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november 2011

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november 2011

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Blue-sky thinking A call to action to save our planet pg26

An inconvenient youth Neonatal deaths decline Smartphone apps Singing the Blues Engineering the perfect meal Think before you tweet


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november 2011

Your free take-home copy - exclusive to Airlink passengers

TM

november 2011

freedom for executives on the move

R30.00

Blue-sky thinking A call to action to save our planet pg26

An inconvenient youth Neonatal deaths decline Smartphone apps Singing the Blues Engineering the perfect meal Think before you tweet SkyNov Cover Final.indd 1

2011/10/18 2:51 PM

Accentuate the positive on page 26

The winds of change As the Arab Spring continues to gain momentum, albeit at a snail’s pace, it’s not difficult to draw comparisons to the revolution that brought down the Eastern Bloc in the 90s. Back then it started in Poland in 1989 and quickly swept through Communist Europe. This time, it was events in Tunisia that sparked a movement that brought down dictatorships in Egypt and Libya, and set in motion protests across the Middle East. What is most striking about these monumental world-changing events is that it was the people’s resistance that brought about change. There was no outside interference, no talk of clandestine Western operations to bring down long-standing regimes – citizens decided that they had reached tipping point and change was inevitable. But when do we decide that it’s time for change? After all, Libya waited decades to get rid of Brother Leader. The point is that change comes from within. A case in point: if you want to make your business more profitable, you will have to make this possible. Granted, it should be a team effort, but you have a key role in bringing your ideas to the table. The reality is that we are still facing the effects of a global economic downturn, and as decision makers, we need to be aware of these realities and prepare accordingly. As the winds of change continue to sweep across parts of the globe, perhaps it’s time to change our way of thinking to prosper in ever changing times. Something to consider as we head towards 2012… Kate Kennedy Acting Editor

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freedom for executives on the move

Published By Panorama Publications (Pty) Ltd. Private Bag X4, Kyalami, 1684, South Africa. 92 Campolino, Kyalami. Tel: 011 468 2090 / 011 021 0838 Fax: 011 468 2091

Publisher Urs Honegger Editor-in-chief Gerard Peter acting editor Kate Kennedy Sub-Editor Simone Harris Contributors Mandi Smallhorne, AA Travel Guides, Orange River Cellars, Laura McKeen, Deanne Birkholtz, Michael Reed, Fikiswa Majikela, Gerard Peter, Tinnie Momberg, SA Goodnews, Tom Simonite, Erica Naone, Courtesy of Orange River Cellars Photography/graphics wrangler, Edward Bruns, yienkeat, discpicture, Africa Studio, Annette Shaff, Chirtsova Natalia, Franck Boston, Gregor Kervina, holligan78, Kurhan, mmaxer, Nata-Lia, Poroh, Rido, Supri Suharjoto, Valentin Agapov, Valentyn Volkov, Courtesy of Middelvlei, stock, ang, Spectral Design, mycola, Abraham Badenhorst, courtesy of Twelve Apostles Hotel and Spa, Sam DCruz, Henrik Larsson, VIPDesignUSA, iQoncept, Africa Studio, Africa Studio, Alex Staroseltsev, Alin Popescu, Anan Kaewkhammul, Anton Brand, astudio, ayzek, bluehand, BonD80, Dalibor, Donald Gargano, dor, Eireann, ene, Fotoline, Givaga, gualtiero boffi, johnfoto18, kess, Koshevnyk, Margo Harrison, Mark Herreid, martan, Matthew Cole, megainarmy, Natalia Natykach, Neo Edmund, Oxlock, Pan Xunbin, Photoinjection, Poulsons Photography, Rob Byron, Ruslan Ivantsov, senai aksoy, Sofia Santos, Lars Christensen, Gheorghe Bunescu Bogdan Mircea, Georgios Kollidas, Tania Zbrodko, Kenneth Man, Voronin76, Stephan Finn, Fotokon, John Kasawa, tele52, TerraceStudio, Tim Arbaev, TRimages, Vibrant Image Studio, Vladnik, balein, fstock1, konstantynov, Stankevich Alena, edwaed, wrangler, Courtesy of Orange River Cellars Studio Manager Paul Kotze Designers Cronje du Toit, Roelof Meintjes traffic and production manager Celeste Scholes Advertising advertising@panorama.co.za GROUP sales Manager Deborah Bishop-Williams 072 467 5416 Senior sales executive  Arlene Sanford 083 473 5002 arlene@panorama.co.za sales executive Brian Gibson 071 529 5022 sales executive Mellissa Bosch 072 870 0411 sales executive Olivia Lagesen-Vieira 073 792 3846 England/Wales/Scotland: Interactive Airline Partnerships, James Rolls. 13 Brook Business Centre, Cowley Mill Road, Uxbridge UB8 2fx Tel: +44-1895-258008 Fax: +44-1895-258009 Switzerland/Germany: Imm Inflight Media Marketing Marcel Wernli, Gellertstrasse 18, 4052 Basel Tel: +41-61-3199090 Fax: +41-61-3199095 Subscriptions subscriptions@panorama.co.za Tel: 011 468 2090/011 021 0838 Fax: 011 468 2091 Financial Manager Olga Burrows Printing Ultra Litho, Johannesburg ISSN: 1025-2657

Apr-June 2011 18786 (total)

Skyways is printed on partially recycled paper

Skyways is published monthly; 12 issues per annum. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this magazine in whole or in part is prohibited without prior written permission of Panorama Publications (Pty) Ltd. Copyright © 1997-2010 Panorama Publications (Pty) Ltd. The views expressed in Skyways are not necessarily those of Panorama Publications and the acceptance and publication of editorial and advertising matter in Skyways does not imply any endorsement or warranty in respect of goods or services therein described, whether by Skyways or the publishers. Skyways will not be held responsible for the safe return of unsolicited editorial contributions. The Editor reserves the right to edit material submitted and in appropriate cases to translate into another language. Skyways reserves the right to reject any advertising or editorial material, which may not suit the standard of the publication, without reason given. Skyways is published by Panorama Publications for Airlink airlines

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contents contents

Regulars

bush divine

4 AA Quality Assured Accommodation

6

Offering the traveller complete peace of mind 6 Bush divine

Hans Marensky Golf and Spa Resort

8 Getting around Gauteng with the Gautrain

Public transport at its best

12 Brief bits of interest 19 Book reviews 20 Applications 84 Timeline

15 brief bits of bones

Your Airlink timetable

88 Interesting quotes

Stupid things people have said

91 Puzzles

Have fun solving it

94 Didya know? Test your trivia knowledge in our monthly quiz 96 Talespin

Wit’s end

Mind 10 Orient expressions

Chinese look to Orange river wines

22 Smart on the go

Blackberry Bold 9900

23 A little slice of heaven or hell?

Colpad TP705

32 Our possible futures Interview with Fiona Forde, author of An Inconvenient Youth 40 Event management

The perfect plan

48 Leadership vs Management

Finding a balance is important

50 10 things you didn’t know…

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… about cutlery

green hills

36


53 a battle won

Trade 24 Smashing the cubicles Fewer desks in the office 25 Tiny, cloud-powered desktops Do everything from your smartphone 26 Accentuate the positive The upside of getting tough on climate change 44 Botched dismissals can ruin companies Learn how to avoid this pitfall 46 Q&A with Andy Grove

60 notes on the classics

Body 52 A battle won Malaria deaths on the decline 66 Engineering the perfect meal with Twelve Apostles Hotel and Spa 70 First act Accident protocol first act

70

Soul 36 Green hills Holidaying in the Midlands 56 Singing the blues Songs for hard times 60 Notes on the classics What you need to know about a range of cultural classics 64 Easy on the palate Three wines reviewed 92 Garden trends Give your green fingers a workout

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480 hours

The World Record for rocking non-stop in a rocking chair

780km/h The cruising speed of the RJ85

AA Quality Assured Accommodation

Offering the traveller complete peace of mind

For further information and for AAQAA establishments visit the AA Travel Guides website today: www.aatravel.co.za

How can you, the holidaymaker or business traveller, ensure that the accommodation you choose is up to standard and that the service you are provided with is outstanding? How do you know that you will receive good value for money? How do you know where to go and which establishment to choose? AA Travel Guides has the solution – the AA Quality Assured Accommodation (AAQAA) programme. Only establishments that conduct their business according to the highest professional standards are awarded membership in this programme. AAQAA establishments also benefit from the endorsement of one of the strongest, most credible brands in the world – the trusted Automobile Association (AA). Properties are inspected annually by a small, dedicated team of discerning assessors who judge the property from the guests’ perspective. (Is the service friendly and professional? Is the property presenting itself accurately to potential guests? Were the guests’ expectations met?) Establishments which satisfy the minimum requirements of the AAQAA programme are endorsed as AA Recommended, the next level up is AA Highly Recommended, and establishments which are pristine and top of the range are endorsed as AA Superior. The AAQAA programme has been operating since 2000 and it boasts more than 2,500 members. Properties range from modest B&Bs and guest houses to game reserves and caravan parks, selfcatering cottages and family hotels to top luxury resorts. An AAQAA endorsed establishment provides happy holidaymakers and satisfied business travellers with peace of mind when selecting lodgings for their long-awaited holidays or business trips.

Northern Cape and North West

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The Northern Cape and the North West provinces, notoriously hot regions in sunny South Africa, boast wide open spaces, spectacular game viewing, and stunning seclusion almost everywhere you go. The sometimes extreme temperatures (especially in the Northern Cape) shouldn’t deter tourists from visiting these picturesque provinces – both provinces offer truly fantastic AAQAA options, most of them equipped with air conditioners and swimming pools for those days when the scorching African sun becomes a little too unbearable. With stunning attractions such as the Kalahari National Park,

the Augrabies Falls, Kimberley’s Big Hole, and the beautiful blossoming Namaqualand daisies, the Northern Cape is a travel destination not to be missed. Belurana River Manor, AA Superior accommodation situated in Upington in a stylish Victorian era house delightfully decorated with antique furniture, provides the perfect setting for one to relax and unwind overlooking the Orange River. This gorgeous guest house is the perfect stop-over point on the way to the Augrabies Falls, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, neighbouring Namibia, and many other beautiful Northern Cape attractions. The Barracks, another lovely AA Superior guest house in the Northern Cape, is situated in Colesberg in the Upper Karoo, just off the N1 highway. Rich in the area’s Anglo-Boer War history, this lovely building was actually used as a barracks for troops during the war. History buffs will lap up the Anglo-Boer War pamphlets provided by the proprietors and trips to famous battle fields, war memorials, and other historical landmarks can be arranged. The gems of the North West are undoubtedly the Pilanesberg National Park and Sun City, both located close to Johannesburg and Pretoria, but this pretty province also provides nature lovers with a whole host of other Big 5 game viewing opportunities and splendid AAQAA establishments. Antoinette’s, situated in the peaceful Kosmos Village overlooking the Hartbeespoort Dam, is a luxurious guest house with an endlessly appealing difference – it caters for one couple only. Perfect for honeymooning couples, uninterrupted business trips, or just to get away from it all, this AA Superior guest cottage with the majestic Magaliesberg in the distance will not disappoint. The terrific Tau Game Lodge, situated in the malaria-free Madikwe Game Reserve, boasts Africa’s Big 5 and numerous other fascinating species of wildlife, bird life, and plant life. This lovely AA Highly Recommended game lodge overlooks a waterhole which draws Africa’s most beautiful inhabitants, its wonderful wildlife, to its banks on a daily basis.

BONSELA Programme AA Travel Guides has put together an exciting programme which will see participating establishments from a vast national client pool offering varied discounts on accommodation ranging from 10% upwards (other services may also be included in some cases). The BONSELA programme has been designed to


90%

31

of poison exposures occur in homes

South Africa’s ranking (out of 184) in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Survey of Democratic Freedom

incorporate three major brands within the travel industry that cover accommodation, air travel, and road travel.

Who can participate and how does the programme work? •

Any passengers flying on any SA Airlink flight as from 1 September 2011 may make use of their boarding pass or air ticket (within a six month period from the date of the flight) in order to receive their discount. In the same way, any person hiring an AVIS vehicle from 1 September 2011 will be able to make use of a copy of a signed AVIS rental agreement or copy of the AVIS invoice (within a six month period from the date of vehicle hire) in order to receive their discount. All members of AA South Africa will receive the discount on presentation of their membership card.

Terms and Conditions 1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Discounts offered will vary from establishment to establishment. It is up to the traveller wishing to claim the discount to check whether or not the establishment in question is indeed an AAQAA participating establishment. (Please see website for details.) It is up to the traveller wishing to claim the discount to check what discount is being offered by that particular establishment and whether the discount applies to the accommodation only or also includes meals at the discounted rate. The discount will most probably be offered by establishments only during off-peak periods but this may vary from establishment to establishment. All bookings must be made directly with the establishment via telephone. There is no limit to the number of people who may benefit from the discounted offer provided that they possess a valid SA Airlink or AVIS document as described above or the traveller is a current AA South Africa member, and that the discounted offer is used during one uninterrupted stay at a particular participating establishment. Only one discounted stay at a participating establishment may be redeemed using a particular SA Airlink or AVIS

7.

8.

9.

document or AA South Africa membership card; a copy of which will be retained by the establishment. The discounted offer from participating AAQAA establishments will be valid for the duration of the programme which will run from 1 September 2011 to 29 February 2012. With the validity of any of the qualifying criteria being for six months from the date of SA Airlink or AVIS travel and including AA South Africa members, the discounts will therefore be honoured by participating establishments until 31 August 2012. Any extension to the programme will be communicated via the appropriate SA Airlink, AVIS, AA South Africa, and AA Travel Guides channels. Additional Bonsela prizes linked to a loyalty programme are included for participating travellers. Establishments will sign and stamp blocks on a form for every room night spent at their establishment, for example, two rooms for two nights would equal four blocks being signed. Once all 10 blocks on the sheet are completed the traveller must submit the form to AA Travel Guides Head Office in order to enter a bi-annual holiday draw which includes air fare, car hire, and accommodation for two. (Please see website for details.)

Above: Antoinette's Top left: Tau Game Lodge Top right: The Barracks Guest House

How to get there

See page 84 for Airlink's flight schedule www.flyairlink.com

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26

The number of species in the Crocodilian family

Hotel Direct: +27 15 781 3931/7 +27 31 312 6250 www.signaturelifehotels.com

1cm

Is the rate of nail growth every 100 days

Bush divine Hans Merensky Hotel and Spa

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Situated on the border of the world-renowned Kruger National Park, the Hans Merensky Hotel and Spa offers a unique blend of golf and game to both local and international visitors. Guests are able to experience a unique package offering luxury accommodation, sports, conference facilities and a world-famous golf course that is home to a wide variety of game and over 200 species of birds.

channels and telephones. Visitors to Hans Merensky Hotel and Spa can choose to stay in a chalet overlooking the golf course or in superior rooms closer to the hotel itself. The Estate comprises 61 fairway-view chalet rooms, 70 luxury garden-view rooms and five self-catering family chalet units and can accommodate 250 guests in comfort.

