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C I R C L E S P H E R E

SHARING IS CARING2

C O N G R U E N T

C Y L I N D E R


YOU  WILL  SOON  PICK  WHAT  YOU   LIKE  TO  DO  AND   SPECIALIZE  IN   THAT


C   I   R   C   L   E   S   P   H   E   R   E   C   O   N   G   R   U   E   N   T  

C   Y   L   I   N   D   E   R  


 ,Y X A figure can represent several types simultaneously Lines Adjacent Vertex Ray Straight line 180 degrees Y Longitude Lines Meridians Vertical 0-180 Up down N north S south X Latitude Lines parallels horizontal N north S south Left/ Right N/S 0-90 east west


TABLE OF CONTENTS POLYGON PRISM POLYHEDRAL QUADRILATERAL CYLINDER CONE TRIANGLE POLYHEDRON PLANE PERPENDICULAR VECTOR MAGNITUDE DIRECTION RAY SLOPE LINE POINT

INTERSECT SEGMENT PARALLEL ADJACENT TRAVERSE LINEAR 90 DEGREES 180 DEGREE DIAGONAL CIRCLE SPHERE MULTIPLE

apex Peak

DIMENSION


puff puff little polygon prism train that could can

1D

algebra works

Torus (1/4) * pi2 * (r1 + r2) * (r1 r2)2


CONGRUENT  =  SAME   Two  circles  are  congruent     if  they  have  the  same  size.     The  size  can  be  measured     as  the  radius,  diameter  or    circumference.  They  can  overlap.       Congruent  polygons  have  an  equal    number  of  sides,  and  all  the  corresponding    sides  and     angles  are  congruent.  However,    they  can  be  in  a  different  locaKon,    rotated  or  flipped  over.     Two  angles  are  congruent  if  they  have  the  same  measure.    

NOTE:    Similar  polygons  which    be  in  the  same  proporKons  but  different   sizes.  


2D

 polygon(n-gon) pol·y·gon [ póllee gòn ] many-sided Flat Surface Like Paper Figure: a two-dimensional geometric figure formed of three or more straight sides Triangle (3-sided) quadrilateral (4-sided) pentagon (5-sided), hexagon (6-sided) and so on. The word quadrilateral is made of the words quad (meaning "four") and lateral (meaning "of sides")


e l g n a t   l Rec a r e t a l i r d a Qu

circle  


5

rectangular

6  

7  

Definitions of cylinder (n) cyl·in·der [ síllindər ]   object shaped like tube: an object or shape with straight sides and circular ends cylinder   of equal size

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C   Y   L   I   N   D   E   R  

Non-­‐ Polyhe dra:     NOT   FLAT   (if  any   surface   is     not  flat   IT  IS  A   NON   Poly   He   dra)  


An ellipse IS the geometric shape that results from cutting a circular conical or cylindrical surface with an oblique plane (the two unbounded cases being the parabola and the hyperbola).    


THESE PLANES are Flat Like Paper 2-D

Pentagon   Five   5   C     Y   L   I   N   D   E     R  


circle


In Euclidean (Greek) plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides (or 'edges') and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon (5-sided), hexagon (6-sided) and so on. The word quadrilateral is made of the words quad (meaning "four") and lateral (meaning "of sides").

trapezoid

Diamond

Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a rhombus or rhomb is a convex quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. The rhombus is often called a diamond


quadrilateral |ˌkwädrə ˈlatərəl| noun a four-sided figure. adjective having four straight sides.

QUADS  


RIGHT TRIANGLE ONE ANGLE IS 90 THE SIDE OPPOSITE THE 90 ANGLE IS THE LONGEST SIDE   EQUILATERAL   TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES  ARE   EQUAL   ALL  SIDES  ARE   EQUAL     ISOSCELES TRIANGLES TWO ANGLES ARE EQUAL TWO SIDES ARE EQUAL  


1D Planes Perimeter


MEASURING SIDES OF TRIANGLES


Interior  Angles     The  sum  of     the  measures     of  the  interior     angles  of  a  triangle    is  180  degrees.    The  interior  angles     of  an  equilateral     triangle  are  all  60     degrees.  HOW     MANY  TRIANGLES   Square?  TWO     TRIANGLES    

