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.:: The Night at The Hotel ::. About the Author: Siegfried Lenz, a German writer attained international acclaim as a novelist in the 1960’s Lenz novels often focus on life in Germany during National Socialism, the events of World War II, problems of democratization, and social. Summary: The Night at the Hotel, written by Siegfried Lenz, is a touching story of a father’s efforts to help his extremely sensitive son. The child is made of delicate emotional fibre, like a mimosa. When his feelings are not reciprocated, the child behaves irrationally. He becomes resentful in his attitude towards everyone and his work. This lesson gives us an insight into the character and nature of Schwamm, the father Mr. Schwamm is sensitive to the emotional needs of his son. Despite his poverty, he spends some money, and takes great pains to help his son to make him happy. Mr. Schwamm comes to town, late at night. As there are no rooms available, he shares a room with a stranger. When Schwamm enters the room, the stranger requests him not to put on the light. Schwamm explains the reason for coming into town in a tone of apprehensive cheerfulness. He tells the stranger that he has a small son who is extremely sensitive, while going to school, he has to wait at the railway crossing for early morning train to pass by. As the train passes by, he waves frantically, desperately and eagerly at the passengers. None of them respond. The sensitive child becomes depressed. He withdraws into a shell. Listening to Schwamm’s story, the stranger concludes that Schwamm has come to town to take the early morning train. He wants to wave back to his son, so as to alleviate the child’s misery. The nest morning Schwamm wakes up late, and misses the morning train. He returns home dejected. He meets his son who greets him excitedly, beaming with joy. His son tells him that a man not only waved for long, but tied his handkerchief to his cane. He held it out till the train was out of sight. Schwamm realizes that it was the stranger who waved. He feels it was worthwhile sharing the room and his problem was solved by the stranger. The stranger hated children, because his wife had died during child birth. Schwamm is astonished at the stranger’s desire to help him to restore the child’s emotional state. General instructions: 1. The answer should be in three distinguished paragraphs. The first paragraph must have a short introduction (1 or 2 lines) about the author and 2 lines about the relevant question. Do not exceed introduction more than 4 – 5 lines. 2. The second paragraph must have the answer for the given question. If the question have more than one bit than the bit should also be answered in points. Eg. What time did Schwamn check into the hotel? What kind of room did he want? What did the receptionist offer him? Did Schwamn take it? The above question have 4 bits and each bit has to be answered in separate points. (i) Schwamn checked into the room at a late hour in the night. (ii) He wanted a single room. (iii) Since there was no single room available, the receptionist offered him a free bed in a double room. (iv) Yes, Schwamn took it. 3. The third paragraph must be the conclusion of the answer. 4. Write answers using textual words as much as possible. Short Answer Questions: I. Why do you think Schwamm wanted to get to know his partner? Was he afraid? Did he have anything to hide? Imagine you were Schwamm would you want to get acqualnted with the person who you were going to share the room with? A. Schwamm just wanted to get to know his partner out of curiosity. He was not afraid. He did not have anything to hide. If I were Schwamm, I too would do the same thing. II. What did Schwamm do before he entered the room? Was he a suspicious person or a cautious person? Why? A. Schwamm slowed down before he entered the room. He tried to listen to some sounds the stranger might make. So he bent low and peeped through the keyhole. He was not suspicious but cautious.


Why did Schwamm suddenly freeze? Do you think Schwamm was frightened? Or just started? A. As Schwamm was groping for the switch, he suddenly heard a deep but firm voice ordering him not to turn the switch on. So he was alarmed and stood motionless.


What did the stranger ask Schwamm to do? Why did he want the room to be dark? A. The stranger asked Schwamm not to turn on the light. He wanted the room to be dark for two reasons. He might not sleep well with the lights on. Secondly, he might not be willing to disclose his identity.


“Were you waiting for me ?” Schwamm asked. (pare 5) Do you think the stranger was waiting for Schwamm? Why do you think so? What did the stranger say? (or) Was the stranger waiting for Schwamm? How do you know? A. Yes, the stranger was waiting for Schwamm because he expected someone to come and occupy the free bed and so he had not locked the room and also had calculated the number of steps a person should take to reach the bed.


Why was Schwamm hesltant when he introduced himself to the stranger? A. Schwamm found his partner still awake and felt sure he wouldn’t fall asleep soon. He also seemed to be indifferent. So Schwamm wantd to make his acquaintance. He, therefore, took the initiative in introducing himself but with hesitation. He was hesitant because he had the strangerst reason imaginable for his coming into town.


(a) “I probably have the strangest reason for coming onto town”, Schwamm said. What was his reason? Do you think it was a strange reason? (or) What was Schwamm come into town? (or) Why did Schwamm’s come into town? A. Schwamm had a sensitive little son who used to wave to the passengers travelling by train. No pssenger showed the least courtesty of waving back to him. The boy was hurt and felt unhappy. So, Schwamm decided to wave back himself and thus make the boy happy. For this reason he came into town to take the early morning train. It was a strange reason.


Why did Schwamm come to town? A. Schwamm’s son was in the peculiar habit of waving to the passengers every morning but nobody ever waved back. So he took it to heart and made himself sick, and his parents unhappy. So schwamm had come to town to assuage his son’s misery. He wanted to do this by taking the early train the next morning and waving back at him.


What was the reasonfor the strange behaviour of Mr.Schwamm’s son? A. Every morning on his way to school, his son had to wait at the railway crossing for the early morning train to go by. Further, he used to wave at the passengers continuously. But none of the passengers ever waved back. This was the reason for the boy’s unhappiness and strange behaviour.


When Schwamm was about to give his reason for coming into town. The noise of a train interrrupted him. Do you think trains had something to do with his reason? A. I do think trains had something to do with Schwamm’s reason. He came to the town to take the early morning Kurzabch train and wave back at his son. Further it was because the passengers in the train who had no courtesy to wave back made the child sick.


Schwamm explained the reason for his coming into town in a tone of ‘apprehensive cheerfuiness’. Why was Schwmm appprehensive and cheerful at the same time? What was he apprehensive about? What was he cheerful about? A. Schwamm explained the reason for his coming into town in a tone of apprehensive cheerfulness.. He was apprehensive because of his son’s peculiar behaviour. He was cheerful because he was going to wave back to his son from the train and make him happy.


What did Schwamm’s son do in the morning? How did he behave in the evenings? What was the reason for his strange behaaviour? A. In the mornings, on his way to school, Schwamm’s son used to wait at the railway crossing for the early morning train to go by. He waves at the passengers furiously, eagerly and desperately. Then he went to school.

In the evenings, on his return he acted in a confused manner and, sometimes, even broke out in tears. He could not do his homework and did not want to play or talk to anyone. Finally the boy made himself sick for the simple reason that none of the passengers ever waved him back. XIII.

“I hate them and avoid them”. Why did the stranger in the hotel room hate children? What did he do next morning? What attitude to children does this action show? A. The stranger’s wife died giving birth to their first – born. He thought that the child had taken away his wife. So he hated children and avoided them. But he got into the train the next morning, waved back to Schwamm’s son and cheered him up. This action shows that the stranger did not really hate children. On the contrary, he had a soft heart for them.


“You are taking the Kurzbach train, are you?” Why did the stranger want to know? Was he planning to do something? Or was it just a casual question? A. The stranger wanted to know whether Schwamm was taking the Kurzbach train the next morning. He was planning to do something for Schwamm’s Son. His question was an enquiry but not a casual one.


Who do you think was the man who waved out to Schwamm’s son from the train? Why do you think so? A. The man who waved out to Schwamm’s son from the train was the very stranger who he had shared the room with, the night he went to town. That night, the stranger asked Schwamm not to fall over his crutches. Secondly, Schwamm did not tell anybody else about his trip to the town and the reason therefore. Further Schwamm’s son said that a man had waved with a cane mistaking the crutch for a cane. Then it must be the stranger who waved at the boy.


“When he awoke in the morning, he was alone in the room”. What do you think had happened in the hotel room in the morning? What had the stranger done? (or) What do you think happened in the morning in the room? What did the stanger do? A. Schwamm overslept in the hotel room. Finding him asleep, the stranger undertook the journey in the train. He waved back to the little boy tying his handkerchief to his crutch and holding it out of the window for a very long time.


i) When Schwamm met his son in the afternoon, why was the boy excited? (or) ii) Why was the little boy so happy when his father got home that afernoon? (or) iii) How did the stranger help Schwamm solve his problem? A. Schwamm’s son was very happy that afternoon because the stranger was good enough to wave back to him for a very long time. Since the boys’ waving was promptly responded he was excited and received his father pummeling his thighs with joy. The boy’s mental illness was set right and the parents’ agony vanished. Thus, the stranger solved Schwamm’s problem of assuaging his son’s misery.



Do you think Schwamm did a good thing in deciding to share a room with a stranger? Why do you think so? A. Schwamm did a good thing in deciding to share the room with a stranger because it was the very stranger who carried out his plan successfully and effectively the next morning and restored the boy to happiness. Had he not done so, the purpose of his coming to town would have been defeated. “In “The Night at the Hotel”, What was Schwmm’ s reason for coming into town? Why was he unable to achieve his purpose? In what way was his purpose achieved? A. Schwamm’s reason for coming into town was to take the Kurzbach train the next morning and wave back to his son so as to assuage his misery. He was unable to achieve his purpose because he overslept and was eventually late for the train. But his purpose was achieved as the stranger in his room did the waving to his boy travelling by the same train.

Vocabulary: (1 – 12) Choose the correct meanings of the words given. 1. instinctively: as a matter of habit/ in a thoughtful mood/ without any previous thinking/ suddenly 2. startled: suddenly/ alarmed/ shook with fear/ ran away in fear/ moved immediately

3. volunteered: offered services in return for money/ accepted readily/ offered services without any compulsion/ resisted 4. desperately: mix again after separating/ without no fear/ ready to do anything/ as a result of loss of hope boldly 5. irritation: supplying water to the fields/ doing just like others/ act of making one angry/ discomfort 6. assuage: to aggrevate/ to add to/ lessen pain or suffering/ look more aged 7. sensitive: reasonable/ much developed/ easily offended/ having no sensation 8. regretfully: showing sorrow for not being able to comply with/ showing gratitude once more/ showing dislike/ showing spirit of revenge 9. bewildered: worried/ troubled/ confused/ surprised 10. hesitate: look at with hatred/ to do a thing in haste/ waver/ to speak out without fear 11. imaginable: that can be imagined/ wild guess/ being able to imagine things/ being able to form an image of 12. shrug: small/ rug/ toughness/ slightly raise weep (13 – 18) Select the best option that conveys the meaning of the underlined word 13. He scolded his friend instinctively. [ ] a) without any meaning b) without any previous plan c) without any reason d) without any feeling 14. Raju was in a daze regarding his future. [ ] a) confused b) clear c) unknown d) ignorant 15. The beds began to vibrate [ ] a) turn round and round b) move up and down c) move forwards and backwards rapidly and continuously d) produce waves 16. Gopal was down hearted on hearing the news of his son’s failiure in the examination. [ ] a) shocked b)very angry c)unhappy d) be sympathetic 17. The parents were apprehensive of their son’s conditions. [ ] a) anxious b) aware of c) eager d) interested 18. Don’t fall over my crutches or run into my suitcases. [ ] a) strike against by accident b) go fast into c) open and see what was inside d) search Key: 1. without any previous thinking 2. shook with fear 3. offered services without any compulsion 4. ready to do anything 5. discomfort 6. lessen pain or suffering 7. easily offended 8. showing dislike 9. confused 10. waver 11. being able to imagine things 12. slightly raise weep 13. without any previous plan 14. confused 15. produce waves 16. unhappy 17. anxious 18. open and see what was inside

.:: In Celebration of Being Alive ::. Summary: Dr. Christian Barnard, a South Africa surgeon, designed artificial heart valves, and wrote extensively on the subject. In this essay Dr. Barnard ruminates on why people suffer. One day after a meal Dr. Barnard and his wife were crossing the road. A car hit him and knocked him into his wife. She was thrown on the other line and was hit by a car from the opposite direction. Barnard suffered from eleven broken ribs and a perforated lung. His wife had a fractured shoulder. As he recuperates in the hospital, Barnard reflects on what his father would have said. "Suffering is God 's was of testing, refining, purifying, and ennobling us . "Barnard did not see anything noble about a patient in pain and anguish, or a child wailing in the ward. On day his father showed him a half- eaten biscuit. It was the last one his brother had before he died with a congenital heart problem. He found the suffering of children pathetic. Children implicitly trust doctors and nurses believing that they can help them. Even if they can't help them, they accept their fate. Several years earlier, one day Dr. Barnard had witnessed what he called a "Grand Prix". Two boys, a driver, and a mechanic drive the hospital's breakfast trolley . The blind mechanic provided the motor power, and the driver steered with one arm. The other patients joined in the fun and frolic, till the plates were scattered. The mechanic was a seven year old boy. His mother flung a lantern at his father. The lantern missed its mark and broke on the boy's head, resulting in the third degree burns, and loss of eyesight. At that time of Grand Prix, he was a sight to look at. He had been earlier operated upon by Dr. Barnard for a hole in his heart. He was in the hospital now, for a malignant tumour of the bone . His shoulder and arm had been amputated. There was little hope of his recovery. Dr. Barnard learnt an important lesson about life from these boys . "The business of living, is the celebration of being alive". Dr Barnard realized that it is not what you have lost that is important, but what you have been left with . Light can't be appreciated without knowing darkness, nor can warmth, without knowing cold. Question & Answers 1. Dr.Barnard states that suffering seems so common. What figures does he quote to support his statement? Do they relate to adults or children? Why do you think Dr. Barnard chose the figures about children? A. In order to support his statement that suffering seems so common, Dr Barnard quotes about the 125 million children born that year out of whom 12 million are unlikely to reach the age of one, and another

