is essential for a living city.

THE MARKET NEEDS CORRECTION If we stop putting money into cities, government will be pushed out of the driving seat. In London “If we leave the initiative to the market and forces it to do what he wants using statutory regulations and instruments. The market is also forced to invest in projects that serve broader interests, such as the socio-economic structure and the physical infrastructure.” Also ordinary citizens have to invest in cities. SHRINKING CITIES Instead of population growth, we should be using partial depopulation as a driver and not simply fill up these spaces with urban developments. “You can also use the urban porosity created by shrinkage to shape integration. Places that shrink fastest can pioneer smart integration, with minorities becoming majorities. In these cases, strange hybrid forms are created that bring together the city and landscapes.” PLANNING IS A QUESTION OF LOOKING, CLASSIFYING AND ADJUSTING “Now, more than ever, it is important to observe developments carefully and then to draw up your plan.” TOO MANY EGOS IN EUROPE “Spatial design should be an issue at the level of the EU. That would make advances possible.”

HUMAN INTERACTION Often, the problem with blueprints like this is that the scale is too large and that human interaction is eliminated as a result. And it is precisely this human dimension that is important. You need something that people can embrace. METICOLOUS MAINTENANCE you tell people that we are devoting care and attention to our built environment and that we won’t let it go to the dogs. On the economic side, the trick is to establish the right balance between housing, jobs and shops. THE RANDSTAD AS AN ENTITY The “Green Heart” of Holland plays an important role here. We still haven’t found the right mix of urban surroundings and outside areas. And it is precisely in these areas that a need arises for a highquality living environment. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INVESTMENTS Public parties must create the conditions that encourage the requisite private investments. THE CITY AS A CREATIVE WORKSHOP It should be pointed out that a lot of economic and creative energy arises naturally in an unplanned way. The government needs to train itself in identifying and providing facilities for these developments. Politicians and civil servants must provide direction and, above all, listen properly to what residents have to say.


REINIER DE GRAAF — ALEXANDER RINNOOY KAN INTEGRATION

ORDINARY CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

149

SHRINKAGECITIES = TERRITORIAL AVANT GARDES CITY = ENTITY

SPATIAL DESIGN = STRATEGIC PLANNING

HYBRID FORM

MARKET

DEPOPULATION = DRIVER OF CHANGE SPATIAL DESIGN

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

CITY = PLACE OF REALITY BALANCE: PUBLIC/PRIVATE INVESTMENT

ECONOMICAL OPPORTUNITY

DEVELOPMENT = PERFECTION & IMPERFECTION

KEEP WORK IN THE CITY

HUMAN DIMENSION OF DESIGNING

MIX: URBAN SURROUNDING/AUTSIDE AREA

GREEN HEART

METICULOUS MAINTENANCE

BALANCE: HOUSING/SHOP/JOB

HUMAN INTERACTION

CREATIVE WORKSHOP

FACILITIES FOR CREATIVE INDUSTRY

CULTURAL OPPORTUNITY

RIGHT SCALE


150

TRACY METZ — HARDT-WALTHERR HÄMER LEISURE: SOCIAL IMPACT

URBAN RENOVATION = CREATIVE TRANSFORMATION

BALANCE: RESIDENT/VISITOR BALANCE: CENTRALIZED/DECENTRALIZED AUTHORITIY LEISURE: SPATIAL IMPACT OUT-MIGRATION LIFE STYLE PRIVATE INVESTMENT ON PUBLIC SPACE

CREATIVE DENSIFICATION

INNOVATION

LEISURE

FLEXIBLE PUBLIC SPACE

SHRINKING CITY SMALL SCALE BALANCE: PUBLIC/PRIVATE INVESTMENT

RESIDENTS PARTICIPATION

URBAN REGENERATION+ RENEWAL - DEMOLITION NO QUICK PROFIT

BUSINESS COMMUNITY INTELLIGENCE AND CULTURE TO SURVIVE DIALOGUE BETWEEN OLD AND NEW

ACTIVATION OF SOCIAL POTENTIAL


NO RANDOM DEMOLITION IN URBAN RENEWAL DISTRICTS TRACY METZ

THE CAUTIOUS CITY

HARDT-WALTHERR HÄMER

She is opposed to random demolition in urban renewal districts. Quick profits are fatal for city culture. I'm in favour of renovating “Demolition destroys entire social networks that can be buildings and getting residents and the business community involved in the this process. preserved with creative transformation.” PUBLIC SPACE “This is an important challenge for government. The public sector will have to get to grips with the private sector, or rather join forces with it, to give shape to public space. If there is a clear framework, private resources can easily be used to serve the common good.” LEISURE It is important for cities to find a good balance between visitors and residents. “People want intensity in the city, to feel the experience. Residents and visitors have the same motives. The difference is that residents want to appropriate the intensity. But cities must also avoid a situation in which they become alienated from the current inhabitants by focusing too much on new residents.” LARGE-SCALE RETAIL OUTLETS AND RIOTING “In the Netherlands, there is little demand for large-scale retail outlets on city outskirts. This is a result of the close-knit network of shops and the Dutch habit of shopping on an almost daily basis.” Riots are also not likely here. “There are no isolated, impersonal enclaves for the poor, of the kind often found in other countries.” ROOM FOR INNOVATION Creative densification is a more intensive and more expensive process but, in the end, it leads to better results. SHRINKING CITIES It is still unclear what the consequences of shrinking cities will be in the Dutch circumstances. “It is possible that a fall in the population, combined with economic growth, is actually a good sign for a city.”

A CHANGE OF COURSE We carried out a study showing that renewal was in fact cheaper than demolition and rebuilding. The project in Charlottenburg became a source of inspiration for a completely different approach to large-scale renewal. THE IBA ALT: FROM PILOT PROJECT TO MOVEMENT It was the first time that urban renewal followed the residents and old urban patterns instead of driving the people out and destroying the old urban patterns. From that point onwards, there was to be dialogue between new and old. THE POOR ALWAYS SUFFER MOST Poor people in the cities have no resources. They are weak in social terms. What matters is to activate the social potential in an area and to help the residents to find solutions, not to solve the problems for them. GHOST TOWNS In cities, everything is about negotiation and exchanges. More and more companies are interested only in profits. They descend on cities like locusts and destroy the culture, the daily contacts between people. Don't get me wrong: profit is not a dirty word; it's quick profits I don't like. THINK! We can't compete with the economic growth of Asian cities. Our opportunities are to be found in development, culture and in our intelligence. It would be a historical mistake not to use these assets. A HOPEFUL EXAMPLE FOR THE THE FUTURE We can only prevent the destruction of culture by taking concrete action. As soon as there are protests, there is hope. We would be wrong not to put up opposition.

151


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LOCAL ENER GY NETWOR K

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residents and the business community involved in the this process.’


REFERENCES

2.2 DATABASE Bionis Sustainable Cities Siemens Scenario Recyclicity Ask Nature The Smarter City

ABERDEEN CITY GARDEN Diller Scofidio + Renfro

BIOACTIVE ENVELOPE + EXTENDED METABOLISM ecoLogicStudio _ MaxDiV HOUSE

ALMERE 2.0 MVRDV


156

DATABASE

DATABASES (concerning atoms & bits)

transforms data into knowledge DATABASES aims to help improve our understanding of the world by putting together the pieces that our scientific disciplines have helped to pull apart.


DATABASE

157

CLOUD COMPUTING: A VARIETY OF PATTERNS

APPLICATION AS A SERVICES

SAAS

SOFTWARE AS A SERVICES

INTEGRATION, DATABASES, COMPUTING TIME

PAAS

PLATFORM AS A SERVICES

VIRTUALIZATION MEMORY COMPUTING IN A NETWORK

IAAS

INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICES

TRADITIONAL IT

PRIVATE CLOUD

VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD

SOCIAL NETWORKS


158


toms ato sa

ms atom ato

BIONIS

s atoms om

atoms at ms

WHAT IS BIONIS? HISTORY The network was set up in Spring 2002, with the help of UK EPSRC funding. There were 19 founder members from Industry and Academia throughout the UK. Membership is now well over 500 worldwide. MISSION STATEMENT To promote the application of Biomimetics (Design Inspired by Nature) in products and services and its use in education and training OBJECTIVES - to market the biomimetics approach to attract investment and partnership in research and applications. - to co-ordinate and enhance interchange among researchers and between the research, industrial and finance sectors. - to explore academic-industrial collaborations for future funding. - to carry out educational work to mainstream an understanding of the synergy between the human interest and the knowledge value held in the natural world. FOCUS AREAS - Energy and resource efficiency - Elimination and control of hazardous substances - Use of renewable and biodegradable materials - Added functionality in materials and structures - Biomedical & Pharmaceutical applications - Architecture and design, intelligent buildings - Biologically inspired decision-making, optimisation strategies - Robotics, fluid dynamics, flying, swimming, drag - Materials & lightweight structures - Sensors, information processing, communications - Packaging - Surfaces

SOURCE http://www.reading.ac.uk/bionis/

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toms ato sa

SUSTAINABLE CITIES

ms atom ato

160

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atoms at ms

WEBSITE SCREENSHOT


toms ato sa

SUSTAINABLE CITIES

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BEST PRACTICE DATABASE

ORGANIZATION

Sustainable Cities is a database providing knowledge and inspiration on the sustainable planning of cities and best practise cases from Danish and international cities. The database was launched at the 11th International Architecture Biennale in Venice in September 2008.

