JOURNAL 2013 ANNA MCLAURIN - 391265
007 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE
008 THE ROMAN EMPIRE
031 TESSALTION EXPLORATION
009 HITLER’S GERMANY
032 - 035 PRECEDENT
010 TADAO ANDO
037 - 037 MATRIX 1.0
013 CONTEMPORARY COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN
038 SURPRISES AND LIMITATIONS OF VOLTADOM
014 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION – DRIFTWOOD
040 - 041 MATRIX 2.0
015 WEBB BRIDGE
042 MATRIX ANALYSIS
016 THE SHARD
043 CASE STUDY RESULTS
019 PARMETRIC MODELLING
044 - 045 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
020 ARCHIPELLIGO PAVILLION
046 TECHNIQUE ANALYSIS
021 DRAGON SKIN PAVILLION
049 POSITIVE OUTCOMES
023 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION – GEODIESIC CURVES
052 - 059 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT
026 MOVING FORWARD
060 - 061 LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ OUTCOMES
06 week 01
y name is Anna McLaurin and I am a third year Environments Student majoring in Architecture. I come from a small country town in Victoria called Echuca. I chose to pursue an Education in Architecture due to my love of heritage design as I seek to conserve and bring older buildings into the modern era whilst retaining their historical significance. For example The Intercontinental Hotel Melbourne intergrates Victorian Era shop fronts into a beautiful modern space used as the hotel lobby. This type of contrast and intergration allows people to move forward with ideas yet retain the historical intergrity which I think adds and interest to the overall building. My current experience with digital design tools is somewhat limited. I have a good understanding of Adobe Photoshop and InDesign; I am also reasonable proficient at Revit. The image bottom left was created for Design Studio Water, I initially hand drew the design then overlayed textures in Photoshop, this was very time consuming and the end result although pleasing made it look like a computer game. I have little experience at using parametric modelling programs such as Rhino and Grasshopper. The thought of learning these design tools makes me a little nervous. The reason why I chose do Design Studio Air is to broaden my knowledge of the way Architectural Design can be created if I at the end of the semester can use these programs, it will be extemely satisfing.
07 week 01
architecture as discourse “[Frank Lloyd Wright’s] work crystallised the preoccupations of the period and influenced others distant in space and time” - Curtis
Falling Water by Frank Lloyd Wright Photo: commons.wikimedia.org
different cultures (Baydar 2004). This statement rchitecture relates to the other professions of then leads to the question of what is architecture the built Environment as it somewhat leads oth- today and how can it create discourse in societer related professions to focus and innovation. ies which have broken from their colonial past. Discourse is the idea of discussion and thought History has shown that buildings that create brought about by architecture, where people discourse push the boundaries of engineerstop and think about the building they enter. It ing and often reality. A building such as Frank can the way people think about living, their work Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water created discourse as processes and ways of thinking. These buildings it pushed the boundaries of where and how a can often help to change a current idea about house could be built. Using cantilever system in 1935 was unheard of, it incorperated the stone how certain things should function and look. Gulsum Baydar suggests that contemporary ar- from the surrounds contrasting it with a concrete chitectural discourse evaluates a link between render, where at the time houses were built to a architecture and culture, however he contradicts particular formula, whereas it responds to nature this statement arguing that this is a historical as- in a way that no building had done previously. sumption based on colonial encounters with
08 week 01
Ara Pacis, Rome 9BC
‘[Rome] was a platform for Ideological propaganda to help legitimise his reign.’
he Roman Empire is a great example of architecture as a discourse, monuments such as the Ara Pacis or Alter of Peace stood on the gateway to Rome. It was an ornately carved alter depicting Emperor Augustus victories in Gaul and Germania. It idealised the Emperor by showing his divine genealogy and therefore his right to rule the Roman Empire. This building creates discourse as it depicts Rome being victorious, showing the Empire’s power to would be visitors, it is carved from marble in recently captured northern province and promotes divine right of the Imperial Family by associating themselves with the Julio-Claudian family and the Goddess Venus. A building such as this symbolises the start of a dynasty where in subsequent Emperors sought to build many more monuments to depict the greatness of their rule and Rome. Augustus himself went on to build many more monuments and he supported the restoration of Eighty-Two temples (however only temples that he could be directly associated with himself). Historian Paul Zanker describes Rome as becoming a platform for Ideological propaganda to help legitimise his reign.