six million will die before the age of five. Of the rest he quotes, many will end up as mental or physical cripples. Since children are the future adults, he chooses the figures about children because they add to the population. 2. What was the accident that Dr.Barnard had? What happened to him and his wife? A. One day Dr. Barnard and his wife were crossing a street after a happy meal. A car knocked him into his wife. She was thrown out into the other line where another car from the apposite direction struck her. He had eleven broken ribs and perforated lung and his wife had a badly fractured shoulder. 3. Why do you think Dr. Barnard talks about the accident? To discuss the magnitude of the fear of death I people? Or to prove the uncertainty of living in our world? Or to bring out the suffering experienced by people? A. Dr Barnard talks about the accident to bring out the unforeseen suffering experienced by them and to prove the uncertainty of living in the modern world. 4. How did Dr. Barnard react to the accident that he and his wife had? A. Dr.Barnard reacted sharply to the accident saying "why should this happen to us?" It resulted in their hospitalization . He was filled with agony, fear and anger because he had to operate on his patients, and his wife had to look after their young baby . Barnard was thinking of something else other than his own comfort. This tells us that Barnard was considerate to others. 5. "My father, had he still been alive, would have said‌.. What were the views of Dr. Barnard's father suffering? In what way did Dr. Barnard's views differ from his father? A. Dr. Barnard's father viewed suffering as the will of God and a test to man's patience. He thought that suffering would make a person a better one. Dr. Barnard did not agree with this view. He could not see anything noble in the suffering of people in their beds. 6. How was Dr. Barnard introduced to the suffering of the children for the first time? A. When Dr. Barnard was a little boy, his father showed him a half-eaten biscuit covered with wooly growth of fungus. The biscuits had two tiny tooth marks in it. His elder brother was born with an abnormal heart. There were no heart specialists then. The boy suffered a lot and died. The biscuit was the last biscuit he had eaten. This was the first introduction of Dr. Barnard to the suffering of children. This made him sensitive. 7. Who were ' the driver' and 'the mechanic' In the Grand Prix held at the Cape Town Red Cross Children's Hospital? In what way was the choice of their roles suitable? A. The driver was a one- armed boy. The mechanic was a boy who had lost his eyes. The driver sat on the lower deck of the trolley and steered it by scraping his feet on the floor. The mechanic provided motor power by galloping along behind the trolley. Though he could not see he was able to push the trolley. Thus the choice of their roles was suitable. 8. How had the 'mechanic' of the Grand Prix lost his eyes? Do you think the phrase 'a walking horror' suits him? 'and he was laughing'.What does this tell us about the seven - year old? A. One night the mechanic's parents were fully drunk. It resulted in his mother's throwing a lantern at his father. But the thow missed and the lantern broke over the child's head and shoulders. He suffered severe third -degree burns on his upper part of his body and lost his eyes. The phrase 'a walking horror' best suits him because he had a disfigured face, and a long flap of skin was hanging from the side of his neck to his body. In spite of his physical deformity, the seven -year old was able to derive pleasure with the body he was left with. 9. What lesson did the children teach Dr. Barnard? A. Dr. Barnard had a distorted view of suffering. But the two children taught a profound lesson to Dr. Barnard. In spite of being disabled, they provided a lot of entertainment to the patents of the hospital. He learnt that suffering is necessary, and being alive is important. He also learnt that the business of living is the celebration of being alive. 10. "Suddenly I realized that the two children had given me a profound lesson in getting on with the business of living". What lesson do you think Dr. Barnard learnt from the two children? A. Dr. Barnard has come to understand that the experience of suffering makes a person a better one. One can't appreciate light if he has not known darkness. Similarly warmth can be appreciated if one has experienced biting cold. The two children have shown Dr. Barnard that what you have left is more important than what you have lost.

II.Choose the correct meaning of the word given. 1. Intrepid : fearless/ clever / cheerful / skilful 2. Sophisticated : soft / new / advanced / improved 3. Perforate : pierce / make a hole through / Make it necessary /be unfaithful 4. Mutilate : make painful / operate / Cut off a part of the body / disfigure 5. Stem(v) : a part of the plant coming up from the roots / stop / check / has as its origin 6. Malignant : harmful to life / of a helpful nature / Causing anger / bad alignment 7. Ennoble : not noble / make one noble / to make better / of low birth 8. Mutilate : to make one route / disfigure / Cut off a part / remove 9. Solace : having to do with the sun / Comfort or relief in pain or anxiety / that which causes pain / that which causes anxiety 10. Steer(v) : bullock / to direct the course / avoid / a wheel 11. Finale : fine ale / the last item / the money paid as fine / the end of anything 12. Profound : instead of found / showing great knowledge / Very plentiful / profitable III.Select the best option that conveys the meaning of the underlined word and write it. 1. The spot of accident was commandeered by the police. [ ] a) checked b) inspected c) seized d) verified 2. The magistrate ordered firing as the situation was quite abnormal. [ ] a) violent b) uncontrollable c) depressing d) different from the normal 3. He has no inclination to study medicine [ ] a) desire b) need c) intention d) idea 4. Now a days it is easy to correct the heart problem. [ ] a) study b) rectify c) know well d) spread IV.Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the appropriate word given in the brackets. 1. The younger actor is the ____________ of many a college girl. (heartthrob, heartfelt, heartstrings) 2. It is ____________ to see a small child suffering on a hospital bed. (heartily, heartening, heartburn) 3. They put on ____________ show that day (quite, quiet, grand) 4. The wound ____________ in a short time. (cured, healed, dried) 5. As a doctor, Dr. Barnard has always found the suffering of children particularly ____________ (heartbreaking, heartfelt, heartwarming) 6. All the boys laughed ____________ at merry jokes. (Heartrendingly, heartily, heart- rendingly) V. Find the wrongly spelt word in each set and write it correctly: 1. relieve receive conceive believe 2. prevalent transparent parmanent prevent 3. surgery forgery perjury injery

4. moldy boldly scold told 5. tumor stupor armour rumour 6. appearancc experience tolerance performance VI. In each of the following groups of words, find the word in which the underlined part is pronounced in the same way as in the key word. 1. Leisure : ease measure tree pavement 2. Important : import portable thought 3. Shoulder : pound holder bound 4. Amputate : pulse punish compute VII. In each set find the word that rhymes with the key word. 1. Poor : four door tour 2. Steer : pear peer stair 3. Tumour : honour horror rumour 4. Sign : main brain reign dine VIII.Sentence endings in the following passages are not indicated. Decide where each sentence ends and write the last word followed by a proper mark. (!) or (?) or (.) 1. Let me tell you about these two the mechanics was all of seven years old one night his mother threw a lantern at his father the lantern missed and broke over the child's head and the shoulders he suffered third degree burns and lost both his eyes 2. Everyone was shocked what a strange sight how could this happen they couldn't believe what they saw 3. After the grand prix he proudly informed me that the race was a success 4. Do you know what made her say I'm going home now IX.Read the sentence given below. Rewrite the sentence carrying in given instructions. 1. a) She suffered form serious injuries. She recovered well. b) Though _________________________ 2. a) She was struck by a car coming form the opposite direction. b) A car coming _________________________ 3. a) I see nothing noble in a patient's suffering. b) Nothing noble _________________________ 4. a) This trolley was commandeered by an intrepid crew of two. b) An intrepid crew of two _________________ 5. a) We can't appreciate light if we haven't known darkness b) We can appreciate light _________________ 6. a) It was much better entertainment than anything else. b) Nothing else ______________________ 7. a) I experienced not only agony but also anger. b) As well as _________________________ 8. a) suffering makes you a better person b) you are made _________________________ X. Identify the part of speech of each underlined word below. Write the word and the parts of speech. 1. An intrepid crew of two soon commandeered the trolley. 2. Let me tell you about these two. 3. We are members of one human family and must stand or fall together. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY :

II. 1. fearless 2. advanced 3. make a hole through 4. cut off a part of the today 5. has as its origin 6. harnful to noble 7. make one noble 8. cut off a part 9. comfort or relief in pain or anxiety 10. to direct the course 11. the last item 12. showing great knowledge III. 1. Seized 2. Uncontrollable 3. Intension 4. Rectify IV. 1. Heart throb 2. Heartening 3. Quite 4. Healed 5. Heart breaking 6. Heartily V. 1. None (all are right) 2. None (all are right) 3. Injury 4. Mouldy 5. Tumour VI 1. Tree 2. Portable 3. Holder 4. Compute VII 1. Tour 2. Peer 3. Rumour 4. Dine VIII 1. two. old. father. shoulders. eyes. 2. sight! Happen? Saw. 3. Prix, success. 4. Now. IX 1. Though suffered form serious injuries, she recovered well. 2. A car coming from the opposite direction struck her 3. Nothing noble in a patients’ suffering can be seen. 4. An intrepid crew of two commandeered this trolley 5. We can appreciate light if we have known darkness 6. Nothing else was much better than entertainment 7. As well as agony I experienced anger 8. you are made better person with suffering

X 1. of - Preposition 2. these - pronoun 3. and – conjunction

.:: Circus Cat, Alley Cat ::. This is a story about a circus woman who tames and performs with tigers and lions. She herself cannot be domesticated. She gets estranged form her husband. A woman's need for family life and motherhood make her an alley cat. Anna alias Shakti is born in a circus family. She starts her career training tigers and lions. She marries coworker who forces her to give up her job and attend to domestic chores. Anna leaves him. Mrs. Bates, a missionaries wife sees her , and her baby in abject poverty. She poties her and employs her as a nanny. To the children Anna always remains a 'breath - taking , death-defying and terror - striking' circus cat. Her actions and movements lead them into a world of imagination. Common objects in her hand are transformed into symbols of terror. As soon as she enters the room with a tricycle the children feel as if a trainer has arrived. When she sits as the breakfast table cutting slices of bread, it makes the children think it is a chunk of fresh meat dripping with scarlet blood. A cooling spoon in Anna's hand appearance of a showy satin stage costume. Thus Mrs. Bates efforts to tame and domesticate here are in vain. Anna 's husband comes back and takes away her child. Anna follows him to Bombay, to get back the child. She never returns. Years later the author sees Anna performing in the circus. Anna remains separated from her husband who wanted her to be an alley cat. Strong willed and determined Anna prefers to stay single, rather than submit to her tyrannical, insensitive husband. She remains a circus cat.

The story comments on the plight of a woman in man dominated society. Anna though alone, retains her freedom. Thus Anita Desai's minute observation , and intense feeling for a very small confined section of the world, and her sensitive evocation of the inner lives of the characters, make her one of the one of the first talents at work in the Indian novel. Question & Answers 1. 'And through the cage of bamboos. Where was the write hiding ? Was it really a cage? Why did the writer think it had become a cage? A. The writer was hiding behind a screen of bamboos. It was not a real cage but just a fence. 2. Describe the physical appearance of Anna.? A. Anna was a Malabar girl who had been born into the circus. She was large and heavily built. She had very black bright. Eyes, a lot wiry black hair, and hefty shoulders. She had also a loud , sharp and authoritative voice. 3. What was Anna's special act? What phrases were used to describe the act? Where would you expect to find these phrases? A. Her special act was to drape a tiger over her shoulders and stand on the backs of two lions whom she would then order to emit great, rumbling roars that made her large frame tremble all over and the tiger snarl. The phrases 'breath-taking', death-defying', and 'terror-striking' were used to describe the act. I expect to find these phrases in highly adventurous and daring acts. 4. Who did Anna marry? what kind of a man he? In what way did his ambition show? How did Anna react? What happened to her? A. Anna married the boy who led the cats. He was ambitious. He soon taught her that a woman's place is her home and straddling the lions himself and wrapping the tiger round his own neck. She reacted sharply and left his house with her baby. Soon she was on the verge of starvation. 5. In what state was Anna, when Mrs, Bates found her? Mrs. Bates did two things for Anna. What were they? A. Anna was begging in the streets when Mrs. Bates found her. At that time Anna and her child were near starvation. Anna was given a wash with bath salts to remove the circus smell. She was also given a white uniform. Besides, her baby was put in a cradle in the back verandah and fed on milk and oranges. 6. What were the changes in the children after the coming of Anna? A. The coming of Anna into the house made the children feel that they had been shut in their cages. They stopper walking or running but resorted to prowling. Instead of hopping or skipping happily , they sprang and leaped in terror. They were not at liberty to play or speak to their liking. Their voices also changed. Further, they would play only those games that she ordered them to play. 7. The children imagined that quite ordinary things in Anna's hands became circus equipment, can you give a few examples? which do you think is the most terrifying among them? A. The brand looked like a great hunk of fresh meat, dripping with scarlet blood. A cooking spoon in her hand became a circus whip. A plain brooch pinned to her lapel turned to a stage costume. The first one is the most terrifying among them. 8. "My baby 's gone !" she cried theatrically. "My baby's been taken away!" what did the writer think Anna outburst meant? What had really happened?" A. The writer thought that Anna's baby had died. Anna cried that her baby had been taken away .She prayed to God to given her baby back to her. Her way of crying make the writer think that the baby had died. The word "theatrically" means that Anna made her crying rather showy, producing some dramatic effect. What really happened was that Anna's husband took away the baby. 9. "we were nonplussed that the mistress of the house should not have heard of the tragedy yet". What was the tragedy and how did the truth come over? A. The tragedy was the death of Anna's baby as imagined by the write . Hearing the cries of Anna for her lost baby , the writer took the child to be dead. She told it to her mother. She went at once to Anna and began to console her saying that God's decree must be accepted. On her way back she asked Mrs. Bates about the funeral. She jumped with surprise and tried to suppress her laughter because the baby was not dead but vanished. Then she reheated the truth.