The Sustainable Cities database is created and operated by DAC Danish Architecture Centre. The DAC's vision and mission are based on the partnership between Realdania, the Danish Ministry of Culture and the Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. The vision and the mission set the ambition level for the DAC's activities. The DAC's objective and legitimacy consist in promoting co-operation across the professional boundaries of the construction sector and architecture so that the players, working together, are able to contribute to the forward-looking development of architecture and construction specifically and Danish society in general. VISION It is the DAC's vision to be a globally-oriented visionarium for cultural and commercial development and for dissemination of Danish architecture and construction. The DAC is a place that provides access to, and tests visions for, the future physical organisation of society and of the production mechanisms that must contribute to high quality in physical environments. This is done against the background of Danish participation in global culture and economy. The aim with the term "visionarium" is that this knowledge is disseminated through visualising concepts that make the visions available to everyone. MISSION It is the DAC's mission to initiate partnerships that develop and disseminate Danish architecture and construction with a view to creating cultural and commercial value. The objective with the partnership concept is a wide range of more or less formalised collaborations between the DAC and construction-sector players. Partnerships may, for example, involve co-operation in the reciprocal exchange of knowledge and/or economic support.

The aim of Sustainable Cities™ is to inspire politicians, architects, city planners, businesses, NGO’s and citizens all over the world to learn from each other and to collaborate with each other to transform the worlds less sustainable cities into the more sustainable cities of future. Sustainable Cities™ collects and disseminates knowledge on cases and initiatives from cities all over the world. You will find inspiration in twelve categories; Energy, transport, water, food, waste, green, social, buildings, masterplans, education, economy and health. CRITERIA In late 2010, the database had more than 140 cases from all over the world, and new cases are continually added. The criteria for the initial selection of the cases are: - educational and inspirational (best practise cases with a learning aspect) - thematic (divided into 12 categories) - broad range of issues within each category The database builds on a 3-legged sustainability concept (social – economic – environmental). SOURCE http://sustainablecities.dk/

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SIEMENS SCENARIOS

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PICTURES OF THE FUTURE: TRENDS The complex future scenarios developed by Siemens experts in formulating what they call "Pictures of the Future" have one thing in common: They illustrate the great extent to which information and communications technologies will impact all areas of life in the future. The holistic future scenarios, or ”Pictures of the Future”, developed by Siemens researchers together with experts from the company's Groups clearly illustrate that the road to the information society is paved with far more than just a series of technological milestones, new microchips, new displays, cell phones, new networks and new services. Virtually all key socio-economic trends produce their own information technology (IT) solutions — and these trends, in turn, are sometimes decisively influenced by such technologies.

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SOURCE http://www.siemens.com/innovation

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2012Architecten _ CYCLIFIER In the last years there is a growing awareness of the importance of sustainability and that our society needs to be transformed to get rid of current unsustainable practices like transporting large amounts of goods and using up all the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources. Many different movements exist that try to bring about this transformation. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Recyclicity creates interaction between current flows by intelligently linking them, helping to regenerate districts into dynamic ecosystems.â&#x20AC;? The Recyclicity research that is presented in this report brings all these fields together and tries to solve all the current problems with unsustainability in an integral way and come up with truly sustainable urban areas. The main challenge that was addressed in the research was to find a strategy for more integral planning of the available space in urban areas where the different functions of nature and society reinforce each other instead of fighting each other. In this strategy the goal is to

connect local material and energy loops with each other and to adapt the system to local circumstances; the technical feasibility of at least one new material or energy loop should be proven. The research method used in the research was to take lessons from ecosystems and to apply design strategies that come forth from the field of industrial ecology. The existing literature of industrial ecology was studied, and based on this literature a design sequence was formulated. Comparing the results of the two case studies, it is clear that some common cyclifiers were used in both. These include local food production and local water purification with the use of a natural helophyte filter. The local energy systems that were designed consisted of an energy source, energy production, and energy storage. Next, the potential of local and regional materials was recognised; for example using construction materials like bricks and window fences from buildings that will be demolished. SOURCE http://www.cyclifier.org


URBAN METABOLISM CONCEPT

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WHAT IS CYCLIFIER?

Cyclifiers: an investigation into actors that enable intra-urban Physical, Information and Strategic Layers of the City Many potential resources are constantly moving into and out of metabolism a city system. In order to gain an understanding of this ‘urban metabolism’, 2012Architecten has conceptually mapped The term “cyclifier” is introduced to identify a typology of actors available resources in layers. A primary layer consists of in the built environment that enable sustainable urban systems. physical movements of energy and materials, such as heat, The research began by investigating case studies of practical traffic, water, materials, products, buildings and food. The applications of industrial ecology within architecture, infrastrucinformation layers contain flows of knowledge, money, material ture, and planning. Patterns of starting conditions, roles, and and company culture. This includes different types of data that material flows were found in the cases that led to a definition of are flowing through different channels in the urban system and cyclifiers as a scale-less typology. Cyclifiers are defined as are used in short‐term economic decisions, driving exchange of metabolic processors that operate in ecological niches; create feedstock, products, utilities and services. Next to knowledge symbiotic connections; and increase resource efficiency, and company culture, money is included here because its role in thereby decreasing system-level inputs and outputs and society is often one of information; for example, the price of a intensifying the use of space. The potential utility of the term could be to provide a platform in the discourse of urban systems product gives information about its value in society. The strategic layers relate to flows of people, nature and labour. for actors that improve intra-urban metabolism. The methodolThis includes all private and public stakeholders that decide on ogy used for investigating potential cyclifier cases uses the and influence the structure of the network and drive its evolution industrial ecology methods of material flow analysis and over time by providing feedback loops. Strategies for improved ecological systems theory. The results of the research show networks in urban supply chains can either be resource based themes of ecological niches; ecological roles; inputs and or target based; that is, based on what is already offered in the outputs; and risks. It was found that cyclifiers operate in system or what is ideally demanded from it (a utopian blueprint). ecological niches with at least two dimensions: material and Because the firm does not believe in tabula rasa development or policy; cyclifiers perform activities including supply-demand that total autarkies contribute to sustainable communities, its matching and transformational processing. Through this Recyclicity concept favours instead the resourcebased strategy. research, the ambition is to be able to elucidate the type of actor that creates conditions within the built environment leading The new website Cyclifier.org shows 80 examples of creative towards industrial ecology. The intention of creating the new urban interventions to (re)establish links between wasteterm was to be able to identify this specific type of actors such flows and resources for 15 different flow-types. This that the proposed typology could be methodologically analyzed, platform is open to everyone to learn and share about new discussed, and designed. In this way, the term cyclifier seeks to connecting concepts. Cyclifier.org is an online community of extend the industrial ecology discourse by reifying the class of innovators that enable local exchanges of resource flows. actors contributing to sustainable urban systems.

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WHAT IS ASKNATURE?

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WHAT IS BIOMIMICRY?

Imagine 3.8 billion years of design brilliance available for free, Biomimicry (from bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to at the moment of creation, to any sustainability innovator in the imitate) is a design discipline that seeks sustainable solutions by world. emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies, e.g., a solar cell inspired by a leaf. The core idea is that Nature, imagiImagine nature's most elegant ideas organized by design and native by necessity, has already solved many of the problems engineering function, so you can enter "filter salt from water" we are grappling with: energy, food production, climate control, and see how mangroves, penguins, and shorebirds desalinate non-toxic chemistry, transportation, packaging, and a whole lot more. without fossil fuels. Animals, plants, and microbes are the consummate engineers. They have found what works, what is appropriate, and most Now imagine you can meet the people who have studied these importantly, what lasts here on Earth. Instead of harvesting organisms, and together you can create the next great organisms, or domesticating them to accomplish a function for us, biomimicry differs from other "bio-approaches" by consultbio-inspired solution. ing organisms and ecosystems and applying the underlying That's the idea behind AskNature, the online inspiration source design principles to our innovations. This approach introduces for the biomimicry community. Think of it as your home an entirely new realm for entrepreneurship that can contribute habitat—whether you're a biologist who wants to share what not only innovative designs and solutions to our problems but you know about an amazing organism, or a designer, architect, also to awakening people to the importance of conserving the engineer, or chemist looking for planet-friendly solutions. biodiversity on Earth that has so much yet to teach us. AskNature is where biology and design cross-pollinate, so bio-inspired breakthroughs can be born. LOOKING AT NATURE AS MODEL, MEASURE, AND MENTOR Consciously emulating Nature's genius means viewing and Thanks to our sponsors, AskNature is a free, open source valuing the natural world differently. In biomimicry, we look at project, built by the community and for the community. Our goal Nature as model, mentor, and measure. is to connect innovative minds with life's best ideas, and in the Model: Biomimicry is a new science that studies Nature’s process, inspire technologies that create conditions conducive models and then emulates these forms, processes, systems, to life. To accomplish this, we're doing something that has never and strategies to solve human problems – sustainably. been done—organizing the world's biological literature by Mentor: Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature. function. It introduces an era based not on what we can extract from the natural world, but what we can learn from it. Measure: Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the sustainability of our innovations. After 3.8 billion years of SOURCE evolution, Nature has learned what works and what lasts. http://www.asknature.org/

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WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE SMARTER?

SIX IMPERATIVES FOR A SMARTER PLANET

We are living in a time of turbulent change, putting pressure on businesses of all sizes and across all industries. The world is also changing, in other fundamental ways. It is becoming smaller, flatter and smarter. As a result, leaders across all types of enterprises are faced with new challenges in order to remain successful. Those organizations who address these challenges are best positioned to outperform in the "Decade of Smart."

TURN INFORMATION INTO INSIGHTS Organizations are overwhelmed with data. On a smarter planet, the most successful organizations can turn this data into valuable insights. With advanced analytics, you can open new opportunities for business optimization by enabling rapid, informed and confident decisions and actions. DRIVE ENTERPRISE OPERATIONS’ EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY In a slow growth environment, organizations must do more with less. To succeed, your organization must drive continuous and sustainable operational improvements to lower costs and reduce complexity. INCREASE AGILITY On a smarter planet, change is the only constant. The most responsive and agile firms—supported with innovative business models and processes—will be positioned to lead their industries and surpass their competition. CONNECT AND EMPOWER PEOPLE Innovation comes from collaboration. And collaboration comes from everywhere. Firms that embrace the power of social technologies will unleash the productivity and innovation throughout the entire value chain—from employees to partners to suppliers to customers. ENABLE BUSINESS SERVICE AND PRODUCT INNOVATION Manufacturers are faced with heightened expectations for smarter products, smarter services and more innovative capabilities—all while creating more personalized experiences across the entire product and service life cycle. MANAGE RISK, SECURITY AND COMPLIANCE A range of risks exist on a smarter planet: security, credit, market, operational, environmental and compliance risks...to name a few. With the right process and system improvements, leaders can identify, assess and monitor these risks to mitigate and prevent them.