Rooms

Activities in the area include: Kruger game drives African evenings Olifants River safari cruises Panorama/Blyde Canyon Visits to wild animal rehabilitation centres Half-day trips to Hoedspruit and the surrounding areas Open mine pit Local cultural experiences

The bedrooms epitomise luxury and home-away-fromhome comfort, incorporating locally manufactured sleeper wood furniture and a feeling of space. Families have also been considered and many of the rooms have comfortable sofa beds for children. The bathrooms are spacious, with large baths and a separate walk-in shower, again furnished with quality products. All of the bedrooms boast air conditioning, selected DSTV

Attractions


1931

The year Star Spangled Banner officially became the national anthem of the USA

2,000 million The number of twitter accounts

Conferencing

Weddings

When you decide to bring your conference or meeting to the Hans Merensky Hotel and Spa, you are not just choosing a venue that has all the usual conference facilities, equipment and audio-visual aids, you are choosing a venue that has a unique and exciting world of options that can be utilised to make your conference an unforgettable success. You will find a world filled with possibilities, where creativity is the norm and the ordinary does not exist. Capacities from 12 to 180 delegates can be accommodated.

For weddings with a difference, this is the perfect venue. Whether it's a romantic setting in one of the gorgeous green gardens, or a luxurious bush setting by the banks of the Olifants River for a bit of a more adventurous scene, you’ll find it here. Wedding venues can seat between 100 and 250 delegates. Text and photography | Courtesy of Signature Life Hotels

How to get there

Airlink offers convenient flights between Johannesburg and Phalaborwa www.flyairlink.com

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12 years The time it takes Jupiter to orbit the sun

1964

The year the first self-adhesive stamps were issued

Getting around Gauteng with Gautrain

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The Gautrain system provides you with a safe, comfortable and reliable train service between OR Tambo International Airport and the Sandton CBD; and between Rosebank Station and Tshwane’s Hatfield Station. The Gautrain system includes: • specially designed airport coaches offering comfort and space for commuters with luggage; • drop-off and parking facilities at all stations (except at OR Tambo International Airport); and • a dedicated bus system at eight stations. These services are fully integrated and may be used separately, or jointly by transferring from one service to another.

The Gautrain services are all accessed by means of a contactless smartcard – your Gold Card.

Using the Gautrain system Commuters are required to purchase special preloaded Gautrain Gold Cards from self-help ticket vending machines or ticket offices situated in Gautrain stations, or at a number of off-site locations. Once you have purchased your Gold Card, you can use it to access and pay for the train, bus or parking services. Ticket products can be loaded on to your Gold Card via cash, debit cards or credit cards. Only Mastercard and Visa credit cards are accepted.


41%

1845

of women apply hand or body cream a minimum of three times per day

The year the first chewing gum factory was started by Thomas Adams

The Gautrain rail network The Gautrain Rail Network has two major routes: north-south and west-east.

Hatfield Metrorail

Pretoria Metrorail

Centurion

Midrand

Rhodesfield

Sandton Rosebank

Metrorail

Marlboro O.R. Tambo

Park (opens 2012) Metrorail

The north-south route runs from Rosebank Station through to Sandton, Marlboro, Midrand, Centurion and Pretoria, ending at Hatfield Station. The west-east route runs from Sandton Station through to Marlboro and Rhodesfield and ends at OR Tambo International Airport. The Sandton-OR Tambo International Airport rail service will take airline passengers into the Sandton CBD in 15 minutes, while the trip between Rosebank and Pretoria will be less than 40 minutes.

Using the Gautrain bus system At the station Electronic information display systems are provided at stations as well as in the trains. Train services: • Five trains per hour, per direction, during peak periods on weekdays: a train every 12 minutes. • Three trains per hour, per direction, during offpeak periods: a train every 20 minutes. • Two trains per hour, per direction, during weekends and public holidays: a train every 30 minutes. Train services will commence daily at 5.30am and the last train departs no later than 8.30pm.

A valid Gautrain Gold Card is required to board a Gautrain bus; these can be purchased at the stations and at selected retail outlets. A minimum amount of R20 must be loaded onto your Gold Card in order for you to enter the system. Bus fares • Rail-user, single fare: R6 (if you use a bus and a train within one hour of each other). • Non-rail-user, single fare: R20 (If you use a bus and don’t also use a train within one hour). These bus fares are applicable to any Gautrain bus trip. Bus tickets cannot be purchased on the buses. To find out where your bus is, call 010 223 1098. Visit www.gautrain.co.za for more information.

How to get there

Airlink's flight arrivals and departures at ORTIA conveniently connect you with the Gautrain www.flyairlink.com

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42.2km The distance of the full Knysna Marathon

11.3 million Tourists visited South Africa in 2010

expressions t n e Ori Chinese look to Orange River wines

Did you know? Airlink serves OWK wines on all regional flights www.flyairlink.com

Chinese wine drinkers’ love of a taste of sunshine in a glass has led to an increasing demand for wines from South Africa, particularly Orange River Cellars, which is based in Upington. According to Raymond Tsoi from Hong Kongbased wine importers Plato Trading, the Chinese market for wine is growing each year. But as wine is a fairly new cultural experience to the Chinese, consumers are still employing a trial-and-error basis in making their decisions. “French wine is very popular in China, as that country’s reputation for wine and their renowned wine culture

preceded the general availability of French wines in our country,” said Tosi. “But the Chinese are also especially attracted to wines from a diversity of countries and regions whose products are exciting, fruity and accessible to new wine drinkers. “When I looked for wine to export to China, I knew that wine from Orange River Cellars would be popular due to the uniqueness of the region where it is produced and the sunny, fruity flavour profiles. “With the flourishing Chinese economy and the general increase in wine consumption, I predict a real increase in wine exports to China from Orange River Cellars and wineries in other New World countries,” he said.

Good luck Another challenge was to find a suitable name for the wine to export to China. “This is a big challenge for exporters, especially as certain names and symbols do not mean the same as they do in the western markets,” says Tsoi. “Our language is phonetically challenging – even people fluent in Mandarin would struggle to pronounce ‘Orange River’. That is why together with Orange River Cellars, we created the name ‘Gilysipao’, which means good luck.” According to Tsoi, who regularly visits Orange River Cellars to look at new wine styles, he knows the stretch alongside the Orange River has the uniqueness that is attractive to the Chinese market. “One can see that you’re in Africa – the weather, the landscape, nature, wildlife – it is a real wilderness, something that fascinates us Chinese. And this image of the Orange River makes the wine more exotic and attractive,” explains Tsoi. “The nice long sunny days ensure a fruity wine which complements the spicy foods we Chinese love.” Koos Visser, Marketing Manager of Orange River Cellars, is confident that the Chinese wine market will become very important for South African products. “Annually, South Africa exports approximately 800,000 litres of bottled wine to China, but the volumes are increasing as an awareness of our wines and of South Africa as a wine country grows among the Chinese,” he concluded.

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Text and Photography | Courtesy of Orange River Cellars


1802

1966

The year Knysna was founded by George Rex

The year Lesotho changed its name from Basutoland after gaining independence

T ec h n o l o g y

New moon pics

T ec h n o l o g y

Raincoat turns rain into drinking water Hyeona Yang and Joshua Noble, two students at the Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design, built the ‘Raincatch.’ It’s a rain coat that transforms collected rain water into purified drinking water. The collar of the coat captures the rain which is then passed through charcoal filters and a chemical purification system. The purified water is then stored around the shoulders and pockets of the coat. Tubes woven into the raincoat allow the wearer to drink the collected water. Is it designed as a water pack for avid backpackers who, on their month long journeys, have little or no access to filtered drinking water? Or for citizens of emerging countries who have limited access to clean purified drinking water due to pollution and contamination? Or is the rain coat simply a commentary on the near future scarcity of clean drinking water and pending water wars to come? (Source: Fashioningtech, 1 September)

B usi n ess

Hundred years war?

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Will it be a century before female

managers in Britain earn the same as men? That is the claim today from the Chartered Management Institute (CMI). It

has released the results of a survey which shows that male executives earn, on average, over £10,500 more than their female counterparts for doing the same job – £42,441 compared with £31,895. Women’s salaries may be rising faster than men’s (2.4% in 2010 compared with 0.3%) but even so, says CMI, at those rates it will take 98 years for women to catch up. However, this figure doesn’t pretend to take into account factors that will change over the next hundred years, like culture, legislation and demography. Nor, seemingly, does it extrapolate from historical trends. (Source: The Economist, 31 August)

A Nasa spacecraft has snapped the clearest views ever of the surface of the moon, down to the tyre tracks and footprints left by visiting astronauts decades ago in the lunar soil. A trio of razor-sharp images relayed by Nasa’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show precise new detail of moon landing sites for the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 space missions of the late 1960s and early 1970s. ‘We can retrace the astronauts’ steps with greater clarity to see where they took lunar samples,” said Noah Petro, a lunar geologist at Nasa’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland. The images also show distinct trails in the moon’s thin soil when the astronauts exited the lunar modules and explored on foot. In one image from the Apollo 17 mission, it is possible to discern foot traces, including the last path made on the moon by humans. Nasa said the stunning new visuals are possible because of changes to the orbit of the low-altitude narrow angle camera that took the photos, allowing them to be taken from a distance of about 21km. (Source: News24, 6 September)

T ec h n o l o g y

Think before you tweet Two people in southern Mexico are facing possible 30-year sentences for terrorism and sabotage.


1824

The year Lesotho was founded by Chief Moshoeshoe

Prosecutors say the defendants helped cause a chaos of car crashes and panic as parents in the Gulf Coast city of Veracruz rushed to save their children because of false reports that gunmen were attacking schools. Veracruz, the state’s largest city, and the neighbouring suburb of Boca del Rio were already on edge after weeks of gunbattles involving drug traffickers. One attack occurred on a major boulevard. Martinez Vera, who works as a low-paid tutor at schools, allegedly opened the floodgates of fear with repeated messages that gunmen were taking children from schools, but no such kidnappings had occurred that day. Vera claims that he was just relaying what others told him, as did Maria de Jesus Bravo Pagola. Online petitions are circulating to demand their release, and the pair’s cause has been taken up by human rights groups that call the charges exaggerated. Amnesty International says officials are violating freedom of expression and it blames the panic on the uncertainty many Mexicans feel amid a drug war in which more than 35,000 people have died over the past five years. It appears one of the most serious sets of charges ever brought for sending or resending Twitter messages. (Source: HuffingtonPost, 5 September)

Hea l t h

Baby deaths declining The first 28 days of life are among the most dangerous in a human’s existence. In 2009 3.3 million children died before they were four weeks old, down from 4.6m in 1990, according to a new paper from

30,355m² The total area of Lesotho

the World Health Organisation. The burden is not spread evenly. Five populous countries – India, Nigeria, Pakistan, China and the Congo – now account for more than half of all neonatal deaths. And though mortality rates for newborns are falling, progress is much faster in some regions than others. If current trends continue, neonatal mortality rates in Africa will not reach the rich world’s levels until 2166. (Source: The Economist, 31 August)

Hea l t h

Blood test to predict death?

e n v ir o n me n t

Shock to the system

Germany’s electricity producers are in disarray over the government’s decision to shut all nuclear power stations by 2022, after Japan struggles to contain radiation leaks from its reactors following the earthquake and tsunami in March.

Reporting in an early online publication of the Journal of the American Medical Association and at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, Johan Arnlov and his colleagues say that a certain enzyme measured in the blood may be linked to both heart disease and cancer, and therefore could serve as an early predictor of who is mostly likely to die from these diseases.

A study commissioned by the economics ministry has estimated the cost of that decision, in lost jobs and higher energy and carbon prices, at around €32 billion (about R674 billion). E.ON, Germany’s biggest power company, is threatening to lay off up to 11,000 people. The disarray extends to the renewables industry, which is supposed to benefit from the nuclear closures and fill the gap. The nuclear gap is more likely to be filled by new gas-fired power plants and electricity imports. Both will be expensive and increase Germany’s dependence on foreign and sometimes fickle gas suppliers. Prolonged use of coal and lignite plants, without carbon capture, will drive up the price of carbonemission certificates and hence the cost of electricity, not only for Germany but across the European carbon-trading area. A bleak picture indeed.

In the study, which involved nearly 2,000 people enrolled in two separate long-term trials, Arnlov’s team measured the levels of cathepsin S, an enzyme involved in breaking up proteins. They then tracked these volunteers for up to 12.5 years, and found that those with the highest levels of cathepsin S were more likely to die than those with lower, or about half those levels. The study is the first to identify a marker associated with both heart disease and cancer, two of the leading killers of American adults. The effect remained strong even after the scientists adjusted for other factors that can contribute to heartand cancer-related death, such as age, blood pressure, history of heart disease, diabetes and cholesterol levels. Arnlov decided to focus on cathepsin S because previous studies have linked the enzyme to atheroslcerosis, or the buildup and hardening of the arteries that increase the risk of heart disease.

(Source: The Economist, 20 August)

(Source: Time, 31 August)

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17.2%

5 million

The sale increase in SA’s motor industry

Number of voluntary HIV/AIDS tests conducted in SA since the launch of the testing campaign on April 2010

T ec h n o l o g y

www.africa.slow

Sierra Leone has no fibre-optic link to the outside world. Its internet users rely on satellite bandwidth. The International Telecommunication Union says this is also true of the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Guinea, Liberia, São Tomé and Príncipe and the Seychelles. In these places, internet use is both expensive and slow. Sierra Leone’s National Telecommunications Commission (NATCOM) estimates that the entire country, with a population of six million, has around 155 megabits of bandwidth, less than would serve a small American town. The World Bank says Sierra Leone’s bandwidth costs ten times more than it would in east Africa and 25 times the average American price. In the capital, Freetown’s few internet cafés load web pages with agonising lethargy. However, Sierra Leone’s internet drought may end next year as a new submarine fibre-optic cable is now being laid down the west African coast. The World Bank is providing $30m in funding. But in much of Africa, getting a fibre connection is only half the battle. With few landlines in existence, dispersing bandwidth takes further efforts. “Satellite will remain the best way to reach rural communities,” says Michèle Scanlon of Indian Atlantic Telecoms. (Source: The Economist, 27 August)

people

Happy guys finish last

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Women find happy men significantly less sexually attractive than swaggering or brooding men, according to a new University of British Columbia study that helps to explain the enduring allure of ‘bad boys’ and other iconic gender types.