10. What were the efforts in tracing Ann's baby? A. The Bates made all efforts to trace the baby. It was difficult because the circus had moved to Bombay. So they sent Anna away to Bombay. 11. "That was the last we saw of Anna for a long time". When did the writer see Anna next? What was she doing? What do you think had happened to Anna's child? A. The writer saw Anna next time in a circus. She was doing the same breath - taking and terror-striking feats. They saw a little child somer-saulting in the sawdust whom they thought was Anna's child. 12. How well did the children accept Anna as their Nanny? A. At first the children did not accept Anna as their Nanny because she had trained circus cats only. They felt as they were in a cage when she kept them in a room shut. But when she brought the playing , things , they felt very happy. They treated her only as a circus lady but not as Nanny. 13. What did the Bates say about Anna? A. The Bates said that Anna was a Malabar girl born into the circus. She had trained the big cats even since she was thirteen. She married the boy who led the cats. In course of time she had a baby and her husband ordered her to stay at home. She became angry and left with her baby. Later she was found in a state of starvation on a Daryaganj street. Mrs. Bates picked her up. 14. What had happened to Anna's baby? A. Anna's baby had been taken away by her husband and his family. The circus had moved to to Bombay and the child too must have taken with them. 15. "All this played real havoc on our imagination, as nothing had ever done before". What was all this? Given a few instances of how it had played a havoc on their imagination? A. "All this" means the vivid description of Anna as a cat trainer in a circus . If Anna rattled the knobs of the doors and windows, the children would feel that they were shut into their cages. They also felt that they were not hopping or skipping but springing. The presence of Anna would make then feel that the trainer had arrived. When she cut slices of bread at the breakfast table, the children would think that it was a hunk of fresh meat soaked in blood. When she had a cooking spoon in her hand, would think that it was a circus whip. I. Choose the correct meaning of the word given. 1. staid: sick/ gloomy/ dull/ slow 2. chortle: a laugh of surpise/ a laugh of joy/ a laugh of pleasure/ a laugh of pride 3. hound : chase away/ worry/ command / request 4. gibbering : making noise/ crying loudly/ go on talking without end/ making meaningless sounds 5. endeavour : swallow/ making oneself lovable/ effort/ to put an end to 6. eternal : permanent or everlasting/ on the outside / inside/ without beginning 7. drape : to take in drop by drop/ allow to jump/ to hand over shoulders like a garment / wear 8. straddle : a leather seat for the rider on a horse/ stand across something with legs widely separated/ walk with long steps/ stand in attention 9. install : to settle in an official position/ to place in a stall/ paying a part/ to fix 10. appland : show approval by clap of hands/ to hoot/ to shout showing disapproval/ to plead to repeat 11. havoc : great fear/ widespread damage/ harm/ a sorrowful event 12. pathetic : pitiful/ showing sympathy/ indifferent/ careless 13. tragedy : an act of courage/ a very sad event/ that which ends in death/ funny act II. Select the best option that conveys the meaning of the underlined word and write it. 1. We must accept whatever God decrees for out life. [ ] a)gives b)decides c)prepares d) plans 2. Mr. Rao is installed as the warden of this hostel [ ] a) promoted b) appointed c) made d) transferred

3. He attended the meeting with a preoccupied mind. [ ] a) fixed on the result b) fixed on participation c) fixed on lame excuses d) fixed on something else 4. The thief shuddered at the thought of being caught by the police [ ] a) trembled with disgust b) shook violently with anger c) trembled with fear d) terrified 5. The judge passed a decree against him. [ ] a) order b)sentence c) acquittal d) release 6. We could no longer walk or run but prowl. [ ] a) crawl b) cry wildly c) weep d) shone form behind the clouds 7. We had a vivid picture of what had happened [ ] a) distorted b) very clear c) very large d) loudly 8. We are very sorry that God had taken her at tender age. [ ] a) easily hurt b) offer c) young and immature d) quickly feeling pain 9. The Bates preferred to call her by the name of Anna. [ ] a) selected b) favoured c) chose d) asked III.Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the appropriate word given in the brackets. 1. Anna's _________ voice made the children obey her. (authority, authoritative, authoritarian) 2. Anna's behavior fired the _________ of the author. (imagination, imaginary, imagine) 3. Every student must wear _________ (uniform, cloth, apparel) 4. I have selected a suitable _________ for my role in the play. (dress, attire, costume) 5. "This _________ comes to you with guarantee of one year" said the shopkeeper. (clothes, garment, outfit) 6. He is in the _________ of a sheep whereas he is a fox by nature. (garb, dress, robe) 7. Late one evening she came to us to _________ us out of the shrubbery. 8. "My baby's gone " she cried _________ (Calmly , silently, theatrically) IV. Find the wrongly spelt word in each set and write it correctly: 1. sprangel/ angel/ angle/ triangle 2. devour/ endevour/ fervour/ forever 3. provision/ occasion/ starvasion/ plantation 4. precious/caucious/ vicious/ conscious V. In each of the following group of words ,find the word in which the underlined part is pronounced in the same way as in the key word. 1. Safe : sack sat salt sale 2. Busy : sugar station miss girls 3. Achieve : chord ache much cholera 4. Weather : feast bee led beard 5. Shoulder : ought shower poach house VI. In each set find the word that rhymes with the key word. 1. Roar : rear rare crore 2. Dream : storm scream palm

3. Clapped : lapsed sloped slapped stopped 4. Throught : blue trough knew good VII.Sentence endings in the following passage are not indicated. Decide where each sentence ends and write the last word followed by a proper mark (!) or (.) 1. What a spectacular sight it was I could stay here for another day how about leaving the day after. VIII. Punctuate: 1. on her way out my mother looked in on mrs bates and asked when is the funeral to be IX. Read the sentence given below. Rewrite the sentence carrying the given instructions. 1. a) my imagination was fired by the stories of Nanny. b) The stories of Nanny ……………………... 2. a) No matter how hard we tried, she never spoke of the circus once. b) Though we tried ……………………......... 3. a) The most terror striking, event in the circuswas Anna's draping a tiger over her shoulders. b) No other event ……………………......... 4. a) we were so excited that we could not even applaud. b) we were too ……………………......... 5. a) The circus had moved to Bombay and so it will be a bit difficult. b) i) If the circus were …………………….. ii) If the circus had not …………………. 6. a) The thought uppermost in my mind was : Where is Anna's husband? b) The thought upper most in my mind was .................................... X. Identify the parts of speech of each underlined word below. Identify the word and the parts of speech 1. Anna wept on the her shoulders, looking quite thin and pathetic in her sorrow. 2. She prayed that God might help me. XI. Write the following sentences making necessary corrections, if any, 1. She was too weak that she can't walk. 2. Neither Anna not her baby have returned to Mrs. Bates KEY :I. 1.Dull 2. a laugh of pleasure 3. chase away 4. making meaning less sounds 5. effort 6. permanent or everlasting 7. to hang over shoulders 8. stand across something with legs widely separated 9. to settle in an official position 10. show approval by clap of hands 11. widespread damage 12. sowing sympathy 13. a very sad event II. 1. decides 2. appointed 3. fixed on something else 4. trembled with fear 5. order 6. crawl 7. very clear 8. young and immature 9. chose


1.authoritative 2. imagination 3. uniform 4.costume 5. garment 6. garb 7. hound 8. theatrically


1. spangle 2. endeavour 3. starvation 4. cautions


1. sale 2. girls 3. much 4. led 5. poach


1. crore 2. scream 3. slapped 4. blue


1. Was(!) 2. Day(.) 3. After(?)


On her way out, she looked in on Mrs. Bates, and asked, "when is the funeral to be?" 1. The story of Nanny fired my imagination 2. Though we tried hard, she never spoke of the circus once. 3. No other event is as terror striking as Anna's draping a tiger over her shoulders. 4. We were too excited to applaud. 5. i) If the circus were to move to Bombay, it would be a bit difficult ii) If the circus had not moved to Bombay, it would not have been a fit difficult 6. The thought upper most in my mind was where was Anna's husband?


1.Went-verb, her-adjective, Pathetic-adjective, sorrow-noun 2. Proved-verb, that-pronoun, god-noun , me-pronoun.


1. She was too weak to walk 2. Neither Anna. Nor her baby have returned to Mrs. Bates.

.:: Mother Teresa ::. Summary Tenth September nineteen hundred and forty six was a day of inspiration of her Choked by the cosy comfort of the convent, she heard the clarion call from Jesus to go and serve the hopeless and the poor. She took training in nursing and established her house. Sisters take four vows .Poverty:-they must be poor to know the poor. Chastity:-so that they can focus their attention of Christ. Obedience:-do God's well. Free Service:-A special vow of free service to the poor. Her vision is love and care for the people whom no one wants. Her motto is," by Love Serve One Another ".People of kolkatta are very fond of her. She has Indianised herself with sari as an attire, and Bengali as a language. She started her work a meager amount of Rs. Five. For her needs she depends on God and people. Many awards have been conferred on Mother Teresa. She uses her award money to start more homes. She compares her work with a drop in the ocean. But that missing drop also contributes to the vastness of the ocean. The ocean would be less because of that missing drop. This shows her dedication, irrespective of anything significant. However small, acts of love and charity are important .The worst thing for man is to un wanted. The only cure for the suffering mankind is to have willing hands to serve,and a loving heart to care for. Rightly, to the people of kolkatta, She is known as "The lady, the Slums, the Angel of Mercy, the Gentle mother". Question and Answers 1. How did Mother Teresa prepare herself to work for the people? A. Teresa was in a convent. On 10th September, 1946,she heard a call from Jesus Christ. She was asked to give up all and go into the slums to serve the poorest of the poor. At once she got permission from the people and the blessing of pope to serve the poor. She received training in nursing in Patna and prepared herself to work for the poor. 2. What is the impression that you get of the city of Calcutta? How did Mother Teresa herself feel about the city and its people? A. Calcutta is a busy city with tram- cars, buses, trucks, bullock-carts, rickshaws and countless pedestrians. There are many slums and the railway stations are full of abandoned children, the hungry, diseased, destitute and the dying. No city in the world can vie with Calcutta for the poor and needy. Patients lie in front of hospitals. In short, it is a hell-hole city. But Mother Teresa loves the people of Calcutta, who ,she says, have a special warmth. She quotes the example of an unknown lady who had brought her hot food and helped her to continue the service of the flood victims. 3. What constitutes a typical day of a Charity? A. In Mother Teresa House, the day begins at 4:30 A. m. The nuns assemble and pray and meditate for two hours. Then they go to work. Firstly they wash all the dirty linen brought from for the Dying, Sushu Bhavan, the Slum Schools, leprosaria etc. Then they have a quick breakfast. Soon they go to their places of duty with supplies of powdered milk and medicines. They return in the evening. They have an early supper. Then they pray again and meditate and go to bed in their dormitories by 10:00 p.m. 4. What idea do you get of the scale of operation of Mother Teresa's organization ? A. The operation of the Missionaries of Charity are spread over to 35 indian cities and towns and to other countries. Sri Lanka, Australia, England, Ireland, Italy, countries of the middle East and Central Afric A.

5. How does Kush want Singh describe Mother Teresa ?What is her uniqueness? A. Mother Teresa is barely five feet tall and thin. She has deep greyish brown eyes. She has high cheek bones and thin lips. Her wrinkled face reveals her hard life. Her dress hides all female charms. It is a blue -bordered white sari, which covers her head up to the eyebrows . A small iron cross dangles on her left shoulder. Her uniqueness lies in her simplicity and also in merging herself with the common people. 6. Mother Teresa describes 10th September, 1946, as "Inspiration day " and a 'Day of Decision ' . why ? How did this lead to a New Order ? A. Mother Teresa felt that her being shut away from the world in convent was against the spirit of her being shut away from the world in convent was against the spirit of her calling. On 10th September, 1946 she was going to Darjeeling in a train to make her retreat. Suddenly she heard the call from Jesus Christ to give up all and follow him to the slums to serve the poorest of the poor. At once she got permission from the people and had intensive training in nursing in patn A. She opened her first slum school in 1948. Her first student , Subhasini Das, Joined the Missionaries of Charity and changed her name in to Sister Agnes. And thus, a New Order came into being. 7. What made Mother Teresa decide to give up teaching and serve the poor? A. Mother Teresa started her career as a Geography teacher in St. Mary's High School in Calcutta and later because its principal. But on the 10th September, 1946 she received a call from Jesus Christ who asked her to give up all and follow him to the slums to serve him among the poorest of the poor. Hence Mother Teresa decided to give up teaching and serve the poor. 8. In what way was 10th September, 1946 Important in Mother Teresa's Life? A. On 10th September, 1946, Mother Teresa was going to Darjeeling by train to make her retreat. Suddenly she heard a call from Jesus Christ asking her to give up all and follow him to the slums to serve him among the poorest of the poor. Having got the Pope's permission and blessings, she received in intensive training in nursing in patna and opened her first slum school in 1948 and a new order came into being. The day was so important in Mother Teresa's Life that she described it as "Inspiration day" and the day of "Decision". 9. What are the four vows taken by the New Order or the Missionaries of Charity? A. The Missionaries of Charity takes the following vows: i) Vow of poverty : to be able to understand and serve the poor. ii) Vow of Chastity : to give their hearts complete to Christ in the service of the poor. iii) Vow of obedience : to take all vows according to obedience and to do God's will in everything. iv) Special Vow whole hearted free service to the poor.Without being the mercenary of the rich. 10. Why did Mother Teresa have a special interest in the drying ? A. Mother Teresa thinks that showing special interest in the dying is a vocation. It is a call because nobody wants the dying, the sick and the crippled. She wanted those that nobody wanted, no one loved or cared. One day she saw a woman lying in front of a hospital . She was half-eaten by rats and maggots. The sight moved her. She took care of the woman till she died. Thus her interest in the dying started. 11. What nationality was Mother Teresa by birth? Which country is she citizen of now ? "…she assiduously Indianised herself". In what ways has Mother Teresa Indianised herself? A. By birth Mother Teresa was of Yugoslavia nationality. But she is now of Indian Nationality. She adopted the Indian sari for her dress. She adopted the Indian style of squatting cross- legged in a chapel. She began to eat Indian food in Indian style. She learnt Bengali. In this way she assiduously Indianised herself. 12. She is blessed with certainties", wrote Muggeridge. Give one instance.? A. On being asked who had been the dominant influence in her life- Gandhi, Nehru or Schweitzer, she replied without a pause 'Jesus Christ'. When the author asked her about the books that influenced her, she at once said " The scripture". These facts reveal she is blessed with certainties and convictions. 13. What does Mother Teresa think is more important to her work than money? How much money did she started her first school in the slums? A. Getting people involved in the work and make them think that the sick , old and hungry are their brothers is more important , according to Mother Teresa . She thought that money was no problem at all and she was never short of it. She started her first slum school with just Rs. 5 and when people learnt of her good work they brought her things and money. 14. What were some of the award that Mother Teresa received and how did she spend the money? A. She received the following awards : Raman Magsaysay Award worth 10,000 U.S , dollars. She started a Leper Home with the money. Pope

