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RASTAFARI BRINGING BACK THE LION

BRINGING BACK THE LION

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RASTAFARI


CON TEN

TS Graphic Design by Anitha Reku

Published by Raffles Design Institute

THE ROOTS Introduction

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The History

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The Subgroups

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The Elements

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The P.E.S.T Anaylsis

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SINGAPORE SPEAKS Target Audience

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Objective

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The Big Idea

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Vidual References

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Visual Development

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Final Design

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© Copyright of Anitha Reku (Bachelor of Graphic Design)

® All RIghts Reserved.

BRINGING BACK THE LION

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THE RO 4

RASTAFARI


OOTS. BRINGING BACK THE LION

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RASTAFARI


INTRO DUCT

ION

rastafari noun

(Jamaica) A Black youth subculture and religious movement that arose in the ghettos of Kingston, Jamaica, in the 1950s; males grow hair in long dreadlocks and wear woolen caps; use marijuana and listen to reggae music.

rastarfarianism noun

a religious cult, originally of Jamaica, that regards Africa as the Promised Land, to which all true believers will someday return, and the late Haile Selassie I, former emperor of Ethiopia, as the messiah.

The rationale above is derived from http://dictionary.reference.com.

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THE

HIS TORY

Jamaica The origin of this subculture was found in Kingston, Jamaica. The country attained her independence on 6 August 1962. Sir Alexander Bustamante was elected at the First Prime Minister of Jamaica. As for the rise of Rastafari, there were three individuals who were directly and indirectly responsible for the evolution of Rastafari or Rastafarianism. The following representatives are: Leonard Percival Howell Marcus Garvey H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie In this section, you will understand more about the three individuals on their goals to achieve for the blacks in Jamaica.

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THE FOUNDERS OF RASTAFARI

Leonard Percival Howell Leonard Percival Howell was born on the 16 of June in the year 1898. He was the first ever Rastafarian who found this subculture. The man had set up a Rastafarian compound called the Pinnacle Community, where he wanted the people in Jamaica to unite and reflect on the Babylon. He had hoped for the Jamaicans to show full devotion to the late H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie, to adapt the believes and understandings on how he fought for Africa.

Sir Marcus Garvey Marcus was born on the 17 of August in 1887. He was a man who many worshipped and believed in as he was involve in the potical aspects back in the late 1800s. He had always believed that there will be a King from Africa who will come save and protect the people from Jamaica. His strong believes had even made the people think of going back to homeland, Africa. He was a man who started the Black Movement, of which it represents the blacks who suffered during the Babylon period, where the whites were treating the blacks as slaves.

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H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie The Emperor was born in 1892. Before attaining his throne, he was known as Ras Tafari Makonnen. He is a man of justice who seeks peace and unity for the Africans. He is also someone who is never afraid to speak the truth and seeks freedom for his people in Africa. During his tour around North America and Europe, Emperor Haile Selassie met many Governors and other poiticians on how they spoke about their own native countries. The Emperor had quoted the following during an event at the Ambassador Hall in California.

We have been impressed with the richness and importance of your state. The long trip through the Northwest has shown us the unending wealth of forests and streams and mineral resources, all of which remind us of Ethiopia. You are, at the same time, a rich agricultural state, and to cap it all, an industrial state, where the industry extends from oil to that of cinema. Surely you have reason to be proud of California. Only in Ethiopia, can a climate equal to that of California to be found.

–H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie

Ras Tafari became a Messiah to the Rastafarians like how the Christians potray Jesus as their Messiah. He was not aware of how the Rastafarians worshipped him until he made a trip to Kingston, Jamaica.

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RASTAFARI


THE

SUB

GRO UPS

In the Rastafari Subculture, there are three specific subgroups which have different practices and beliefs within. The type of Rastafarians are listed below: Nyahbinghi Bobo Shanti Twelve Tribes of Israel Although they are all Rastafarians by heart, each are different in their way of cultural eithcs and behaviour. We will be seeing these groups on how different they see and practice methods of their daily lives.

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THE SUBGROUPS OF RASTAFARI

Nyahbinghi This is one of the oldest found within the Rastafarian group. The culture was named after a famous princess in Ghana. The group had strong believes and worshipped Emperor Haile Selassie, taking him as God with deep devotion and admiration. The Nyahbinghi group treats water, fire and air as their elements of life, especially fire. With fire, it gives the reminiscence of what has happened in the past during the Babylon9. When it comes to their diet, this group of people hany meat and salt are involved in their food. We can say that they are vegetarians. The Nyahbinghi group are very closely involved with the Ethiopian beliefs. Their flag is similar to of the Ethiopians’ flag in terms of the colours, with a lion in the centre to symbolize the Lion of Judah10 – Emperor Haile Selassie.