Emperor Augustus Photo:www.tumblr.com
This type of overwhelming discourse is still used today. In Australia today the Government commissions most of the public buildings we see, these include post offices, schools and recreation areas. Architects are then contractrated to design these buildings this can creates a discourse their style will influence the way people feel and act, which by extentsion is a government policy as they will control the design pararmeters . Ara Pacis Photo: www.abcroomsinrome.com -
09 week 01
Hitler’s Germany & Architecture today
he influence of roman architecture as a discourse of power can also be seen in much more modern examples. Hitler’s Germany from 1934 – 1945 exemplifies this notion that architecture can be used to convey power of authoritarian rule and also to help represent the new changing era and the mechanisation of the Nazi State. Like Augustus, Hitler too enjoyed the idea of large triumphal arches on wide boulevards; in some of Hitler’s own sketches he designed arches to be well over 70m high(Goad). Although this type of architecture Hitler was did create architectural discourse of power, it was a blatant recycling of Roman ideological propaganda. The zeitgeist of that era was one of industrialisation, after WW1 the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been split up, leaving a large majority of Europe in a depressed economical state. Hitler came into power and promised an industrialised culture where economic depression would be a thing of the past. Although this was not the start of the futurist movement it acted as a catalyst to progress this idea of architecture forward. The new style of architecture did away with unnecessary ornamentation and expensive materials, its inspiration was the machine and the architecture reflected this (Goad 2012). Nazi Architect Albert Speer helped to design
numerous buildings and spaces, like the Cathedral of Light by using 130 anti-aircraft searchlights to create vertical bars to surround the crowd. Using light to create form had never previously been used at such scale which Hitler described as a way of introducing disinformation to enemies about the numbers of resources available to the Third Reich (Speer 1970). In today’s architectural language the client is responsible for the way the building will ultimately look. The architect will generate many different ideas and concepts, however if a client is paying for an architect to design something, they will ultimately determine the outcome of the building as their constraints e.g. an eye-catching installation. The Wyndham Western Gateway Project is constrained heavily, it has to support the Council’s ideals which ‘inspire and enrich the municipality’ this could be interpreted in many ways but the limitations of what the interpretation are also constrained by the conceptual framework section in the brief. The parametric design tools function along these same principles, however their system design functions along constraints which can ultimately change the outcome of the project by restricting creative freedom. Picture Sourced: http://hashem37927.deviantart. com/art/Cathedral-Of-Light-285345802
010 week 01
Church of Light - Tadao Ando 1989
Tadao Ando’s Church of light is another example of architecture creating discourse. Ando like to construct his buildings with pre-fabricated concrete blocks which had previously been used in industrial settings. Ando’s reasoning behind using concrete was by its plainness the concrete acted like a blank canvas, allowing people within the buildings to focus their attentions on the natural world surrounding. This broke with tradition particularly in the construction of a Christian Church which are usually constructed from stone and embellished with religious motifs. This type of thinking really simplified the idea of what a building should be and how a human should feel in their environment. His use of directing the inhabitant’s views to certain things is not his idea as such, however the way he expresses it, through drawing occu-
pants through thresholds is unique to him. The Church of Light not only directs people into the building, it shows off the variety concrete can have by separating the walls to form an illuminated cross almost like a threshold in itself. When examining both the Roman/Nazi styles of architecture against Ando’s architecture they are almost polar opposites when it comes to what people think when they are immersed within their buildings. Rome and the Nazi’s wanted to convey power and authority whereas Ando wanted the inhabitants to have their own thoughts within the space thinking about what is beyond the threshold.
Photo: Tamas Medve - Church of Light
013 week 02
contemporary computational design
ontemporary computational design for architecture today is an important medium in generating design ideas to clients and other professions. There is a wide range of computational techniques which are used to generate these ideas, for example AutoCAD probably one of the most widely used architectural modeling tools uses predominately 2D modeling to communicate plans, sections and elevations. This type of computation modeling is not unlike what was used by early architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, whom were some of the first to generate this type of communication so the plans for buildings could be understood by master builders and craftsmen, and eliminating the need for the architect to be on site every day to supervise construction. (Kalay 2004) However more sophisticated design programs have been developed like Rhino and Grasshopper which integrate parametric and algorithmic
based software to develop design. These programs can push boundaries of what can be created with the human mind and hand creating increasingly complex structures pushing towards revolution in design and ‘becoming in part an experimental investigation of topological geometries’ (Zellner). Buildings such as the Wanangkura Stadium, Port Headland have been digitally modeled off isobars on weather maps where their forms have been extracted mathematically to form the basis of the design (architectural review). Brady Peters suggest that architects whom have mastered the art computation design no longer see the divide between the real and digital word. However with the great multitude of design software available, will there be a medium where people not as innately engrossed within the software will understand. Hugh Whitehead former head of Forster + Partners computer design division desribed the current individual whom can script and under-
stand these design programs are often the ‘lone ranger’ individuals whom have no intergration with other factions involved in architecture. He also warns that this type of architecture can divirge from design, as people are so intently focused on getting the scripting right, they can often miss out on the bigger picture. When observing these This type of design then leads to the debate of what is actually creating the architecture humans or computers? When posed with the issue I contemplated how an actual building is conceived, I surmised that although these programs help to push the boundaries of what can be designed, they are all constrained to algorithms which cannot be altered unless a human mind conceives them. Therefore digital design tools are tools, they are things used by humans to help communicate a design created in the mind by expressing them in a medium that all can comprehend.