Paul's White Lincoln Car fetched her Rs.4,000,000. She opened another Leper Home. In 1971, Pope John XXIII peace Prize worth 21,500 dollars was given to Mother leper colony In Bengal. The Good Samaritan Award and the Joseph Kennedy Jr. Foundation Award fetched her 50,000 dollars with which she opened a home for the crippled and mentally retarded children. 15. "There are too many poor and destitute in the world today. How much can you do for them?"asked Kushwant Sing . What was Mother Teresa's reply? A. Mother Teresa humbly says that her service to the poor of the world may be just a drop in the ocean. If that drop is not there, the ocean will be less because of that missing drop. If is not the size of the work that matters but the work itself. She knows that she cannot given food to all the hungry, and medicines to all the sick of the world. 16. What is the worst of all the diseases, according to Mother Teresa? Why? How does Nirmal Shishu Bhavan demonstrate this idea? A. "Being unwanted" is the worst disease that any human being can experience. Mother Teresa says so because other diseases can be cured with medicines. But, this disease can be cured by willing hands to serve and a loving heart to love. Nirmal Sishu Bhavan is one such home which care of abandoned children and premature babies. They are reared there with at most care and concern demonstrating how the unwanted ought to be looked after. 17. What does this article on Mother Teresa start with? A. The article on 'Mother Teresa' start with a high praise of her that she is the best known and best loved citizen of Indi A. It also ends with the same note that the people of Kolkata have heaped encomiums on her. The tempo has, thus been maintained right from the first sentence to the last. It is a good way to begin and also to end. 18. What reason does mother Teresa give for choosing and in particular, Kolkata? A. Mother Teresa says that India is a missionary country and she is sent there. She says she loves the people of Kolkat A. Their warmth of affection is unique. She relates an experience. Once she was bringing victims to a place of shelter during the floods. Then a lady brought food for her in the car. Mother Teresa says that such affectionate people cannot be found anywhere in the world. 19. Speaking about money, mother says, "It is all divine providence". What miracles did she narrate? A. Once in winter season they ran out of quilts. Some sheets were found but there was no cotton to stuff to stuff in them. She was about to rip open her pillow when someone knocked at the door. It was a man who said he was going abroad and came there to leave his quilts and mattresses with Mother Teres A. On another occasion they ran short of rice. A strange lady who had never been to then the exact quantity of rice they needed towards their daily ration. 20. What is Mother Teresa referring to ? What does she imply? A. Mother Teresa humbly say that her service to the poor of the world may be just a drop in the ocean but if it is not there. The ocean will be less by that missing drop. Here she wants to convey that it is not he size of the work that matters but the work itself. She knows that she cannot give food to all the hungry and medicines to all the sick in the world. II. Choose the correct meaning of the word given. 1. Notorious : Like by people (Popular) well known for something bad (Famous) 2. Xenophobia : Fear of opponents/ Unreasonable hatred and fear of strangers / unnecessary fear of subordinates / fear of haveing to face an audience. 3. Thoroughfare : To fare thoroughly (Road or street with much traffic) Complete fare (To fare without forgetting anything) 4. Cluster : A very large crowd / A number persons etc in a small groups / A collection of vehicles (A branch) 5. Foregather : Come together (Gather in the front) / Gather in a place in a place in advance / Take sides in a fight in groups 6. Dispensary : Capable of being done without / A person who distributes / A place where medicines are dispensed (A medical shop)

7. Innumerable : Infinite ( a number that can be ignored) Too many to be counted (too few) 8. Destitute : Left out with any care (abandoned person) / Without possessions or money / An institute caring for people 9. Spardely : in extravagance (too much) Very little (only now and then) 10. Homely : as in a home (decorated ) Simple or plain (stately) 11. Charisma : magical powers (special charm) Unlimited control(beauty) 12. Austere : simple, without ornament (very grave) Serious(enthusiastic) 13. Celebrity : performing a function in a grand way / A famous person / The celebration of a festival / State of living unmarried 14. Dangle : jump with one leg(hand loosely) An ornamental band worn round the ankle 15. 15.Cloistered : grouped in a place (open to the place ) Shut away from the world (gathered) 16. Retreat : To go forward (treat against) To go back (retire) 17. viewith : To challenge (to comptete with ) To envy (to fight with ) 18. Congregation : A social group(A religious group ) A meeting (a division of congress ) 19. Assiduously : in a careless manner (with great effort) / with careful and constant attention (repeatedly) 20. Conviction : Firm belief(the act of making a person to believe) Strong will (determination) 21. Miracle : Just what was expected / That which does not follow / know laws of nature Surprise(confusion) 22. Providence : God's care (providing for future use Provisions (fortune) 23. Escort : To go with (A cart used in older days) to lead a movement (a group of fellows ) 24. Elucidate : Explain (give in brief ) to question (make it difficult to understand ) 25. Accolade : Thanks giving (public disapproval) Strong praise and approval(welcome) 26. Elite : Get down (disturbing peace) Most important people in a social group (rich people) 27. Apostle : Follower of any leader / One of the twelve followers of Christ / A religious leader (a pastor) 28. Spastic : having more space(not being systematic ) Suffering from a kind of paralysis(indifferent) III.Select the best option that conveys the meaning of the underlined word and write it. 1. The Government has been spending enormous sums of money on education. [ ] a)very small b)insufficient c)enough d)very large

2. He began to recount his experiences. [ ] a)count again b)go into a flashback c)narrate d)recite 3. All commodities are in short supply. [ ] a)kinds of clothes b)useful things of trade c)articles of food d)luxurious articles 4. Intensive cultivation is being carried in west Godavari Disdrict [ ] a)extending over a large area b)concentrating on a small area of land to produce more c)improved d)very deep 5. The District Collector called a meeting of theelite of the district to discuss the pronlem of drought. [ ] a)elected representatives b)important people c)rich people d)educated people 6. you must be very careful in choosing you vocation. [ ] a)a long holiday b)the way you spend your holiday c)profession d)course of study 7. This is a sparsely furnished office. [ ] a)with a little furniture b)with necessary furniture c)with old furniture d)with no furniture 8. The office has been inaugurated by a local celebrity. [ ] a)leader b)worker c)famous person d)important person 9. She has won a gold chain in a raffle. [ ] a)competition b)lottery c)auction d)scheme 10. I could not bear the vulgar language. [ ] a)very difficult b)very easy c)ill- mannered d)flattering 11. we should not try to capitalize on the mistake of the opponent. [ ] a) to supply capital to b) convert into use as capital c) to take advantage of d) to blame 12. He cold not restrain his anger. [ ] a) keep under control b) strain again c) a period of rest after rain d) to prevent one from doing something IV.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word given in the brackets. 1. That afternoon the author was with Mother Teresa on a begging______________ (job, profession, mission ) for the orphans . 2. The minister was _______________(escorted, guided, accompanied) into his chamber by his security personnel. 3. The lecturer _________________ (showed, demonstrated , practiced) us the experiment. 4. Kerala is thickly ; it is a ___________(popular, populous, less populous )state. 5. The _____________(deceased, diseased, destitute)left a large sum of money to his wife. V. Find the wrongly spelt word in each set and write it correctly: 1. commissionor Junior minor governor 2. vacation vocation permition station 3. Attendance providence dance importence 4. recive relieve perceive deceive 5. permanent prominent dominant pertinant VI.In each of the following groups of words, find the word in which the underlined part is pronounced in the same way as in the key word.

1. Realize : advise urge forgery 2. Elucidate : premature measure bureau 3. Bureau : beautiful thorough through 4. Disease : horses demise search 5. Unique : umbrella uncle tube 6. Church : Christian chandelier child 7. Provision : passion erosion mason 8. Leisure : ensure pressure assure VII. In the following passage the end of each sentence is not indicated. Decide where each sentence ends and write the last word followed by(.) or(!). or (?) 1. She speaks with an Indian lilt in her voice like convent-bred Indians she often ends her sentence with an interrogatory no meaning isn't that so her answers are very brief. VIII. Punctuate and rewrite. 1. What about books have you read anything that you consider having influenced your thinking the scripture. IX. Read the sentence (a) and then complete the sentence (b) using the ideas in (a) keep sentence (b) as close in meaning as possible to sentence(a). 1. a) you did not invite me; so I didn't attend your birthday party. b) If you ......................................................... 2. a) Let us not reject it. They have brought it all the way from Kolkat b) Now that ..................................................... 3. a) Murali cannot attend college. He is suffering from fever. b) As ..................................................... 4. a) "I will buy a new saree tomorrow ," she said to him. b) She told ..................................................... 5. a) Nothing can be attained in hurry. b) we ..................................................... X. Identity the part of speech of the each underlined word: 6. She let a gentle smile come over her face. Ans: a) …………….. b) …………….. c) …………….. d) …………….. 7. This vow means that we cannot work for therich. Ans: a) …………….. b) …………….. c) …………….. d) …………….. 8. They are usually a few jeeps, a van or a mobile clinic. Ans: a) …………….. b) …………….. c) …………….. d) …………….. KEY : II. 1. Well known for something bad. 2. Unreasonable hatred and bear of strangers 3. Road or street with much traffic 4. a number person etc in a small group 5. Come together 6. A place where medicines are dispensed 7. Too many to be counted 8. Without possessions or money 9. Very little 10. Simple or plain

11. Special charm 12. Simple without ornament 13. A famous person 14. Hang loosely 15. Shut away from the world 16. To go forward 17. To compete with 18. a religious group 19. with careful and constant attention 20. firm belief 21. that which does not follow known laws of nature 22. god's care 23. to go with 24. explain 25. strong praise and approval 26. most important people in a social group 27. one of the twelve followers of Christ III . 1) d 2) b 3) c 4) b 5) b 6) c 7) a 8) c 9) b 10) c 11) c 12) a IV. 1) mission 2) escorted 3) demonstrated 4) populous 5) deceased V. 1) commissioner 2) permission 3) None 4) receive 5)None VI. 1) advise 2) bureau 3) though 4) horses 5) tube 6) child 7) erosion 8) pressure VII. voice (.) no (?) so (?) brief (.) VIII. What about books ? Have you read anything that you consider having influenced your thinking ? "The script". IX. 1. If you had invited me, I would have attended your birthday party. 2. Now that you have brought it all the way from Calcutt A. We should not reject it. 3. As Murali is suffering from fever , he cannot attend college. 4. She told him that she would by a new saree the following day. 5. We cannot attain any thing in hurry. X. 1. let - verb gentle - adjusting over - preposition face - noun 2. vow - noun we - pronoun for - preposition

rich - noun 3. are - verb usually - adverb few - adjective or - conjunction

.:: The Case for the Defence ::. Public Questions:

1. Why did the witnesses not forget the murderer? What was his most unforgettable feature? A. The witnesses did not forget the murderer because they saw his face clearly in moon light. He had a fear-stricken face with bulging blood shot eyes All his muscles seemed to be in his things. The most unforgettable feature of the customer was that he was a heavy stout man with bulging blood shot eyes and ugly. 2. "............... his luck was badly out.......". In what way was Adams unlucky? How did it affect him at the trial? A. a) Mr. Adams committed the murder in the midnight so that he could not be seen. But four people saw him clearly near and in the surroundings of the scene of the crime. So his luck was badly out. b) All the witnesses deposed what they had seen. So all were sure that Adams would be sentenced to death. Thus it affected him in the trial. 3. "........he might as well have committed the crime in broad day light" Why does the author say this? A. Mr. Adams committed the crime in the midnight so that he could not be seen. But four people saw him clearly near and in the surroundings of the scene of the crime. The author says, "he might as well have committed the crime in broad day light" to convey that he had not at all been placed in a safer position by choosing midnight time for the act. 4. 'She was the ideal witness'. What made Mrs. Salmon the ideal witness? Who were influenced by her qualities? A. a) Her expression of honesty, care and kindness made Mrs. Salmon an ideal witness. She spoke very firmly in a light scotch accent.. There was not malice in her. b) The jury and the press reporters were influenced by her qualities. 5. " would have known before hand what line he would have taken." What line did the defence counsel take in cross examining Mrs. Salmon? How far was the narrator right? A. a) The Defence counsel took the line of pleading mistaken identity in cross examining Mrs. Salmon. b) The narrator was right upto the point of thinking that he would plead mistaken identity. But he did not think that a person having the similar resemblanced would be presented. 6. Why was Adams acquitted? Why was his twin brother not convicted? Do you agree with the verdict? Why (nor)? What is the Divine Vengeance mentioned at the end of the story? A. a) The witnesses deposed that the accused was the man whom they had seen at the scene of offence. They were strong about the identity of the person. But the defence lawyer produced his twin brogher who was his exact image and in the same dress. They could not say which of them the real murderer was. So Adams was acquitted for lack of evidence. b) His twin brogher was not convicted because he had his alibi that he was with his wife. c) Out of the two broghers, if one was with his wife the other must have been the murderer. But both were acquitted. So I cannot agree with the verdict. d) One of the brogher was got pushed on the road right in front of the bus and was killed. The author feels that the real murdere had met with death which was God's punishment. 7. "That extraordinary day had an extraordinary end." Why? What happened at the end of the day? In what way was the end extraordinary? A. a) It was an extra-ordinary day because the accused was acquitted while all thought he would be sentenced to death. b) After the case was over, all the people came out of the court. The two Adams were also with them. When the crowd moved, one of the brothers was pushed on to the road right in front of a bus and was killed. He gave a squeal as his skull was smashed just as Mrs. Parkers had been. c) Thus the end was extra-ordinary. 8. What did the police want the twins to do? Why did they refuse? Were they right? What did the refusal result in? A. a) The police asked the twins to leave the court through a back way b) They refused to do so; the accused had been acquitted and so had the right to go by the front entrance. c) So far they were right. d) But the refusal resulted in the death of one of the twins. Textual Questions 1. Who is the narrator? A. The narrator is Graham Green, a crime reporter. 2. "They named it the peckham murder....." Who are they? Where was it called the Peckham murder? Was it correct to call it the Peckham murder? Why (not)?