THE SIGNS OF A SMARTER PLANET ARE ALL AROUND US Data is being captured today as never before. It reveals everything from large and systemic patterns—of global markets, workflows, national infrastructures and natural systems—to the location, temperature, security and condition of every item in a global supply chain. At IBM, we want that intelligence to be infused into the systems and processes that make the world work—into things no one would recognize as computers: cars, appliances, roadways, power grids, clothes, even natural systems such as agriculture and waterways. Since 2008, we've talked about what it takes to build a smarter planet. We've learned that our companies, our cities and our world are complex systems-indeed, systems of systems. Advancing these systems to be more instrumented, intelligent and interconnected requires a profound shift in management and governance toward far more collaborative approaches.

SOURCE http://www.ibm.com/us/en/

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ABERDEEN CITY GARDEN PROJECT Diller Scofidio + Renfro _ GRANITE WEB New york-based firm Diller Scofidio + Renfro in collaboration with scottish practice Keppie Design and philadelphia-based landscape architecture practice Olin Studio have produced the winning competition proposal 'granite web', a city garden for the heart of Aberdeen, United Kingdom. A fusion of nature and culture, the cultural center is integrated into a three dimensional network of connections evoking the form of an elastic web. Extending into the encompassing urban context, the pathways are derived from relevant site lines to support park and cultural activities while merging the existing and contemporary layers of the city. Placed upon a historic river site, the permeable parkland will reveal the multi-tiered archeology while connecting the city's future as a technological hub for art, leisure and commerce. Arching tendons become pedestrian bridges, connecting union terrace across denburn road and belmont street while leaving space below for exhibitions, events and performance areas. To the sculpted green space creates microclimates for quiet contemplation to meadows for large gatherings. Voids between plant groupings and paths bring unexpected swaths of natural daylight to the street and interior rooms below. Three landscape elements include 'the brae' hillock with a planted overlook, 'the butterfly' public entrance and 'the forum' bandshell and lawn for performances. CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM

SOURCE http://www.designboom.com

SITE PLAN

AERIAL VIEW


ABERDEEN CITY GARDEN PROJECT

173 Charles Landry, author of The Creative City and a member of the Jury added: ‘This is a design that can act as the catalyst to regenerate the whole of Aberdeen’s city center with significant economic impacts for the entire city. Truly inspiring, it can put Aberdeen onto the global radar screen – very, very few designs can do this. In time it will be surely loved by locals and visitors alike. Without this type of transformational change, Aberdeen will struggle to meet the challenges it will inevitably face in the future.’ THE FORUM

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ABERDEEN CITY GARDEN PROJECT BRIEF The successful proposal, popularly known as the Granite Web, celebrates the threedimensional aspects of Aberdeen, reinterpreting the topography of the Denburn Valley and the dramatic cascade of the existing Union Terrace Gardens while creating graceful new spaces and structures that contribute to a memorable and thrilling contemporary design. It provides additional usable garden space, a landmark cultural and arts center, and promotes the City’s historic streets, revealing the arches, vaults and bridge on Union Street and retaining the balustrades and statues which are part of Aberdeen’s legacy. The Jury’s decision represents a breakthrough for DS+R giving them their first major European design competition win. DS+R Partner, Charles Renfro said the practice was very excited about ‘jumping across the pond’, commenting: ‘The steep competition drove us that much harder to do more research, to understand the site more thoroughly, to dig deeper into our creative reserve and our technical expertise to find a daring, thoughtful and beautiful solution.’ The winning design scored higher in all key areas of the brief including, creation of more new space, cost and viability in construction and on‐going maintenance, environmental sustainability and energy efficiency. THE DIAMOND

SOURCE http://www.archivenue.com


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BIOACTIVE ENVELOPE + EXTENDED METABOLISM ecoLogicStudio _ MaxDiV HOUSE Hyper agricultural landscape The countryside has a structure visible from the satellite that reflects its social and ecological balance and its relationship with the city evolved over the centuries. Recent developments, related to the digital age, are changing so fast these balances, creating risks of involution urban decline and landscape, among them the emergence of sub-urban areas, often characterized by social segregation and landscaping, as well as a strong lack of identity and architectural quality. Starting from the meaning "thick ground" and "ecoLogical condenserâ&#x20AC;? the concept seeks to imagine the level zero of the project as a three-dimensional surface that can accommodate programmatic functions of social and community and connect them to a series of intensified crop production processes. This concept of level zero allows to manage in an innovative way the division between public areas and its services with private property areas so as to avoid segregation of duties, and to foster social and ecological exchange. The Volumetric Cluster The structure of farm and rural mansion, within the area in various forms, has the ability to summarize the architectural articulation and pathways with a precise value of the capacitor and coordinator of social activities' production. The distinction between the central body, wings, barn barns, stables, dryers and balconies, roof gardens and pergolas and above all the farmyard was such that a coordination of activities 'that were not to overlap and that received a near' physical and a continuous exchange of human and social development. The new sub-urban residential developments often propose models of townhouses and condominiums that create physical and social alienation in a context that is sapped of human relations and is

transformed into the dormitory area. It proposes a generative rule of volumes that corresponds to the soil surface and the cluster concept, grouping of mixed housing units to support the exchange between students of different nature, with multiple patterns of life and opportunity for the mutual exchange [sharing food, cars, pets, children or elderly ...]. It also proposes to articu-


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SOURCE http://www.ecologicstudio.com

late these clusters so as to maximize the energy potential and integrate passive elements such as terraces and balconies and greenhouses designed to enhance social interaction and thermal control. The bioactive envelope and extended metabolism The new housing is full of models who copy the vernacular without repeat past patterns of development and operation in a contemporary way. This is a bogus way to bind to the context, not unlike the American model of the themed park, often in stark contrast to the logic of the climate or land and the lifestyle of local users. The concept of the housing bioactive represents the will to break the canons of vernacular copy to create a new and non-figurative architectural image. The composition of the facades will come from the functional relationship with the context, both climate and territorial, which socio-cultural and evolve with this and will change over time, reflecting the passing of the seasons, years and changing the social fabric and the citrus and the inhabitants themselves. The metabolism of the building will be extended through the envelope to the exchange

with the atmosphere and the soil surface, forming an indissoluble whole [streams of water, energy, nutrients, seeds, smells, looks and words]. The architectural prototype of mass The transition from local handicraft to global industrial products era, has challenged many of the most sophisticated productions present throughout the Italian territory, in the design world as well as in architecture. Now the emergence of rapid prototyping and digital technology and craftsmanship, has opened new scenarios in which many local companies are joining, that means the ability to imagine architectural components developed ad hoc and related to project area, but satisfying the logic of industrial production and even then able to enter the commercial market. EcoLogicStudio has a background in facilities and research projects in collaboration with companies and manufacturers of various type has been tested in order to achieve a level of development of techniques for parametric design and Prototyping can lead to rapid prototyping constructible and commercially viable.


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ALMERE 2.0 MVRDV_THE CITY OF ALMERE ALMERE 2.0 From the moment of its establishment in 1976, Almere has been one of the fastest growing cities in Europe . In just a few decades it has attracted over 193,000 residents and 14,500 businesses. Almere is one of the four main cities in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area and the seventh largest city in the Netherlands and is still undergoing considerable development. The Draft Strategic Vision Almere 2.0 was designed to accommodate this growth. In an effort to provide relief and to offer new qualities to the dense, urbanised north-western region of the Netherlands, the central and provincial governments have asked Almere to expand. This will entail building 60,000 new houses and creating 100,000 new jobs and related facilities. The Draft Strategic Vision Almere 2.0 was developed with organic growth in mind. It is explicitly not a blueprint that has to be meticulously followed once we start the implementation process. The city will grow at its own pace, based on discernible market demand. Qualitative undertaking Almere 2.0 is primarily a qualitative undertaking. The Almere Principles – seven guidelines defined in concurrence with international sustainability expert William McDonough – are the starting point for ecologically, socially and economically sustainable growth. The principles are at the foundation of the Draft Strategic Vision Almere 2.0. ‘Cultivate diversity’ is one of the most essential guidelines. More variation in housing styles, employment opportunities and composition of the city’s population is crucial in breaking with the current homogeneity. The new districts will have their own distinct identities and will complement the existing districts. Another essential guideline is ‘Connect place and context’. Growth is impossible without investments in het city’s lasting accessibility. This includes the realization of the IJmeer Line, a transport link to Amsterdam across the IJmeer lake. Growth proposals The growth of Almere will take place in four main areas: • Almere IJland, a new island off the coast in the IJmeer lake; • Almere Center, an extended city center surrounding the innercity Weerwater lake; • Oosterwold, an area devoted to more rural and organic urbanism. Together, these proposals form the framework to accompany the growth of the city until 2030. Consequently, there will be no extensive interventions in the city’s existing districts. Beyond the conceptual stage The growth of Almere is closely interwoven with other developments in Holland’s north-western region. These developments are integrated in a larger regional collaboration project RRAAM (Rijksregioprogramma Amsterdam-Almere-Markermeer). The federal and regional authorities involved in RRAAM have already defined in broad terms the preconditions necessary to improve the international economic position of the north-western region. RRAAM will build on these thoughts and will start working towards a Federal Strategic Vision, in close consultation with social partners.