014 week 02
To achieve this shape I started with a taurus. I then extruded a curve. I applied contours I then baked it. This shape was formed primarily at the end after the grasshopper inputs were baked. I turned control points on and then altered it to look like a bracelet, which I think is quiet Driftwood Exercise: beautiful. If I were to get To achieve this shape I startedconducted with a taurus. I and algorithmic exploration which explored this made I would either then extruded a curve. I applied contours I then Brep surfaces which enable it to be get transformed from a 3D it made from wood or baked it. This shape was formed primarily at the recycled newspapers. model on a computer, to an object created by a 3D printer end after the grasshopper baked.cutter. To achieve this shape I initally started with orinputsa were lazer I turned control points ona andTaurus, then altered it I placed another circle in the center of the taurus. to look like a bracelet, Anna McLaurin which I think is quiet I then extruded this curve around 40 times. I then applied beautiful. If I were to get 391265 this I would eithertool, which fixed the extruded circles to the tauamade contour get it made from wood or recycled newspapers. rus shape. I then baked the shape in Grasshopper so I could turn the control points on in Rhino. I manually changed the Anna McLaurin 391265 control points on three of the four sides on the shape, which resulted in I think a beautiful object which could be formed into a bracelet, either constructed from wood or recycled newspaper.
015 week 02
Webb Bridge 2003 Denton, Corker & Marshall with Owen
ebb Bridge created in 2003 by architects Denton, Corker and Marshall in collaboration with artist Robert Owen is parametrically modeled bridge created to resemble a traditional aboriginal Eel net. It was conceived as a connection from the north side of docklands to new residential developments on the southern side of the Yarra River.
It incorporates the older Web Dock Rail Bridge with a new steel ring structure which acts as ‘a transition between old and new, past and future’(Australian Institute of Architects) . The design aided by parametric modeling programs helped to incorporate the varying graduation of levels towards the southern bank. It appears that this bridge if createdI by Rhino/Grasshopper
that each steel ring has been offset at equal lengths, however each curve must conform to a contraint which limits the height , thus creating the suspended in water apprearance. A combination of art and architecture and computer programs have been used to allow this transitional space to become a work of useable art encompassing history, function and beauty to ensure the ‘feel’ of the space is right.
016 week 02
The Shard - Renzo Piano 2012
he Shard or London Bridge Tower located on the banks of the Thames River London is a vision of architect Renzo Piano creating the tallest skyscraper in Western Europe. The Shard which is modeled on the concept of an iceberg protruding from the Thames helps to also encapsulate the city’s rich religious history by emulating that of a church spire. The parametric modelling is also very important in the early stages of design as models can be created to intergrate different performance perameters to help explore the complex geometric solutions for the building (Kestelier). modeling techniques used helped to express Piano’s vision of a building that looked different, in different seasons. Parametric modelling is very important in the early stages ofUsing computers Piano computed what angle the individual glass facades would have to be to achieve this affect. Another computational technique used for safety purposes rather than design was implemented after the World Trade
Centre Attacks 2001. The National Institute of Standards and Technology assessed the safety rating of the building using computer simulated attack events to assess whether the building would collapse under extreme duress. This led to design changes to ensure maximum safety for its occupants if an event like this occurs again. The Shard was one of the first buildings in the UK to be subjected to this type of computer generated modeling, which helps to highlight the importance of computer aided design in the safety of large public structures. In terms of the Gateway Project this building creates an iconic feature which incorporates the idea of sculpture to compose a skyscraper by composing an abstracted version of the church spire within central London. This building created an ample amount of discourse amongst interest groups such as English Heritage by creating a controversy that it ‘will stick out of the Thames like a shard of glass’ which ironically helped to create the icon status it now has. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:London_01_2013_the_ Shard_London_Bridge_5205.JPG
Section of The Shard Image ÂŠ renzo piano building workshop
019 week 03
arametric Modelling is a mathematical principle which changes the variable of from X,Y, Z to a space and time paramatization. In relation to design principles, this can help designers to create complex algorithmic based design within a dynamic model space allowing them to maintain a vision of what they are designing while being able alter it at will. Woolbury suggests that computers and particularly parametric design is a new medium of communication as it can help extend what humans can create and express. Woolbury also goes into some detail about how Parametric modelling works, he describes is a system of nodes, constraints, properties and connections developed into a pattern to achieve a design. This idea is simplification of the human minds processes on how we as humans develop connections, often subconsciously, when developing a design. Woolbury suggests that this type of modelling helps to slow down the process and make people aware of how the individual pieces of the building are constructed. However Daniel in his lectures discussed that parametric modelling is more than just a mathematical solution to design, he suggested that it gives the ability for
designers to work out design parameters, test materials and costing before the actual design is completed, which can really allow for expression of this design as the designers are not trying to make the form from a sketch model but generate something organic with the components already tested. However Daniel also described the limitations of using the software such as rhino/grasshopper that it is very hard to even use the program (I am struggling with this at the moment), to alter the design without massive final implications and if it is given to someone else it is very hard to interpret without the original users input. What I took from the lecture and reading this week was the parametric modelling was a complex design tool which can either help simplify the design by breaking down into smaller manageable pieces. However this concept can also make it inherently complicated outside to anyone who hasnâ€™t designed it therefore contradicting itself in itâ€™s positives and negative aspects. In the future I see architects and designers moving away from this and generating a more intuitive software that allows the freedom of design, but it can also be controlled by constraints programmed in.