A. a) They are the press reporters b) It was called the Peckham murder in the headlines c) It was not correct to call it the Peckham murder because it happened in Northwood Street. 3. In which country do you think the murder took place? Which words tell you so? A. a) The murder took place in England. b) The word's crown counsel' tell us so. 4. Were the jurymen anxious about possible mistakes in this case? Why (not)? What did everyone think the verdict would be? What made them think so? A. a) The jury men were not anxious because there was direct evidence in this case. Usually they are anxious about possible mistakes in cases of circumstantial evidences. But this was not of that sort. b) Everyone thought that Adams would be sentenced to death. c) The direct evidence offered by the four witnesses made them think so. 5. Was this a case of circumstantial evidence? What kind of evidence was produced in this case? A. This was not a case of circumstantial evidence. Direct evidence of four persons was produced in this case. Besides the formed evidence given by the police men, the surgeon who examined the body reported that the murder was committed with a hammer. 6. Was the man caught while he was committing the murder? Was he caught near the body? '........this murder was all but found with the body.' What does all but signify? A. a) The man was not caught while murdering. b) He was not caught near the body. c) 'All but' means 'everything except'. It indicates that he was the murderer. The only thing was that the murderer was not found near the body. Who were the four witnesses? What was each of them doing at that time of the night? What did each one testify? A. a) The four witnesses the crown counsel proposed to call were Mrs. Salmon, Henry, Mac Dougall, Mr. Wheeler and another person in Laurel Avenue. b) & c) Mrs. Salmon saw Mr. Adams on the step of Mrs. Parker's house with gloves dropping the hammer into the bush in the night. Mr. Henry Mac Dougall driving home had seen in the Northwood street. Mr. Wheeler another neighbour of Mrs.Parker saw Adam's back and his bulging eyes. In Laurel Avenue another witness saw him. What made Mrs. Salmon get up and look though the window? Who did she see and where? What did she see him do? Why did he do so? A. a) Mrs. Salmon was not able to sleep. She heard a door click shut, thinking it was her own gate, she came to the window and saw through it. b) She saw Adams on the steps of Mrs. Parker's house. c) She saw him drop the hammer into the bushes. d) He did so because he killed Mrs. Parker with that hammer. He wanted to get rid of it. 7. Why do you think he was wearing gloves? A. He was wearing gloves because he wanted to avoid his finger prints on the hammer. He used the hammer to kill Mrs. Parker. 8. What tell a man when he is watched? Why is the instinct described as fatal? Look up the word 'fatal' in your dictionary. The word has two meanings. Do both of them apply in this context? In what ways? A. a) The fatal instinct tells a man when he is watched. b) The instinct is described as fatal because the person looks around to see if anyone is watching c) The two meanings of the word fatal are 'dangerous' and 'likely to caused death'. Both these meaning apply in this context. The person was put in a dangerous position because he was accused of murder. The incident resulted in death. 9. Do you think it would have been better that the reader found this out later? In other words, has the narrator spoilt the suspense by telling us that the verdict was astonishing? What do you think? A. I don't think it would have been better that the reader found this out later. The narrator has not spoilt the suspense by telling us that the verdict was astonishing. Instead, it arouses greater interest in the audience or the readers. 10. What did the Crown Counsel say about the defence's line of argument? How do you think he knew? Was he right? Did the defence propose 'mistaken identity' was it in the same way as the

Crown counsel predicted? A. a) The crown counsel said that the defence would propose to plead mistaken identity. b) He knew that Adam's wife would tell the jury that he was with her at two that night. So he said like that. c) He was some what right d) The Defence Counsel did propose mistaken identity but not in the same way as the crown counsel predicted. However it was proposed by showing one who was identical with the accused. 11. 'It was all over......' What remained, according to the observers? Were they right? A. a) The circumstantial evidence and the physical features were very strong against Mr.Adams. So only the verdict ordering the hanging of Adams remained according to the observers. b) They were not right. 12. Who gave the formal evidence? What do you think the surgeon told the court? A. a) The policeman who found the dead body gave the formal evidence. b) The surgeon might have told the court that Mrs. Parker must have died of continuous hammer blows. 13. Mrs. Salmon identified Adams sitting in the dock. Still the Crown Counsel asked her, "You are quite certain?" why do you think he did that? A. The Crown counsel asked Mr. Salon if she was quite certain because he knew that the Defence Counsel was going to propose mistaken identity. 14. "And you have no doubt whatever that the man you saw is the prisoner?" why did the Defence Counsel want to establish this? Do you think there is a difference in their purposes? A. The Defence Counsel wanted to establish this because he was going to present to her a person who was the exact image of the accused and who was in the same dress. Thus he wanted to show to the court that there was possibility of a mistake. The Crown Counsel wanted to establish this so that the plea of mistaken identity would utterly fail. 15. 'I could not make out what he was at.' Why couldn't the narrator understand what the defence counsel was doing? Can you make out what he was at? A. a) R.S Salmon firmly said that she had made no mistake in identifying the man in the dock. But the Defence Counsel asked her again and again whether she had any doubt about the man she was through the window in that night was the prisoner. So the narrator could not understand what the Defence Counsel was doing. b) The Defence Counsel wanted to show to the court that it was a clear case of mistaken identity. 16. 'He was even dressed the same'. What does he refer to? Do you think the identical dress was usual with the twin brothers, or was it coincidental? Or was it deliberate? A. a) 'He' refers to 'the twin brother of Adams'. b) The identical dress was neither usual with twin brothers nor was it coincidental. c) It was deliberate to strengthen the plea of mistaken identity. 17. What did the defence counsel ask her? Why was she unable to answer the question? How did she do it? A. a) The Defence Counsel asked her if she could swear that the man she saw, dropping the hammer in Mrs. Parker's garden was the prisoner and not his twin brother standing at the back of the court. b) The twin brother with thick stout body and muscular legs and a pair of bulging eyes, was the exact image of he man in the dock. They were even dresses alike. So she was unable to answer the question. c) However she expressed her inability, shaking her head. 18. 'I've been acquitted, haven't I?' Who said these words? (Are you sure?) What is the uncertainty about the speaker of these words? What do you think, is the significance of this uncertainty? A. a) One of the twin brothers said these words. b) They were both alike and no body knew who the accused was and who his twin brother was. So there was uncertainty about the speaker of these words. c) The uncertainty is significant that no body knew who the person living, whether it was the murderer or his twin brother. 19. 'He gave a squeal like a rabbit and that was all'. What happened to him? How did it happen? Do you think Mrs. Parker's murderer got the punishment he deserved? But are you sure it was the right man who got the punishment? Do you think God's Verdict was better than the Crown Court's? A. a) One of the twin brothers fell dead. b) He got pushed on to the road right in front of a running bus. He then gave a squeal and died.

c) If the dead person was the real murderer. God's verdict was better than that of the crown court. But nobody was sure of it. 20. 'But if you were Mrs. Salmon, would you sleep at night?' Imagine you were Mrs. Salmon. Would you sleep at night? What would keep you awake? A. a) If I were Mrs. Salmon I would not sleep at night b) If the person died in the accident happened to be the twin brother, the real murderer would take revenge on me. My conscience also pricks me that I was the cause for his death. I still remember him looking straight over at me standing beside the dead body of his twin brother. These thoughts would keep me awake. I. Choose the correct meaning of the word given: 1. batter : to beat with a batter light / to beat with a big bat / Strike hard repeatedly/ one who bats 2. mute(v) : making no sound / unable to speak / silence / deaden the sound of 3. suffuse : be enough / spread over the surface of / shallow / diffuse 4. verdict : conviction of person by the court / judgment / announcement / a trial in a court 5. accent : way of speaking / going upwards / agreement / speaking clearly 6. malice : massage / desire to harm others / a kind of ice / bad ice 7. alibi : impersonation absence / a plea that the accused was in another place at the time of offence and so he had not committed the crime. 8. acquit : release from prison / escape from prison / set a prisoner free in a count of law / give punishment 9. vengeance : revenge / thoroughness 10. wedged : forced to go in / unable to move away / surrounded by people / pushed into the crowd 11. bulge : swell beyond the usual size / shrink / looking like a bell / push outII. Selection the best options that conveys the meaning of the italicized word and write it. 1. The counsel for the Defense raised and objection. [ ] a) lawyer b) a member of the council c) adviser d) officer 2. The boy received a fatal wound [ ] a) ending in death b) like fate c) of destiny d) very serious 3. Are you acquainted with the works of Shakespeare? [ ] a) released b) said he was not guilty c) familiar with d) convicted 4. He is a man with some ideals [ ] a) opinions b) damaged c) replaced d) buried 5. The man was acquitted for lack of evidence [ ] a) sentenced b) punished c) set free d) interrogated 6. Nobody cold make out what he was saying [ ] a) hear b) like c) understand d) listen 7. She was full of malice towards him. [ ] a) desire to fight b) desire to defeat c) desire to overcome d) desire to harm III. Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the appropriate word given in the brackets. 8. The verdict of the judge acquitting Adams was quite..........(expected, astonishing, fearful) 9. There was such a heavy traffic that we got.............................(caught, wedge, wedged) 10. The patients is........................... (released, discharged, sent out) from the hospital. 11. He was arrested for the................ (lillicit, lawless, lillegal) possession of arms. 12. Every player should follow the.........(rule, law, regulation) of the game here. 13. The government issued a.......(decree, order, command) consumption of tobacco and its products.

14. The king..........(pardoned, excused, forgot) the soldiers who rebelled against him. 15. The accused.................(admitted, agreed, accepted) that he was guilty. IV. In each of the following groups of words, find the word in which the italicized part is pronounced in the same way as in the key word. 16. mute : nurse pure curry Ans:................ 17. court : count bound roar Ans:................ 18. malice : advice practice dice Ans:................. 19. wedged : lighted forged ring Ans:................. 20. examine : mine famine feminine Ans:................. 21. school : machne chord channel chill Ans:................. 22. suffuse : gutter brutal refute Ans:................. 23. evidence : across certain counsel Ans:................. V. Rewrite the directed: 24. a) Policemen are guarding the houses at nights. b) The houses........................................... 25. a) The police have registered a case of murder. b) A case of muder.......................... 26. a) "Did you see the murder?" the lawyer asked. b) The lawyer................................. 27. a) The counsel said to the witness, "Can you recognise the murderer in this court? b) The counsel........................... 28. a) Your ring the bell someone will open the door. b) If............................................. 29. a) Gopal did not win the prize. So he was upset b) gopal................................................... 30. a) I knew the man. He stole the bicyncle. b) I knew................................................... 31. a) Give me the ruler. The ruler is on the table. b) Give me................................................ 32. a) It is very cold. They cannot go out. b) It is................................ 33. a) The headmaster is likely to punish him b) It is likely................................................... 34. a) Besides robbing the two woman, the robbers killed them b) The robbers......................................... 35. a) My fathers health is poor. But he is always cheerful. b) Inspite of............................................................... 36. a) You should earn your levelihood. You are married b) Now that......................................... 37. a) I should have voted for her. But I had no vote. b) If I................................................... 38. a) He died twenty years ago. b) It was...........................................

VI. Identify the part of speech of the underlined words. 39. What we saw then was the end of the case. Ans: (a)........... (b)..................... (c)............... (d)............... 40. The fatal instinct tells a man when he is watched. Ans: (a) .............. (b) ................... (c)................. (d).................. 41. inspite of her recent illness, she continued to work hard. Ans: (a) .............. (b) ................... (c)................. (d).................. 42. The counsel for the crown brought the story gently out. Ans: (a) .............. (b) ................... (c)................. (d).................. 43. And do you see the man here in court? Ans: (a) .............. (b) ................... (c)................. (d).................. 44. Now think very carefully, Mrs. Salmon. Ans: (a) .............. (b) ................... (c)................. (d).................. VII. Rewrite the following passage making improvements you think necessary. 1. The white tiger is a rare wild animal. The white tiger is rarer than all the wild animals in India. It is also perhaps the rarest wild animal in the world. All the white tigers found any where in the world the descendants of an Indian tiger cub are. Ans: ......................................................