ALMERE 2.0 THE CITY OF ALMERE

181 SOURCE http://english.almere.nl/

THE ALMERE PRINCIPLES Almere was established as a suburban city, providing a sustainable alternative to the dense, urbanised metropolitan region of Amsterdam. The city was built implementing a multi-centred structure, incorporating the surrounding water and nature as much as possible. In the decades to come, Almere will continuously renew and transform itself as it evolves from a young city into a mature one. The intended growth of Almere will take place in an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable fashion. The aim of the national government, the provincial government of Flevoland and the municipality Almere is to position Almere as a national demonstration site for the large-scale implementation of sustainable systems. The joint desire is to turn Almere into an icon of sustainability. To inspire everyone who contributes to the future of the city, the Almere Principles were defined in concurrence with international sustainability expert William McDonough. CULTIVATE DIVERSITY To enrich the city, we acknowledge diversity as a defining characteristic of robust ecological, social and economical systems. By appraising and stimulating diversity in all areas, we can ensure Almere will continue to grow and thrive as a city rich in variety. CONNECT PLACE AND CONTEXT To connect the city we will strengthen and enhance its identity. Based on its own strength and on mutual benefit, the city will maintain active relationships with its surrounding communities at large. COMBINE CITY AND NATURE To give meaning to the city we will consciously aim to bring about unique and lasting combinations of the urban and natural fabric, and raise awareness of human interconnectedness with nature. ANTICIPATE CHANGE To honor the evolution of the city we will incorporate generous flexibility and adaptability in our plans and programs, in order to facilitate unpredictable opportunities for future generations. CONTINUE INNOVATION To advance the city we will encourage improved processes, technologies and infrastructures, and we will support experimentation and the exchange of knowledge. DESIGN HEALTHY SYSTEMS We will utilize â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cradle to cradleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; solutions, recognizing the interdependence, at all scales, of ecological, social and economic health. EMPOWER PEOPLE TO MAKE THE CITY Acknowledging citizens to be the driving force in creating, keeping and sustaining the city, we facilitate them in pursuing their unique potential.


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ACTIVATING THE LANDSCAPE TO A MORE SELF -SUFFICIENT CITY SIMPLE BINARY SYSTEM

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GARDEN CITY MODEL “But neither the Town magnet nor the Country magnet represents the full plan and purpose of nature. Human society and the beauty of nature are meant to be enjoyed together. The two magnets must be made one (…) The town is the symbol of society –of mutual help and friendly co-operation, of fatherhood, motherhood, brotherhood, sisterhood, of wide relations between man an man –of broad, expanding sympathies –of science, art, culture, religion. And the country! the country is the symbol of God’s love and care for man. All that we are and all that we have come from it. Our bodies are formed of it; to it they return. We are fed by it, clothed by it, and by it we are warmed and sheltered. Its beauty is the inspiration of art, of music, of poetry. Its forces propel all wheels of industry. It is the source of all health, all wealth, all knowledge. But its fullness of joy and wisdom has not revealed itself to man. Nor can it ever, so long as this unholy, unnatural separation of society and nature endures. town and country must be married, and out of this joyous union will spring a new hope, a new life, a new civilization”. SOURCE Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, 1902


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ALMERE 2.0 ALMERE 2.0 IS AN ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE CITY. IT HAS GOOD RELATIONS WITH THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE. ALMERE 2.0 IS TAKING THE LEAD IN INNOVATIONS IN THE AREA OF SUSTAINABLE AREA DEVELOPMENT.

Almere is surrounded by nature with a national and international status, such as the Oostvaardersplassen, the Markermeer and IJmeer, the Lepelaarsplassen, the Horsterwold and, in the future, the Oostvaarderswold. Besides this large-scale nature, it also has an extensive internal, main green-blue structure. Almere has a green structure that is comparable in surface area with cities such as Emmen and Apeldoorn – a surprising quality in the most densely-populated part of the Netherlands. Maximum use and further expansion of this quality will be made in the context of the increase in scale, based on the conviction that urban development and ecological sustainability expressly go together. As stated in the Almere Principles, ‘Combine city and nature’. In addition, Almere 2.0 employs large-scale system innovations to promote sustainable area development. The scope of the leap in scale makes it interesting to implement new applications in the urban hardware. The innovations relate to systems of energy (energy-neutral and producing districts), mobility (electric transport), water (the water leaves the city cleaner than when it arrives) and raw materials (with the aid of the latest cradle-to-cradle technology, waste is converted into raw materials). Almere is a national and international experimental laboratory for sustainable area development.


ALMERE 2.0 ALMERE IS CHANGING FROM A FAMILY CITY TO A DIVERSE SOCIETY. IN 2030, IT WILL POSSESS THE METROPOLITAN AMENITIES THAT TYPIFY A CITY WITH A POPULATION OF 350,000, IN THE CONTEXT OF A COHERENT METROPOLITAN REGION.

The driving forces behind any metropolis or city are the people who live there. They provide the dynamic by forming social structures. The daily urban system of inhabitants of a metropolis reaches beyond a single city. People utilise the entire range of facilities – culture, sport, entertainment, recreation, employment – that the various cities of a metropolis have on offer. Provided there is good accessibility, the cities of a metropolis form a coherent whole, also in a social, cultural and economic sense. For a socially sustainable community in Almere – as well as from the international aspirations for the metropolis – an increase in social diversity in Almere is essential.

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ALMERE 2.0 ACTIVATING THE GREEN CITY Future development of Almere IJland

Building with nature

Connecting and exceptional living in islands

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The Schaalsprong axis

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New public transport axis â&#x20AC;&#x201C; IJmeer Line and Stichtse Line


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Summary, Draft Structural Vision Almere 2.0

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Summary, Draft Structural Vision Almere 2.0

New residential areas New working locations Existing green framework New green framework Open area Green framework to be upgraded Coast development Water Working and living areas Open area Strategic reservations 3.0 Motorway New junction Upgraded junction Railway track Train station

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PROJECT ABACUS


“THE GROWING SCENARIO

3.1 WE ARE PROCESS DESIGNERS DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC DESIGN THINKING CASE STUDY: AMSTERDAM binary system multivariable system organic system STRATEGIC LOCALIZATION FUTURE DESIGNS


194

WE ARE PROCESS DESIGNERS THE KIND OF PROBLEM ARCHITECTURE IS ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY The "new science" of organised complexity is new only by historical standards. But its revolutionary implications are still transforming many fields, and still suggesting to us new models of thought and action. Nowhere is this more relevant, or more incomplete, than in the fields of planning and architecture. It is true that many of the ideas of organised complexity, translated into notions of mixed use and interactive diversity, have for some time been transforming the field of urban planning. For example, they were inspirational in the formation of New Urbanism as a movement in the US. As far back as the early 1960’s, seminal thinkers like Jane Jacobs (“The Death and Life of Great American Cities” and the seminal last chapter called “The Kind of Problem a City Is.”and Christopher Alexander (in the latter's landmark paper “A City is Not A Tree”) already recognised its powerful implications in challenging the existing basis of architecture and planning, and arguing a powerful case for reform. Jacobs talks about the history of scientific thought and its relation to the ways in which we think about and act upon cities. She notes how modern science really took off, around the time of Newton, when it mastered so-called two-variable problems, like linking how many houses one has over here to how many stores one can have over there. Or in physics, in which the laws of motion, for example, are two-variable problems. But in the early twentieth century, something interesting had begun to happen: through statistics and probability we learned to manage very large numbers, where you had myriad variables interacting. The interesting thing that we found was that you could manage those phenomena as statistical averages without knowing much about the actual interactions. This statistical science translated into the phenomenal techno-

SCIENTIFIC METHOD DESIGN PROCESS

logical power of the industrial revolution of that period. Much of our industry and the prodigious output of 20th century modernity was rooted in these powerful new statistical methods. And indeed, Jacobs points out that the early ideas of Le Corbusier and others, and the later ideas of planners rely upon this notion of large statistical populations. So just as there has been a progression in science, there has been a progression from, say, the rigidly formal, “rational” plans of, say, Haussmann, or of Ebenezer Howard and his neatly segregated Garden City plans, through to the more statistically informed plans of Le Corbusier, implemented around the world by the likes of Robert Moses and others. In either case the problem of cities was seen as one of devising reductive engineering schemes, seeking to isolate smoothlyfunctioning mechanical parts in place of “messy” organic conditions. This was seen as advancement and modernisation. But in the former case it was two-variable engineering, and in the latter case the problem of cities was also seen as one of statistical mechanics operating on large numbers. The newer


WE ARE PROCESS DESIGNERS

195

exp lo

New technology

Practical problem Curiosity

Making observations

Asking questions

Sharing data and ideas Finding inspiration

ry ve co

LIFE SCIENCE AND CITIES: A METHODOLOGICAL SYMMETRY and d ion is t ra

Personal motivation Serendipity Surprising observation

Exploring the literature

Gathering data

Address societal issues

...inspire revised assumptions

...support an hypothesis ...oppose an hypothesis

Build knowledge

Satisfy curiosity

Inform policy

Solve everyday problems

...inspire revised/new hypothesis

tes ti n g i d e a s

comm un Feedback and peer review

Discussion with colleagues

Coming up with new questions/ideas

Replication

Publication

Theory building

nalysis a ya n it

sa efit nd o n e

Supportive, contradictory, surprising or inclusive data may...

dback fee

Interpreting data

omes c t u Develop technology

Actual results/observations

d

Expected results/observations

Hypotheses

b


196

WE ARE PROCESS DESIGNERS science was added to the old. Meanwhile, the biological sciences had to move beyond the statistical world of so-called “disorganised complexity” and begin to understand the phenomenon called “organised complexity” – the area in the middle, between simple two-variable problems and large numbers of variables. Biologically speaking, that’s where the phenomenon of life occurs. It turns out that the problems of the human environment are more like these problems of “organised complexity”. As Jacobs writes, While city planning has thus mired itself in deep misunderstandings about the very nature of the problem with which it is dealing, the life sciences […] have been providing some of the concepts that city planning needs [...]. And so a growing number of people have begun, gradually, to think of cities as problems in organized complexity, organisms that are replete with unexamined, but obviously intricately interconnected, and surely understandable, relationships […].