020 week 03
Archipelago Pavilion 2012
his art installation was created by 33 students during their masters in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology and Rohsska Museum of Design. The Pavilion is constructed with 2mm thick steel, and the curved shape is achieved by passing the steel through hot metal rollers. It has shown that the project was created in both Rhino and Grasshopper, this installation looks like a variety of shapes have been combined together and altered to create this interesting shape. Creating it is Rhino, it appears that they have created a panelling tool to create each individual panel so the building can be constructed easily. The holes in the roof and sides are all irregular suggesting they have been arranged manually or by
a randomisation plugin. In constructing it, each bolt (which can predominately be seen on the outside) would have to be programmed in; this was probably created in Grasshopper where each bolt was related to a point on a curve on a specific panel, which then can be easily mapped out and built precisely. In relation to the Gateway project this type of design would be achievable, however I feel that something like this would be better if people can interact with it and being placed on a freeway this will be somewhat limited. However panelling technique used is practical as well as beautiful therefore if a different form were to be created it could be an eye-catching addition to the freeway.
IMAGE SOURCED http://futuresplus.net/2012/07/20/archipelago-parametric-pavilion/
021 week 03
Dragon Skin Pavillion 2012
striking pavilion by Emmi Keshisarja, Pekka Tynkkynen & LEAD has been built using entirely computer based software techniques. According to the diagrams the pavilion started off as a relatively simple rectangular 2D grid, this could easily be created in Rhino. Each rectangle within the grid has been assigned a number reference which in the construction process will enable a precise construction. The rectangles have then been altered into a 3D format, by extruding and changing the angle of the curve. However when the rectangle is cut but the machine, it ini-
tially comes out flat. Another computer is then programmed to a drill bit to cut slots out at precise angles. The rectangular plywood is then heated to 150Deg C and placed into a mould where it gains itâ€™s distinctive shape. In terms of the Gateway Project, this type of design does seem somewhat achievable to construct. This is due the variability of the material used, rather than plywood which may distort under the elements, a material such as steel or plastic could be used. Another aspect is that this type of installation could be largely constructed offsite and assembled quickly onsite. The image on the following page demonstrates how the it was modelled.
IMAGE SOURCED: http://www.arch2o.com/dragon-skin-pavilion-students-of-tampere-university-of-technology/
The Dragon Pavilion Parametric Modelling Sequence
023 week 03
Algorithmic Exploration Geodiesic curves
explored the geodiesic curves parametric modelling. I involved creating three different circles and moving them to different heights. I then divided the curves then divided them on the tree. I created an arch between the curves and then lofted it to achieve this shape. The geodiesic cuves then created the surface between the points. I found the end result pleasing, achieving seashell like shape. I experimented with this process and tried to impliement a square as the middle curve, it however the constraints did not allow it to completed into a realistic shape.
025 week 04
applying this type of thought to computational modelling when a design is input into a computer, Hugh Whitehead (Foster & Partners) sums up that some of the design intent can be lost, because people become so engrossed within the programming they lose foresight into the actual design process to completion. Therefore the need to define what architecture actually is seemed a necessity. Both Schumacher and Williams struggle with this concept. Williams describes it as an overall experience, not just the built form itself whereas Schumacher describes it as a system of communications connecting each other in an ongoing recursive network.
When reading the Greg Lynn article he discussed somewhat obscure ideas relating to architecture and how it should take its principles from a blob. This concept initially confused me however leaving the tutorial discussion I thought upon the notion where a blob is an object which forms to the environment, not the other way around. Lynn describes them as ‘alien and detached from any place yet capable of melding with their contexts’. I think this way should be a way in which all architects think, where a building constructed should be designed to mould to the surrounding environment. This building does not need to conform to traditional notions of what architecture is e.g. four walls and a roof but use an ‘abstract model of complexity’ which acts as a ‘quasi-solid’ to evolve into a naturalistic state of architecture.
From this information, I have concluded that architecture is an evolving notion, it does not need to be constrained by society or the environment however as Lynn discussed is should meld into the context. In terms of the divide between traditional architecture e.g. AutoCAD/Hand drawing VS Computational architecture, there is still a massive divide. This divide is caused by a number of factors, one being the accessibility of this form of design, programs like Grasshopper and other scripting based software as described by Daniel Davis are counter-intuitive they have not progressed far enough to be a fully functioning design tool. Another reason is the apprehension for people whom have already learnt the ‘traditional’ means of architecture and are sceptical of the new design concept. I feel that in order to keep evolving architecture needs to embrace the new technology, that being said it needs to find a simpler way of communicating this across different norms to be a fully integrated object and allow humans to appreciate the space they will inhabit.
eing confronted with a new concept of design that has otherwise remained unchanged since the Roman times really made me questions my motives for choosing architecture as a career. The new realm of computational architecture and parametric modelling was (and still is somewhat) like learning a new language. This language involving algorithmic thinking like breaking a curve down into steps which would have otherwise been drawn, or scripting the logic of the curve using equations. In my research into both sides of the argument I concluded that there we both positive and negatives to both sides.