Interior  Angles  


The relation between the sides and angles of a right triangle is the basis for MEASURING ANGLES IN TRIANGLES


SCALENE  TRIANGLES   NO  ANGLES  ARE  EQUAL   NO  SIDES  ARE  EQUAL   ISOSCELES TRIANGLES TWO ANGLES ARE EQUAL TWO SIDES ARE EQUAL EQUILATERAL  TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES  ARE  EQUAL   ALL  SIDES  ARE  EQUAL   RIGHT TRIANGLE ONE ANGLE IS 90 THE SIDE OPPOSITE THE 90 ANGLE IS THE LONGEST SIDE ACUTE  TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES  ARE     LESS  THAN  90  DEGREES   OBTUSE TRIANGLE ONE ANGLE IS GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES


OBTUSE TRIANGLE ONE ANGLE IS GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES  

ACUTE  TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES  ARE     LESS  THAN  90  DEGREES    


SIDES

I  began  by  asking  the    child  to  construct  three     triangles  with  the  geometric    sQck  material.  The  first  triangle    was  made  from  3  pieces  of  the    same  size,  we  spoke  about  how     all  the  sides  are  equal.  Then  I  asked     the  child  to  construct  a  triangle  with  2     sides  the  same  and  one  side  different.     3.  Thirdly  she  made  a  triangle  with  all  the  sides    different.    We  then  did  a  three-­‐period  -­‐lesson  and     aZer  the  final  period  I  quesQoned  her  'Why  is  this    an  isosceles?',  'Why  is  this  a  scalene?',  'Why  is  this  an    equilateral?'.  We  then  labelled  them.  To  ensure  that  she    fully  understood,  I  got  her  to  draw  the  three  triangles  in  her    book,  write  the  names  and  a  descripQon  for  each.  

SEE TRIANGLES


SCALENE TRIANGLES   NO  ANGLES   ARE  EQUAL   NO  SIDES  ARE   EQUAL  

EQUILATERAL   TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES  ARE   EQUAL   ALL  SIDES  ARE   EQUAL  

RIGHT ISOSCELES  TRIANGLE   ONE  ANGLE  IS  90   TRIANGLES   TWO  ANGLES   THE  SIDE   OPPOSITE  THE  90   ARE  EQUAL   ANGLES  IS  THE   TWO  SIDES   LONGEST  SIDE   ARE  EQUAL  

ACUTE TRIANGLE   ALL  ANGLES   ARE     LESS  THAN   90  DEGREES  

OBTUSE TRIANGLE   ONE  ANGLE    IS  GREATER    THAN  90   DEGREES  


POLYNOMIALS trapezoid

Quad means four

parallelogram

rectangle

Poly   means   many   A Octagon + 2(Rectangle) + 2 (Square) +1 (Rectangle) =TOTAL (HOUSE)

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POLYNOMIALS


Torus

FORMULA (1/4) * pi2 * (r1 + r2) * (r1 - r2)2

WHEEL DONUT TORUS


Perimeter formula Square 4 * side Rectangle 2 * (length + width) Parallelogram 2 * (side1+ side2) Triangle side1 + side2 + side3 Regular n-polygon n * side Trapezoid height * (base1 + base2) / 2 Trapezoid base1 + base2 + height * [csc(theta1) + csc(theta2)] Circle 2 * pi * radius Ellipse 4 * radius1 * E(k,pi/2) E(k,pi/2) is the Complete Elliptic Integral of the Second Kind k = (1/radius1) * sqrt(radius12 - radius22)

Area formula Square side2 Rectangle length * width Parallelogram base * height Triangle base * height / 2 Regular n-polygon (1/4) * n * side2 * cot(pi/n) Trapezoid height * (base1 + base2) / 2 Circle pi * radius2 Ellipse pi * radius1 * radius2 Cube (surface) 6 * side2  