For the record… In the October 2011 issue of Skyways, we incorrectly stated that the Longines trademark has been registered for 100 years. The study that may cause men to smile less on dates, and inspire online daters to update their profile photos, finds dramatic gender differences in how men and women rank the sexual attractiveness of non-verbal expressions of commonly displayed emotions, including happiness, pride, and shame. The study, published online in the American Psychological Association journal Emotion, is the first to investigate the attractiveness of displays of pride and shame. ‘While showing a happy face is considered essential to friendly social interactions, including those involving sexual attraction – few studies have actually examined whether a smile is, in fact, attractive,” says Professor Jessica Tracy of UBC’s Department of Psychology. “This study finds that men and women respond very differently to displays of emotion, including smiles.” The study found that women were least attracted to smiling, happy men, preferring those who looked proud and powerful or moody and ashamed. In contrast, male participants were most sexually attracted to women who looked happy, and least attracted to women who appeared proud and confident. (Source: ScienceDaily, 31 August)

In fact, this year Longines is celebrating the 122th anniversary of the registration of a logo that the company still uses today. Protected since 1889 in Switzerland (FOIP), this factory trademark comprising a winged hourglass and the name Longines is the oldest of its kind still active, in its original form, in the international registers kept by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). Skyways apologises for the error and remains committed to publishing excellence of the highest standard.

Nature

Bush icon’s bones found Australian authorities have identified the remains of bushranger Ned Kelly, 131 years after the iconic outcast was hanged for murder and his body buried in the yard of a Melbourne gaol. But mystery remains over the location of Kelly’s skull, which was last thought to have sat on the desk of a Victorian state police detective in 1929. Scientists have used DNA from Kelly’s great


41

1,059km² The total area of Knysna’s municipality

The number of years Fred, the oldest known goldfish, lived to

Get the answer Just in case our puzzles are sending you around the bend, here are the solutions. Puzzles can be found on page 91.

Sudoku

Challenging

Easy

great nephew to identify the bushranger’s bones from others in a mass prison grave. Kelly, known for wearing home-made armor in a shootout with police, is an iconic figure in Australian history. Kelly and his gang symbolised social tensions of the time, particularly between poor Irish settlers and the wealthy establishment. He was sentenced to death for murder over his gang’s killing of three policemen, and he was hanged in Melbourne Gaol on November 11, 1880. After his death, Kelly’s body was buried in the grounds of the old Melbourne Gaol and a death mask was made from his head. When the gaol closed in 1929, Kelly’s remains and the bones of other prisoners were exhumed and re-buried in a mass grave at the newer Pentridge Prison. Kelly’s skull may have been separated from his skeleton during the transfer. The mass grave was excavated again in 2009, sparking the quest to identify which bones belonged to Kelly.

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Battleships Easy

Medium

(Source: PlanetArk, 7 September)

Erratum: On page 7 of the October 2011 issue, we published an incorrect website address. The correct address is www.flyswaziland.com. We apologise for any inconvenience caused.

Food and Drink

Dark beer vs light beer A team of researchers from the University of Valladolid (Spain) has analysed 40 brands of beer, discovering that dark beer has more free iron than pale and nonalcoholic beers. Iron is essential to the human diet, but also helps oxidise the organic compounds that give these beverages stability and flavour. According to the analysis carried out by the University of Valladolid (UVa) on 40 types of

beers from all five continents, dark beers have an average free iron content of 121 ppb (parts per billion) compared to 92 ppb in pale beers and 63 ppb in non-alcoholic beers. The study, published in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, indicates that higher iron content in dark beer could be explained by the malt and hop extracts used to produce it. Measuring the levels of iron and other metals in beer is not only important because they are essential to the human diet, but also because of their relevance in the brewing process. Levels of metals in beer can determine its organoleptic characteristics, stability and quality. (Source: ScienceDaily, 17 August)

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9,362kg

The maximum amount of fuel the RJ85 can carry

30%

of cancer deaths worldwide could have been prevented

Calendar Nati o n wide

Julio Iglesias in SA

Catch him live in South Africa. The renowned Julio Iglesias, who has performed with singers from Frank Sinatra and Willie Nelson, will be gracing the South African stage. Selling over 350 million records worldwide, Iglesias has become the brightest and most recognisable artist in the world of popular music.  5 to 6 November (JHB) and 8 November (CPT)  Carnival City, Big Top Arena (JHB) and Grand Arena, Grand West (CPT) i Computicket Cape Town

Elgin Open Gardens Enjoy a pre-festive vibe and take a drive to Elgin Valley, where you can enjoy flowers, fruit and good food and wine in a whole new way. Hidden behind St Lowry’s Pass, Elgin Valley offers a green experience and an opportunity to discover new plants such as Rhododendrons, Japanese maples and flowering cherries.  29 October to 6 November  Elgin Valley, Cape Town i info@elginopengardens.co.za

Sunset over Table Bay Delight in the Durbanville Hills awardwinning wines as you enjoy the mellow tunes from Farryl Purkiss and Dan Patlansky, who have gained national and international recognition overtime.  11 November  Durbanville Hills Wines, Tygerbergvalley Road i Simone Brown at 021 558 1300 or SIBrown@durbanvillehills.co.za

For the love of whiskey Whiskey lovers can mingle and marvel at the top brands and new releases at the FNB Whiskey Live. Presenting brands from Scotland, Ireland, the US, Canada, Wales, Japan, and South Arica, this will be a night to remember.  9 to 11 November  Sandton Convention Centre i Sian Nuebert on 012 460 7579

Dame Janet Suzman returns to SA It has been 35 years since Internationallyacclaimed South African-born actress and director Janet Suzman left South Africa; and she returns to the South African stage to star in Solomon and Marion at the Baxter Golden Arrow Studio.  26 October to 26 November  Baxter Theatre i www.baxter.co.za

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Singing Christmas tree Get into the spirit of Christmas and make your way to a musical performance that is made possible by a group of learners, teachers and parents. The Singing Christmas Tree is hosted by the University of Pretoria Jakaranda Children’s Choir and more and more schools are taking part each year.  10 to 12 November  The South African State Theatre i +27 82 332 3259

K wa Z u l u - Nata l

Ladies High Tea

Ladies, this is exclusively for you! This is your chance to dress up and be glam in your hats while you listen to Dr Len Nel, a South African dermatologist, while he talks on skin care and how to protect it in our climate. There’ll be prizes for the best hat and goodie bags for all attendees.  18 November  Hotel Izulu, Durban i wendy@bofnetworx.co.za E aster n C a p e

Apricot-picking at De Krans Wine Cellars In celebration of summer, De Krans Wine Cellar presents an annual apricot-picking event for two weeks in Calitzdorp. Except for Sunday, visitors will have the pleasure to pick and taste delicious juicy Bulida apricots at the farm from 08h00 until 16h00. This fun fare will please those in dire need of a sugar dose.  23 November to 7 December  De Krans Wine Cellars, Calitzdorp i email dekrans@mweb.co.za or call Helet Viljoen/Bessie Barnardo on +27 44 213 3314


10,000

11

The average steps a person walks a day

The number of letters in the Hawaiian alphabet

The Mobile MBA Jo Owen Pearson

This little book is crammed full of helpful information – it breaks the key ideas contained in any MBA up into digestible and accessible chunks, laying out in useful terms (aimed at smart people) what managers need to know, and how to apply the ideas and concepts learnt in an MBA in day-to-day practice.

✶✶✶✶✶

Ghost Boy

Martin Pistorius Jonathan Ball

books

The Fat Years

Chan Koonchung Doubleday

This is one of the most extraordinary and gripping books I have ever read – I got it at about midday and read non-stop till I’d finished at 10 that evening. Martin Pistorius fell ill at 12, of an unknown disease that left him mentally absent and physically unable to move. A few years later, his mind began to wake up – but no-one knew that, and he was unable to communicate it until a therapist took a leap of faith. How he overcame his ‘locked-in’ state to become not only a computer whiz and respected advocate for those unable to communicate is riveting enough. Add to that the love-story which rounds out the book – Pistorius fell in love and married – and you have a tale which will stay with you for many months.

✶✶✶✶✶

Like Orwell’s 1984, The Fat Years is a dystopia – but one that at first glance is much more appealing than the world of Ingsoc. Set in 2011 – the very near future at the time the book first appeared in Hong Kong, which was 2009 – the book describes a China in which everyone is really happy. China’s Golden Age of Ascendancy coincided with the downfall of Western economies a couple of years before, and life feels good to the protagonist, who, like the author, is a Chinese writer who has come from outside (Taiwan or Hong Kong) to settle in Beijing. Old Chen is happy himself, but when he bumps into Little Xi, a dissident he used to know and who, he realises, he fancies rotten, his happy life is overturned. Little Xi is one of a small number of people in China who actually remember the transition period, a matter of four weeks, from the time before to the Age of Ascendancy. It was awful – a crackdown like the Tiananmen Square incident and its aftermath, brutal and deadly. Why are they the only ones to remember it? The group, with Old Chen, searches for answers (along the way, they meet people who represent the positive and negative of China: a real estate mogul, a high-class prostitute, a government advisor, as opposed to an underground Christian movement and working class people, one of them being a young

man who had been kidnapped and enslaved). The denouement explains just what happened. But the real purpose of the novel is to explore the “marriage of mass acquiescence and violent political intimidation that keeps China’s authoritarian show on the road,” as the introduction describes it. This is not exclusive to China. You can see echoes of the very same dynamic in many countries in the world (including Western countries which pride themselves on their democracies). And at times, it felt as though the author was making predictions for our own country. This China has been numbed to its history and to the desperation that is the underground of the shiny, state market economy which characterises Shanghai and Beijing and other cities. The rush to wealth and material possessions looks very familiar, and understandable in the context of the country’s past. This book has been banned in China, but circulates secretly and has been received with instant recognition– one reader, for example, said he almost forgot it was science fiction, as it reads like a documentary. The Fat Years is a frightening picture of a world which could very easily become manifest (okay, barring the secret which is revealed at the end), and should be read by anyone who thinks about the interaction between people and power. Text | Mandi Smallhorne

✶✶✶✶✶

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93%

of South Africans have access to clean drinking water in 2011

70%

Of the world’s zippers are made in Japan

GorillaCam New York Times App

Dropbox

DocScanner

IM+: All-in-One Messenger

eWallet GO!

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TweetDeck


$1.8 billion

The amount of money America spent on buying cars from SA in 2010

Talking point We review smartphone applications on the market With new phones being launched on an almost weekly basis, it’s hard to not consider buying the latest and greatest if only to have a bit of bling to show off in the boardroom or departure lounge. The secret to buying a new smartphone is taking into account the operating system. Windows Phone 7 is very shiny and new but has a relatively tiny app marketplace when compared to Apple’s iPhone. These days it’s less about the smartphone and more about the OS you choose to adopt so be sure to pick the one that best suits you.

GorillaCam GorillaCam replaces the standard camera app on the iPhone as well as rendering many other competing apps irrelevant by combining all the features one needs in a camera app. It includes features like a 4x digital zoom, anti-shake image stabilisation, time-lapse, unlimited rapid-fire, 3-shot burst shooting and a grid overlay to help with the rule of thirds. Sadly this app is limited to the iPhone.

Dropbox Dropbox is a service that allows you to store files on a cloud server for free. Originally limited to just PCs, Dropbox is now available on iPhone, Android and Blackberry. To use Dropbox, it must first be installed on your PC and then files must be set up to be shared. After that those files will be accessible by any device or computer that you connect with your Dropbox account. Files can also be shared with other Dropbox users so family and friends can access files that you share with them. Using Dropbox can serve as a backup for all those photos on your phone in case of loss or theft.

IM+: All-in-One Messenger IM+ is an instant messaging programme that combines Facebook chat, Skype, MSN/Live Messenger, Google Talk, Twitter and a few other IMs into a single app on your phone. The free version has time and connection limitations which can be annoying, but this does not detract from the appeal of having a single app as your communication tool. IM+ is available on iPhone, Android, Windows Phone, Blackberry, Nokia Symbian and a few other phone platforms.

TweetDeck This one is strictly for the iPhone and Android crowd which is a pity because TweetDeck is one of the best Twitter clients around. But TweetDeck is more than just a Twitter client. It supports Google Buzz, FourSquare, Twitter and Facebook and allows you to manage your presence in each of these social networks in one easy to navigate app. For those people with multiple Twitter accounts or who need to manage an organisation’s Twitter profile as well as their own this app is head and

10:1

The ratio of termites to humans on earth

shoulders about the rest. It is also a must for people with Android tablets.

eWallet GO! Keeping all your passwords and personal data safe is a nightmare. You end up creating 20-digit passwords in order to keep pimply teenagers out of your personal affairs and bank account. The problem is that remembering ten different 20-digit passwords is difficult and writing them down on a piece of paper is foolish. eWallet GO! is a digital locker that uses encryption algorithms to store your personal passwords, data and even credit card details. The encrypted file can also be backed up to Google Docs of Dropbox.

DocScanner High-end smartphones have very capable built-in cameras but their use is not limited to taking scandalous photos at the Christmas office party. DocScanner uses your smartphone’s camera to scan a document and convert it into a PDF for painless document sharing. DocScanner is able to remove shadows, fix white balance and sharpen the image for improved quality before sending the file onto a contact. This app also works well with Evernote and Google Docs.

New York Times App The New York Times is famous the world over and is easily available on your smartphone. While the app is free and some articles are free to read there are restrictions so news addicts will need to fork out a few Rands to enjoy the full experience. Blackberry users who are prepared to fork out will gain access to the daily New York Times crossword puzzles which will be delivered to your phone. There is also an archive of older puzzles for you to sink your mental teeth into. Text: Michael Reed is hardware writer for PCFormat, a monthly computer technology and gaming magazine

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4,300 species of Ladybugs are known to man

$1.3 million The most money paid for a cow on auction

Stats

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Blackberry Bold 9900 Price R8,000 Manufacturer RIM Web www.za.blackberry.com/ Network Features HSUPA, HSDPA (14.4 Mbps) Connectivity WiFi, Bluetooth v2.1, microUSB, NFC Screen 2.8 inches 640×480 capacitive touchscreen CPU 1.2GHz QualComm 8655 Memory 786MB RAM OS Blackberry OS 7 Storage 8GB internal, 2GB microSD card Camera 5 MP, autofocus, LED flash, 720P video Extras A -GPS, touch sensitive optical trackpad

Smart on the go Business gets sexy and powerful The Blackberry Bold 9900 takes the form factor of the original Bold 9000, slims it down to 10.5mm thick and then crams in a touch screen and 1.2GHz processor for good measure. The result is a wide phone perfect for those who get irritated with the slightly cramped keyboard of the Torch. The keyboard not only has slightly larger keys than those found on the Torch, but the keys also feel softer when depressed than previous Bold models. Navigating Blackberry OS 7 using the touchpad and touch screen is a quick and elegant affair, but those with large thumbs might find that, when using the touchpad, the screen is touched, making the page or cursor jump unexpectedly. The touch screen is responsive without being overly sensitive and, time after time, it selects the link in the browser that was the fingertip’s intended target. The overall experience with the Bold 9900 is better than that of the Torch 9800 due to the faster processor. At 1.2GHz, the QualComm Snapdragon inside

the Bold 9900 is double the speed of the processor inside the Torch – but this does come with its own problems. After a day of serious work, the Bold 9900’s battery will be dead, but with moderate usage the battery will see out a 48-hour period. As with all Blackberry devices, should the battery get too low, the radio connections (GSM, 3G, Bluetooth, WiFi) all turn off. In the case of the Bold 9900, this occurs at 2% battery life. The Bold Touch 9900 is the perfect advancement of the Bold range and serves as an example of how to combine a QWERTY keyboard and a touch screen without messing the whole thing up. The battery life is a problem but overall the Bold Touch 9900 is an excellent phone and well-deserving of the Bold name. That is, if you don’t include the ‘update’ OS.