This thinking is contradicted by the Definition of an algorithm reading in Wilson as is defines an algorithm as a complex set of numbers arranged into a recipe type structure (constraints) which has to be followed rigorously to be able to define it. When
026 week 04
Moving Forward - VoltDOM
y groupâ€™s design approach will take itâ€™s inspiration from the VoltaDom installation, created for MITâ€™s 150th anniversary. It uses the panelling technique to create a shape that appears fluid in formation. My groups design approach will initially be to brainstorm on where the site be located and how it will be viewed by oncoming motorists. Secondly we will assess whether we want it to look different in differ-
ent times of the day and if the site will need electricity to function. Thirdly we will design the project with all the parameters integrated. This type of design is innovative as it is a computational design allows you to do this come up with the design last and not be constrained by always adjusting to the parameters to make it look like the original design. I feel like this approach is a more integrated and natural way of design.
027 week 04
Falling Water: Falling Water - http://www.fallingwater.org/ CURTIS WILLIAM J. R 1983 Modern Architecture Since 1900 BAYDAR, G. (2004). “The Cultural Burden of Architecture.” Journal of Architectural Education (1984-) 57(4): 19-27. Rome: ZANKER, P 1988, The Power Of Images In The Age Of Augustus / Paul Zanker ; Translated By SHAPARIO, A. Arbor : University of Michigan Press, c1988 Nazi Architecture: GOAD, PHILLIP Lecture 8: Bauhaus to Blood and Soil: Architecture and Politics, Modern Architecture: MoMo to PoMo HAGEN, J. 2008. Parades, Public Space, and Propaganda: The Nazi Culture Parades in Munich. Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, 90, 349-367. Ando: TAKEYAMA, K. 1983. Tadao Andô: Heir to a Tradition. Perspecta, 20, 163-180.
KALAY, Y, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004 Architectural Review Issue 128 Summer 2012/2013 The Shard: The Shard – London Bridge Quarter http://the-shard.com/overview/ PETERS, B. & DE KESTELIER, X. 2013. About The Guest-Editors. Architectural Design, 83, 6-7. World Federation of Great Towers - http://www.great-towers.com/towers/the-shard/
028 week 04
WEEK 3: WOOLBURY, R (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 PETERS, B. & DE KESTELIER, X. 2013. About The Guest-Editors. Architectural Design, 83, 6-7. Archipelago pavilion: http://futuresplus.net/2012/07/20/archipelago-parametric-pavilion/ Dragon Skin Pavillion: http://www.arch2o.com/dragon-skin-pavilion-students-of-tampere-university-of-technology/
Conclusion: DAVIS, D, ‘Lecture 3’ Studio Air 2013 Parametric Modelling KEIL R & F eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 LYNN, G (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182. PETERS, B. & DE KESTELIER, X. 2013. About The Guest-Editors. Architectural Design, 83, 6-7. SCHUMACHER, P, ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 - 28. WILLIAMS, R, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. VOLTADOM INSTALLATION- http://arts.mit.edu/fast/fast-light/fast-installation-skylar-tibbits-vdom/
EOI 11: DESIGN APPROACH
DESIGN APPROACH TESSALATION
essalation proved to be the most dynamic and interesting design approach to persue in the Gateway Design Project . Our group felt that is could be made into an exciting intstallation which could explore the use of light, movement and form
032 PRECEDENT ONE VOLTA DOM ing. It is not necessarily beautiful in the same way as the smoothness of the Shellstar Pavilion but it is eye catching in a way which can be very beneficial to the gateway project in attracting attention and focus of the viewers. This aspect of the design would be beneficial to incorporate into the stylings of EXOThe VoltaDom is a double vaulted passageway based tique and Shellstar Pavilion in creating a more monuon the initial structural design of inside a cathedral. mental recognisable feature to the Gateway Project. The design varies hugely along the surface in changing both the tesselations shape and size and the dis- VoltaDomâ€™s Achievements in Tessellated Design tribution of joinery across the surface. The joinery is - Huge amount of variety across the surface through very dynamic where the corner of the panels create scale alterations of the tessellated surface. a new sharp feature making the joinery as much a - Bold edges and joinery are an integral part of the feature as the projected tessellated panels. The va- design and emphasise the overall structure of the tesriety in this design is very dynamic and eye catch- sellated surface. Skylar Tibbits VoltaDom MIT, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts, USA
033 PRECEDENT TWO SHELLSTAR PAVILION MATSYS Shellstar Pavilion Wan Chain, Hong Kong The Shellstar Pavilion was designed to be an iconic gathering place for festival attendees.1 This design therefore had to be eye catching and compelling to captivate the audience. MATSYS worked within a parametric modelling environment (grasshopper and kangaroo) and was quickly developed and iterated with the 6 weeks of design, fabrication, and assembly. The design process can be broken down into 3 processes that were enabled by advanced digital modelling techniques; Form-Finding, Surface Optimization, Fabrication Planning.2 The structure is composed of nearly 1500 individual cells that are all slightly non-planar.3 The curvature of the form meant that some of the cells overlapped which was minimized using a custom python script.4 Although there were some difficulties in fabrication, the solution in the end design is very effective. The structure appears light in a differet way to EXOtique due to the larger holes within the structure. This is partly to do with the lighting which enhances the variety of both sides by projecting light along the surface rather than through the surface like EXOtique. Shellstar Pavilionâ€™s Achievements in Tessellated Design - A two-sided design which can be moved through underneath creating another side of the design. - Beautiful fluid movement which creates a softness in the design. 