S U R F A C E A R E A

P L A N E D E M E N S I O n

SQUARE AREA2

2d


T

R


Sphere (surface) 4 * pi * radius2 Cylinder (surface of side) perimeter of circle * height2 * pi * radius * height Cylinder (whole surface) Areas of top and bottom circles + Area of the side2(pi * radius2) + 2 * pi * radius * height Cone (surface) pi * radius * side Torus (surface) pi2 * (radius2)2 - radius1)2

Volume formula Cube side3 Rectangular Prism side1 * side2 * side3 Sphere (4/3) * pi * radius3 Ellipsoid (4/3) * pi * radius1 * radius2 * radius3 Cylinder pi * radius2 * height Cone (1/3) * pi * radius2 * height Pyramid (1/3) * (base area) * height Torus (1/4) * pi2 * (r1 + r2) * (r1 - r2)2 Regular n-polygon (1/4) * n * side2 * cot(pi/n) Trapezoid height * (base1 + base2) / 2 Circle pi * radius2 Ellipse pi * radius1 * radius2 Cube (surface) 6 * side2

3D V o L U M e

#Demensions


S U R F A C E A R E A

P L A N E D E M E N S I O n

SQUARE

2 AREA

2d


Sphere (surface) 4 * pi * radius2 Cylinder (surface of side) perimeter of circle * height2 * pi * radius * height Cylinder (whole surface) Areas of top and bottom circles + Area of the side2(pi * radius2) + 2 * pi * radius * height Cone (surface)pi * radius * side Torus (surface) pi2 * (radius2)2 - radius1)2

Volume formula

Cube side3 Rectangular Prism side1 * side2 * side3 Sphere (4/3) * pi * radius3 Ellipsoid (4/3) * pi * radius1 * radius2 * radius3 Cylinder pi * radius2 * height Cone (1/3) * pi * radius2 * height Pyramid (1/3) * (base area) * height Torus (1/4) * pi2 * (r1 + r2) * (r1 - r2)2 Regular n-polygon (1/4) * n * side2 * cot(pi/n) Trapezoid height * (base1 + base2) / 2 Circle pi * radius2 Ellipse pi * radius1 * radius2 Cube (surface)6 * side2


1d   Prisms(volume) 3d Planes (flat) 2d Circles (flat) Oblique Spheres 3d


Ordered Pair

An ordered pair is a set of two numbers in the form: (x, y) Example: (2, -3) Ordered pairs are used in Cartesian coordinates.

Origin

The origin is the point (0, 0) on the Cartesian plane. It's called the origin because it's the starting place when you plot a point.

Y X


Coordinate Plane. Coordinate

 HICH W WAY DO WE GO?

Plane  is  a  plane  (FLAT   SURFACE)    formed  by  the  intersection of  a  horizontal  number  line   with    a  verKcal  number  line.   COORDINATE’S     X HORIZONTAL Y  VERTICAL                            


I PO

S NT

Horizontal Let X be the points east and west (right and left) ROWS LaQtude  (φ)    Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west north south Vertical COLUMNS Let Y be the points Vertical   Longitude  (λ) North South UP DOWN


Symbol The symbol for congruence is    

LINES/ ANGLES Two angles are congruent if they have the same measure.

same

In geometry, adjacent angles, often shortened as adj. ∠s, are angles that have a common ray coming out of the vertex going between two other rays.( line with direction to infinit). In other words ... In geometry, two lines or planes (or a line and a plane) are considered perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles (a T-shape). In geometry, two figures are congruent if they have the same shape and size. Two line segments are congruent if they have the same length. But they need not lie at the same angle or position on the plane


Definitions of parallel (adj) par·al·lel [ párrə lèl ] always same distance apart: relating to or being lines, planes, or curved surfaces that are always the same distance apart and therefore never meet


par·al·lel·o·gram [ pàrrə léllə gràm ]    four-sided geometrical figure: a two-dimensional geometric figure formed of four sides in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and of equal length, and the opposite angles are equal Synonyms: rhomboid, diamond, lozenge

Par Al Lel ogram


plane

CONE Parallel lines s e l g n a i r t


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Cone Cylinder


 Prism Have Flat Sides A prism is a polyhedron that is formed with two parallel polygons (the bases - top and bottom) that are connected at the

edges with rectangles.

t a Fl   s e d Si rism  

3d volume

 P

Polyhedra : have flat faces A polyhedron (plural polyhedral or polyhedron s) is often defined as a geometric solid with flat faces and straight edges

Measure me like this!