Score: ★ ★ ★ Text | Michael Reed


38,555kg The maximum landing weight of the RJ85

15 minutes

The length of time an Orca whale can hold its breath for

Stats

Heaven or hell? Depends on what you’re after What can one expect from a tablet that costs a grand? The answer is, very little. With a 660MHz processor and 256MB RAM, the Colpad TP705 is not going to blow anyone away. The Colpad uses a 7” resistive touch screen which requires a stiff finger, the included stylus or the emergency trackball to spark it into action. With 4GB of internal space, any media library stored on the Colpad will have to be rather small. Combined with its lack of processing power, the only videos that will be viewable will be those on YouTube. The Colpad uses a vanilla version of Android 2.2.1 which is free of any bloatware but, while the OS is as light as possible, the overall experience is shocking. The resistive touch screen fails to recognise subtle commands and even when using the stylus, a firm press is required to ensure that you are not whisked into applications or options you did not select. Applications run slowly and even playing Angry Birds is a torturous affair.

However, the Colpad is not without its charms. The price tag is the real attention grabber. At R1,000 it is one of the cheapest tablets available and, on those grounds, should not be ignored. Support for microSD cards of up to 32GB and a USB port removes the need to hunt for a PC to access a flash drive. The Colpad also manages to pack in a 1.3 mega-pixel front-facing camera. At its price, the Colpad finds itself filling a niche most tablets are just too expensive to fill; that of an eReader. It’s roughly the same price as the Kindle but packs in an Android OS, multimedia capabilities, an App market and a backlit colour screen. However, if you don’t need an eReader, then the Colpad also serves as a decent alternative to a paperweigh

Score: ★ ★ ★ Text | Michael Reed

Colpad Price R1,000 Manufacturer Runko Supplier Lucky Mobile Web www.luckymobile.co.za LCD 7” resistive TFT LCD Resolution 800x480 Ratio 16:9 CPU RockChip 2812 660MHZ RAM 256MB DDR2 Storage 4GB NAND Flash OS Android 2.2.1 Connectivity 802.11 b/g WiFi, optional 3G

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One

The number of doctors per 1,000 South Africans

FACEBOOK MAKES YOU THE AD

p64

MIT N EWS

MIT CELEBRATES 150 YEARS

Published by MIT

SPECIAL ISSUE

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES BREAKTHROUGHS THAT ARE BURSTING INTO OUR LIVES P41

13 years

The number of years the world’s known oil reserves would last if every human ate a meat-centred diet

Smashing the cubicles By designing new spaces around tablets, smart phones, and social technologies, companies can operate with far fewer desks

The Authority on the Future of Technology

May/June 2011 www.technologyreview.com

May11 Cover.indd 3

4/6/11 6:18 PM

Skyways with MIT's Technology Review brings you the latest innovations in the tech field

This conference table, from the design firm Steelcase, allows employees to dock their mobile devices and take turns on the displays at the ends of the table.

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The quick expansion of social and mobile technologies is creating a widely distributed workforce. To better suit employees who come into offices more sporadically, some companies and design firms are testing radically new and more efficient configurations for physical offices, betting that improved technology will make the experiment more successful than similar ones in the 1990s. A project at the headquarters of Cisco Systems in San Jose, California, for example, overthrows decadesold conventions about office space. Called Connected Workplace, it replaces individual cubicles with open clusters of wheeled desks that belong to groups, not individuals; personal belongings are largely confined to lockers. There are no PCs at the desks, because employees use mobile technologies, including the Cius tablet, which Cisco recently began selling to businesses. Rick Hutley, a Cisco vice president, chooses his desk according to which colleagues are present and what’s on the day’s agenda. Then he docks his Cius to a desktop port that includes a phone handset. The tablet handles voice and video calls whether it’s docked or mobile, and it can be used to share documents at meetings. It can also be plugged into a monitor and keyboard to be used like a full PC. “You can walk around with your entire world with you in this device,” Hutley says. “My laptop

would often stay on my desk, but the tablet never does.” If he needs to make a private voice or video call, he can step into one of the rooms at the edges of the cluster. Employees can also participate in the company’s corporate social network, Quad, which is accessible on the Web or through the iPhone, iPad, or Cius. People can post meeting requests, give status updates on projects, and quickly get in touch via instant messages, voice calls, or email. Cisco’s vision is an example of a broader effort to reshape office technologies and environments. “We used to have boring stuff at work and more interesting technology at home,” says Prith Banerjee, leader of Hewlett-Packard’s research arm. “Now office technology will make use of the same cool experiences and interfaces.” Among other things, Banerjee predicts that flexible, paperlike colour displays will eventually blur the boundary between phones and tablets, creating mobile devices better suited to serving as an entire office. Such changes could save a lot of money. Cisco’s project, for example, was launched after an internal study found that cubicles were vacant two-thirds of the time while people roamed the campus or worked remotely. Company calculations show that the building used for the project can accommodate 140 employees, up from 88 in designs used in traditional Cisco buildings, and that real-estate costs should drop by 37%. Over the long term, Cisco hopes to save on health costs, too, because people who move around more frequently are less likely to suffer health problems. The company is planning to study whether the more mature technology of today can conquer resistance that hobbled previous attempts to build offices with little private space. Meanwhile, office design firms are stepping in with complementary ideas. Steelcase, for example, is building office installations that allow for spontaneous meetings and collaboration. Mobile-device ports are built into conference tables or semiprivate pods, and some allow people to take turns projecting data on a common screen. Text | Tom Simonite Visual | Courtesy of Steelcase


30,000 The number of schools in South Africa

1931

Indian and Harley-Davidson were the only two American manufacturers producing commercial motorcycles

Tiny, cloud-powered desktops

The profusion of mobile devices is driving advances in cloud-based productivity apps built for the small screen

When smart phones first took off, many software companies figured people might want to view files on the small screens, but few thought anyone would use them for creating, editing, and commenting on documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. “We were proven wrong,” says Raju Vegesna of Zoho, a company that offers online office tools. Businesses are demanding things like spreadsheet and document editing tools that work anywhere, on any device. In response, large and small companies are now providing cloud-based officeproductivity applications for smart phones and tablets. It takes creativity to make them work. Web-based word processors such as Google Docs weren’t initially able to process touch-screen input. Google had to rework Docs so that it was possible to edit from certain devices, such as those running recent versions of Android. Zoho is building apps for mobile devices to bridge that gap for its products, enabling those programs to interpret users’ touch-screen 'clicks.' Meanwhile, IBM is testing software that can break up large spreadsheets into portions for different users, making them less unwieldy to update and edit on tablets. Cloud-based office software has been around for several years, making shared editing easier because multiple users need only keep track of one file. But the cloud is even more important when people are working on mobile devices, which are switched or replaced far more often than are desk-bound PCs. The cloud is the natural central storage site not only for the data but for the productivity applications themselves, says Rick ­Treitman, entrepreneur in residence at Adobe and director of product marketing for its Acrobat.com cloudbased office applications. Zoho’s Vegesna notes that users

Editing on a smart phone is tough, but mobile workers want to do it

expect custom apps tailored to the iPhone, the Android tablet, or whatever device they’re working on. Scott Johnston, group product manager for Google Docs and Sites, says that while the interfaces will look different on phones, tablets, and PCs, “I suspect we’re going fullfeatured on every device.” He believes that workers will eventually use tablets in place of laptops and demand productivity software that works just as well on them. Potential advances in touch-screen technology – such as ways to give users more tactile feedback – could also accelerate demand for such apps. While Google offers primarily cloud-based apps with light offline capabilities, Microsoft recently launched a cloudbased version of its Office productivity software called Office 365, betting that users will see advantages in full-featured offline software that also allows for accessibility in the cloud. Microsoft reasons that people want more features than most cloud apps offer, and want to be able to work when network access is unavailable.

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Text | Erica Naone Visual | Getty Images

On Sale Now

25 11 11


free | mind

Accentuate the positive Three great reasons to push for strong action against climate change

doom

and gloom surrounds the issue of climate change. All the emphasis is on the bad news: coastal cities flooded, crops damaged, extreme weather events, heatwaves… With the Conference of Parties (COP17) about to begin in Durban at the end of this month, we thought we’d have a look at the upside of getting tough on climate change.

We’re not talking here about the faux-positives presented by certain people around the world – like “More carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will promote rapid crop growth”. (Bzzzt! Wrong! Turns out that it will actually retard crop growth – see, among other research papers, ScienceDaily 6 December 2002.) No, these benefits of taking the fight against climate change seriously are less fairy-tale in nature, but very real.

Got brass in pocket

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Not long ago, the idea that you could actually save money by ‘going green’ was a little laughable. It was taken as read that greening your home or business meant forking out additional cash. But as prices of utilities move skywards, we’re seeing an inevitable turnaround. By the time our next round of electricity increases kicks in, those who’ve installed


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free | mind

Perhaps we should embrace the Chinese’s preferred method of transport

28 11 11

solar hot water geysers are going to look less like eccentric do-gooders and more like visionaries who acted with commendable foresight. Likewise, those who install rainwater harvesting. Skyways reported recently that South and southern Africa is subject to an unfortunate concatenation of climate features which means life in this arid region will be even more arid in a warmer future. Water is bound to become more expensive. Individual homes and businesses who take the threat of climate change seriously and act now will save significant cash in future. Avis, for one, has already made this discovery: as a heavy water user (every car has to be washed on return after use), it has switched to water recycling – and met with a pleasant surprise. The recycling effort is paying

for the capital expenditure rapidly and will start bringing in cost-savings relatively soon. Another major corporation, Didata, installed smart lighting (which switches off when no-one is in a room) and saved between 74% and 92% on electricity consumption (see www.electrosense.co.za/solutions/ case-study/dimension-data-savings/). Switching from fossil-fuel-guzzling practices to climate-friendly ones is going to take commitment and hard work, but we’re beginning to see how the bottomline could benefit as the world changes around us. Who knew the price of Brent Crude oil would reach $115? Ten years ago in the same month, it was trading at about $25. As electricity and petrol prices rise, we’re going to have to squeeze more work out of every litre of fossil


Sasolburg have high levels of respiratory disorders in particular. A world where fossil fuels are used more carefully and more thoughtfully – a world in which fossil fuels have become just one part of a total mix of energy sources – will be a world in which fewer children have asthma and other respiratory disorders that makes them fight for breath. Cleaner air will be better for the whole world, not just humans. Fossil fuel combustion (and burning of forests) releases solid forms of nitrogen into the atmosphere. Recently, the first European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA) showed that air polluted with nitrogen is a major threat to biodiversity – wildlife and plant species are suffering from aerial nitrogen pollution. Apparently Europe’s forests have lost 10% of their diversity to nitrogen pollution already. (The ENA found that the annual cost of damage caused by nitrogen across Europe is £60 billion to £280 billion (R660 billion to about R3 trillion), “more than double the extra income gained from using nitrogen fertilisers in European agriculture”. From ScienceDaily, 11 April 2011.) And it’s not just air, of course: water, that precious resource, is also widely polluted by fossil fuels and their by-products.

It’s time to harness alternative sources of energy such as using these wind turbines located near the town of Darling

Get on your bike and ride!

fuel and reduce our use as much as possible. Fossil fuels have given us a miraculous ride in the last century or so, but there’s no doubt they’ve contributed hugely to pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The costs are very often borne by society (that is, taxpayers) when governments have to clean up oil spills, maintain buildings affected by acid rain, or deal with the health impacts of pollution.

The air that I breathe Which leads neatly to another positive of tackling climate change. Wherever fossil fuels are heavily used, to fuel vehicles, make power or drive industry, the impact shows up in ill-health. Communities in pollution hot-spots places like South Durban and

If government committed itself in all seriousness to public transport, one major by-product would be a fitter, healthier population. I can’t think of any public transport system which would not entail a certain amount of walking or cycling. For example, here’s my own personal suggestion for public transport solutions: invest in a bus or tram service which runs along all the major highways in Johannesburg, with stops dotted along the way. I live in Roodepoort, but I have regular meetings in Bedfordview. If the bus or tram has a storage facility for bicycles, I could cycle the 4.5km to the 14th Avenue offramp easily; I store my bicycle, hop on a bus taking the southern bypass, and settle down to work on my laptop, or read, or listen to music. At Van Buuren Road, I hop off, collect my bike, and cycle the 5-odd kilometres to my meeting. (Alternatively, of course, I could park-andride, and catch a decent, safe and regulated taxi at the other end.) Bike-friendly paths seem like the impossible dream right now, given the urban sprawl that characterises South Africa’s big cities, but that’s only if you think in terms of replacing powered transport with cycle trips completely. Nobody is likely to get on a bicycle and

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Europe’s forest are in danger due to nitrogen pollution

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cycle from Kenilworth in Cape Town to Bellville for a meeting. But if you imagine a public transport system which links nodes – and modes – of transport, as I’ve described above, and one that ensures safety for cyclists by formalising and regulating their presence, integrating bikes (and walking) into the system begins to look more do-able. Be inspired to dream the impossible dream: search YouTube for Bicycle Rush Hour Utrecht 2011. Note the men in suits on bicycles; the dad with a kid on the back; the grey-haired person with two pannier bags for shopping (panniers are evident on most bikes). Note the buses and the tram. Note the absence of bike helmets – clearly not needed. Consider the level of fitness displayed – and the entire lack of anything like road rage. If we could have even small pockets of this in our cities, wouldn’t it be heaven? That’s just three things we could gain from tackling

climate change with determination: money-savings, cleaner air, healthier lungs, and greater fitness. If there was space, I could come up with at least five more reasons, including better relationships, more interesting food choices and improved mental function. And more jobs. If we followed a scenario known as the Energy Revolution – which reduces our dependence on coal by 60% over the next two decades and invests in renewables, we would create at least 78,000 jobs (South African Energy Sector Jobs to 2030, prepared for Greenpeace Africa by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, and authored by Jay Rutovitz). That’s nearly 40% more than business-as-usual in the energy sector. Doesn’t that sound good? Let’s hear it for a great outcome from COP17. Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | Design, mycola, Abraham Badenhorst


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Our possible futures A moment with Fiona Forde, author of An Inconvenient Youth

what Fiona Forde, author of An Inconvenient Youth Right: Malema’s call for the nationalisation of mines has got mining conglomerates running scared

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kind of country do you want to live in? It is this question which is at the heart of much that is making headlines, and much of that lies behind the headlines of recent months. One of the most important catalysts has been Julius Malema, An Inconvenient Youth, as Fiona Forde titled her book (published by Picador Africa).