.:: The Snapshot of a Dog ::. In "Snapshot of a Dog", warmly recounts his boyhood association with a bull terrier called Rex. He narrates in a fond manner the many activities of his dog. He beautiful illustrates the relationship between a boy and his pet. Rex was a strong and magnificent dog. He easily performed extravagant tasks set for him by Thurber and his brother . Rex could lift or drag whatever he wanted. He could even lift a ten feet rail, over a four feet wide gate. He would carry out his masters orders however difficult. He would keep in trying till the task was over. He never left things half done. Nothing was impossible for him. He was a tenacious fighter, though he never started one. He never went for another dog's throat. He would grip his opponents ears and hold on for a very long time. In one remarkable fight, he held on to the dogs ears from dusk till almost dawn. The fight took place in the street and held up the traffic. The fire brigade with its powerful hoses had to be called to stop the fight. Some relatives considered this a blot on the family name. They insisted that the brothers get rid of the dog. But the boys were ready to leave the town with the dog, than give it up. This shows the deep attachment that the owners have with their pet dog. He is not just an animal, but one of their family. Rex never bit anyone. He had a gentle disposition. He growled only at prowlers . He killed cats, quickly and neatly without hatred. He did not prolong their agony. He was not foolish like other dogs who chased whatever

they came across in the street. He never chased wagons because he knew it was meaningless. There was no use running after useless things . That was his philosophy. The author is comparing his dog with other dogs and is trying to show that Rex is obviously wise. Swimming was his favorite sport. He very much enjoyed swimming upstream. One night he brought a chest of drawers abandoned by someone . He was proud of his strength . Using all his energy he pulled the chest on to the porch. Rex could easily jump over eight feet walls. He ventured to jump higher walls. He never gave up trying till one of the brother would come and take him home. The word impossible never existed for him. Even death could not beat him down. His last moments were a battle with the Angle of death. One afternoon after receiving a thrashing from the owner of another dog, he comes home with multiple wounds. He licked the two master's hands, waited till the third master came. When the person for whom he was waiting came, Rex hobbled towards him. He touched his hand, and fell down again, never to get up. I. Choose the correct meanings of the word given. 1. Stocking : brown streaks (things in store) / a band of colour / extending up to the knee / valuing at the market rate 2. Tranquil : joyful / exciting / peaceful / balanced 3. Extravagant : much more / beyond what is reasonable / unreasonable / useless 4. Buffet : apparatus for lessening the effect of a blow / strike repeatedly / a place where food id sold / meals served to guests 5. Disposition : wrong position / the act of doing away with / general tendency of character / peculiar way of thinking 6. Prowlers : persons who travel often / persons who move from place to place to make a living / persons who do not reach home till late at night / persons who move about houses with intention to steal 7. Strenuous : needing great effort / very difficult/ tiresome / encouraging 8. Turmoil : troublesome / disturbance/ a kind of oil / peace 9. Mettle : spirit and courage / strength / old form of the word 'metal' / busy oneself in something without being asked to do so 10. Integrity : intelligence / firmness of character and principle / the nature of being an integer / completeness 11. Tenacious : very wicked / very kind / stubborn / of a fighting nature 12. Torrent : strength / violent stream / whirlpool/ large number 13. Terrier : one which causes terror / a kind of small and active dog / a hunting dog / one which looks terrible. II. Write the meanings to the underlined word. 1. He was trying to accomplish extravagant tasks my brothers and myself used to set for him. a) Impossible b) dangerous c) unreasonable 2. "Beware of your bad friends !" you are in a vicious circle a) dangerous b) useful c) bad 3. Most of the leaders tried to solve the Kashmir problem but accomplished nothing. a) arranged b) received c) succeeded 4. The tranquility of the hills has always attracted her a) peacefulness b) height c) cold 5. The climb will a real test of their mettle a) strength and enthusiasm b) spirit and courage c) interest and skill 6. Huge black snakes were wriggling around a) wringing b) moving c) biting

7. She shows a tenacious loyalty to friends. a) suspicious b) complete c) wavering d) firm 8. The explorers had to trudge through 20km of deep snow a) walk steadily b) walk slowly c) walk unsteadily 9. It was a strenuous day for her. a) taking great effort b) successful c) disappointing 10. He received a mortal wound soon after the battle began a) causing death b) poisonous c) very slight III. Choose the best alternative : 1. The animal _________ in pain as the arrow struck its side. (quivered, shivered, tumbled) 2. I was _________ to hear that man had not eaten for over a month. (astonished, astonishing, astonishment) 3. Ruju's _________ expenditure landed him in troubles. ( lavish, much, extravagant) 4. His feet were unsteady. He was _________ (stalking, scurrying, staggering) 5. Swimming is my favorite _________ (recreation, relaxation, retardation) 6. The big cats have a soft padding in their ______ ( feet, paws, legs) 7. The Taj Mahal is a _________ Structure. (tremendous, gigantic, magnificent) 8. There was a long delay before the officer ______ agreed to see us. (eventually, subsequently, consequently) 9. She was _________ in pain (writhing, wringing, withering) 10. When the police fired in the air the crud _________ soon (rushed,dispersed,disappeared) IV. Find the wrongly spelt words. 1. Extravagent dignity brindle saddle 2. Beautifully wooden accomplish slipping 3. Wogging satisfaction thrown draging 4. Tremendous fighters disposition buffet 5. Cheek dispite base ball holding 6. During struggle apparatus neibour 7. Termoil seemed pieces battlion 8. Admirors wandered terrible apprently 9. Moment torrant freshet certain 10. Ceasing staggerring terrier founght V. Rewrite as directed : 1. a) The teacher has punished the boys. b) The boys ____________________ 2. a) She said to him, "When did you cove to Hyderabad?" b) She ____________________ 3. a) The driver drove slowly, so our bus reached Hyderabad late. b) If the driver ____________________ 4. a) Sreenath is the most industrious boy in the class. b) No other boy ____________________ 5. a) India is a vast country. But Indians are poor. b) Though ____________________

6. a) The watch has been found. It was stolen yesterday. b) The watch ____________________ 7. a) There was no electricity. They decided to postpone the meeting. b) since there was ____________________ 8. a) He is a priest. He also a doctor. b) He is not only ____________________ 9. a) As soon as she heard the news, they started off. b) No sooner ____________________ 10. a) He is very rich , stile he is not contended, b) In spite of ____________________ VI. Parts of speech : 1. What is the reason for his behavior? 2. There was great uproar in the parliament over the bill, but still the bill passed. 3. You should have confidence in yourself. VII. Sentence endings. 1. How do you do it I have an understanding with a horse. 2. Excellent you have got good marks in S.S.C exams do you take MPC or Bi.P.C 3. Are you crazy we will be late please walk fast we should not make a fool of ourselves. VIII. Correction of sentences. 1. He was asking me whether I was possessing a cheses. 2. One of my friend is coming this evening . 3. There is no place in this bus. Question and Answers 1. 'I ran across a dim photograph of him the other day'. 'He's been dead ‌‌' If you didn't know that the story is about a dog, who would you think he was? Throughout the story Thurber treats Rex as a person-a companion. A. If I did not know that the story is about , I would rather think "he" was a member of Thurber 's family . In fact, the author treats Rex as a person as-a companion. 2. Do you think the brindle eye and the brindle saddle and the brindle stocking had made Rex look handsome? or did they make him funny - looking ?what did james ( Thurber ) himself think? A. The brindle eye and the brindle saddle and the brindle stocking made Rex funny-looking . But James Thurber thought that there was a nobility about Rex in spite of his funny looking. 3. The brindle eye made Rex look sometimes like one person and sometimes like another . who are the two persons Rex looked like? A. The brindle eye made Rex look sometimes like a clown and sometimes a politician with a derby hat and cigar 4. What effect does the bringing together of these two persons have? A. It produces a strong mental Image. 5. How long was the wooden rail Rex was required to bring in the rail first? how wide was the gate ? How did he get in the attempt ? Did he given up? What did he learn to do then ? Two other qualities of Rex are brought out by the wooden - rail incident what are they ? A. The wooden rail was ten foot long. The gate was only four feet wide . Rex first tried to bring in the rail in broadside. He got a few terrific jolts in the attempt but he did not given up. Eventually , he learnt to do it by dragging the rail, holding on to one end. Rex was relentless and single-minded. He had enormous self-confidence and dogged determi- nation. 6. Rex was a tremendous fighter. But he was different from other dogs in several ways what were they? A. Rex was a tremendous fighter, He was noble. He never started fights. If he was drawn into a fight. He would go to the war of his opponent but not the throat . He would hold on to the ear for hours . He was a fighter but not a killer.

7. How was Rex different from other dogs? A. Rex never lost his dignity even when he was trying to achieve challenging tasks, He never gave up trying and nothing was impossible for him. He never started fights. He never went for the throat of other dogs. Instead, he used to catch hold of the ear. but one he caught it, he could hold it on for hours. He never bit a person but barked only at prowlers. He never went for those things which were of no use to him. Thus Rex was quite different from other dogs. 8. Describe Rex briefly. A. Rex was an American bull terrier. He had one brindle eye, and a brindle stocking on a hind leg. He was big and muscular and beautifully made. He accomplished even extravagant tasks in a dignified manner. He was a tremendous fighter but he never started fights, swimming was his favorite recreation. He even died a heroic death. 9. Describe Rex's longest fight in east main street in Columbus. What were the several attempts made to separate Rex and his opponent? A. It was a fight that lasted from dusk until it was pitch dark in east main street, in Columbus Rex's opponent was a large dog. He got the ear grip of the other dog and held on. The Negro swung them in the air and threw them but Rex did not leave his grip. Their flight blocked the traffic. A motorman tried to open Rex's jaws with a switch rod. somebody held a burning torch at his tall but of no use. Finally the oak street fire department arrived on the scene and separated them by turning on them a powerful stream of water. 10. What kind of attempts were made to separate Rex and the nondescript dog? A. When Rex entered on a fight with the nondescript, the owner of the latter picked them up , swang them around his head and threw them so that they landed ten feet away with a great plump but Rex still held on . A motorman tried to force his jaws with a switch rod. Somebody started a fire and made a torch of a stick and held that to Rex's tall . Finally the oak street fire Department turned a powerful stream of water on them and separated them. 11. "But he (Rex) had a gentle disposition" Two pieces of evidence are offered to support the statement. What are they? A. Rex had a gentle disposition. He never started a fight. he barked only at prowlers but not at passers by. He never chased a squirrel nor ran barking after wagons or automobiles as he knew they were beyond his reach. 12. "He had his own philosophy about such things". What was Rex's philosophy about such things? In the snap short of a Dog why weren't wagons a part of his world? A. Rex's philosophy about charging things was never to chase anything he could not catch or something he could not do anything even if he caught it. Wagons were not a part of his world because he knew he could not tug along the wagons even with his mighty jaws. 13. Why did Rex bring a chest of drawers home? What did the brother do with it the next day? Why? A. Rex brought a chest of drawers home one moonlit night. It presented a nice problem in transportation to him and it tested his mettle. The next day the brothers curled the chest miles away and threw it out or else Rex would bring it again as a small token of his integrity. 14. Thurber says "I am glad Rex never saw a trained police dog jump" Why? Why does he says about Rex as an amateur jumper? A. Thurber says that Rex was just an amateur jumper but the most daring and tenacious. Had he seen a police dog jump, he would have tried to do the same not caring for the outcome. So, the brothers were glad that he had never seen a police dog jump. 15. What was the immediate reason for Rex's death? what does it tell us about human beings? Did Rex given up easily even when he was dying? A. The immediate reason for Rex's death is that he had received a terrible beating, perhaps from the owner of same dog that he had got into a fight with. It tells how merciless human beings are towards animals. But Rex did not given up easily even he was dying. 16. He licked at our hands and staggering, fell, but got up again? Why did Rex get up? How long did Rex fight death? Can you explain the expression straight arming the death angle? A. One of his three masters was not at home. So Rex got up and waited for him to came. Rex fought death for an hour. The expression strait arming the death anger means that Rex was brave enough to fight even with the death angel single-handed and that the latter died a heroic death.

17. In "the snapshot of a Dog " who was Rex waiting? for? how did that person come through the gate? Why did he stop whistling? A. Rex lived with the Thurber brother for ten years. At last his end come after a terrible beating from the owner of same other dog. He came through the gate and was dying. He saw that one of his three masters was missing. He began to took for him. At last that person came through the gate joyfully whishing. The moment he was Rex he stopped whistling. Rex walked towards him. Touched his hand with his muzzle and fell down dead. 18. How does James Thurber describe Rex? A. Rex was their pet dog. He was a white American null terrier . He had a brindle eye, a brindle saddle and also a brindle stocking on a hind leg. He was big and muscular. He was as powerful as a wrestler and he never lost his dignity. 19. What does Thurber say about Rex as a fighter? A. Rex was a tremendous brighter but he never started fights though he came from a line of fighters. He never went for the throat of another dog. He would only catch the ear, close his eyes and hold it on for hours. 20. How did Rex's fight with the neighborhood dog end? A. One day Rex had a fight with the neighborhood dog. It was a fierce light. Nobody could stop it. Somebody sent for the fire department. The fireman arrived. They turned on the dogs a stream of water. Rex held on for a long time. When the stream of water hit him repeatedly, He let the other dog go. The fight ended thus. 21. How was Rex's mettle tested? A. The three masters wanted Rex to carry a ten feet wooden rail through a four feet wide gate. They would throw a baseball as high as possible and order him to catch it. They would let him go over high walls and fences. KEY :I. 1. stocking : a band of colour extending up to the knee 2. tranquil : peaceful 3. extravagant : beyond what is reasonable 4. buffet : strike repeatedly 5. disposition : general tendency of character 6. prowlers : persons who move about house with intention to steal 7. strenuous : needing great effort 8. turmoil : disturbance 9. mettle : spirit and courage 10. integrity : firmness of character on principle 11. tenacious : stubborn 12. torrent : violent stream 13. terrier : a kind of small and active dog II. 1. c 2. c 3. c 4. a 5. b 6. b 7. d 8. c 9. a 10.a III. 1. Quivered 2. Astonished 3. Extravagant 4. Staggering 5. Recreation

6. Paws 7. Magnificent 8. Eventfully 9. Writhing 10.Dispersed IV. 1.extravagant 2. accomplish 3.wagging 4. tremendous 5.despite 6. neighbour 7. turmoil 8.admirers 9.torrent 10. fought V. 1. has been punished by the teacher 2. asked him when he had come to Hyd. 3. had no driven slowly, bus would have reached Hyderabad. 4. is as industrious as sreenath 5. india is a vast country, Indians are poor 6. which was stolen yesterday has been found 7. No electricity, they decided to postpone the meeting 8. a priest but also a doctor. 9. did she hear the news than they started off. 10. being rich, he is not contended VI. 1. Is-verb, reason-noun, his-adjective, behavior-noun 2. Great-adjective, over-preposition, still-adverb, passed-verb. 3. You-pronoun, confidence-noun, in-preposition, yourself-pronoun VII. 1. It (?) horse (.) 2. Excellent (!) exams (.) Bi.P.C (?) 3. Crazy (?) fast(.) our selves(.) VIII. 1. He asked me whether I possessed a chisel. 2. one of my friends is coming this evening. 3. there is no room in this bus