=  

PRISM : a polyhedron with two polygonal faces lying in parallel planes and with the other faces parallelograms

FLAT SIDES  

Polyhedron Definition pol·y·he·dron [ pòllee h!drən ] pol·y·he·drons Plural NOUN  manysided solid figure: a threedimensional geometric figure formed of many faces


Triangles     DefiniQons  of  pyramid   solid  triangular  shape:  a  solid  shape   or  structure  that    has  triangular  sides  that  slope  to   meet     in  a  point  and  a  base  that  is  o`en,  but   not  necessarily,  a  square.  


SPHERE

Congruent angles Two angles are congruent if they have the same measure.

ANGLES INSIDE


Alternate Interior Angles: All equal angles make parallel Suppose that L, M, and T are distinct lines.  Then L and M are parallel if and only if alternate interior angles of the intersection of L and T and M and T are equal.

Two parallel lines that are cut by a non-perpendicular transversal. Perpendicular deďŹ nition: Perpendicular simply means

'at right angles .A line is perpendicular to another if they meet at 90 degrees.


LINES /ANGLES Not  oblique   not  parallel  or    perpendicular:       Oblique    

Oblique  is   either  plus  or   minus  90   degrees   An  angle,  such  as  an     acute  or  obtuse   Right Angle angle,   an  angle  that    that  is  not  a  right   is  90°  exactly   angle  or  a  mulKple    Straight of  a  right  angle.   Angle an  angle  that   is  180°  exactly              


Reflex  Angle  an  angle  that  is  greater  than  180°   Obtuse  Angle  an  angle  that  is  greater  than  90°  but  less  than   180   Right  Angle   an  angle  that  is  90°exactly     Acute  Angle  IS  an  angle  that  is  less  than  90°     Straight  Angle   an  angle  that  is  180°  exactly     Right  Angle   an  angle  that  is  90°  exactly        


RelaKvity  

a x b = c c / a= B c / b= a SO, 3 x 25 = 75 75 / 3 = 25 75 / 25 = 3


Oblique Angle IS + or – 90 degrees NOT 90 DEGREES An  oblique  angle  is  an  angle     that  is  not  a  right  angle.       (An  oblique  angle  is  an  angle     whose  measure  is  not  90    degrees.)  +  or  -­‐       Tennis  can  be  broken  down    into  a  game  of  angles.           Obtuse Angle An  obtuse  angle  is  an  angle     whose  measure  is  greater    than  90  degrees.  


equality     congruent   parallel   intersec+ons     intersec+ons     straight  angle  theorem       measures     corresponding  angles       corresponding  angles  theorem    


Beverly Mackie’S CROSS MULTIPLY RATIO PROPORTION PERCENTS PERCENTS RATIOS PROPORTIONS – WORD SEARCH BASE CHANGE CROSS MULTIPLY FIFTY HUNDRED LEFT ORDER OUT PERCENTS PROPORTIONS RATIO TO TRUE UNIT


Fill in the blank (Use the above word bank) 1. Percent means how many ____ of 100. 1.  Percent means how many out of 100. 2. Percents can be greater than 100%. True or False 2. Percents can be greater than 100%. True or False True 3. To change a percent to a decimal…drop the percent sign and move the decimal two places to the _______________.  3. To change a percent to a decimal…drop the percent sign and move the decimal two places to the left. 4. Part/base = rate/100 used to work with proportions and ______________ 4. Part/base = rate/100 used to work with proportions and percents. 5. In the above statement, ________ – represents the whole amount.  5. In the above statement, base – represents the whole amount.    