By the time you read this, of course, Malema may have lost his toehold on politics. But even if he is forced to go quiet for a while, I have a strong feeling that he will, like the Terminator, ‘be back’. He knows he has found a note which resonates with many South Africans, a button which he can push, and he is unlikely to let that stand idle for too long. In a Sunday Times column on 25 September 2011, Jonny Steinberg says, “Here is where Malema comes in. He dips into the ANC’s history and takes from it old and familiar ideas: the nationalisation of the mines, the expropriation of land. With these, he reminds us of the deepest meaning of ‘national liberation’: the idea that a people is in charge of its fate. He tells the ANC that it is betraying its own history, that it has not delivered to South Africans what it has always promised. Malema gained traction in part because his fantasy of national liberation resonates. And it resonates because it is what the freedom struggle was about.” “I always felt that he was so way out there that he

would have to produce a counterweight,” says Forde, talking of Malema as a catalyst in a country in transition. “That hasn’t happened yet.” No, it hasn’t – but Malema, through his ‘way-out-there’ contributions to the national dialogue, has shaken up the nation and put ideas on the table which had been largely silent before. Not just nationalisation and the like, but the very idea of questioning what kind of nation we would like to build. For a long time, we had a script – the Rainbow People of God, the miracle, the bloodless revolution and so on. It’s a script which worked in a jerry-rigged style and covered over innumerable cracks in the new nation, but 17 years on, it’s beginning to look a little dog-eared, a little faded, a lot less like a miracle. Now more and more people are asking, what was it all for? What does liberation really mean?

Echoes of struggle Forde speaks of an event she covered some years back as a journalist, where the Reverend Frank Chikane was celebrating 40 years of service in the SACC. “Frank had decided to honour those who helped him become what he was today.” At the breakfast in advance, “There was a man sitting at our table, in his early 50s, still living in Soweto, not well-heeled at all.” Later, in the hall where the ceremony took place, Forde found herself sitting behind the same man. “In the middle of the service, he started to cry. It was probably an emotional moment for a lot of people, you know – thinking back – and I think a lot of South Africans don’t allow themselves to think back, because it’s a scary place to go back to; the wounds are still quite fresh. I have such a vivid picture of him in


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I’ll never be on the inside. I’m not South African. The advantage is that you’ve got a bit of a distance. But I’ll never know as much as you do, I’ll never have the nuances. I don’t have the historical background. Even if people haven’t lived through the struggle, there’s a shared history.” Forde asked her editor if she could shadow Malema – before he became the very public touchstone for different kinds of anger that he is today – and her unparalleled access gave rise to this book. “In all the time I spent with Malema, I became very negative about South Africa, and that was because in that access I had to him I had all these extraordinary political briefings from him, and I could see how bad things were behind the scenes,” she says now.

It may be all smiles now, but President Zuma faces one of his biggest challenges in trying to reign in the ANCYL leader

1984, SA style

my mind, crying quietly like a baby, you could see him shaking. And I just think there are millions of South Africans like that – there’s been no resolution. This man was young when he made sacrifices in the struggle, but for what?” Malema plugged in to this sense of disappointment, and, in the youth, anger and lack of hope, and he gave it a simplistic vocabulary. That vocabulary and understanding will remain part of the national lexicon, whatever happens to Malema now. As will the strange, fragmented patchwork of agendas and interests which the ruling party has become, and which Malema, by his actions and words, has helped to reveal. And that’s why An Inconvenient Youth will remain worth reading whatever the fate of its subject.

Looking forward

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Julius Malema is a difficult man to pin down. Forde says there’s a clear dichotomy between his public and private persona – in private he is “extremely down-to-earth and very warm; you don’t expect that”. Forde came to South Africa from Ireland about five years ago, and that enabled her to see things here in a particular way, she says: “It’s easier to see things – not more clearly, but differently. I’m always on the outside;

Perhaps one of the most important chapters in the book is chapter 14, where Forde builds on what she’s learnt to do a bit of crystal-gazing. What she sees looming – if we don’t do something to change the trajectory – is a ‘managed democracy’, which is “democratic on paper and in purpose, but in practice is characterised by enhanced levels of autocracy”. Forde explains: “I was trying to understand what I couldn’t explain to myself, and it is that thing of being democratic in theory but in practice, it is something very, very different… I started to read and read, and came across the idea of managed democracy. It fitted South Africa like a glove.” Many would argue that South Africa is not yet a managed democracy, but the possibility is there, and certainly, the description she quotes is readily recognisable from some African countries and countries like Russia: a strong presidency with weak institutions; state control of the media; control over elections, thus giving the appearance of legitimacy to the elites; and effectiveness in the short-term, with long-term inefficiency. Demos, the Greek word that gave us the word democracy, means ‘the people’, explains Forde. “Democracy is a people-centred form of government, but there’s nothing people-centred about South Africa today. It’s elite-centred.” Reading this book puts a harsh spotlight on the possible futures we face – and some are as scary as George Orwell’s 1984. But in Malema’s path to power and wealth, as laid out here, we see warning signs which should urge us to take action to avoid the worst of those futures, and turn, rather, to become a nation which is truly democratic, that is, people-centred. Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | GCIS, Riona Forde


Kwa-Zulu Natal


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Green hills The Midlands is the perfect holiday destination

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As the plane descends towards Oribi Airport in Pietermaritzburg, the green visible through the windows holds the promise of time out, away from the world of worries, time in natural surroundings, time that’s slowed to a peaceful pace. There’s something soothing and welcoming about the stretch of KwaZulu-Natal from Hilton to Mooi River, encompassing the pleasant little city of Pietermaritzburg with its beautiful old buildings and the Midlands, home to one of the best tourist routes in the country. The weather is warm but the hills and trees are lush, and there’s water everywhere, from Lions River rushing past the site of the old Caversham Mill to the Midmar Dam, that massive body that simply begs you to plunge into some water-sport or other. This region has so many strange and pleasing conjunctions: fiery aloes at winter’s end, their rich red and orange blooms a feeding ground for sunbirds, alongside rolling swards which would not look out of place in the European countryside; game reserves where rhino wander, like Tala Game Reserve outside Pietermaritzburg, not far from manicured golf courses like Bosch Hoek (once a farm owned by the legendary Punch Barlow, later a private golf course, now open to the public); wonderful arts and crafts such as the sculpture at Sue Richards Art, just a short drive from an adventure activity like the Karkloof Canopy Tour.

Top-drawer accommodation While you can find anything from quite basic accommodation in the area to top conference facilities such as TriBella in Hilton, the tourist appeal of the Midlands has ensured the establishment over the years of a number of quite legendary places to stay, such as Granny Mouse Country House. There are lovely places around Midmar Dam – Thurlow House is top of the range, with a chef on duty and all the mod cons, but you can also stay in self-catering chalets nearby. Much of what is on offer has a distinctive colonial or Victorian feel to it, like Lythwood Lodge, which does a fantastic High Tea in its beautiful gardens. The region simply oozes history, both Zulu and colonial, and you can find traces of it everywhere – at Caversham Mill, for example, outside Lions River, the owners have been restoring the original mill that was powered by the river. South Africans have woken up to the importance of innovative, fresh and interesting food, and the Midlands has kept pace – for example, the restaurant at Fordoun Spa Hotel and Restaurant just outside Nottingham

Road has some really excellent, classy dishes on offer. There’s also plenty of good quality simple fare around – one favourite thing to do is to stop in Howick and have a savoury pancake for lunch. Most of the local restaurants, guest-houses and lodges are committed to using local ingredients, and one of the pleasures of the Midlands is eating salads and vegetables which you know have travelled little more than 20km to reach your plate. And of course, you can enjoy the fruits of a microbrewery while in the area – Nottingham Road Brewery’s products are on sale at many local restaurants and pubs, and it’s worth popping in while you’re in the Midlands to take some refreshing beer home with you. And do climb the hill to Swissland Cheese if you’re a cheese lover; it’s well worth the detour.

Top: There's history embedded in this beautiful floor at Caversham Mill Left: Karkloof Canopy Tours offers the adventurous an adrenalin rush (Credit: Courtesy of Karkloof Canopy Tours)

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The green hills of the Midlands create a very restful ambience – as here, round Lythwood Lodge

PMB looks up CEO of Pietermaritzburg’ Chamber of Business, Melanie Veness, writes: The capital city of KwaZulu-Natal has had a pretty bad time of it this last couple of years, but I think that it is fair to say that we have turned the corner. The city's finances are more stable, and although there is still a great deal of work to do, we are confident that the administration team will do whatever is necessary to ensure financial security going forward. Of extreme concern to business is the city's aging infrastructure, which has proven very unreliable in

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recent times. This too is being addressed, in that the city has secured some finance to address the critical needs, and is developing an infrastructure management plan which will prioritise the replacement of redundant infrastructure. None of the recent upheaval changes the fact that this is a very close community of wonderful people, who, in the main, are committed to being part of a solution, rather than contributing to the woes. In order to encourage business to do something positive to restore the image of the city, the Pietermaritzburg


The power of pamper Another trend the Midlands region has followed enthusiastically is the spa add-on – tourists today like to have the opportunity during their holidays to pamper themselves, and many accommodation establishments in the area have some sort of spa, ranging from one or two therapists who can do a massage and a facial, to the full menu of possibilities at a place like the Karkloof Spa. Fordoun Spa Hotel has a unique selling point in Elliot Ndlovu, the sangoma on site. (You may have seen Ndlovu’s biography, A Sangoma’s Story: the calling of Elliot Ndlovu, by Melanie Reeders, recently published by Penguin.) Ndlovu has a large indigenous herb garden on the premises, where he grows many of the herbs he uses

Chamber of Business launched a ‘garden city’ campaign, in partnership with the municipality and supported by the Witness, which we have called the P3 Campaign - Picture Perfect Pmb. It is a corporate campaign that encourages businesses to either do up their own corporate garden, or to adopt a public space to landscape (like a traffic island or traffic circle). P3 signage is then erected on the site and the business maintains it for a period of a year. It is truly heartening to see our garden city status gradually being restored. The Proudly Pietermaritzburg Campaign, run and funded by concerned citizens, is making a great contribution to the cleaning-up of our streets, and we are thankful for our relatively low crime rate, which can be

in his prescriptions for guests for whom he throws the bones. It’s an interesting and unusual experience which many guests find rewarding. And of course, the Midlands Meander is a real drawcard, with many delightful little shops (Groundcover for handmade leather shoes, the Linen Loft and the nowfamous Tsonga Shoes spring to mind). Go to www. midlandsmeander.co.za to plan your trip if you have only a couple of days in hand – there’s too much to do justice to everything in a limited period. The Midlands is an enchanting place to spend time. If you’re headed to Pietermaritzburg on business, add a few days to your trip and turn it into a holiday.

Renowned sangoma Elliot Ndlovu Fordoun's rooms are refurbished farm buildings

Text | Mandi Smallhorne

attributed to the efforts of the Safe City initiative. We are pleased that our recent challenges have not completely dampened investment, and we are proud of the fact that we have seen a number of development applications and some growth and expansion despite difficult economic times. It seems reasonable to expect that we will continue to see a lot of interest and investment along the N3 corridor, as businesses realise the benefits of being situated alongside the busiest highway in the country, which is also very near to the port. Pietermaritzburg is ideally situated and remains a wonderful place to do business and to raise a family, boasting some of the best private education facilities in the country.

How to get there

Airlink flies daily to Pietermaritzburg www.flyairlink.com

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The perfect plan A well organised event can help fill your business’ coffers

from Looking for an event venue, scan in the QR code with your smartphone

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the Rugby World Cup to business networking breakfasts, event management is a lucrative and growing industry. But it is not just about raking in the cash or, in many cases, par0ting with your money. It is widely considered as one of the most important strategic marketing and communication tools by companies of all sizes.

The catering company can provide two types of services – on-site or off-site. On-site catering is when venues have their own catering facilities that work inhouse. Off-site refers to a company preparing the food in their own facilities and delivering it to the venue.

Sound advice You need your message to be heard and you need to paint a picture of the information you want to disseminate. Today, there are no limits to what you can achieve with audio-visual equipment. By using freely available software, you can spruce up everything from


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AV equipment can help determine if delegates remember your message

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PowerPoint presentations to showing movies via your notebook computer. The idea is to entertain and inform your audience, as well as create the perfect ambience for the event. After all, you don’t want people nodding off during your presentation. However, there is no need to go overboard and spend a lot of money on audio-visual equipment, especially if you are hosting a small event. Tried and tested equipment that has been around for a long time can be just as affective, if used correctly. This includes the use of whiteboards, flipchart, projection screens, overhead transparencies, slides and computer data projector. Choosing speakers can be a complicated task. It is not easy to find an excellent speaker and they don’t come cheap. It is also important to remember that public speaking is a skill that is developed over a number of years and through experience. There are six different types of speakers: Internal speakers, professionals in the field, academic experts, personalities, politicians, and well-known people. Each has their own advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes, a company will opt for an internal speaker,

but this can work in your disfavour because delegates may find them boring. Professionals know their subject, answers questions well but they can be repetitive. Academic experts are experts in their field and usually do not ask for an appearance fee, but they tend to drag a presentation along for long periods of time. Personalities are entertaining but the downside is that they can be late, unreliable and you may have to deal with a huge ego. Politicians are free, well known and make an impact, but they are not always available and can be very demanding. Well-known speakers can be inspirational and professional, but can be expensive and arrogant. You will have to decide what sort of message you want to get across at your event and choose a speaker accordingly. Planning an event can be a daunting task and should be handled by a professional if it is to be a success. After all, you want the name of your business to be on everyone’s lips when they leave your event. Text | Joy Victor Photography | Scott Maxwell / LuMaxArt, Randy Miramontez, Barone Firenze


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d e h c Bot s l a s s i m s i d n i u r s n e i ca pan m o c

Make sure you follow procedure

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the Labour Relations Act (LRA) and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA) obviously contain numerous provisions explaining the duties of employers, including security firms, these statutes are very vague and confusing in many areas.

For example, the LRA and BCEA both list seven factors that render a worker an employee covered by labour law rather than an independent contractor (someone who works for himself/herself). However, the statutes give the employer no guidelines to the practical methods used to check whether its workers are employees protected by the labour law or independent contractors without labour law rights. Nor do the statutes provide an objective system for


understanding what these statutory criteria actually mean. For example, one factor that renders a worker an employee as opposed to an independent contractor is that ‘the person forms part of the organisation’. However, this concept is not defined and it is left up to employers to decide what it means. This could cause an employer to terminate the contract of a consultant without following labour law procedure. Then the CCMA might deem the consultant to be an employee and penalise the employer for having failed to follow the LRA’s procedures. The LRA is also extremely unclear as to what is meant by ‘sufficient time’ in item 6 of schedule 8 of the LRA. That is, the employer is required to give ‘sufficient time’ to strikers not complying with the Act before dismissing them. It is often due to the vagaries of the law that employers lose dismissal cases on the grounds of failing to follow procedure at the CCMA or in labour court. The inability to make sense of the law of fair disciplinary procedure can be very costly for security firms.