.:: Fire in the Forest ::. 'Norah Burke is the author of the lesson 'Fire in the Forest'. To be able to write about animals, it is essential not only to have personal experience and knowledge of animals, but a profound and sympathetic understanding of their habits, Norah Burke has all these, and in her stories she recreates with power and conviction the savagery and terror of the jungle, which they fight for survival demands. (From Jungle Picture) In this essay, Norah Burke has conveyed how animals in the forest fight for survival demands and how the fire broke out in the forest because of the negligence of a man. She has also how forest department officials use a special technique to put out the fire in the forest. A man took a last draw of the cigarette and dropped it on the path in the forest. The stub of the cigarette had a little spark, it became a flame and burned into a forest fire. The forest officials lit their counterfire and forced it to travel upwind and meet the oncoming blaze. The spotted deer was away from the herd as she has just delivered a fawn the deer scented danger and urged the fawn to hurry. The deer pushed her fawn into the edge of water and she stood watching. Even the tiger also wanted to save himself from forest fire just like other animals, when the flames in the forest became less, a cool freeze blew along the water course and the animal dispressed. 1. How did the fire in the forest start? What time of the day was it? What time of the year was it? Do you think the man started a fire deliberately? Why do you (not) think so? A. The fire in the forest started because a man who was jogging in the forest dropped his cigarette on the path. It was mid day . It was summer. No , I think so because he dropped it and jogged on through the jungle. It was an act of carelessness. 2. How did the fire start and spread in the forest? A. A smoker took a last draw of his cigarette and dropped it on the path at midday in the jungle. The spark In the cigarette ignited the dried pieces of grass and twigs. There was breeze and the small flame grew into a mighty blaze. Soon it could be seen for miles around. 3. The stub of the cigarette still held in it one little live ruby. Throughout the story, the fire is described as though it is a living thing may be another animal of the forest. What other words in the same paragraph suggest this ideas would you like to read through and find several more words of the same kind? A. The words pulsed, transferred, snapped, clung survived etc. suggest that the fire is described as though it is a living thing and as if it were another animal of the forest. 4. Why were the animals not aware of what was to came? Why did the bird know about the fire before the animals did? A. The animals were resting in the heat of the day under the cool shade of the trees. So they were not aware of the on coming fire. But the bird was able to see the floating smoke and knew about the fire before the other animals did because it was whishing an the top of the thorn tree. 5. The forest department started a fire to stop the fire . what was the idea behind it? A. The forest department people cleared the undergrowth and all the tress and made a fire line to meet situations like this. They lighted up the counter fire along the edge of the neat fire line. Then it met the oncoming forest fire. when the two fires met, there would be nothing to burn. so both fires would go out. It was their special technique to halt the fire.

6. Why was the spotted deer lying away from the herd? why do you think she had chosen that spot? How did she feel at that time? What happened soon afterwards? A. The spotted deer was lying away from the herd because she had recently given birth to fawn. she had chosen that particular spot as there was deep grass and her baby was safely hidden beside her. She was happy, peaceful and contented soon afterwards her peace was shattered because of the spread of the forest fire. 7. Why was the spotted deer lying away from the herd? Why do you think she had chosen that spot? A. The spotter deer had recently given birth to a fawn . so she was lying away from the herd. She had specially chosen that spot because the deep grass there provided her a safe hiding place. Besides, the speckled shadows and the spots on her body looked so alike that her presence there with her baby could never be noticed by her enemies. 8. How did the deer lie in the forest with her fawn? A. The deer lay invisible in the forest wither fawn in a happy and peaceful manner. She knew contentment and peace because no danger threatened her baby. she was happy about her achievement of having a baby. This peace was shattered by the approaching fire. 9. How do the deer spot danger? Why was she on the alert all the time? A. The deer's ears constantly flicker this way and that way and that to bring them news. Their large eyes always stare into the shadows and the stripy tiger grass and their nostrils will be trembling in order to spot any danger. 10. What were the thoughts and feelings of the mother deer before she became aware of the danger? A. Her fawn was too small to move and accompany the herd. But soon he would be stranger. Then both of them would live their life in the great forests in the fashion ordained by God. So also felt sure that her tiny stag would fight and win his hind in due course. These were the thoughts and feelings of the mother deer. 11. He was too small to move yet, and accompany the herd. Do you think the fawn joined the herd sooner than his mother expected? A. It is said that the mother and the son had "presently" joined the herd again. So I think the fawn joined the herd sooner than his mother expected . 12. How did the deer react when she first got the small of danger? A. The deer threw up her neck, every muscle of her body because alert as she felt the small of smoke. She outstretched her neck and soon her eyes began to smart. So bent anxiously to her fawn. Then she clearly saw the rolling smoke. 13. The hind first saw a very thin film of smoke. The fire first appeared gradually to her but later with increasing intensity. What were the stages in which it came to her? Pick out the exact words from the story and list them? A. The thin filmy smoke gradually turned in to a fire and approached the hind with increasing intensity. The following are the exact words gossamer of smoke scent, heat of the fire smoke crackle of traveling flame road of the furnace, sparks gigantic flame raging flame. 14. What did the mother deer do on seeing of fire? How did the fawn respond? A. The mother deer sprang to the fawn and pushed him to his feet. He was unable to do. So for his legs were soft and his hooves were the size of thumb bails. He gave a jump and fell over. She looked anxiously at her fawn. 15. Why was the chital hind so cruel to her baby? Why did she do? A. Having seen the monkeys coming back, the chital hind anticipated mortal danger to her and her baby. Panic seized her. She there became cruel. At once she nudged her baby on. She started biting him hard and nipping his soft flesh. She was thus very much concerned and worried about his safety. 16. What was the danger that threatened the chital hind's baby? A. 1. The chital hinds son was a new born baby who was too small to move yet. 2.Having anticipated danger form the forest fire, his mother first nudged him to his feet and urged him along. 3. But he kept sinking down. 4. His mother, then forced him on with rough bites, punched his soft flesh and hunted him on. 5. He was then suffering and trembling 6. Thus, it was, in fact, his own mother who threatened him.

17. 17. How did the hind and her baby try to escape from the fire? A. The hind was on the alert the moment she noticed the smoke scent. She nudged her baby to his feet. They had to stop have and there occasionally because of the dense undergrowth. She urged him along. He was slow and disobedient but she forced him on with rough bites. Nipping his soft flesh etc. He staggered and fell. When she realized that they had been caught between the two fires. She pushed him violently on to the river bed but right by the pool. Later she also reached there. Thus the hind and her baby escaped from the fire and survived. 18. "Just the way you could be caught between two hunting panthers". DO you think the comparison is an apt one? In what way? A. Having noticed the fierceness of the forest fire. The hind hunts her baby on but he cannot get up .Just then the hind sees more fire coming from the opposite direction too. If the two fires meet there was no hope of their survival. It is just the way they could be caught between two hunting panthers their bitter enemies. Hence the comparison is quite apt. 19. 'He gave a little frisky jump and fell over'. This is how the fawn first reacted to his mother's urging to run away from the fire. What happened to him as the minutes passed? A. Reacting to his mother's urge to run away from the fire, the fawn gave a little frisky jump and fell over. But as the minutes passed by 1. He became slow, weak and disobedient. He kept sinking down and could not get up again. 2. He walked unsteadily making shrill cries. 3. When his mother hunter him on, he staggered and fell and started quivering. 4. He lay panting on the earth and his flesh shivered when sparks fell on him burning his body but he did not get up. 20. When did the deer first meet the tiger? Why did the tiger not attack her? A. The hind first pushed her fawn down to the pool. Her hooves slipped on the boulders and as she stood watching beside her fawn, she glanced round across the pool straight in to the eyes of the tiger and thus, met him first. The tiger did not attack her because he too was afraid of the fire and crouched there in the mud on the other side. Because of the severe heat and the bright light of the fire, he narrowed his eyes and stared into the deer's. However, he was not able to attack her. 21. What did the tiger prepare to do later? How did the deer face him? What saved her and her baby? A. When the fire became less, the tiger got up and snarled at his prey. His eyes fell upon the hind and her baby. But when he was about to attack them, he heard a man's voice and moved off the place quickly into the jungle far away. Thus the hind and her fawn were saved. 22. Give two reasons why the tiger did not eat the fawn? A. The tiger did not eat the fawn because he himself was frightened of the wild fire. He had just heard a man' voice. He began to think of his own safety instead of attacking and eating the fawn. 23. The river bed was full of creatures....? Is It natural for the animals of the jungle to be together? Why then were they there? What difference do you see in their behavior when the fire began to die down? A. It is not natural for the animals of the jungle to be together. They were in the pool to save themselves from the engulfing fire. But whom the fire began to die down they became their usual selves. They behaved according to their instinct and dispersed. 24. Why did the deer stay back even when the other animals went away? What did she do later? A. The fawn was not strong enough to move. So he and his mother stayed in the pool cooling their burns and drinking the tepid water later when he became strong enough, they moved into the unburned forest forest. They soon joined the herd. I. Choose the correct meaning of the word given: 1. shrub(n) : stunted forest growth/ unwanted material/ rub off/ ignore 2. smart(v) : bright/ cause sharp pain/ active/ clever 3. glade : clear/ open space in a forest/ a soft movement/ the shade of a tree/ forest area 4. speckled : shining brightly/ having small sports/ having stripes/ scattered 5. rippling : pulling out quickly/ moving in wavy fashion/ getting ripe/ moving quickly

6. aquiver : like water/ moving slowly/ trembling/ sniff 7. gossamer: one who is engaged in a gossip/ light, filmy substance/ one who gives ear to gossips/ spider's web 8. alert : watchful/ active/ busy/ standing erect 9. frisky : cussing fear/ full of risk/ Joyful, lively/ free from any risk 10. wrench : a wicked person/ pull violently/ causing injury/ mean person 11. huddle : an upright frame to be jumped over/ crowd together/ throw out as useless/ arranged in order 12. fizzle : give a whistle/ hiss feebly/ unsatisfactory end/ a confusing problem 13. stalk(v) : go away/ go on talking/ walk with slow, stiff strides in a grim way/ walk away quickly in fear 14. tepid : fearless/ lukewarm/ boiling/ cold 15. singe : sing in a low voice/ sing loudly/ burn superficially/ warm the body 16. chink : make a sharp sound/ a small bit / a hole / to go down 17. torment : severe bodily or mental pain/ cause a wound / to worry / punish 18. furnace : an enclosed fire place/put furniture in / supply / anything made of fur 19. dappled: marketed / cut off / marked / separated 20. frayed : rough / hard / difficult / rude 21. blundering: worried / uneasy / angry / confused II. Select the best option that conveys the meaning of the italicized word and write it. 1. Ramu stalked out of the hall after taking part in the debate. [ ] a) walked b) walked stiffly c) walked with unsteady steps d) hurried 2. The way he was treated in the presence of his friends tormented him [ ] a) made (him) very happy b) caused(him) shame c) caused great pain d) helped to console 3. When she saw her child after a long absence, love suffused her.[ ] a) over came b) well up from within c) made (her) mad d) became unbearable 4. He was not aware of what was happening behind him. [ ] a) mindful b) having knowledge c) careful d) cautious 5. The doctor advised him to keep his hands in tepid water for ten minutes [ ] a) cold b) lukewarm c) hot d) cool 6. I found the man staggering on the road. [ ] a) running along b) walking fast c) went away in rows d) throwing something about 7. He was waiting for the doctor frantically. [ ] a) in an angry mood b) in a vexed state c) wildly exited with anxiety d) in a joyful mood 8. The popping sound of the crackers nearly deafened. [ ] a) slow b) melodious c) explosive d)disturbing 9. At last we reached the glade in the middle of the forest. [ ] a) dark space b) clear open space c) uneven space d) cleared off space 10. The child was frisky at the sight of balloons in the park. [ ] a) sad b) unconcerned c) joyful d)angry

III. Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the appropriate word given in the brackets. 1. He behaved in a very _______ manner towards his poor relatives. (beneficial/beneficient/beneficiary) 2. All the characters in this novel are _______ (imaginable/imaginary/imaginative) 3. By a strange _______ she got her first job the day she got married. (incidence/accident/coincidence) 4. It is _______ to park your car in a no parking area (illegal/lawless/illegitimate) 5. In a play Akbar that we performed at school, all the players were in Moghul_______ (uniform/garment/costume) 6. It is _______ for us to go out now, it is very hot. (unlikely/impossible /possible) 7. Ours should be a _______ service to the poor. (compulsory/paid/free) 8. A _______ man would believe his eyes instead of his heart. (doubtful/strong/sympathetic) 9. She lost her brother .We went to _______ her. (congratulate/condemn/console) 10. The Minister was given a standing _______ (ovation/oration/aviation) IV. Find the wrongly spelt word in each set and write it correctly: 1. doble / couple / struggle / nipple 2. coupling / cutting/ rippling / creackling 3. hurriedly / recently / delicately / constently 4. brutal / pistol / mortel / cruel V. In each of the following groups of words, find the word in which the underlined part is pronounced in the same way as in the key word. 1. advice : practise chalk practice 2. throw : owl prowl go 3. bread : beard eat head 4. malice : police notice ice 5. advice : chalk click glance 6. descent : scooter scorching scenery ANSWERS I. Choose the correct meaning of the word given: 1. stunted forest growth 2. cause sharp pain 3. clear, open space in a forest 4. having small sports 5. moving in wavy fashion 6. trembling 7. light, filmy substance 8. watchful 9. joyful, lively 10. pull violently 11. crowd together 12. hiss feebly 13. walk with slow, stiff strides in a grim way 14. lukewarm