6. Two for one is the same as ______________ percent. 6. Two for one is the same as fifty percent. If a calculator costs ten dollars, two calculators would could twenty dollars. However, “two for one” means I can buy two calculators for the price of one calculator. In other words, I pay a total of ten dollars for both calculators. That’s the same as paying half price or five dollars for each one. What a deal! Half price is equivalent to fifty percent. 7. Part / ______ represents a fraction 7. Part / whole represents a fraction. By definition, a fraction represents a part of a whole. Some teachers may say a fraction represents part of a total. Let’s say you ordered a taco pizza. When the pizza arrives it has been cut into eight slices with no slices eaten. At this point, it is a whole pizza. Since your brother fell asleep while waiting on the pizza, you decide to get a head start before waking him up. So, you eat three slices of pizza! Your brother catches you wiping your mouth after finishing the third slice. He accuses you of eating three parts of the whole pizza, or 3/8 of the pizza! You are guilty as charged.


r o w s

     12     X  25    300  

COLUMN Y ROWS X

X  

300-75=225

12 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐

-­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐

Minus  25  X  3  =  75   25  

25

column

3  


Order of Operations

Order of operations tells us what order we are supposed to do things in a math problem. For example, what's the answer to this? 4 + 10 x 2 Do we do the 4 + 10 first? Or the 10 x 2 first? Here is the official order of operations: Remember (1) Parenthesis (2) Exponents (3) Multiplication & Division (4) Addition & Subtraction So, for 4 + 10 x 2, we do multiplication, then addition... 4 + 10 x 2 = 4 + 20 = 24.

 

A common phrase to remember the order is: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt


  8. 3:4 is the same as 3 to 4 8. The above ratio can be expressed as 3:4, 3 to 4, or ž. 9. The denominator for percents when represented as a fraction is always ______.  9. The denominator for percents when represented as a fraction is always 100. In order to help students remember this, I ask the following question. What percentage of the problems do you want to get correct on the next test? Of course, the answer is 100%. However, if you grade was an 83. It means used answered 83 out of 100 or 83/100 or 83% correct. 11. _______________ - comparison of two amounts 11. Ratio - comparison of two amounts 12. _______________ rate 12. Unit rate Unit rate â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the amount compared to one; in a ratio, the second term would be one. For instance,a box of 12 pens cost $24.00. One pen or one unit cost $2. How did I get $2? Divide 24 by 12.


Finding Polygons

Things come apart and go together

PIE

CHORD


Midpoint

The midpoint of the segment (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) The midpoint (also known as class mark in relation to histogram) is the middle point of a line segment. It is equidistant from both endpoints. Formulas The formula for determining the midpoint of a segment in the plane, with endpoints (x1) and (x2) is: The formula for determining the midpoint of a segment in the plane, with endpoints (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is: The formula for determining the midpoint of a segment in the space, with endpoints (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2 z2) is: More generally, for an n-dimensional space with axes , the midpoint of an interval is given by: Construction The midpoint of a line segment can be located by first constructing a lens using circular arcs, then connecting the cusps of the lens. The point where the cusp-connecting line intersects the segment is then the midpoint. It is more challenging to locate the midpoint using only a compass, but it is still possible.


SIMILAR AND

Congruent


Examining Quads Parallel sides/vectors

Line segments Shape QUADS


13. Equal ratios are called ________________.  13. Equal ratios are called proportions. Example 3/8 = 6/24 14. __________ _____________ to solve for a missing number in a proportion.  14. Cross multiply to solve for a missing number in a proportion. Example: 4/5 = 8/? 4x?=5x8 4 x ? = 40 4 times what = 40? Or divide 40 by 4 = 10 In algebraic terms: 4x = 40 4x/4 = 40/4 x=10 15. In a proportion, write the terms of ratios in the same ________________. 15. In a proportion, write the terms of ratios in the same order. Compare the same units: boys/ girls = boy/girls Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wrong to compare boys/girls = girls/boys


10. Percent of ________ = (original amount – new amount) / original amount 10. Percent of change = (original amount – new amount) / original amount Percent of change means the amount a rate has changed over a period of time.

/  =  DIVIDED  BY  ORIGINAL  AMOUNT  


KEY WORDS Lessons HAVE NO Grade Level, Early Childhood Lessons, Elementary Lessons, Jr. High/Middle School, High School Lessons, Undergraduate Lessons, Elementary Substitute, Middle School â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Substitute, Lesson Idea Pages, Drama and Art, Increased student performance in mathematics, as well as greater numbers of students enrolling in college preparatory mathematics classes, is a well documented outcome of the project's work.



points baby algebra time