Compensation According to sections 193 and 194 of the LRA, the awards and orders that can be made against the employer for unfair dismissal are as follows: • The LRA requires the CCMA or Labour Court, as the primary remedy, to give the employee his/her job back and to pay the employee all remuneration calculated back to the date of the dismissal. The employer must also reinstate all the employee’s benefits retrospectively. • The LRA also permits the CCMA or Labour Court to order re-employment instead of reinstatement. This means that, while the security company must give the employee his/her job back, this is without back pay. • Even if the firm does not have to take the employee back at all it may still have to pay compensation up to a maximum of 12 months’ remuneration calculated at the employee’s newest rate of remuneration. If the dismissal is deemed to be automatically unfair the maximum compensation that may be awarded is 24 months’ remuneration. • Such compensation is payable in addition to all other payments due to the employee. These could

include notice pay, leave pay and even payment for the unexpired portion of the employee’s contract.

Reinstatement More and more lawyers and consultants are therefore advising employers to offer reinstatement to dismissed employees where the employee disputes the dismissal procedure. That is, the employer’s legal experts are advising employers to reinstate the employee before the matter gets as far as court or arbitration so as to avoid these heavy penalties being imposed by the CCMA or Labour Court. For some time this reinstatement tactic has been effective. The firm, after realising it has made a mistake in the dismissal procedure, takes the employee back, or declares the dismissal null and void, so cancelling out the procedural error. Then the firm fires the employee again, but this time uses the correct procedure.

lvan lsraelstam, Chief Executive of Labour Law Management Consulting. He may be contacted on 011 8887944 or 082 852 2973 or on e-mail address: labourlaw@cinet.co.za. Web address: www. labourlawadvice.co.za. This article first appeared in The Star.

Case study However, the use of this tactic is becoming more and more risky for employers. For example, in the case of Unitrans Zululand (Pty) Ltd vs Cebekhulu (as reported in People Dynamics, October 2003) the Labour Appeal Court was faced with such a decision. The employer retrenched Cebekhulu but, realising that the retrenchment procedure was faulty, withdrew the retrenchment and restarted consultation procedures. The Court found that these new consultations were ‘merely an attempt to paper the cracks’ of the botched procedure followed during the first set of consultations. According to the People Dynamic’s report the Court found that the employer’s decision to ‘begin consultations afresh’ was made in bad faith ‘only when it was advised that it had not complied with the LRA’. The Court therefore decided that the reinstatement of the employee could not correct the botched retrenchment procedure and awarded costs against the employer. It is therefore not a safe option for security firms to implement retrenchments inexpertly and then hope to correct the error using the reinstatement tactic. The only route to follow is to obtain expert advice before dismissing employees for any reason and to make sure that you are getting the advice from a genuine labour law expert with solid experience with retrenchments. Text | lvan lsraelstam Photography | VIPDesignUSA

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In an article he wrote last year in Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Andy Grove called himself “a onetime factory guy.” It was a reminder that the 74-year-old retired chairman of Intel knows from experience how costly and risky manufacturing can be. Given these challenges, Grove argues, the US government should do far more to nurture manufacturing, or else the country will face dire consequences. For one thing, losing the ability to manufacture things domestically will make it harder for innovators to scale their ideas into products, he says. Indeed, although photovoltaic technology was invented in the United States, many key innovations in solar power are happening in Asia now, largely because the necessary manufacturing prowess is there. Second, he argues, only manufacturing can meaningfully reduce unemployment. That’s why Grove thinks the United States shouldn’t necessarily focus solely on 'high-value' production of advanced technologies; it might also be wise to boost manufacturing of some lower-value goods. In his BusinessWeek piece, he even called for taxes on goods made overseas, with the resulting revenue to be invested in American manufacturers. Such protectionist measures are unpopular with economists. But Grove remains convinced, as he told technology journalist Robert D. Hof. TR: What prompted your concern about the decline of US manufacturing jobs? Grove: The incredible magnitude of job loss in the US computer industry. In the 1970s, the US computer industry had 150,000 workers. This became two million at its peak but now is back to 150,000. Meanwhile, computers went from a $20 billion to a $200 billion industry. To have that happen and for us to continue to repeat the mantra that innovation and technology will save us, in the face of evidence to the contrary – that was why I wrote about this.

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Aren’t automation and other productivity improvements major reasons for this decline in factory jobs? No. Notwithstanding ­productivity, most of those jobs still exist – just not here. You can correlate what happened in the US completely to the rise of contract manufacturing [in which a company like Apple designs a product and hands off the production to another company]. One company accounts for 1.1 million computer manufacturing jobs – China’s Foxconn.

Isn’t it simply cheaper to manufacture in China? First of all, try to find an analysis that tells how much cheaper. You can probably get whatever answer you want, depending on the assumptions you make. Is the local supply chain saving cost? How much of your support costs [expenses related to manufacturing, such as those incurred in product design or engineering] do you assign to labor in foreign countries? How much of the benefit of moving a plant offshore is from tax benefits from the host country? The received wisdom is that “everybody knows manufacturing in the US is dead.”If you believe those things and act on them, they’re going to be true. I think venture investments are influenced by the 'everybody knows' factor before the first spreadsheet is run. And if you don’t get the money to scale manufacturing here, you won’t do it. And if you don’t do it, your suppliers won’t move to the United States either. Do any other industrialised countries provide clues to how the United States might boost at least some kinds of manufacturing? Germany managed – in complete contrast to the US – to hold on to manufacturing and move it upscale. So they do precision manufacturing, like Mercedes. Siemens produces high-end imaging products and power technology. It’s not that Germany has no problems. It’s just that employment is not among them. For that to be more feasible in the US, what needs to occur here? I think the biggest enemy of manufacturing in the US is the pseudo-knowledge that America is a bad place for manufacturing. This perception will keep manufacturing from happening and thereby ensure that the reality will fulfill the prophecy. I think for every example where companies, states, cities, governmental agencies do well on this issue, our government should find ways of drumming it into the consciousness of people who are considering building a plant or who are ready to enter a career which is not manufacturing-based. It is probably best to look at this as a major brand campaign. You don’t sound confident that the US will recapture manufacturing jobs. I think all of this is going to happen, but it will happen too late. In World War II, American manufacturing won the war, but even then, it took them two years to get moving, and that was a different world. I don’t know any way to break the cycle except to plug away and create enough successes that you begin to raise doubts about the conventional wisdom. Photography | Robyn Twomey


Andy Grove The former leader of Intel wants to see more manufacturing jobs in the United States – by any means necessary.

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Leadership vs Management How do you use each to balance the other?

the

terms 'management' and 'leadership' are often interchanged. In fact, many people view them as basically the same thing. Yet management is as distinct from leadership as day is from night. Both are necessary, however, for a highperformance organisation. By contrasting them and understanding their differences, we can better balance and improve these essential roles

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One key distinction between management and leadership is that we manage things and lead people. Things include physical assets, processes, and systems. People include customers, external partners, and people throughout our team or organisation (or 'internal partners'). When dealing with things, we talk about a way of doing. In the people realm, we're talking about a way of being. In addition to consulting and training work, I often add a third element – technical – to management and leadership to form what I call a 'Performance Triangle.' This adds another dimension to the question, "how should the organisation's focus be allocated to each area?" While apparently simple, the question is often a very difficult one to answer, since there is no universal formula that applies to all organisations. Some need more technical skills or better technologies. Others need the discipline of better systems and processes. Most need a lot more leadership.

The triangle (pictured) depicts the balance between the three critical success factors. Imagine a pendulum swinging in the centre of the triangle. It's very difficult to keep the pendulum in a state of equilibrium. In some cases, organisations may need to swing the pendulum in one direction because that's where it's weakest. For example, entrepreneurial start-up companies often have strong vision, passion, and energy (leadership) and may also have good technological or technical skills. But their lack of systems and processes or poor management discipline leads to a lot of errors, poor service/quality, and frustration for customers and people in the organisation. The most common weakness, however, is in leadership. The triangle illustrates that a well-balanced organisation has leadership at the base. This allows management and technology to serve rather than enslave producers, servers, and customers.

Identifying the cracks Another complicating factor is that needs are easily misidentified. For example, we have found that most organisations have communication problems of one kind or another. Often these are seen as leadership issues. Many times they are. But just as often the roots of the problem are intertwined with poor processes, systems, or structure – all of which are management issues. While it is important to recognise the differences between leadership and management, it is also important to appreciate that the two have complementary strengths, as well. Text | Jim Clemmer


EM EN T

H TEC LOG

MA NA G

NO Y

LEADERSHIP

Complementary strengths Management

Leadership

Processes

People

Facts

Feelings

Intellectual

Emotional

Head

Heart

Position power

Persuasion power

Control

Commitment

Problem solving

Possibility thinking

Reactive

Proactive

Doing things right

Doing the right things

Rules

Values

Goals

Vision

Light a fire under people

Stoke the fire within people

Written communications

Verbal communications

Standardisation

Innovation

Jim Clemmer's practical leadership and personal growth books, workshops, and team retreats have helped hundreds of thousands of people worldwide improve personal, team, and organisational performance. Visit JimClemmer.com

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free | mind

things

you didn’t

know about… Amaze your friends! Every month we tell you then things you didn’t know – or had forgotten – about a range of subjects.

1

Cutlery was made in many places but the first cutlery ever invented (some 300,000 years ago) were knives, carved from flint and stone that made skinning and hacking dead animals an easy chore. The first personal eating knives appeared in Britain in the 14th century; however forks were first used by Italians 50 years before they were adopted by Britain. Forks didn’t arrive on British shores until the 17th century when the people who were happy to shovel food with their hands, finally caught on. By mid 19th century, factories such as Sheffield – being the preeminent centre – and Birmingham were churning out millions of forks. The main characteristic for a knife is the sharp edge, which was used as a hunting tool and to cut meat. More sophisticated spoons were introduced to Britain by the Romans. Spoons were made out of bone, pewter, bronze and silver. The first invention of these spoons were round bowls attached to a narrow handle, but they evolved as time went by, making them flatter in front with slimmer handles.

2

3

4 5

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cutlery

ten

6

The first invention of a spoon is unknown but the very first spoons were scooped out of the end of a bone or animal’s horn or simply made of shells tied to the end of sticks. It wasn’t until the 19th century, with the arrival of forks and other proper tableware, that slurping soup out of a bowl was considered awfully rude, making a spoon essential in every kitchen. Good quality cutlery is made of silver, hence the US name silverware, but in the early days it was made of animal horn, flint or stone. Raw materials for cutlery are stainless steel and sterling silver, steel being the most popular because it's easy to care for, durable and reasonably priced. Cutlery designs have evolved; designing cutlery sets with various colour-handles to coordinate and match your dining tableware. These handles are generally made from plastic.

7 8 9

10

Text | Fikiswa Majikela Photography | discpicture


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A battle won Global efforts have dramatically reduced malaria deaths 52 11 11


It took about $5 billion to achieve, but in September this year, the global Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme was able to announce that “the world has made remarkable gains against malaria in the past ten years, increasing optimism that an end to the disease is in sight. "According to Roll Back Malaria Partnership: A Decade of Partnership and Results, global malaria deaths have dropped by an estimated 38%, with 43 countries (11 of them in Africa) cutting malaria cases or deaths by 50% or more, reversing the trend of the previous decade and saving more than a million lives.” The excitement in the reports is palpable: “Only rarely have we seen a public health initiative provide so much return on investment,” said the UN Secretary Ban Ki-moon. The idea, the dream, of beating malaria as humankind has beaten other diseases is in the air. It’s one more step along a very long road indeed. Malaria is one of the oldest recorded diseases – there’s a description of it in the 4700-year-old Chinese medical

text, Nei Ching – and once it threatened people from Archangel in the Russian Arctic to New Jersey to Argentina. It’s a disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, wherever the host mosquitoes can thrive, which is why malaria was a problem in New Jersey until as recently as the 1950s, and was a leading cause of death in the salt marshes of southern England (for example, in the Fens, the Thames Estuary and Essex marshes) 200 years ago, only disappearing from Britain in the early 1900s. Currently about 3.3 billion people (half of the world's population) are at risk of malaria. And the ‘roll-back’ is especially good news, as we know that malaria’s range is steadily expanding as climate change expands the mosquito’s range – scientists in Britain predict that malaria could once again take hold of fully a third of the country, including heavily populated London.

Controlling malaria Unlike other disease which have been eliminated, like smallpox, there’s no silver bullet for malaria. The complex life cycle of the parasite has made creating a vaccine difficult, and other treatments that seemed

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Right: The continent’s underprivileged must also have access to malaria vaccinations Bellow: Bed nets can have a huge impact in the fight against malaria

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Quick facts about malaria

Malaria is a parasite of the species Plasmodium; it is carried by the Anopheles species of mosquito. Anopheles gambiae is the one that causes the trouble in Africa. It is spread through mosquito bites from human to human. In a malarial area, anyone – babies, adults, old people – can get malaria. Every year, malaria causes about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths. One in every five childhood deaths in Africa is due to the disease.

miraculous at the time (like quinine, isolated in 1820 from the bark of the cinchona tree) have proven to be of limited or fading effect. It seems that any campaign against malaria must include several prongs: • Reduce the number of mosquitoes. It would seem that ecological transformation, such as the draining of the marshes outside Rome and in southern England, had a greater impact on banishing malaria than any medical approach. Massive spraying campaigns with DDT had a huge impact, but the mosquitoes can and do develop a resistance to this chemical. Communities need to be educated about controlling puddles in which mosquitoes can breed. Even a small amount of water sitting in a tyre lying by the side of the road can become a breeding ground. • Bed-nets treated with insecticide have had a huge impact, reducing child deaths by as much as 20%. This is the tack that local activist Kingsley Amis and UN envoy for malaria (and wealthy financier) Raymond Chambers have taken, aiming to get nets into the homes of every family at risk. If 80% of homes in each community use nets, the level of protection is very high. However, distribution is difficult in the countries most at risk, and the nest must be replaced every three to five years to remain effective. • Indoor residual spraying is a highly effective way of bringing the mosquito population down, and despite the controversy surrounding DDT, the insecticide of choice, it’s the method South Africa uses in the small villages of Limpopo that are at risk of malaria. Once again, to get the best effect, about 80% or more of homes should be sprayed. The spraying remains effective for up to six months. • Access to good diagnostic kits (the quicker the disease is diagnosed, the more efficiently it

As a result of inappropriate use over the last century, the parasite is in large parts of the world resistant to many drugs against malaria, such as chloroquine. In January this year, the WHO announced a plan to protect artemisinins, the critical component of artemisininbased combination therapies (ACTs), our strongest treatment for the deadliest form of the disease, falciparum malaria. “Resistance to artemisinins has already emerged in areas on the Cambodia-Thailand border,” the WHO explained.

can be treated) and effective drugs is the final essential element in anti-malaria campaigns.