1 http://www.contemporist.com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/ 2 http://www.contemporist.com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/ 3 http://www.contemporist.com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/ 4 http://www.contemporist.com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/
034 PRECEDENT THREE PROJECTiONE PROJECTiONE EXOtique Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA
he EXOtique project was produced by PROJECTiONE and students from the Institute for Digital Fabrication.1 There were specific constraints such as time, budget and the site (the ceiling at the school architecture building) and the design was to be created using Rhino and the plug in, Grasshopper.2 The intention of the designers was to ‘create a simple, hexagonally based, component system that would act as a lit “drop ceiling” for the space, as the ceiling height would allow for quite a bit of variation in the surface.3 A tessellated design was the solution PROJECTiONE came up with as a result of the briefs restrictions. Although tesselation is in itself repetitive, this design has used tesselation on a curving surface to create a large amount of variety within the design. The tessellated design is enhanced through the use of artificial light which has been distributed evenly throughout the grid. However, due to the curved structure of the surface, the design projects lights from many areas of the design further enhancing the variety in the form. EXOtique’s Achievements in Tessellated Design - A large amount of variety is achieved in the design through the curving of the planar surface rather than through variety of the pattern. - Lighting has been effectively incorporated into the design to emphasise the tessellated pattern. This is largely to do with the correct distribution of light source. This will be important to consider within our own design. 1 PROJECTiONE.com, ‘Exotique’2009) <http://www.projectione.com/exotique/>. 2 PROJECTiONE.com, ‘Exotique’2009) <http://www.projectione.com/exotique/>. 3 Arch Daily, ‘Exotique/Projectione’2011) <http://www.archdaily.com/125764/exotique-projectione/>.
035 DEFINITION VOLTA DOM
sing the VoltaDom definition to create the basic form along a planar surface. The extra definition added allows the cones or other shapes to be projected onto 3D objects like Spheres and Tauruses. Exploring the definition further it allowed my group to adjust the height and radius of the cones to create different effects. However this often resulted in the separate cells overlapping, the trim command in this defiinition often resulted in a distorted image, therefore manual trimming in rhino after baking had to be used to achieve a smoother result.
EXPLORING VOTLA DOM
038 SURPRISES & LIMITATIONS OF VOLTADOM Exploring the VoltaDom led to conclusions that each cell which tessallates is restricted in depth. The circular nature of the cells can restrict what shapes are used to create the form. If the Grasshopper definition allowed for shaped with more angular shapes the tessaltion could become more interesting.
Tessaltion using angular surfaces
Using the VoltaDom cones on a curved surface
Using the VoltaDom cones on a sphere
The idea of a circular form within a taurus
EOI 11: CASE STUDY 2.0
MATRIX CASE STUDY 2.0 A
042 MATRIX ANALYSIS A
Exploring the concept of a 2D hexagonal mesh using tessaltion. One using a one line mesh, the other framing the form.
Extruding the hexagonal grid structure to give more depth to the Tessalation
An attractor point has been added, which resulted in a indeciferable mesh which would be impossible to fabricate.
Creating cell structures to bridge gaps between each segment made a geometrically beautfil shape. Persuing this definition will be easier to fabricate as the cells will be self supporting.
Using a defintion creating hexagonal cells applied to a surface. Applying it to a surface and altering it to appear like the Shellstar Pavilion.
Creating two surfaces for the honeycomb cells to form between them. The surfaces are then altered in Rhino to create interesting form. This type of definition is a favourite of the group and we want to explore this more, possibly incorperating it into the Wydnam Development
043 CASE STUDY 2.0 RESULTS
Although our group did not successfully reverse engineer the Shellstart Pavilion , the elements
created when merged together would create that form. The image bottom right shows the use of gravity in the kangaroo tool of grasshopper which created the basic form of the pavilion. The hexagonal cells created in the image below and to the right indicate the invdividually tessalated structure used in the shellstar pavilion.
TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT A
046 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT A
This section demonstates applying hexagonal tessaltion to different surfaces creates an evenly tessalated surfaces. Fabricating this would be easier than some of the designs, however this type of design may end up looking like wire fence.