Twelve Tribes of Israel Back in 1968, Dr Veron Carrington found this subgroup in Jamaica. He was referred as the ‘Prophet of Gad’ as people in that sub-group regarded his as a reincarnation of Gad. The Twelve Tribes of Israel group strongly believes in the salvation of all tribes. This also includes the blacks and other races and religions. The group is also known as the most generous sub-group in Jamaica. The people believe that they are the children of the Twelve Sons of Israel. This sub-group has been influenced to various western countries and Africa as well.

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Bobo Shanti In the year 1958, Prince Emmanuel Charles Edwards found this sub-group in Jamaica. The word Bobo means black and Ashanti was the name of a tribe in Africa. He was regarded as the high level black Christ, where people regarded him as the same like Marcus Garvey and His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie. This group has been influences to various countries in Africa. The group does not accept the laws from Jamaica. Indirectly, the group is a rebel. Conservativeness hits when it comes to the women in their group, as they must have their arms and legs fully covered. Men in the Bobo Shanti are mainly regarded as priest since they conduct religious meetings. They follow Marcus Garvey’s campaign on the idea of the black going back to Africa.

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RASTAFARI


THE

ELE

ME

The elements in Rastafarianism is the main definition to this subculture. The key to one being a Rastafarian should have at least a few habits and interests that is listed below. Colours and Symbol Dreadlocks Marijuana Music In this section, you will get to see how each and every element above states their attributes to see the better view on this subculture.

NTS BRINGING BACK THE LION

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THE ELEMENTS OF RASTAFARI

Colours and Symbol The colours of the Rastafarian represent them very strongly. Red represents the blood of those who were killed during the era where the blacks were suffering in Jamaica many years ago. Green represents the vegetation in Jamaica. Gold shows Ethiopia’s wealth and Black represents the Africans who started Rastafarianism. Rastafarians regard the Lion as their symbol to this subculture.

Dreadlocks Dreadlocks have been a fashion statement for so many years now. The reason behind all this is basically the Rastafarians on their belief. They believe that the dreadlocks on their heads represent the pets’ mane of their Messiah, the Emperor of Ethiopia. Emperor Haile Selassie had two lions, which indirectly were his guards as well. Another reason for Rastafarians to keep such long dreadlocks is to reflect upon the sages of ‘Yogis’ of ancient India. The ‘Yogis’ near the Himalayan range kept such long dreadlocks. The possible chances for such influence to the Rastafari clan is because of the spiritual and holy belief of keep such hair may be connected to God. With that, the Rastafarians believe to keep that lions’ mane hairstyle as they regard the lion to be connected with their Messiah, H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie, also known as Ras Tafari Makonnen.

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Marijuana Now this everyone knows that Rastafarianism is associated with Marijuana, of which is against the law in various countries. However, to the Rastafarians, they consider this plant as a holy herb. It is used in-group meetings, which involved in meditation. Base on Leonard Barret’s book on The Rastfarians, The Dreadlocks of Jamaica, it’s a herb where it is to let the Rastafarians to feel freedom. to Kingston, Jamaica.

Better is a dinner of herb where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith.

–Proverbs 15:17

The Rastafarians uses marijuana as a substance to their ritual acts. The usage of this holy herb can be done in a couple of methods. One is by rolling it in as a cigarette and the other is by placing the herb in a pot and smoke through the pipe of the pot. The feeling that the Rastafarian will experience is such where he or she enters into a world of trance or full relaxation mode.

Music The music industry in Jamaica is very interesting. The names of the different genres and the rhythms and beats are very unique when it comes to Jamaican music. This sub-group’s music is special and unique compared to the black Americans’ hip-hop or rhythm and blues. This is because of the African roots and culture that has influenced the beats of such genres. The African rhythms can be found mostly in Rastafari music genres such as Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Dancehall and the world known Reggae, (continued onto next page.)

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THE ELEMENTS OF RASTAFARI

Mento Mento music started of in the 19th century. This was the very first music that was created before the other popular ones were created (e.g. Reggae). It was music that was influence by the African and European music beats. Mento was not very famous until it hit the 1950s era. This is where Mento music officially started to get recorded and various bands by then was created. Not only does Mento have the African roots and European essence, the Caribbean culture also set in. Mento is an original Jamaican music, which then became a root to the other music genres that will be stated in this report.