And she points out how the planning and architecture professions were at that time, 1962, mind you, mired in the old sciences. She says Today's plans show little if any perceptible progress in comparison with plans devised a generation ago. In transportation, either regional or local, nothing is offered which was not already offered and popularized in 1938 in the General Motors diorama at the New York World's Fair, and before that by Le Corbusier. In some respects, there is outright retrogression. None of today's pallid imitations of Rockefeller Center is as good as the original, which was built a quarter of a century ago […].

Then she summarises what she considers the lessons of organized complexity: In the case of understanding cities, I think the

She sums up the problem as follows: As long as [we] cling to the unexamined assumptions that [we] are dealing with a problem in the physical sciences [that is, of mechanics], city planning cannot possibly progress. Of course it stagnates. It lacks the first requisite for a body of practical and progressing thought: recognition of the kind of problem at issue. Lacking this, it has found the shortest distance to a dead end. Today we have already begun to think differently about "the kind of problem a city is." What we have not yet begun to do -- and an essential task, given that complex systems are often scalefree -- is to re-assess the closely-related "kind of problem architecture is." This publication is one still-early step in that process. - Michael Mehaffy Cities, like the life sciences, do not exhibit one problem in organized complexity, which if understood explains all. They can be analyzed into many such problems or segments which are also related with one another. The variables are many, but they are not helterskelter; they involve dealing simultaneously with a sizable number of factors which are "interrelated into an organic whole".

most important habits of thought are these:

3. To seek for "unaverage" clues involving very 1. To think about processes; 2. To work inductively, reasoning from particu- small quantities, which reveal the way larger and lars to the general, rather than the reverse; more "average" quantities are operating.


WE ARE PROCESS DESIGNERS

197

WHY DO WE THINK ABOUT PROCESSES?

FOR CITIES, PROCESSES ARE OF THE ESSENCE. ESSENCE FUTHERMORE, ONCE ONE THINKS ABOUT CITY PROCESSES, IT FOLLOWS THAT ONE MUST THINK OF CATALYSTS OF THESE PROCESSES, AND THIS IS OF THE ESSENCE. PROCESSES and THE PROCESSES THAT OCCUR IN CITIES ARE NOT ARCANE, CAPABLE OF BEING UNDERSTOOD ONLY BY EXPERTS. tHEY CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY ALMOST ANYBODY. MANY ORDINARY PEOPLE aLREADY UNDERSTAND THEM, THEY SIMPLY HAVE NOT GIVEN THESE PROCESSES NAMES, OR CONSIDERED THAT BY UNDERSTANDING THESE ORDINARY ARRANGEMENTS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT, WE CAN ALSO DIRECT THEM IF WE WANT TO. Jane Jacobs


198

DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC DESIGN THINKING CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM a) BINARY SYSTEM CENTRAL CITY

NEW TOWN

MODEL | SCHEME

problems of simplicity

binary tree

METHOD TOMS A

SYSTEM

matter mining RESOURCES EXPLOITATION


DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC DESIGN THINKING b) MULTIVARIABLE SYSTEM

CITY CENTER PROJECT AREA

ALMERE

UNIVERSITY AND SCIENTIC CENTER

SYSTEM

MODEL | SCHEME

METHOD TOMS A

problems of disorganised complexity

matrix

atoms aggregation BIO + TECH = BIO/NANO TECHNOLOGIES

199


200

c) ORGANIC SYSTEM

SYSTEM

MODEL | SCHEME

METHOD

biological | DNA

T BI S

TOMS A

problems of organised complexity

10101010010101010111 00101010101010101010 00101010010101110101 01001000101001101110 01010101010101010100 10100101010101110010 10101010101010001010 10010000101001101110 0101010101010101010

interchangeable matter CYBERNETICS + NETWORKS


201

NEVER COLLAPSING ECOSYSTEM

PROCESS SIMULATION

ATOM COLLAPS

NEW ATOM

INTERCHANGEABLE ATOM


AMSTERDAM MEMORY CITY

AMSTERDAM

STRATEGIC LOCALIZATION

ALMERE

202

PROJECT AREA

welcome and inclusion 1300-1301 from village to real city

1585-1672

the “Golden Age”

18th-19th century decline and modernization

multi-variable system

1960-1980

cultural revolution new economical trend

2025

AMSTERDAM SMART CITY

2050

ZEEBURG BIOACTIVE CITY


203 ZEEBURG VACANT LAND 2012

urban regeneration

ALMERE FAMILY CITY 1967-1970

code of diversity

dikes and canals pumping water

1975-1980

making forests 1st core

1985-2010

2nd-5th core expansion cores

2011

Green City Almere 1.0

2030

ALMERE DIVERSITY CITY

complexity city


204

FUTURE DESIGNS


FUTURE DESIGNS

205

WHAT IS A SCENARIO ??? IF... a VISION is a desired future and “mission“ is a means to approach the vision a TREND is a foreseeable development, extrapolated from present situation and involves expert knowledge a FORECAST / PROGNOSIS quantifies time and degree of use of trends and involves expert knowledge)

... WHAT IS A SCENARIO? SCENARIO has a comprehensive approach, covers multiple trends and their mutual interaction and allows for the emergence of several possible futures. They can belong to two different categories: • STRATEGIC SCENARIOS (operational preparation for the future, quantified options) • COMMUNICATION SCENARIOS (intended for public discussion, qualitative aspects of alternative future designs)

ASK QUESTION

WHAT FUTURE FOR AMSTERDAM?

DO BACKGROUND RESEARCH

AMSTERDAM SURVEY

CONSTRUCT HYPOTHESIS

THINK! TRY AGAIN

AMSTERDAM FIRST BIOACTIVE CITY HUMAN RESOURCES

TEST WITH AN EXPERIMENT

GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM NATURAL RESOURCES AMSTERDAM BIOPLAN

ANALIZE RESULTS DRAW CONCLUSION

HYPOTHESIS IS TRUE

HYPOTHESIS IS FALSE OR PARTIALLY TRUE

SCIEN REPORT RESULTS

TIFIC M

OUR P ROJE CT ME T ETHO D

AMSTERDAM IS BIOACTIVE

AMSTERDAM IS NOT BIOACTIVE

HOD GROWING SCENARIO

THINK! TRY AGAIN


A GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM

3.2 ARCHITECTURE, CITY, HUMAN AND NATURE HARD USED TO RULE

ATOMS STILL MATTER

NEW COMERS: NANO/BIO-TECHNOLOGIES SOFT IS NEEDED

NEW (GREEN) HARD NEW PARAMETERS HR _ HUMAN RESOURCES

NR _ NATURAL RESOURCES


208

ARCHITECTURE, CITY, HUMAN BEING AND NATURE THE ARCHITECTURE OF INTELLIGENT CITIES INTEGRATING HUMAN, COLLECTIVE, AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION As designers we should know that nowadays the design spin-off is made by working and designing taking into account at the same time human being and nature. This is a revolutionary way of questioning the cities’s problems and finding opportunities for the survival of our ecosystems. Basically city planning it’s dead and the enviromental governance needs to be ruled by an innovative process.

from SUFFERING NATURE to...

HUMAN RESOURCES

ANALYSIS GENERATIVE DESIGN PROCESS

NATURAL RESOURCES

GOVERNANCE

COLLABORATION WITH NATURE


RESTRUCTURING URBANISED AREAS LISTING MAP

produces goods

delivers services

generates opportunity

209


HARD USED TO RULE

210

LINEAR URBAN METABOLISM WATER

Sloterpark

INFRASTRUCTURE

Westerpark

AGRICULTURE+WETLAND

Nature Zoo

Vondelpark Westport

PARKS

Amsterdam Bos

Nieuw-Vennep FORESTS

Botanical Garden

Hoffddorp

Beatrixpark Schiphol Airport

Oosterpark Beatrixpark Artis Zoo

Frankendael Amsterdam Slotedijk Amsterdam Central

Volendama Purmerend

Monnickedam Marken

The historical matter and the traditional infrastructure in the city depends on something that is external, on something different from urban ecosystem:

ESO-MACHINES.

Almere

Hard systems railways/roads/buildings

UNLIMITED WITHDRAWAL OF RESOURCES

INPU T

URBAN ECOSYSTEM OUTP UT

UNLIMITED WASTE

Soft systems water/agriculture/parks/gardens

SOURCE www.gisdro.nl


ATOMS STILL MATTER

211

THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING INVISIBLE To Otto Frei space is never-ending if we look at atoms. City, nature and human being are made of atoms: a coherent and biologist architect homogeneous matter.

[atom]

It is necessary to pass through the endlessly small to design the endlessly big That why there is the need of collaboration between designers and biologists.

[space].

BIOLOGIS T

ARCHITEC

T

∞ ∞

SMALL [atoms]

[atoms]

are

ENDLESSLY SMALL INDESTRUCTIBLE INTERCHANGEABLE HOMOGENEOUS

BIG [space]

Mass cannot be created or destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space and changed into different types of particles.


212

NEW COMERS: NANO/BIO-TECHNOLOGIES A VISION IMPOSSIBLE ?

4 MONTHS (spring)

The atoms manipulation through nano and bio-technologies brings to the incorporation of machines inside the human body:

ENDO-MACHINES. 12 MONTHS (summer)

New human perception of the space: the immaterial is a characteristic of architecture as important and influential as the material, if less recognised. The city without machines is a wild and livable city.