Extending the honeycomb cells to create a tubular forms created a form that could act from both sides of the highway. Light could also be projected through these forms
Creating the honeycomb cells on a surface then using an attractor point to change the surface height. On the site cells could be dug into the ground to create a durable form. Using the space in between cells which have been separted could also create the tessalation. Creating two separate curved planar surfaces and forming the honeycomb cells between them. The first image in Row D created a fluid form using honeycomb cells of different sizes to move along the curve. This differentiation make the form more interesting, to create this in the Wyndam development each cell would have to be supported separately.
This section demonstates the use of panelling tools along a curved surfaces, parts of the hexagonal cells have been removed to create an extra effect.
This section demonstates a hexagonal grid on a planar surface, an attractor point has then been added to alter the surface this creates a fluid moment which our group was hoping to achieve in the final design. The secondary half of this section uses a planar form with a hexagonal grid punched out of the plane. Although this design is simple, it is very effective in creating a fluid tessalated movement.
TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT POSITIVE OUTCOMES
he cut out surface technique development began in Case Study 2.0 with an exploration into panelling tools. The experimentation began with the development of a two dimensional paneling grid which was then projected onto a lofted surface where the panels were then trimmed out of the surface to create tesselation through subtraction. This technique was developed through the use of attractor points to create a more varying surface. The variety in density of the panels gave the surface a natural fluid and directional movement appearance across its surface. The experimentation with attractor points was successful in this scenario where it had previously failed in panelling tools in Grasshopper. It created the desired effect of variation across the surface which we thought would be very interesting as a feature in the Gateway Project as vehicular traffic moved past the structure. Then began the exploration of curving the surface to further enhance the effect of movement across the surface and created restricted and changing views of the structure as the vehicle moves past it.
050 FABRICATION MANUAL Fabricating our model was created to explore tessalation technique which our group explored in Case Study 2.0. The model right demonstated the tessalated cut out method to create form. It was fabricated by unfolding the the design and printing it onto paper. The design was then cut out manually and glued together with tabs. This design really showed how our design would react with light as the image right shows. If we choose to fabricate something like this again, I would explore the use of metal in which holes could be punched out. This would make the structure much stronger and durable. After exploring the concept of hexagonally tessallated cells we decided to unroll and explore how it would be fabricated. The initial larger file was too large and made the computer crash multiple time. Therefore extracting a small segment from the bigger structure to explore the basic structure. The surface was unrolled into one layer then the segments in the middle separately. The structure was cut from a thicker card which was more stable than the first model however using a tabbing method to create a more stable design would be better if this type of design was taken to the FabLab.
Prototypes: Fabrication and Assembly Richard Serra’s “Wake” Exploring a prototype similar to the the designs we are creating in Grasshopper and Rhino may help us to understand how to fabricate our designs in a real life senario. Richard Serra’s sculpture “Wake” for Seattle’s Olympic Sculpture Park is composed of large metal panels which appear to be projected out of the ground. These reflect the ideas our group were having when exploring the cut out design in our techinique development stage.1 Serra’s design uses heavy metal sheets layed on steel platforms which have been further secured with a concrete slab poured over the top. Metal is a durable material that is malleable enough to mould to curves and frames that may shape the design. In our group own prototype we explored the cut out technique on card. It was predominately made using Grasshopper. Adding a curve into the form made it much more dynamic as this orginal design was only on a planar surface which was somewhat boring. Obviously a single sheet of metal will be unable to freestand in an exposed contintion like Whyndam, thefore exploring a frame structure or thicker material may be necessary to explore this concept further.
054 PROTOTYPE TESSALATED SNAKE
urther exploring the hexagonal cells in Case Study 2.0 this design explored earlier pleasing result of moulding it to a curved surface. This design would be beneficial to the Gateway Project as it creates an interesting tessalted shape, itâ€™s fluid form will allow it to move with the landscape in site A. From a distance this design will look like one solid form, however for the twenty seconds that the car travels past each invidividual column of tessalation will be exposed to show the dynamic form. The Elements in this technique are bolted together in the individual columns. Each column will be fixed onto a rod which will be set into the ground via concrete (picture, bottom). Inside the interior will be mesh reinforced in order for the cells to retain their shape. Using a material such as fiberglass would allow reinforcing mesh to be set inside each cell before it is fabricated using pre made moulds. Fibreglass will also allow light to pass through the structure and allow it to function at night.
055 FABRICATION KARTONSK 2011
n order to fabricate this design on a model based scale clip joining will have to be used to form the individual cells. Due to the variation in the size of each of the cells, each cell will have to be fabricated separately and not mass produced. For the model making process the use of card will suffice however using wood would create a more stable structure This will be based off another grasshopper creation Hexagonal structure “Kartonsk” 2011(Brosalin K. / Sokolov D. / Beliy A.) It has ultimately been held together with zip ties, however these could be subsitutued for clip joins to create a smoother edge. A custom joint will have to be made for each connection due the fluid and undulating nature The image (on overside) ndicates a possible position for the hexagonal cells to be located on the site. Placing it on site A’s undulating surface it will be able to retain it’s shape whilst being stable.