Soundsystem The soundsystem was developed in the 1950s. This invention was created to amplify any form of music in general. The Rastafarians regards this equipment as an essence in their lives. Majority of the Rastafarians are vocalists. They have this practice where they sing whenever they travel to places. Therefore, with the help of the soundsystem, the vocalists of Jamaica will amplify their songs everywhere, so that their songs will be heard by everyone to understand what their song means and reflect on. The soundsystem is an intrumental medium which allows speeches or songs to travel to reachable distances to let people hear what is emitted from the system.

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Ska Ska music genre was created in the 1950s. This genre was derived from the root, that is the Mento. Ska music was evolved with the combination of Mento, Caribbean influences and Calypso. The Jazz music from America and Rhythms and Blues were also influenced in this genre. Basically, Ska is more of an upbeat version compared to the root. The genre was popular with the British and later on, with Skinhead culture people.

Dub This genre of music was created in the 1960s. The process of creating this music is to have additional instruments or vocal tracks to what had already been recorded in the studios. In other words, dub is a form of remix of original tracks with additional flavouring of “salt” and “pepper” to boost the music up. The dubmasters of Rastafari play a very important role during the recording of a dub song. They control everything in the mixing room including the engineering and final production of the music. Some of the well known dubmasters are King Tubby and Coxsonne Dodd.

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THE ELEMENTS OF RASTAFARI

Rocksteady This genre of music was created in the late 1960s in Jamaica. It is somewhat similar to the other Jamaican music genres. However, the music is such where the lyrics of the songs affect on how Jamaica has developed politically, socially, economically and culturally. Titles such as ‘Rivers of Babylon’ reminds the Rastafarians on what has happened during the period of suffering and slavery that occurred in the past. Alton Ellis was one of the famous Rocksteady singers nack in the 1960s.

Dancehall This genre was evolved on the late 1970s due to Henry ‘Junjo’ Lawes, who actually executed into records. It is also known as ‘Ragga’, in short for the word ‘Raggamuffin’. Dancehall in other words, is a direct expression on how one sings about women’s body parts and men’s sexual instincts. The genre is a version which is completely opposite of Mento, Ska and Rocksteady. Although Rocksteady was the root of this music genre, Dancehall was a very popular music genre in the 1980s. Popular singers who sing this genre of music are Shabba Ranks, Shaggy, Mr Vegas and Sean Paul. Shabba Ranks was one of the first to come out of Jamaica to make it in the Dancehall genre music industry internationally. He was the world’s best known Raggamuffin.

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Reggae This is the most well known genre that most music lovers around the world will know. Reggae was created in the 1960s. Nevertheless, the popularity of this genre is still lasting till this day. Great reggae icons like Jimmy Cliff, who was the very first reggae artist, followed by the famous Bob Marley have remained in the many hearts of the Rastafarians and international fans of these two great legends. It’s so popular of a genre where even American’s top rapper Snoop Dog had upgraded himself in the music career. A change was want he wanted and eventually now known as Snoop Lion.

The Icon: Bob Marley A simple man, with simple hopes, with a heart that wants everyone to be united together is non other then the legend of reggae, Bob Marley. Originally known as Nesta Robert Marley, he was a man who sings songs that teaches people on how one should see and understand the point of living. Songs like ‘One Love’ and ‘No Woman, No Cry’ gave essential meaning to life. Other songs that he sang also gave meaning to the Rastafari teaching. One of the songs verse is stated in the quote below.

We are sick and tired of your ismschism game, to die and go to heaven in Jesus’ name. We know and understand almighty God is a living man. –Sang by Bob Marley, Get Up, Stand Up, Tuff Going Music, 1973

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RASTAFARI


THE P.E.S.T

ANAL

YSIS

Political The blacks in Jamaica suffered very badly during the era of the Babylon where the blacks were treated as slaves for the whites. There was always a skin colour issue between the whites and blacks back in that period. Therefore, due to the Rastafari subculture influence, the blacks believe in only peace and no war.

Economical Jamaica is one of the poorest countries till today. However, during the era where the British and the Spanish government was taking over, people in Jamaica were happier. Ever since Jamaica took independance, the country’s economical level dropped. Despite the financial difficulties, Bob Marley had earnings almost 6 million dollars before he left the world.