2 YEARS

LIMITED WITHDRAWAL OF RESOURCES

INPU T

ECO SYSTEM 01 ECO SYSTEM 02

4 YEARS ECO SYSTEM 03

OUT PUT LIMITED WASTE

2050


NEW COMERS: NANO/BIO-TECHNOLOGIES

The truth is that as technologies pile on technologies at an uneven pace, it becomes impossible to predict precisely what patterns will emerge. Can anyone today truly foresee what the world will be like if, for example, genetic engineering matures rapidly to its full potential? If organisms can be tailored to serve any function, even becoming a living spaceship, can anyone guess what a 21st-century factory will look like? (Rennie 1995)

213


214

SOFT IS NEEDED THE CYBER MAN, THE ALGHORITM AND THE CITY Asking questions about the programmatic relationship between architecture (or the city) and the body, new synthetic organs are added to our original ones to change our performance. The new apparatus focuses on those sites where architecture claims to have the most straightforward relationship with us: for example, hygiene, waste disposal, digestion, heating and cooling. The new equipment modifies these so that if it is true that architecture and the city have such a tight relationship with our bodies, by changing our performance we should therefore change the city. By changing our performance in different ways we can change (or take possession of) the city for ourselves without changing it for others. Drawing such an apparatus for the body is quite straightforward, and to some extent so are other aspects of its consequence, but there is a problem with the project in that at night the programme of the city partly dissolves, or at least changes. Intelligent communities and cities belong to an emerging movement targeting the creation of environments that improve cognitive skills and abilities to learn and innovate. They represent environments that enable superior cognitive capabilities and creativity to be collectively constructed from combinations of individual cognitive skills and information systems that operate in the physical, institutional, and digital spaces of cities. All these need a “soft” morphology, a cybernetic one, embodied into the functionalities of the new urban entity: . the

SMART CITY

USER INTERFACE

city cluster/district

DIGITAL CITIES STRUCTURE _ SOFT MORPHOILOGY

x

WEB/ LINKS

ACTIO

NS

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

USER n

ALGHORITMS ALGHORITMS GENERATIVE ENVIRONMENT

WEB/ LINKS

UBIQUITOUS INFRASTRUCTURE

DIGITAL CONTENT

ADMINISTRATION

APPLICATIONS

USER n

The SMART CITY’S INFRASTRUCTURE is a counter-hierarchic, collaborative, creative and auto generative one, with shared benefits for the whole community.


NEW (GREEN) HARD AND NEW PARAMETERS

215

NEW CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE “HARD” MORPHOLOGY

The historical morphology added to the immaterial one will transform the city’s conception of space, clearing the urban MICRO-GENERATION environment and creating

MICRO SPACES.

MACRO HIGH TECH ENVIRONMENT

J. Mayer H. Architects Audi Urban Future Award - Building a Vision for 2030.

LIMITED WITHDRAWAL OF RESOURCES

COE XIS TW ITH

“SOFT” MORPHOLOGY

INPU T

FARMING

PRODUCTION CHAIN

CONSUMPTION

WASTE RECYCLING

OUT PUT ZERO WASTE

NEW GREEN “HARD”


216

NEW (GREEN) HARD AND NEW PARAMETERS DEFICIT, INCOME AND EXPENDITURE DECOUPLING A transition to a low carbon resource efficient Green Economy has become one of the leitmotifs of international efforts to evolve sustainable development in a rapidly changing 21st century. Decoupling at its simplest is reducing the amount of resources such as water or fossil fuels used to produce economic growth and delinking economic development from environmental deterioration. For it is clear in a world of nearly seven billion people, climbing to around nine billion in 40 years time that growth is needed to lift people out of poverty and to generate employment for the soon to be two billion people either unemployed or underemployed. Technological and systematic innovation, combined with rapid urbanization, offer an historic opportunity to turn decoupling from theory into reality on the ground. Decoupling represents a strategic approach for moving forward a global Green Economy – one that “results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly educing environmental risks and ecological scarcities”. SOURCE Decoupling Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts from Economic Growth

Human well-being Economic activity (GDP)

The GREEN HIGH TECH INFRASTRUCTURE

Resource decoupling

generates income investing and selling HUMAN and BIOLOGICAL services.

Resource use Impact decoupling Time Environmental impact STYLIZED REPRESENTATION OF RESOURCE DECOUPLING AND IMPACT DECOUPLING

PAG. 220

HUMAN RESOURCES

PAG. 230

NATURAL RESOURCES

FUELING TECHNOLOGY Basic science fuels advances in technology, and technological innovations affect our lives in many ways everyday. Because of science, we have complex devices like cars, X-ray machines, computers, and phones. But the technologies that science has inspired include more than just hi-tech machines. The notion of technology includes any sort of designed innovation. Whether a flu vaccine or a new system of crop rotation, it's all technology. Even simple things that one might easily take for granted are, in fact, science-based technologies: the plastic that makes up a sandwich bag, the genetically-modified canola oil in which your fries were cooked, the ink in your ballpoint pen, a tablet of ibuprofen, it's all here because of science. So scientific knowledge allows new technologies to be built, and those technologies, in turn, impact society at many levels.


NEW (GREEN) HARD AND NEW PARAMETERS

OUR GREEN HIGH TECH ENVIRONMENT ALLOWS THE URBAN SYSTEM TO BE AUTOGENERATIVE AND TO TURN EXPENDITURE INTO INCOME. THE URBAN METABOLIMS IS AT THE MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY LEVEL AND THE COMMUNITY WORKS AS FUEL OF THE SYSTEM ITSELF. FINAL GOAL

URBAN REGENERATION AND BIOCATIVE CITY

217


HR _ HUMAN RESOURCES FIRST PEOPLE DEMOGRAPHY AS DRIVING FORCE The population of Amsterdam is growing faster than anticipated: over the last two years it has increased by 25,000 people, while just 6,500 new dwellings have been built there. Everything indicates that this growth is set to continue for the time being, with major consequences for the city: for construction, infrastructure, green spaces and cultural amenities, but also on a larger scale, for the Netherlands and for Europe. Humankind is becoming increasingly concentrated in larger cities, the metropolises, so Amsterdam’s population growth is hardly an isolated phenomenon. Demographic and economic developments also bring about shifts in the relationships between city and countryside, as well as among cities themselves. This seems to call for an efficient and sustainable organization of production, consumption and capital goods – human capital included. Metropolises are best suited to achieving this and are therefore the centres where economic growth is concentrated. Such growth is dependent on the degree to which a metropolis is connected with other metropolises, which form hubs in a worldwide network. Ageing and shrinking populations in rural areas combined with the rejuvenation and growth of the attractive cities bring about a shift in relations between city and countryside, as is also the case in the Netherlands. By way of the project entitled ‘Amsterdam Verantwoordelijke Hoofdstad’ (Amsterdam: The Accountable Capital), the City of Amsterdam is providing professional expertise in the form of masterclasses for shrinking municipalities. Greater differences between growing and shrinking regions, between city and countryside, are inevitable. SOURCE PLAN Amsterdam, 05|2011 THE POPULATION OF AMSTERDAM

road, financing arranged public transport, financing arranged road, financing to be arranged public transport, financing to be arranged 1750

The city grows in line with the population.

Housing and infrastructure through to

Amsterdam’s population has grown vigorously in three

2020. Large-scale projects c. 72,000,

periods, the most recent of which is ongoing .

small projects not included on map c. 50,000.

1965 1.000.000

2040

218

800.000 600.000 400.000 200.000

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000


HR _ HUMAN RESOURCES

219

TOWARD 2020 500 - 1.000 1.000 - 2.000 2.000 - 5.000 5.000 - 10.000 10.000 - 12.000

15.000 - 20.000

residential development in expansion area residential development in existing urban area


HR _ HUMAN RESOURCES

220

HUMAN RESOURCES C-MAP

DIVE RSIT Y MA KES T

CE EN R E F DIF HE

“As our planet becomes instrumented, interconnected and intelligent, the computing model is evolving to support it.”

Diversity facilitates specialization. Diversity invigorates problem solving. Diversity balances biases.

COLL

DIVERSITY CITY

WELCOMING INCLUSION COMPLEXITY MULTIVARIABLE SYSTEM

E VIV AB ORATE TO SUR

SMART INFRASTRUCTURE

HUMAN RESOURCES

COLLABORATION AUTOGENERATION CREATIVITY KN OW LED G

E IS

Science and technology feed off of one another, propelling both forward. Scientific knowledge allows us to build new technologies, which often allow us to make new observations about the world, which, in turn, allow us to build even more scientific knowledge, which then inspires another technology … and so on.

EQUITY

URBAN REGENERATION and NEW “FACTORIES” BUILDING RENEWAL CREATIVITY FACTORIES NANO-BIO CENTERS TECH CENTER

DECOUPLING COMUNICATION EMANCIPATION SHARING income, competitivity, knowledge, employed people level, science, biology, technology

PO WE R


HR _ HUMAN RESOURCES

221

stay ing p eriod : +10

PER YEARS av MAN ENT erage age: P OP average ag ULAT 45 e: 30 I TEMPOR staying period: 6 MONTHS ON ARY POP ULATION- 5 YEARS

2050 50.000 25.000 18.000

0 ge: 4DAYS a e g vera R - 3

TION A a 1 HOU L U d: POP perio R g n E i y T sta MU COM

7.000

10.000 2.500 1.500

DIVERSITY CITY

14.000

SMART INFRASTRUCTURE

URBAN REGENERATION

EQUITY

2012


CLYMATIC ANALYSIS AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS CLIMATE GRAPH (ALTITUDE: 2m)

RELATIVE HUMIDITY

TEMPERATURES/PRECIPITATION/WET DAYS/SUNLIGHT/WIND SPEED/FROST

222

MIN TEMP (ยบC) AVERAGE TEMP (ยบC) WET DAYS (>0,1 mm) AVERAGE WIND SPEED (BEAUFORT) RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)

MAX TEMP (ยบC) PRECIPITATION (cm) AVERAGE SUNLIGHT HOURS/DAY DAYS WITH FROST

SOURCE http://www.climatetemp.info


TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE

223

THE ECONOMIC CONCEPT Economic value expresses the degree to which a good or service satisfies individual preferences. These preferences can be expressed in terms of utility, an unobservable ranking of preferences, or a less theoretically appealing, but more practical money matrix. Thus, economic value can be measured by the amount of money an individual is willing to pay for a good or service or the amount of money an individual is willing to accept as a compensation for forgoing the good or service. For some natural resources, their value is almost exclusively related to their direct use. Many goods and services, especially environmental ones, are valued for reasons not related to a direct use.However, no consensus exists in the academic community as to what set of categories is truly exclusive and exhaustive in capturing the remaining elements of the total value. USE VALUE COMPONENTS Total value consists of two main elements: use value and nonuse value. Use value captures indirect use in addition to direct use as described previously. Indirect use is related to special functions of some ecosystems. OPTION VALUE Goods and services may also be valued for their potential to be available in the future. These potential future benefits constitute an option value, a concept first introduced by Weisbrod in 1964. It may be thought of as an insurance premium one may be willing to pay to ensure the supply of the environmental good later in time. NONUSE VALUE COMPONENTS The final value component, known as nonuse value, was first proposed by John V. Krutilla in 1967. It captures those elements of value that are unrelated to a current, future, or potential use. Existence Value Existence value reflects benefits from simply TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE knowing that a certain good or service exists. Bequest Value Bequest value, the other nonuse component, refers to benefits from ensuring that certain goods will be preserved for future generations.