057 FABRICATION CELL CLOUD 2012
he â€œCell Cloudâ€? installation was created by Helbert Suarez and Remi Melander in and exhibited in the Tent London, 2012. This project allows us insight into the way in which light, colour and materials can create a fluid and dynamic piece of art. The installation uses both white and blue polypropylene which allows the light to easily pass through. This allows for the design to have depth whilst retaining its fragile nature. This project allows us to view the types of materials that would be suitable by choosing these types of designs. The polypropylene is the best solution for a prototype model this type of design because wood or metal would make the installation lose its fluidity and it would also become very bulky and harsh. However this type of material will not be hardy enough to withstand the environmental conditions experienced on the highway. Using something stronger like a hardened glass or fibreglass may solve the problem of durabiltity however they may age poorly and look dirty, therefore a reflective material could be used to try and replicate the effect. The honeycomb pattern is projected simply on a flat surface to begin the exploration of the extrusion of the pattern. In the further technique developments the pattern has been projected between two surfaces to create long hexagonal tubes. Firstly they were created between simple rectangular surfaces with further exploration being completed by creating sweeping surfaces much like the Cell Cloud.
058 FABRICATION LONGER CELLS
n Case Study 2.0 we began exploring with the idea of projecting of the honeycomb pattern onto two surfaces. This technique involves creating long hexagonal tubes between two surfaces which we have created. By using this technique we are able to manipulate the surfaces and therefore the direction of the tubes. The development of this technique was through the manipulation and creating sweeping surfaces that allowed the fluid movement of the 3D shapes. As a vehicle moves towards this it appears flat, unmoving and two-dimensional. Once the observer is close enough to actually see the structure they will begin to notice that it is in fact much more than they originally expected. On approaching they will notice that it is in fact a dynamic piece which is made up of many hexagonal tubes. When directly across from these tubes they will be able to view the cars coming on the opposite side of the freeway and also depending on the positioning of the sun, the lighting which is entering the tubes will be altered. At night time the cars on the opposite side of the freeway will alter the way in which the structure us viewed.
A mock up of what this form may look on the site
060 LEARNING OBJIVES & OUTCOMES MID SEMESTER The mid semester presentation offered us insightful feedback on how we should position our model and to what scale it should be located on the site. In terms of position it made our group think about where we should place the design. Reflecting on this, I hope to achieve a design than can be viewed on both sides of Site A, I hope to achieve something that can be viewed as a whole object from further away and when the commuters are travelling alongside it the some of its parts will be shown. This is particularly relevent for the case study of tessaltion we are investigating as the tessalated surfaces are a feature in itself. Th second suggestion was to think about the scale as to which our design would be, the above images in the prototype give some indication of what scale it would be at. At this stage the images suggest an installation that is quiet large, I think in the future it will decrease in scale and increase in complexity. Learning objectives: Objective one: Revolved around interrogating the brief, I feel that our group initially did take into consideration the brief. However further exploring the designs some context of what actually could be built in real life did change to more of an experimental phase in what could be achieved through exploring tessaltion in Grasshopper. The case studies and precedents we supported our data with, E.G the ShellStar Pavilion provided ample evidence to discuss our shortcomings and limitations. This our limitations primarily involved our lack of knowledge of Grasshopper and some of itâ€™s add inâ€™s like Kangaroo. Although we knew what we need to do to Reverse Engineer the Shellstar Pavilion, applying inputs like gravity to a mesh proved difficult. Objective two: The self directed learning of Grasshopper, our group has progressed far in our understanding of the program. Being able to visualise what a Grasshopper input will do to a form and what output it would need to further alter it. The three matracies that my group have created demonstrated our progression in understanding the program. For Example progressing from the basic VoltaDom to creating complex hexagonal tessaltion.
Objective three: In terms of three dimensional media our group has created a series of models to demonstrate how a tessalted structure would be fabricated. These showed the limitations of the design by the capping of the cells. These demonstated that each individual cell would have to firstly created as a separate element, and secondly tabbing or joining would also have to input into the design in order for a model to be made. This image demonstrates the fabrication problem Objective eight: Through extensively studying Case Study 1.0 and Case Study 2.0 I have built on my repertoire of computational techniques. Case study 1.0 has allowed to me explore the limitations of the VoltaDom definition, by applying to different surface and exploring different shapes like circles. This really helped me to understand how important something like number slider is and how it can alter the look a of a design so much. How changing a number slider can effect the design.
Objective seven: Our group has developed a foundational understanding of Computational Geometry. I feel that was expressed during our failed attempt at reverse engineering the Shellstar Pavilion. We were able to apply most of the imputs correctly to the model allowing us to partially recreate the design. After observing some online tutorials of what we should do our skill and program repertior failed and we had to install more programs and start from scratch. The tools I found particularly useful were from WeaverBird (to create the mesh on the surface), Kangaroo to apply gravity to an object with anchor points and Panelling tools which allowed us to create a surface available for fabrication The Grasshopper definition used allowed the mesh to be draped over the anchor points. Seen here