Social In Jamaica, the Rastafarians believed in equality among everyone. Rastafarians are caring, loving and warm people by nature.

Technological When it comes to technology, it’s the evolution of the soundsystems. As mentioned in the elements section, it is part of the Rastafarians. Further more, documentaries have been created for viewers to understand more about the subculture through DVDs.

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SINGAPORE 26

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RE SPEAKS. BRINGING BACK THE LION

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RASTAFARI


TAR GET

AUDI ENCE

Demographics A survey was conducted in Singapore (almost 80 participants) to determine the knowledge, understanding and how Rastafari is influenced in Singapore. Base on the survey, 53% of the surveyors were unaware of this subculture. Whereas the balance 47% knew through word of mouth. In terms of the understanding, it was a 0-50% range for those who knew. Rastafari is mainly known for it’s music in Singapore. According to the known, they will definitely attend if there is an event on this subcuture. Most of them preferred to see a concert of the singers they know from Rastafari. Main knowledge of such a culture existed was due to the songs of Bob Marley. Given a chance, this group would want to know more about this culture. From here, we have two target audiences. The known and the unknown. As for the unknown, the results were mainly those teens from 17 to 20 years old.

Psychographics Understanding the unknown group is at 53%, it is mainly from the 17 to 20 year olds. One of the possible reasons on them not knowing could be due to the latest subcultures that may be in trend. On the other hand, the publicity of this culture is limited in the current era compared to the late 1990s to early 2000s in Singapore. The worst part is, most of them are not even keen to know about this culture even if they are unsure. For those who knew about Rastafari, it could be due to the 1990s to the early 2000s. These years were the known group’s teenage era for they belong to the 21 to 30 year olds. Publicity on this subculture was better as music influence was stronger back then.

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OBJ

ECT

IVE

In Singapore’s Context Understanding the results in the demographics and psychographics, Rastafari is a culture where not many Singaporeans might want to take up or be involve in. Singaporeans view this culture mainly through music and fashion aspects such as the dreadlocks hairstyle. The people in Singapore may not consider being in this culture as the life is very hectic and fast pace whereas as a Rastafarian, one must not have too much worries and the living is very laid back. According to resources and interviews conducted with Straits Records Singapore, there are some performances by a group in Singapore call Bushmen. But they are not very popular and not many are aware of such groups in the multi-racial country.

Bringing Back the Lion With regards to the above understanding, the main objective of this whole research and understanding is to bring back the hype of Rastafari music, like how it was in the late 1990s and early 2000s, into Singapore again.

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THE

BIG

IDEA

Concept Since the survey results showed that many wanted to see the happenings of this subculture, an awarenss of this subculture must showcase the bringing back effect. It should mainly show the culture’s positive aspects of which people will be looking forward to be part. In this case, it will be the music as it is the most influencial medium to people.

Solution Since music is the main keyword, the following will be the solution of how Rastafari can come back to Singapore like how it used to be. Online Media - Radio-Station (Mobile Application) - Rastalion (Website) Print Media - Merchandise (t-shirts, laptop decals etc.) - Event (Posters for Concert) - Stationery

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VISUAL

REFER ENCES

The references that are shown in this spread are reflecting on the deliverables that will be shown in the final design outcome. The direction created for the “Bringing Back the Lion” campaign is to attract the younger generation by giving a vibrant and cool approach.

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FINAL

DESIGN

OUTCOME In this section, we will be looking at 5 deliverables on Rastafari’s enthusiasm and music can be “brought” back to Singapore. Poster (Concert) Website (Rastalion) Mobile App (Radio Station) Stationary (Company) T-shirt and Laptop Skins (Merchandise)

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CMYK Colour Code C= 76, M= 35, Y= 99, K= 24

C= 16 M= 27, Y= 76, K= 0

Logo Design The logo design is inspired by the Rastafari’s symbol, which is the lion itself. The purpose of creating a logo using the symbol as it also relates to Singapore’s symbol, the Merlion

C= 22, M= 97, Y= 95, K= 14

C= 0. M= 0, Y=0, K= 100

Logo Type - P22 Preissig Lino

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LOGO DESIGN - STATIONERY

ANITHA REKU Event Manager +65 97975446 anithareku@gmail.com Raffles Education Square 51 Merchant Road Singapore 058283

Name Card Design - Front

ANITHA REKU Event Manager

Notebook Cover Design

+65 97975446 anithareku@gmail.com Raffles Education Square 51 Merchant Road Singapore 058283