USE VALUE

Direct use

ECOSYSTEM GOODS & SERVICES

Indirect use

NON-USE VALUE

Option value

Existence value

Bequest value


224

NATURE VALUE

Nature value_on a 1 to 5 gradient based on biodiversity valuesnumbers of species-genetical variety-number of habitats Endangered species_distribution of nesting spots of endagered species

1km

2


NATURE VALUE

225

pollution_ 1to 5 gradient

parks/woods

agriculture

water

SOURCE www.gisdro.nl


226

BIODIVERSITY CATALOG Erinaceus europaeus

Lepus capensis

Talpa europaea

Martes martes

Sorex araneus

Meles meles

Vulpes vulpes

Natrix natrix

Animalia>Mammalia>Erinaceidae>Erinaceus Green strokes, Vondelpark, Gardens April - September Meles meles, Mustela putorius, Martes martes, Vulpes vulpes, Accipiter gentilis Helix pomatia, Lumbricus terrestris, Aelia acuminata, frogs, small rodents, young birds, eggs

Animalia>Mammalia>Talpidae>Talpa Green strokes, grasslands, roadsides, parks Day and night throughout the year Owls, Buzzards, Stoats, Cats and Dogs Mainly earthworms, also insects, centipedes, mice, shrews

Animalia>Mammalia> Woodlands, grasslands, and hedgelands After dark Owls, weasels, stoats, and foxes Insects, slugs, spiders, small mice and worms

Animalia>Mammalia>Canidae>Vulpes sand dunes to mountain tops, urban areas, affluent suburbs active at dusk or at night, but active in day in more undisturbed areas human small mammals, invertebrates, birds, fruit, carrion and items scavenged from dustbins

Animalia>Mammalia>Leporidae>Lepus adapted to living in arid and desert environments active at night human grasses and other non-woody plants

Animalia>Mammalia>Mustelidae>Martes woods,hollow trees or on scrub covered cliffs active at night and dusk foxes and crows Small rodents, birds, beetles, carrion and eggs and berries are very important in the autumn

Animalia>Mammalia>Mustelidae>Meles woods, lowland areas, urban areas, moorlands, and coastal habitats active at night, hot summer in day dogs main food earthworms, invertebrates, nuts, fruit, small vertebrates, bulbs and cereals

Animalia> Reptilia>Colubridae>Natrix ponds, lakes, streams, marshes and ditches with sunshine

badgers, foxes, domestic cats, hedgehogs and birds frogs and newts, fish, small mammals

Capreolus capreolus

Lacerta agilis

Pipistrellus pipistrellus

Bufo calamita

Animalia>Mammalia>Cervidae>Capreolus woodlands, moorland, and suburbs with large gardens throughout day and night, but peaks of activity occur at dawn and dusk human leaves of deciduous shrubs and trees, cereals, weeds, acorns, fungi, conifers and ferns

Animalia>Mammalia>Vespertilionidae>Pipistrellus hanging tiles and soffits,woodland edges,suburban gardens active between March and November moths, midges and lacewings

Animalia> Reptilia>Lacertidae>Lacerta lowland dry heathland and coastal sand dunes hibernate between October and March , active in the day birds

Animalia> Amphibia >Bufonidae>Bufo light, sandy soils and warm, shallow ponds hibernates from october to june, active at night moths, woodlice, sandhoppers


BIODIVERSITY CATALOG Petromyzon marinus

Animalia> Cephalaspidomorphi> Petromyzontidae>Petromyzon high quality, deep, fast flowing rivers enter freshwater/estuaries for spawning in spring blood, body fluids and flesh of large fish

Alosa fallax

Animalia>Actinopterygii Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic enter large river in spring to spawn

crustaceans and small fishes, planktonic crustaceans

Brama brama

Animalia>Actinopterygii>Bramidae>Brama Ocean Seasonal migrant

small fishes , cephalopods , amphipods , and euphausiids

Pandalus montagui ocean water migration into shallow water hydroids, small crustaceans and polychaetes

227

Tetramorium caespitum

Animalia>Insecta>Formicidae>Tetramorium Sunny, bright places, humid grasslands Spring-Autumn Talpa europaea, mice Insects, seeds, catterpillars, sweets

Vespula vulgaris

Animalia>Insecta>Vespidae>Vespula Hollow walls, rooftops Summer Birds, spiders Necta, sweet fruit, catterpillars, insects

Inachis io

Animalia>Insecta>Nymphalidae>Inachis Grasslands, parks, hedgerows Spring-Summer Birds, bats Urtica dioica, nectar

Ardea cinerea

Animalia>Aves>Ardeidae>Ardea Trees, shallow water All seasons Vulpes vulpes, Circus aeruginosus Fish, rodents, small birds such as ducklings, small mammals like voles, and amphibians.

Helix pomatia

Columba palumbus

Lumbricus terrestris

Anas platyrhynchos

Animalia>Gastropoda>Helicidae>Helix forests and open habitats, gardens, vineyards along rivers hibernates,active in evening birds, insects, toads and mice fruits, vegetables, flowers and leaves

Animalia>Clitellata>Lumbricidae>Lumbricus grasslands, garden lawns venture to the surface after rain or at night mammals and birds plant, dead insects and feces.

Animalia>Aves>Columbidae>Columba Parks, gardens, forrest everywhere All seasons Human, Vulpes vulpes, circus aeruginosus Leaves from caryophyllaceae, asteraceae. Crops like cabbages, sprouts, peas and grain. Also buds, shoots, seeds, nuts and berries.

Animalia>Aves>Anatidae>Anas Parks, canals, small ponds All seasons Human, Vulpes vulpes Gastropods, invertebrates, crustaceans, worms, many varieties of seeds and plant matter, and roots.


228

BIODIVERSITY CATALOG Dipsacus fullonum

Asplenium scolopendrium

Odontites vernus

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum

Dactylorhiza majalis

Heracleum sphondylium

Dactylorhiza incarnata

Allium schoenoprasum

Artemisia absinthium

Sedum acre

Parietaria officinalis

Urtica dioica

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Dipsacaceae>Dipsacus City edge, copses, stream banks, roadsides, rough pasture July-September Human Clay soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Scrophulariaceae>Odontites City edge July-October Human, bees, wasps Moist soil, grassroots

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Orchidaceae>Dactylorhiza City edge, wet meadows and marshes May-July Human Rich, moist soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Orchidaceae>Dactylorhiza City edge May-June Human Rich, moist soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Asteraceae>Artemisia City centre, waste lands July-September Human Dry soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Urticaceae>Parietaria City centre June-October Human Light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils,well-drained soil

Plantae>Pteropsida>Aspleniaceae>Asplenium Wet brick walls, basalt slopes, on wood July-August Otiorhynchus sulcatus (beetle), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (fly), fungi Humus, lime-rich soil

Plantae>Pteropsida>Aspleniaceae>Asplenium Wet brick walls August-September Otiorhynchus sulcatus (beetle), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (fly), fungi Humus soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida>Apiaceae>Heracleum Grassland and ditches, by hedges and in woods June-November Bees, wasps, flies, human Moist humus soil

Plantae>Magnoliopsida> Liliaceae>Allium Rocky pastures and damp meadows May-July Human, insects Calcareous soil

Plantae>Pteropsida>Aspleniaceae>Asplenium Roofs, walls, paving, quays June-July Human Well-drained nutritionally poor sandy soil

Plantae>Magniolopsida>Urticaceae>Urtica Waste ground, hedgerows, woods June - Octobre Human Nitrogen-rich, humus, sunny, little shadow, dry and wet soil


BIODIVERSITY CATALOG

229

Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus vaporarius

Agaricus arvensis

Agaricus xanthodermus

Agaricus augustus

Agrocybe praecox

Agaricus campestris

Agrocybe cylindracea

Agaricus semotus

Boletus edulis

Fungi >Agaricomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Very rich humus ground, compost heaps, parks, Ceintuurbaan Summer - Autumn

Fungi >Hymenomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Very rich humus sandy ground, parks, lawns, roadsides Summer - Autumn

Fungi >Hymenomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Very rich humus sandy ground, parks (Rembrandtpark, Amsterdam South-East), lawns, roadsides, quay wall (Plantage Muidergracht) Summer - Autumn

Fungi >Hymenomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Very rich humus grounds, unsprayed grasslands (Ruigoord), dikes (IJselmeerdijken), parks, roadsides Summer - Autumn

Fungi >Agaricomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Grows in woods (Amsterdamse Bos), cemeteries, roadsides Summer - Autumn