15. burn superficially 16. a hole 17. severe bodily or mental pain 18. an enclosed fire place 19. marked 20. rough 21. confused II. 1. b 2. c 3. b 4. b 5. b 6. c 7. c 8. c 9. b 10.c III. 1. beneficial 2. imaginary 3. coincidence 4. illegal 5. costume 6. unlikely 7. free 8. doubtful 9. console 10. ovation IV. 1. double 2. crackling 3. constantly 4. mortal V. 1. practice 2. go 3. head 4. ice 5. glance 6. scenery

.:: The Beautiful White Horse ::. William Saroyan is an extremely prolific American writer . He produced works that combined optimism, sentimentality, and live of the country. He is famous for his short stories. "The Beautiful White Horse" is from his best known short story collection " My name is Aram ". This is a story of fun and adventure of two young cousins, Aram and Mourad. It also deals with their love and concern towards animals. One morning Mourad woke up Aram and asked him to accompany him on a ride. Aram could not believe his eyes when he saw a beautiful horse. The horse did not belong their family because they were poor. The family

was known for its pride and honesty. They were God - fearing , and believed in being just and fair. They never exploited at yone, so Aram could not understand from where the horse had come. Suddenly Aram realized that Mourad had been taking early rides for quite some time. He asked him whether he had stolen it. Mourad replied that he did not steal it, but only borrowed it for a ride. He said that it would be stealing if they sold it. The horse actually belonged to Mr. John Byro. Mourad had taken it from his stable without informing him. In their family, Mourad and Uncle Khosrove were considered to have a 'crazy streak'. Khosrove was a furious and impatient man. He stopped anyone from talking by using a clichĂŠ "pay no attention to it", no matter what the speaker wanted to say. Mourad and Aram rode the horse together. Then Mourad rode it alone. Mourad loved animals and had a way with the horse. He could handle him very well. When Aram tried to ride it, he fell down. Later they hid the horse in a deserted vineyard. They also found some oats and gram for the horse. One day Aram's mother had two visitors. One was John Byro, and the other was Khosrove. John Byro complained to Khosrove that someone had stolen his beautiful horse. He was getting into debts, as he could not use his horse drawn carriage. Khosrove thought it was a trivial problem , and responded in his usual manner. "Bay no attention to it". Mr. Byro felt very bad. Aram's mother explained to Mr. Byro that khosrove was crazy, and did not know what he was saying. Though they were aware of Byro's misery , Aram and Mourad decided to keep the horse for another six months. They continued to ride it everyday. One morning they ran into John Byro. He immediately identified his horse. Since he was aware of the good family background, and Khosrove's temper, he could not accuse the boys of stealing. He said that the horse looked like the twin of his lost horse. The very next day, the cousins decided to return the horse to Byro's stable . Before they left it there, Mourad put his arms round the horse's neck and patted it. He had a deep attachment and love for the horse, and found it hard to part with him. Mourad was sensitive and understood the language of all animals. Even the dogs did not bark when Mourad went into John Byro's vineyard . He had a way with the animals. John Byro was pleased to find his horse. He went to Aram's horse and informed them that he had found the found the horse. He felt happy because the horse was now much stronger, well behaved, and better tempered. The story tells us of innocence, and youthful adventure. The author sanctions the action of stealing the horse. But for them it is a simple act of fun. They did not think of it as an objects to sell . They wanted to have the thrill of a ride. Having enjoyed the trip they ate tempted to keep the horse longer than they wanted to. Mr. Byro also shoes his understanding of the innocence of the boys . He is satisfied when the horse is returned. Questions & Answers 1. What was Arm's family famous for? What were the three qualities of the family that were mentioned? Arm's family was famous for honesty. The members of that family were proud first, honest next and after that they believed in right and wrong. 2. Aram could do three things about the horse. What were they? The words even though are repeated several times. What is the effect of this repetition? Aram could see the horse smell it and hear it breathing. He repeated the phrase "eventhough" several times to emphasize the point that he could not believe his cousin. Mourad buying the horse. 3. How did Aram justify his cousin's way of getting hold of a horse? Why did he think it wasn't stealing at all? Both Aram and Mowad were crazy of a horse-side. Aram knew that his cousin had stolen the horse. But he justified it saying that it wouldn't be stealing at all as they were crazy about horses. He also asserted that stealing a horse for a ride was not the same as stealing something else, such as money. According to him, it wouldn't become stealing until they offered to sell the horse. Thus Aram justified his cousin's action. 4. How did Aram justify the stealing of the horse? It seemed to Aram that stealing a horse for a ride was not the same as stealing something else, such as money.

Further, it wouldn't become stealing since they hadn't offered to sell the horse. Moreover, it wasn't stealing at all when one was crazy about horses as he and his cousin had been. Aram, thus justified his cousin's way of getting hold of a horse. 5. "How long ago did you steal this horse?" How did. Aram realise that Mourad had stolen the horse some time ago? Aram asked his cousin where he would hide the horse. The latter said that he knew a place. Suddenly Aram realised that Mourad had stolen the horse sometime ago and rode it since them. 6. Where did Mourad hide the horse? What did Aram find there? What does it show? Mourad hid the horse quietly in an empty vineyard. Aram saw some oats and dry grass there. It was foder for the horse. It proved that the horse was stolen quite sometime ago. 7. How did uncle khosreve react to the news that John Byro's horse had been stolen? John Byro told Khosrove that his horse had been stolen a month before. Then Khosrove reacted angrily. He became very irritated. He roared that losing a horse was immaterial. He shouted that one should not cry over a horse. Thus Khosrove showed no sympathy towards Byro's loss. 8. What did Aram want Mourad to do after he knew that the horse belonged to John Byro? How did Mourad react to his suggestion? Aram wanted a promise from Mourad that the latter would not return the horse untill he learnt riding. Mourad reacted sharply saying that it would amount to inviting a member of their family stealing. He also said that the horse must go back to its true owner. 9. How did John Byro, the owner of the horse, react when he saw mourad and Aram with the horse? John Byro saw Mourad and Aram with the horse. He also looked at the horse and made same it was his own. But he did not accuse the boys of stealing because he knew well how honest their parents were. Therefore he simply said that a suspicious man would believe his eyes instead of his heart. He also said he would swear the horse was his if he did not know the fame of their family for honesty. He added it could be the twin of his horse. 10. Why do you think the cousins returned the horse to the famer? Do you think they were ashamed of what they had done? Why do you think so? The cousins returned the horse to the farmer as the horse was recognized by him. They were ashamed of what they had done. So they returned the horse the very next morning. 11. What picture of uncle Khosrove do you get from the story? Uncle Khosrove was an enormous man with a powerful head of black hair and a large moustache. He was a furious and impatient man. He never cared for losses. He would tell people with force not to pay attention to any kind of loss. He often repeated the statement in a roaring voice. It is no harm: pay no attention to it. 12. Who was John Byro? What had happened to his horse? John Byro was a pious farmer. He had a surrey with a white horse with which he eked his plain living. His horse was stolen by Mourad a month ago. He was crazy about horse riding. Moreover he belonged to a tribe famous for their honesty. So Byro dared not accure the boy of stealing even though he had seen his own horse with him. Thus Byro was quite simple with enormous patience and forbearance.

.:: Knowledge and Wisdom ::. Summary Bertrand Russel is an outstanding British Philosopher of the 20th, century. He believed in the power of rationality. Which he expressed with great zeal. He differentiated between personal, and impersonal desires. He was governed by three simple and strong passions. One was the longing for love, the second, the search for knowledge, and the third, an unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. In this essay, Russel defines wisdom, and enumerates various ways of achieving it. He laments that though vast knowledge has been acquired, there has bee of no corresponding increase in wisdom.

Russel defines wisdom by telling us about things which contribute to wisdom. The first is a sense of proportion. It is the capacity to consider all important factors in a problem carefully. Specialization makes it difficult. For example scientists discover new medicines but they do not know what impact these medicines will have on the life of the people . The medicines may reduce the infant death rate .But it may lead to increased population. In poor counties it may lead to shortage of food. If there are more people , it may lower the standard of life. The knowledge of the composition of the atom could be misused by a lunatic to destroy the world. Knowledge without wisdom can be harmful. It should be combined with the total needs of mankind. Even complete knowledge is not enough . It should be related with a certain knowledge of the purpose of life. The study of history can illustrate it. For example hegel wrote with great knowledge about history , but he made the Gemans believe that they were a master race. It led to the war. It is necessary therefore to combine knowledge with feelings. Men who have knowledge but no feelings lack wisdom. We need wisdom both in public and private life. We need wisdom to decide the goal of our life. We need it to free ourselves from personal personal prejudices. We may pursue even a novel thing unwisely if it is too big to achieve. People have wasted their lives in search of the 'philosopher's Stone ', or the elixir of life . They were not pragmatic. They were looking for simple solutions to the complex problems of mankind. Man may attempt to achieve the impossible, he may do harm to himself in the process. Similarly in personal life wisdom is needed to avoid dislike for one another. Two persons may remain enemies because of their prejudice. One may dislike the other for imaginary faults. It they can be told that we all have some flaws, they may become friends. Russel believes that thought reasonable persuasion. We can avoid hatred. Wisdom lies in freeing ourselves from the control of our sense of our sense organs. Our ego develops through our senses. We cannot be free from the sense of sight, sound and touch. We know the world primarily though our senses. As we grow we discover that there are other things also. We start recognizing them . Thus we give up thinking of ourselves alone. We start thinking of other people, we grow wise. We give up our egoism. It is difficult to completely get rid of selfishness, but we can think of things beyond our immediate surroundings. Wisdom comes when we start giving importance to things which do not concern immediately. Wisdom comes when we stars loving others. Russel feels that wisdom can be taught as a goal of education. The message in the parable of the Good Samaritan is that we should love our neighbor, whether friend or foe. Many a time, we miss the message in this parable, because we cease to love those who cause harm to the society. The only way out is though understanding and not hatred. In brief Russel exhorts us not hate anybody. The author draws out examples from history, of Queen Elizabeth I, Henry the IV, and Abraham Lincoln, who were free from the errors committed by other eminent people in the past. The dangers of hatred and narrow - mindedness can be pointed out in the course of giving knowledge .Russel feels knowledge and morals can be combined in scheme of education . People should be educated to see things in relation to other things of the world . They should be encouraged to think of themselves as world citizens. In conclusion the author states five factors that contribute to wisdom. They are. 1) Comprehensiveness 2) A sense of proportion 3) Emancipation 4) Impartiality 5) Awareness of human needs and understating. Summing up, as knowledge increases, our power to do evil also increases. In order to make good use of our knowledge we would require more and more wisdom. we need more wisdom to make good use of our increasing knowledge. Only then can we realize our purpose in life, and achieve our aims. Question and Answers 1. What has scientific medicine succeeded in doing? what has been its other effect? Did the medical scientist want this result? The scientist has the knowledge to make more people live. But he hasn't the wisdom to see something else-what is it ? A. Scientist medicine has succeeded in enormously lowering the infant death rate in Europe, America, Asia and Africa . Its other effect is increase in population and decease in standard of living. The Scientist makes more people live. But he has not had wisdom to prevent its destructive aspect. 2. Many eminent historians have done more harm than good. How did this happen? where did Hegel's philosophy of history go wrong. A. Many eminent historians did more harm than good. They viewed facts through the distorting medium of their own passions Hegel's philosophy went wrong in the sense that he gave importance to Germany as the torch bearer for all nations. That was a narrow a outlook which lacked comprehensiveness.

3. Mr. A and Mr. B hate each other and through mutual hatred, bring each other to destruction". What argument of the author's does the example Mr. A and Mr. B prove? A. Mr. A and Mr B must be convinced that each other has only the normal share of human wickedness and that their enmity is harmful to both. 4. Why is it that we cannot help the "egoism of the senses"? A. Every man always thinks of himself. we cannot stop it. Sight, sound and touch are bound up with our own bodies and cannot be made impersonal. when a person becomes old his thoughts become less personal. He achieves growing wisdom. 5. How many factors contribute to wisdom? list them? A. There are five factors which contribute to wisdom. They are 1. Sense of proportion 2. Certain awareness of ends of human life 3. Choice of ends to be pursued. 4. Emancipation from personal prejudice. 5. Emancipation from the tyranny of the here and the now. 6. 'We are told on Sundays that we should love our neighbors as ourselves'. What does 'Sunday' stand for here? A. Sunday, here stands for a day of prayer or worship. 7. In what form should resistance be used in order to prevent the spread of evil? A. Resistance should be used only if it prevents the spread of evil. If should be combined with the smallest degree of force and the greatest degree of understanding. 8. In what way was the war conducted by Lincoln different from other wars? Do you think a war can be fought. Without deviating from wisdom? A. The was conducted by Lincoln was different from other was. It was fought for a noble purpose. Now a days it is impossible to wage a war as Abraham Lincoln did without deviating from wisdom. 9. What is wrong with the customary moral instruction? In what way should the teaching of wisdom differ from moral instruction? A. Customary moral instruction lacks in intellectual element. In the course of giving knowledge, bad results of hatred and narrow mindedness should be pointed out knowledge and morals should be taught side by side. 10. What is the author's concept of a citizen? What is the difference between a citizen if the world and a citizen of a nation? Do you think you can be both at the same time? A. The author's concept of a citizen is that a person must be a citizen of the world but not that of a nation. A citizen of the world has a narrow outlook. The former has more wisdom that the latter. One cannot be both at the same time. 11. What does increase in knowledge result in? A. In crease in knowledge results in the development of various skills further resulting in scientific advancement. It also augments our capacity for evil unless our purposes are wise. So increase in knowledge should result in wisdom, in proportion. otherwise it would lead to hatred, destruction and


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