Name Card Design - Back

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FINAL DESIGN OUTCOME

Raffles Education Square 51 Merchant Road Singapore 058283 +65 97975446 contact@rastalion.com http://www.rastalion.com.sg

Letter Head Design

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RASTAFARI


LOGO DESIGN - STATIONERY

Raffles Education Square 51 Merchant Road Singapore 058283 +65 97975446 contact@rastalion.com http://www.rastalion.com.sg

Raffles Education Square 51 Merchant Road Singapore 058283 +65 97975446 contact@rastalion.com http://www.rastalion.com.sg

Envelope Design

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Poster Design (Concert) To bring back the culture to Singapore, the poster must give the feel of Rastafari. The poster design was inspired by the Reggae artist Ziggy Marley, who is the son of the Legendary Bob Marley. By choosing him as the main icon for the poster, viewers will get the feeling of how the subculture is actually potrayed.

Main Image (Ziggy Marley)

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POSTER DESIGN

Final Poster Design with Application on Bus Stop Ad

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T-Shirt Merchandise The T-shirt merchandise is designed for those who attended the events organised by Rastalion. Therefore, the inspiration of the design is derived from the name card design as the logo gives a significant approach on Rastalion and the subculture.

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T-Shirt Merchandise

Woman’s T-shirt

Men’s T-shirt

Main Design

Kids T-shirt (Unisex)

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Web Design The website is created for the company Rastalion as it is to showcase the events and gallery pictures that were snapped during their events. The design is inspired by various online resources as well as rasta designs.

Homepage

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RASTAFARI


WEB DESIGN

About Us

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FINAL DESIGN OUTCOME

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RASTAFARI


WEB DESIGN

From left to right: Event page, Gallery and Supporters page.

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Mobile Application The mobile application, a Radio app, is part of the Rastalion website. By creating the Radio Mobile App, smartphone users will be able to hear all genres of Rasta music in their fingertips.

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RASTAFARI


MOBILE APPLICATION

Flashpage (Mainpage)

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FINAL DESIGN OUTCOME

Menu Page

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RASTAFARI


MOBILE APPLICATION

Live! Streaming Page

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FINAL DESIGN OUTCOME

Event listing page

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RASTAFARI


MOBILE APPLICATION

Playlist Page

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1. (rastafari. (n.d.). WordNet® 3.0. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from Dictionary.com. Website: http://dictionary. reference.com/browse/rastafari 2. Rastafarianism. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from Dictionary.com Website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ Rastafarianism 3. David Brown. Leonard Percival Howell (The Gong). Website: http://acijioj.org.jm/2011/06/leonardpercival-howell-the-gong/#_ednref1 (21 April 2013) 4. Tony Martin. Marcus Garvey. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ religion/religions/rastafari/people/marcusgarvey.shtml (18 April 2013) 5. Vestal, Theodore M. 2011. p76, l11. The Lion of Judah in the New World: Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and the Shaping of Americans’ Attitudes toward Africa. Praeger An Imprint of ABC-CLIO,LLC. United States of America.

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6. Vestal, Theodore M. 2011. p78, l40. The Lion of Judah in the New World: Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and the Shaping of Americans’ Attitudes toward Africa. Praeger An Imprint of ABC-CLIO,LLC. United States of America. 7. Vestal, Theodore M. 2011. p89, l17. The Lion of Judah in the New World: Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and the Shaping of Americans’ Attitudes toward Africa. Praeger An Imprint of ABC-CLIO,LLC. United States of America. 8. BBC. The Nyahbinghi Order. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ religion/religions/rastafari/subdivisions/nyahbinghi. shtml (19 April 2013) 9. BBC. The Nyahbinghi Order. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ religion/religions/rastafari/subdivisions/twelvetribes. shtml (19 April 2013) 10. BBC. Worship and Customs. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ religion/religions/rastafari/customs/customs_1/.shtml (19 April 2013)


11. Š 2012 filmswelike Contact FWL. Rocksteady: Roots of Reggae.http://www.filmswelike.com/films/ rocksteady/ (19 April 2013) 12. Salewicz, Chris & Boot, Adrian. 2001. p172, l12. Reggae Explosion: The Story of Jamaican Music. VirginPublishing. Great Britain. 13. BBC. Rastafarian Music: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ religion/religions/rastafari/customs/music.shtml

REFE

REN

CES

Here is a list of references for this project book with regards to the history and other information relates to this subculture.

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Rastafari  

A school project base on subculture understanding and sourcing the problems and solutions in Singapore's Context

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