Amanita muscaria

Funghi>Hymenomycetes>Amanitaceae>Amanita Grows in woods, city centre Late summer - late autumn

Fungi >Hymenomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Grows in woods, parks, city centre (Jordaan) Autumn

Fungi >Agaricomycetes>Agaricaceae>Agaricus Grows in woods, parks (Amstelpark), roadsides, dikes (Waterland) Summer-Autumn

Funghi>Hymenomycetes>Bolbitiaceae>Agrocybe Grows in woods, fields, lawns (Ruigoord), roadsides Spring - Autumn

Funghi>Hymenomycetes>Bolbitiaceae>Agrocybe Grows on wood, parks (Wertheimpark), Nieuwe Herengracht Autumn

Funghi>Hymenomycetes>Boletaceae>Boletus Grows on wood (Oak, Beech), lawns, parks, roadsides Summer-Late Autumn

Amanita phalloides Funghi>Hymenomycetes>Amanitaceae>Amanita Grows in woods Summer-Autumn


230

NR_NATURAL RESOURCES PEOPLE

ANIMALS

eating maple syrup

animals eating plants

UNDERSTORY PLANTS

TREES roots taking up nutrients

leaves falling

roots taking up nutrients

FOREST FLOOR roots taking up water

nutrients leaching into soil

SOIL

animals excreting and dying

roots taking up water


NATURAL RESOURCES

231

BIOPRODUCTIVE SURFACE 77 ha tern

gull

bat

tern

LAND AREA 120 ha

goosander


FOR A BIOACTIVE CITY”

3.3 ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

STRATEGIC ABACUS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGENDA natural resources mobility human resources energy material immaterial


234

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT FOOTPRINT BY COMPONENT

CROPLAND PASTURE FISHERIES TIMBER NUCLEAR

The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. The concept has been advanced by Canadian researcher Dr. William Rees at the University of British Columbia. It is a standardized measure of demand for natural capital that may be contrasted with the planet's ecological capacity to regenerate. It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and to assimilate associated waste. Using this assessment, it is possible to estimate how much of the Earth (or how many planet Earths) it would take to support humanity if everybody followed a given lifestyle.

BIOCAPACITY

1.03

ha/pers CO2 ABSORPTION

BUILT LAND

ECOLOGICAL DEFICIT FOOTPRINT

4.2

ha/pers

3.17

ha/pers


ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

235

2012

CALCULATION

*

LAND AREA 120 ha

USERS 14.000

CONVERSION FACTOR

1,81*

BIOPRODUCTIVE SURFACE 77 ha FOOTPRINT

4.2

ha/pers

PERMANENT 10.000

1=1

10.000

TEMPORARY 2.500

2=1

1.250

COMMUTER 1.500

3=1

500

average between the various values proposed by M. Wakernagel, Footprintnetwork 2004 farmland 2.21_marginal agricultural land 1.79_ forest 1.34_built 2.21

BIOPRODUCTIVE SURFACE PER PERSON: 0,012 ha bioproductive surface / users DEFICIT PER PERSON: 4,18 ha footprint - bioproductive surface per person ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT: + 352 (deficit per person x person) / bioproductive surface

+

139,37 ha

+ 352


236

STRATEGIC ABACUS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGENDA ELEMENTS

INPUT PRODUCTION

AIR

NATURAL RESOURCES

RAINWATER

SERVICES

HOW STRATEGIES

mitigating climate air purification dispersing seeds sustainable water

mitigating climate biodiversity dispersind seeds emissions abatement

fitodepuration green machine

OUTPUT CO2 LANDFILL =

=

-

-

GROUNDWATER

biodiversity

=

=

DRINKINGWATER

health

=

=

SEA

fishing desalinated water

biodiversity mitigating climate air purification carbon storage

desalinated machine

-

-

SOIL

local and sustainable food forage

carbon storage fertility (seeds, nutrients) retention/filtering water decomposition self-sufficiency local economy

urban farm urban garden online ordering private nutrition monitoring smart trade

-

-

FAUNA

hunting farming

biodiversity pollination weed control

ecological network biodiversity preservation green databases

=

=

VEGETATION

environmental quality new species

biodiversity carbon storage climate mitigation retention/filtering water

ecological network green corridor green roof

-

-


STRATEGIC ABACUS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGENDA

237


238

STRATEGIC ABACUS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGENDA

MOBILITY

ELEMENTS TRANSPORT

INPUT PRODUCTION energy network sustainable transport

IT

MATERIAL ENERGY

HR

VALUES

SERVICES

HOW STRATEGIES

OUTPUT CO2 LANDFILL

economic network social network

car sharing car pooling driverless car bike sharing switch to cleaner fuels electric transport smart grid energy station intermodal green axis

-

-

inclusion creativity equity happiness aesthetic cultural

smart public spaces flexible spaces housing policy coworking

=

=

light heat electricity

windfarm solar island road runner piezoelectric sensor algae farms heat exchanger

-

=

RENEWABLE

wind energy solar energy geothermal energy kinetic energy desalinated seawater

WASTE

energy sustainable material

pneumatic waste collection cogeneration plasma arc gasification reducing construction waste bio-tech

-

-

RAW MATERIAL

sustainable material 0 km material

reuse center nano-tech

-

-

NETWORK

connection

smart grid wireless chips free internet connectivity interactive wall screens digital transport stops

=

=

opportunity ubiquity knowledge telemanagement social net


STRATEGIC ABACUS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGENDA

239


BIOPLAN


GROWING SCENARIO

4.1 STRATEGIC MAP STRATEGY INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORKS ECOLOGICAL NETWORK METABOLIC FLOWS BIODIVERSITY HUMAN RESOURCES CELLULAR GROWTH CELL CONNOTATION URBAN REGENERATION FLOW INTERSECTIONS PARAMETERS VERIFICATION


STRATEGIC MAP


245


STRATEGY


247


INFRASTRUCTURE


249


NETWORKS


251


ECOLOGICAL NETWORK


253


METABOLIC FLOWS


255


NATURAL RESOURCES


257


HUMAN RESOURCES


259


CELLULAR GROWTH


261


SECONDARY PROGRAM


263


NODES POTENTIAL


265


URBAN REGENERATION


267


PARAMETERS VERIFICATION


269


VISION 2050


271

VISION INSPIRED BY MVRDV, Gwanggyo Power Centre


BIBLIOGRAPHY/ LINKOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY

6.1


BIBLIOGRAPHY The Parametric City; Patrik Schumacher Parametric Diagrammes; Patrik Schumacher Tarzan in the Forest of the Media; Toyo Ito City of bits: space, place, and the infobahn; William J. Mitchell The death and life of great american cities; Jane Jacobs A city is not a tree; Christopher Alexander A Pattern Language: towns, buildings, construction; Christopher Alexander Being digital; Nicholas Negroponte Digital morphogenesis; Branko Kolarevic vvvvv Project Japan: metabolism talks; Rem Koolhaas Toward zero carbon, Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan; Adrian Smith & Gordon Gill Living planet report 2010; WWF Patterns of Architecture, AD; AA.VV. Experimental green strategies, AD; AA.VV. Cibernetica e fantasmi; Italo Calvino Piano strategico per lo sviluppo sostenibile delle isole Pelagie; AA.VV

277


LINKOGRAPHY

6.2


280

LINKOGRAPHY http://www.media.mit.edu/

http://www.newurbanmechanics.org/

www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/

http://www.nyc.gov/

http://www.stipo.info/

http://wiki.aia.org/Wiki Pages/

http://www.siemens.com/innovation/en/publications/

http://www.amsterdamsmartcity.nl/

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/seis/

http://www.cityvision-mag.com/

http://www.iea.org/

http://urban-metabolism.blogspot.it/

http://www.wri.org/

http://www.metropoolregioamsterdam.nl/

http://www.wwf.org/

http://www.amsterdam.nl/

http://superuse.org/

http://www.planetaryone.com/

http://www.buildingmaterials.umn.edu/

www.materialflows.net

http://biodiversity.europa.eu/

http://www.thewindpower.net/

http://water.europa.eu/

http://biomimicry.net/

http://www.ipcc.ch/

http://www.oneplanetliving.org/

http://www.gmes.info/

http://www.iaac.net/

http://www.eea.europa.eu/

http://www.cyclifier.org/

http://discomap.eea.europa.eu/

www.os.amsterdam.nl

http://www.ipcc.ch/

http://www.ecologicstudio.com

http://scp.eionet.europa.eu/facts/wastebase

http://english.almere.nl/

http://www.bostonindicators.org/

http://www.reading.ac.uk/bionis/


LINKOGRAPHY http://www.reading.ac.uk/bionis/ http://sustainablecities.dk/ http://www.cyclifier.org http://www.ibm.com/us/en/ http://www.asknature.org/ http://www.aaschool.ac.uk/ http://ncodon.com/ http://www.makeahybrid.org/ http://www.generatorx.no/category/computational-design/ http://generativedrugstore.blogspot.com/ http://workshopsfactory.com/category/parametric-design/ http://www.parametricdesign.net/ http://www.gabrieldawe.com/ http://madeincalifornia.blogspot.com/ http://www.co-de-it.com/ http://digitaltoolbox.info/ http://processing.org/ http://www.isnsce.org/ http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/

281


the growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city

CONTACT: a.plus.m.architects@gmail.com

SEE ALSO: http://www.slideshare.net/A-M_architects/amthe-growing-scenario http://vod.blogsite.org


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A+M

THE GROWING SCENARIO: A GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM FOR A BIOACTIVE CITY  

The thesis "The growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city" explores the potential of biologically inspired digital desig...

THE GROWING SCENARIO: A GENERATIVE ECOSYSTEM FOR A BIOACTIVE CITY  

The thesis "The growing scenario: a generative ecosystem for a bioactive city" explores the potential of biologically inspired digital desig...

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