Focus and funding Malaria surged back in the late 20th century, Reaching unprecedented levels in some developing countries. What is the reason for this recent success, then? Funds and focus, it seems: a whole heap of new agencies and initiatives have been created in recent years to fight malaria, including: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (www.theglobalfund.org), the US President's Malaria Initiative (www.fightingmalaria. gov), the World Bank Malaria Booster Program (www.worldbank.org/afr/malaria), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (www.gatesfoundation.org), the African Leaders Malaria Alliance (www.alma2015.org), and the Office of the UN Special Envoy for Malaria (www.malariaenvoy.com). There are more than 500 private and public sector partners under the umbrella of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, founded in 1998 to coordinate global action against malaria. Between them, these organisations have raised or mobilised about $5 billion (R40 billion), dramatically increasing the provision of essentials such as bed-nets and drugs. (Considering that malaria is estimated to cost Africa some $12 billion (R96 billion) annually in lost productivity, and it seems cheap at that price!) Improved funding has in the last ten years been instrumental in the development of better diagnostic tests, longer-lasting insecticides for nets and more effective drugs. The UN Secretary-General’s goal is to have near-zero malaria deaths by 2015. Is that achievable? It is highly unlikely – but the increased success in recent years holds out the hope that malaria will no longer be the scourge of Africa. Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | Henrik Larsson, leospek, Sam DCruz

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free | soul

Have you seen the old man In the closed-down market Kicking up the paper, with his worn out shoes? In his eyes you see no pride And held loosely at his side Yesterday's paper telling yesterday's news So how can you tell me you're lonely, And say for you that the sun don't shine? Let me take you by the hand and lead you through the streets of London I'll show you something to make you change your mind‌ (Ralph McTell, Streets of London)

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Singing the

blues Songs for hard times

It’s been a year of ferment, from the Arab Spring to the protests in France, Spain and Chile to the London riots. While each individual incident has its own specific reasons, the big bass note humming beneath them all is the ongoing economic woe. Unemployment is on the rise in many countries, growth is poor or stagnant, and people are feeling it in their empty pockets and rising food prices. Images surface in the media that are reminiscent of literature from the 1920s and 30s Great Depression, like John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath and George Orwell’s Down and Out in Paris and London. When middle-class online media like Alternet and Salon.com start featuring articles about scavenging and foraging as a way of life, you know that a frisson of fear is creeping up the spines of readers who know that they themselves are one short step – maybe one pay-cheque – away from a life of poverty. In South Africa, poverty is hidden just around the corner. In fallow land just off the highway, you’ll find shacks tucked into the landscape’s folds, arriving as quietly as mushrooms overnight. Months pass and suddenly three or four shy shacks have morphed into reptilian embroidery of corrugated iron scales stitched right across the veld.“We all know you must come to the city to find work,” one shack dweller told me. When jobs dry up and subsistence farming no longer provides subsistence, people pack their bags and move towards hope, just as they did in Depression America. But the move is not always rewarding. When cities are moribund because of a torpid global economy, with jobs available only for the lucky and the privileged, the poor fall between the cracks. Ralph McTell busked his way through Europe; his iconic Streets of London, which came out in 1974, was actually based on experiences he had had in Paris (it

Street theatre ‘Busking’ has an ancient history. The practice of performing (juggling, acting, clowning, singing) in the streets and public places, with a hat or something similar to collect money from passers-by, dates back to the birth of cities. There’s a charming mosaic picture that was unearthed in the city of Pompeii (the one which was buried in lava when Vesuvius erupted in the year 79) of musicians with drums and pipes dancing in the street. The Roma or gypsies often performed in this way; Mexican mariachi bands stroll the streets of Mexico; while in Prague and Berlin you might find a classical quartet with their violins and cellos setting up in a square to entertain pedestrian traffic. The word busker appeared in the 19th century, and comes from the Spanish ‘buscar’ – to seek, presumably fame and fortune.


free | soul

Music can add to a depressive state

seems the name was not as mellifluous as London!), but the vignettes he painted of urban poverty are as grimly true and relevant today as ever.

Got the blues

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Music is full of portraits of poverty and suffering – which the musicians, from Bob Marley to UB40, often knew from the inside out. Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out is a prophetic song, a blues standard which was written by Jimmy Cox in 1923, just a few years before the hammerblow of depression struck. It describes the fleeting nature of friendships based on material wealth: Once I lived the life of a millionaire Spent all my money, just did not care Took all my friends out for a good time Drank bootleg whisky, champagne and wine Then I began to fall so low Lost all my good friends, I did not have nowhere to go If I get my hands on a dollar again I’m gonna hang on to it till that eagle grins, yeah, ‘Cos nobody knows you when you’re down and out In your pocket, not one penny And as for friends, well, you ain’t got any… It’s been covered by everyone from Bessie Smith to Eric Clapton. Other songs that reflect on poverty range from Lynyrd Skynyrd’s Mr Banker ('I ain't got no house, I ain't got no car/ I just got me a 1950 Les Paul guitar/ Won't you take it mister banker/ won't you bury my papa for me/ Oh mister banker please') to the sarcasm of Dead Kennedys’ neat solution to poverty (The sun beams down on a brand new day/No more welfare tax to pay/Unsightly slums gone

up in flashing light/Jobless millions whisked away/At last we have more room to play/All systems go to kill the poor tonight) to Simply Red (Money’s Too Tight to Mention) to any number of rap and hip-hop songs. One of my favourites became a hit in 1969 when Elvis sang it in his lush voice. Written by a country singer/songwriter, Mac Davis (who also, as a matter of interest, penned – and had a hit with – Lord, It’s Hard to be Humble), it was originally titled The Vicious Circle. It is a perfect and poignant short story, which begins with a birth and ends with one: As the snow flies, on a cold and gray Chicago mornin' A poor little baby child is born in the ghetto And his mama cries; 'cause if there's one thing that she don't need It's another hungry mouth to feed in the ghetto… Then one night in desperation a young man breaks away He buys a gun, steals a car, tries to run, but he don't get far… As her young man dies, on a cold and gray Chicago mornin' Another little baby child is born in the ghetto And his mama cries. (Mac Davis, In the Ghetto) In this song, even more powerfully than Ralph McTell in Streets of London, Davis asks those who are comfortably-off to reach out to those trapped in poverty: People, don't you understand, the child needs a helping hand? Or he'll grow to be an angry young man some day Take a look at you and me, are we too blind to see? Do we simply turn our heads and look the other way? Maybe that’s a thought to ponder, as this long year ends in a festive season which won’t be very festive for far too many South Africans. Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | wrangler, Edward Bruns, yienkeat


free | body

Notes on the

What you need to know about a range of cultural icons Have you ever found yourself blindsided in a discussion by someone who is oh-so-cultivated, they’ve got quotes from Nietsche and Mtshali on the tip of their tongue, and can hum the main theme from Dvorak’s New World Symphony (second movement) without pause for thought? Yup, we know how it feels. Those of us who’ve been far too busy making a living, learning practical skills, building

companies and raising families can often feel a bit left-footed in the company of the dreaded Culture Vulture. In this series, we give you the ‘study notes’ for a range of classics, in the hopes that they will help you hold your own at that cocktail party or wedding reception – and maybe even provide some startling, quirky information that the CV has never heard before!

Classic play

According to my bond; nor more nor less. In a rage, Lear disinherits her and divides the kingdom between his other two daughters, announcing that he will live with each of them in turn. Goneril and Regan both treat him with complete disrespect, and the old king storms out of Regan’s home in a rage. Accompanied only by the Fool (a court jester), and followed by a loyal courtier, Kent, he wanders the heath during a storm. It is in this scene that Lear rages at the storm, a speech which gives Shakespearian actors a chance to strut their stuff: Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow! You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout Till you have drench'd our steeples, drown'd the cocks! Experiencing the same harsh conditions as the poor, he muses:

Title: King Lear Author: William Shakespeare

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What is it? Thought by many to be the greatest Shakespeare of them all, King Lear is a tragedy which revolves around truth and lies, love and loyalty, chaos and authority, justice and the indifference of the gods. It’s almost impossible to summarise in a few words, so here’s a list of highlights: When Lear decides to retire, he announces that he’ll bequeath his kingdom to the daughter who loves him best. Goneril and Regan declare their love in fulsome terms; Cordelia is honest: Unhappy that I am, I cannot heave My heart into my mouth: I love your majesty


Poor naked wretches, whereso'er you are, That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm, How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, Your loop'd and window'd raggedness, defend you From seasons such as these? A sub-plot echoes the main theme of unloving, devious children as opposed to the truly loving and honest kids. Gloucester has an evil bastard son Edmund, and a good son Edgar. For helping Lear, Regan orders Gloucester to be blinded. In a scene which has given schoolchildren many frissons over the years, Regan’s husband says of the eye he’s attacking: Out, vile jelly! (Edgar, in disguise, helps and guides his father Gloucester after this.) It all ends in death and disaster, as the body count mounts. Regan’s husband is murdered by a ‘faithful’ servant. Cordelia brings troops to Dover to rescue Lear; the sisters, one remaining husband and Edmund march to Dover to fight the French. Cordelia is reunited with her father, but then both are captured by Goneril and Regan’s troops, and Edmund secretly gives orders to have them executed. The two evil sisters fight over who gets the stud Edmund, and Goneril poisons Regan. Goneril’s husband, a bit peeved at that Goneril wants to kill him so she can be with Edmund, orders them both arrested for treason. Edgar shows up and stabs his bad brother in the guts. When he reveals his true identity, Gloucester up and dies of a heart attack from the shock. Regan dies of the poison. Goneril

stabs herself. In a sudden stab-related change of heart, Edmund tries to countermand his execution order, but Cordelia is killed. Lear enters with his dead daughter in his arms: Thou'lt come no more, Never, never, never, never, never! And with almost no actors left standing, the play ends. Quirky facts: • It’s based on a legend about a Celtic king called Leir. According to the ancient historian Geoffrey of Monmouth, he was the founder of Leicester. • Lines which are often quoted include this from Gloucester: As flies to wanton boys, so we are to the gods/They kill us for their sport. • A widely distributed fairy tale follows the same theme. Sometimes called Love Like Salt, it appears in slightly different versions in countries as far removed as India and Italy: a king asks his three daughters how much they love him, and the youngest replies,“Like salt.”He is angered by this, but one day, when he holds a great feast, the youngest daughter ensures all the dishes are prepared without salt, and this makes him understand how much she values him. • Freud thought that Cordelia represented Death – so when her dad rejects her, he’s rejecting death. Hmmm. • Improbable as it sounds, Lear works brilliantly on stage: “No man will ever write a better tragedy than Lear.” (George Bernard Shaw)

Shakespeare penned what is arguably the greatest tragedy of all time

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Classic building Name: Angkor Wat What is it? A temple complex in Cambodia which was built in the early 12th century, and the world’s largest religious building. It’s a well-known symbol of Cambodia, and appears on the country’s flag, and has done since the 1860s, when a flag was first adopted. It’s probably the primary reason why most tourists visit the country. Work on the temple began in the reign of Suryavarman II (1113 – c. 1150). The temple was dedicated to Vishnu, and the design represents Mount Meru, home of the Hindu devas. It contains three rectangular galleries, each one raised above the next, with a quincunx of towers in the centre of the temple. Over the intervening centuries, the use of the temple moved from Hindu to Theravada Buddhist use.

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Quirky facts: • Angkor Wat means ‘City temple’. • Devas are Hindu gods. Vishnu is one of the most important gods – in one tradition, he is the supreme god. • Theravada Buddhism is the oldest surviving Buddhist school; it’s been in existence for about 2250 years. • What is a quincunx? I knew you’d ask! It’s a pattern of five points in which four form a square or rectangle, while the fifth is in the middle. Think of the side of a dice on which there are five dots to represent five – it’s that pattern. Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | Stocksnapper, Luciano Mortula


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y s a E

on the palate Three wines reviewed

along Tinnie Momberg, Winemaker at Middelvlei

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the outskirts of the picturesque town of Stellenbosch lies the family-owned wine estate Middelvlei – home to the Momberg family since 1919 – where brothers Tinnie and Ben combine their skills and passion to maintain the proud tradition of creating choice wines of exceptional character.

As a third generation Winemaker, Tinnie is the creative force behind each Middelvlei wine. In recent years, he has shifted his winemaking focus to embrace more fruit-forward wines with smoother tannins.“New plantings now in production have not only added complexity to our wines, but also improved their immediate drinkability,” says Tinnie. “A wine is really good when you can easily drink a bottle, not just a glass!” The Middelvlei cellar boasts a combination of traditional equipment and new technology and the wine is fermented in a combination of new stainless steel tanks and traditional open cement tanks. All Middelvlei wines are made from home-grown fruit and bottled on the estate. Tinnie shares three of his favourite wines to stock up on this festive season.

Middelvlei Free Run Pinotage 2010 Consistently producing award-winning wines, Middelvlei is well-known for its Pinotage wines, devoting 24 hectares of the estate to this varietal. These wines are made from the ‘free run’ juice – juice that flows freely from the skin of grapes before they are pressed. The natural weight of the grapes, when stacked on each other, tends to result in the release of some juice. Due to it not being pressed, the juice contains much less tannins. Often called the ‘noble juice’, it is more expensive as there is less of it and, when fermented and racked, the end product is considered much higher in quality. The latest vintage Middelvlei Free Run Pinotage 2010 is a deep ruby red wine with violet edges, sweet raspberry aromas on the nose, mulberry undertones and elegant oak spices. It is a medium-bodied wine packed with fruit flavours.

Zorgvleit Richelle 2006 I love this full bodied but friendly wine. It is a serious wine, but still has a soft velvet side. Probably like the girl it was named after – serious when need be but usually lots of fun. A flag bearer for the estate, the Richelle 2006 is the ultimate expression of Zorgvliet terroir. Cassis, cedar wood and exotic notes of cloves follow through to the palate, revealing great elegance and immense concentration. Ripe dark berry fruit, on the palate with restrained minerality, lead to a textured and fine tannin structure.

Overgaauw Tria Corda 2006 This wine has a good track record. It has been one of my favourites for years – I like a big wine with personality.


Stellenbosch extravaganza returns to Summer Place South Africa’s granddaddy of wine tourism celebrates its 40th anniversary up north with an unrivalled wine, food, music and art extravaganza at the second Stellenbosch at Summer Place in Hyde Park on Wednesday, 9 November 2011. If last year’s sell-out inaugural Stellenbosch at Summer Place is anything to go by, tickets will be flying fast, so make sure you get hold of yours today. Tickets are limited and cost R395 per head, and include wine tasting and gourmet indulgences throughout the evening. The evening starts from 18h30. For more information and ticket sales, contact Christa on 021 886 8275, or visit www.wineroute.co.za.

This wine tells you something about the Van Velden family and Overgaauw. A full-bodied Bordeaux style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon (60%) and Merlot (40%), the Tria Corda blend usually includes Cabernet Franc (hence the Tria), but the 2006 Cabernet Franc’s quality did not live up to the Tria Corda quality standards, and was thus omitted. This wine is seductively perfumed with cassis,

raspberry, cedar and a touch of spice and minerals. The wine follows through with a silky, balanced palate with fine ripe tannins and a long concentrated finish. The 18 months spent in small French oak barrels ensures at least 10 years ageing potential is complemented by the wine’s brilliant fruit. Text | Tinnie Momberg, Winemaker at Middelvlei

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free | body

Engineering

l a e m t c e f r e p e h t

Henrico Grobbelaar

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a qualified

engineer, Henrico Grobbelaar, executive chef of the Twelve Apostles Hotel and Spa, applies science and ingenuity in his kitchen. Since swapping complicated machines for a chef’s hat in 2002, Grobbelaar has become one of South Africa’s most creative and celebrated chefs. He has a long list of accolades under his chopping block including the

Applying science in the kitchen

San Pellegrino International Young Chef of the Year and the Sunday Times Chef of the Year, both in 2009. He is currently the captain of the South African Culinary Olympic team and spends many hours mentoring and training young chefs. His dedication to his chosen career and willingness to work long hours started during his student days, when he juggled his studies and worked for chef David Higgs during his free weekends. “At the time I was studying under Garth Stroebel and Paul Hartmann at their Culinary Academy. They provided me with my foundation, introduced me to competitions and train me today still,” Grobbelaar says. Today, his kitchen at The Twelve Apostles Hotel runs like a well-oiled machine – even occasionally literally greased by the former engineer himself, who can’t resist taking ailing machinery apart to find out what the problem is. “My toolbox is kept in my office,” he says. Grobbelaar describes his recently launched menu at the Azure Restaurant as “honest cuisine”. Cooking with game meat is one of his specialities “because I like to recognise my roots and highlight South African cuisine”. His other favourite ingredient to create mouth-watering dishes is fresh seafood. His list of kitchen ‘must-haves’ includes olive oil, duck fat, Maldon salt, cracked black pepper, and lemons, while his favourite kitchen gadget is a speed peeler. His current culinary goal is to establish himself and his new style of cuisine at The Twelve Apostles Hotel and Spa. “Then I want to build an even stronger kitchen brigade. I will be guided by feedback from our guests in building up a track record for the Azure Restaurant and establishing ourselves as a ‘contender’ on the South African food map. This month, we feature some of Grobbelaar’s unique recipes. Text | Lauren Cohen. Recipes by Henrico Grobbelaar Photos | courtesy of Twelve Apostles Hotel and Spa


Ingredients Cheese Cake Base 500g Graham Biscuit Crumble 260g Sugar 340g Butter 4g Cinnamon Cheese Cake Mixture 1350g Cream Cheese, Philadelphia (option ½ Kiri cheese-1/2 smooth crème cheese) 6 Eggs, separate 350g Sugar 15ml Vanilla essence 1 pod Vanilla 450ml Cream 5g Salt, rock Cheese Cake Topping 450ml Sour cream 50g Sugar

Bea Tollman Cheese Cake

4.

Cheese Cake Base

5.

1. 2. 3.

6.

Mix the dry ingredients with the melted butter. Line in the cake ring and on the side of the cake ring. Bake for seven to eight minutes at 160°C.

Cheese Cake Mixture 1. 2. 3.

Mix the cheese and half of the sugar, vanilla essence and pod. Add the egg yolks and mix smooth. Whip the egg white with the remaining sugar.

Mix together and pour into the pre-baked biscuit crumble mix. Bake at 160°C and turn off the oven. Keep in over for an hour. Store in the fridge for 12 hours.

Cheese Cake Topping 1. 2. 3. 4.

Pre-heat the oven at 100°C. Mix together the sour cream and the sugar. Pour on the 12 hours chilled cheese cake and bake for 20 minutes. Chill for 24 hours before serving.

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Ingredients (Serves 8) 30ml Olive oil 1 Carrot, peeled and chopped 1 Leek, washed and chopped 1 Onion, chopped 0.5 Celery, washed and chopped 15ml Tomato paste 250ml Red wine 4 Garlic cloves 1250ml Chicken stock 10g Salt, medium 5g Pepper, cracked Garlic Risotto (Serves 8) 2 Large onions 1200ml Chicken stock 500ml Rice, Arborio 60ml Chives, chopped 125ml Garlic, puree

Mushrooms and Mushroom Purée (Serves 8) 16 King oyster, cut in half 120ml Butter 400g mushroom, pizza mix, finely sliced 150ml Béchamel, thick 2 Onions, chopped 2 Garlic cloves 5ml Truffle oil 10g Salt, medium 5g Pepper Quail Breast (Serves 8) 8 Quail breast, Aileron Bone intact 80ml Olive oil 5g Salt, medium 3g Pepper, cracked 16 Chives, cut oblique 2cm long

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Quail with roasted garlic risotto, Red wine reduction and puree exotic mushrooms 1. Remove the bone in the thigh only and season the leg and thigh with salt and pepper. 2. Sear with the olive oil in a hot saucepan over a high heat for two minutes on each side. 3. Remove the meat and add the carrot, leek, chopped onion, and celery to the pan. 4. Cook over a medium high heat for three minutes, or until golden brown. 5. Add the tomato paste and deglaze with the red wine. 6. Return the leg to the pan, add the garlic and

cover with 500ml of chicken stock. 7. Bring to the simmer over a medium low heat, cover with aluminum foil. 8. Braise in a 160˚C oven for two hours or until very tender. 9. The braising liquid must be strained and transferred to a marked sanitised squeeze bottle.

Garlic Risotto 1.

Place the onion and 60 ml of butter in a medium sauté pan and cook over a medium heat for 10 to 15 minutes, or until golden brown and remove onions from the heat and set aside.


2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

Cook the minced garlic and minced onion with 60ml of butter in a large sauté pan over a medium heat for three minutes or until onions are translucent. Add the Arborio rice and cook for two minutes, stirring frequently. Slowly add 250ml of chicken stock and stir until it is completely absorb. Add 1000ml of chicken stock, 500ml at a time, stirring continuously with a smooth, gentle motion until the liquid is completely absorbed before adding more. The risotto will take 40 to 50 minutes to cook completely. Under cook with 5 minutes to make up for reheat and serve. Fold in the caramelised onions, chopped chives and roasted garlic puree and season to taste with salt and pepper before serving.

Mushrooms and Mushroom Purée 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

Sauté the mushrooms with 60ml of butter in a hot pan for two to three minutes. Season to taste and serve four halves per plate. Place the chopped onion and 60ml of butter in a medium sauté pan and cook over a medium heat for 4 to 5 minutes, or until translucent. Add the thinly sliced Mushroom mix and sauté. Do not overcrowd the sauté pan. Add the béchamel and bring to the boil. Add the truffle oil and remove from the heat. Blend to a fine purée, strain through a fine stainless steel mesh and season to taste with salt and pepper. Transfer into a marked sanitised squeeze bottle.

Quail Breasts 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Rub the breast with olive oil, season with salt and pepper. Place the breast with skin side down, in a hot sauté pan and cook for four minutes on each side or until cooked medium rare. Let the breast rest for four minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper Garnish with Chives.

Chicken Stock 1. 2. 3.

Place all of the ingredients in a large stockpot. Add cold water to cover by three quarters. Bring slowly to the boil, reduce the heat to low and simmer slowly, uncovered for four hours, skimming every 30 minutes to remove impurities

4. 5. 6. 7.

that rises to the surface Strain through a fine stainless steel mesh sieve, discard the solids. Cook uncovered over a medium heat for 30 to 45 minutes or until reduced to two litres. Cool down rapidly. Store in the refrigerator for up to four days.

Roasted Garlic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Preheat the oven to 160˚C Simmer the garlic bulbs and milk in a small sauced pan for 10 minutes. Drain the milk and keep it aside for the béchamel. Place the garlic bulbs upright in a small oven proof pan and the olive oil. Cover with aluminum foil and bake for an hour and a half or until the garlic bulbs are soft. Cool the garlic in the oil and squeeze the soft garlic out of its skins. Purée the garlic and the oil until smooth.

Heavy Béchamel 1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

Heat the butter over a medium heat. Add the flour, and cook the mixture, stirring frequently, to make a blond roux, about 8 – 10 minutes. Add the milk and stir with a whip to remove any lumps and bring up to the boil. Add salt and pepper and simmer the béchamel over a low heat, stirring frequently and skimming as necessary, until the sauce is very thick and has no floury taste, about 30 minutes. Remove from the heat, adjust the seasoning if necessary, and strain through a fine stainless steel mesh sieve. Reserve or rapidly cool and store for later use.

Red Wine Reduction 1.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Place the onion, carrot, celery garlic clove with the olive oil in a large sauce pan and sauté over a high heat for 10 minutes or until golden brown and caramelised. Deglaze the pan with the red wine and cook until most of the red wine has been absorbed. Add the chicken stock and simmer for one hour. Strain, return to virgin sauce pan with the thyme and simmer for about 30 minutes or until reduced to 500ml. Strain through a fine mesh sieve strainer. Cool down rapidly and transfer into a marked sanitised squeeze bottle Store in refrigerator for up to 4 days.

Ingredients Chicken Stock (Yields 2Litre) 2750 Chicken Bones Roasted 3 Onions, peeled and chopped 4 Carrots, peeled and chopped 1 Celery, washed and chopped 2 leeks, washed and chopped 1 Pepper, whole 1 Bay leaf Roasted Garlic (Yields ¾ Cup) 5 Garlic bulbs, tops cut off 750ml Full cream milk 125ml Olive oil Heavy Béchamel (Yields 600ml) 120g Butter 120 Flour 750ml Full cream milk (use the milk from the Roasted Garlic Purée) 5g Salt, medium 3 g Pepper, cracked Red Wine Reduction (Yields 600 ml) 2 Onions, white chopped 2 Carrots, peeled and chopped 0.5 Celery 60ml Olive oil 2 Garlic cloves 750ml Red wine 1000ml Stock chicken 8 Sprigs of thyme

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free | body

The first hour after an accident is known as The Golden Hour. Victims of road accidents stand a much better chance of survival if they reach adequate medical care within that time frame.

First act You’re the first to come across an accident scene – now what?

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Fast Facts • Every year, 1.3 million people die worldwide as a result of traffic collisions. That is more than 300 deaths a day, and more than half of these victims are not travelling in a car. • 20 to 50 million people do not suffer fatal injuries in road accidents worldwide annually. • 2011 to 2020 is known as the Decade of Road Safety – to read more about this, go •

• •

would

you know what to do if you witnessed a bad accident right in front of you? Would you know who to call? The decisions you make can affect the lives of the injured. Be prepared. Pull off the road so you don’t cause any further obstructions. Turn on your hazards and your lights and get out your triangle or anything that could alert other motorists of the scene.

to www.arrivealive.co.za In South Africa alone, we lose 36 lives a day on our roads. That’s one death every 43 minutes. 20 people a day in our country become permanently disabled due to road accidents. More than 90% of all road accidents in this country are due to lawlessness, such as drunken driving or driving without a license.

Phone emergency services (see box for details), making sure to give them your number first in case you get cut off. Also supply information about what happened – how many people are involved, are there serious injuries, is there a fire and so forth. Listen to the instructions given to you on the phone. The operators are trained to help you. Stay calm. Get your first aid kit out of your car and put on the gloves. Approach the accident scene only if it is safe to do so. Never approach if you’re on a blind rise and there is a possibility of a further collision, or if there is a fire. If possible, turn off all vehicles involved. A single spark from the engine could potentially start a fire. Calm and reassure the victims. Let them know that help is on the way. If the victim is not breathing, check the mouth for obstructions. If you are trained to do so, you may perform CPR, but keep in mind that moving the victim is a dangerous gamble – they could have broken bones or internal injuries that you could worsen. If the victim is losing a lot of blood, use something (gauze from your first aid kit, a towel or even a shirt) to stem the flow. Press down firmly on the wound and wait for help. This small act could save a life. Never, however, touch blood with your bare hands – it’s not worth the risk. If others arrive, get them to redirect traffic and alert other motorists of the danger. There should preferably be a person on either side of the road waving cars down to warn them. All cars at the scene should turn on their emergency lights. The aim is to make the scene as visible as possible. Don’t let anyone tamper with the scene – in fact, the fewer people that approach the better.

Text | Deanne Birkholtz Photography | Schebert

Who to call ER24 084 124 Police 10111 Ambulance 10117 Netcare 911 082 911 Arrive Alive Call Centre 0861 400 800 Source: Arrive Alive

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sky | cafe

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CENTRAL RESERVATIONS 086 100 2111 www.thrifty.co.za


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Skincare Line from Switzerland for Ethnic People

Your safe skin brightening solution

Feel the Difference

Tel. 031-303 21 00 - Tel. 011 837 6197 - Cell. 071 695 77 27 Call for local inquiries

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dreams reality Let your

become a

Offering romance, charm, nostalgia… a wedding special like no other.

Four star Lythwood Lodge, nestled in the heart of the Midlands Meander, KZN invites you to spend your special day with us…

From R39 000 (Nov, Dec 2011) & from R45 000 Jan, Feb, June & July 2012

End of Year Corporate Functions At Fordoun Fordoun is a 5 Star Boutique Hotel Spa and Superior Restaurant offering affordable end of year functions. Please contact us on the numbers below to find out more.

R990

per person sharing (fully inclusive conference rate)

Please see our website for Packages, Specials, and Conferences at www.fordoun.com To contact us call 033 2666 217 or email us on stay@fordoun.com We are happy to honor a 10% commission on bookings through PCO’s or agents

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Includes: • 3 course meal for 100 guests • World class photographer Stephen Pryke • Five complimentary rooms for the wedding night • Venue hire • Wedding ceremony in our charming chapel or lush gardens • Tables, linen, chairs, chair covers, cutlery, crockery, waitrons Additional guests R220pp or R425pp sharing, B&B. T&C’s apply. Also specializing in conferences and team builders.

Tel: (033) 234 4666 / info@lythwood.com / www.lythwoodlodge.co.za We are proudly LEVEL 2 BBBEE certified


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Gordon Millar “One meets everybody who is anybody at this club”

PGA Teaching Professional at Verwey Golf Range Fourways Johannesburg Offers lessons for: Individual, Private, Ladies Clinic, Chipping, Pitching, Putting, Groups, Couples, Corporate and Video Analysis

Stay at the Kimberley Club Beautifully renovated boutique hotel 21 En-suite Bedrooms, Modern Facilities Wireless Internet Services, A-la-Carte Restaurant Best Buffet Sunday Lunches in town

o rd o n ll G Ca 957 3375 2 08

The ideal venue for functions, weddings and conferences. Tel 053-832 4224 Fax 053-832 4226 Email info@kimberleyclub.co.za Website www.kimberleyclub.co.za

   



  

Falcon Crest GUEST HOUSE

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AMANZIMTOTI

Upmarket establishment 10 mins South of Durban & 30mins from King Shaka International Airport. Close to beach & Restaurants. Corporate or Leisure.

www.fcguesthouse.com Tel: +27 (0) 31 903 3058 Cell: +27 (0) 82 771 5678 Fax: +27 (0) 86 218 7707 e-mail: fcrest@skytec.co.za


Seaview Manor is a luxurious Bed and Breakfast ideally situated between the La Lucia and Umhlanga Ridge Business Districts.

Intimacy Kits are a major trend in exclusive international hotels

Seaview Manor is a haven of privacy and tranquillity and is an ideal getaway for the seasonal traveler and business man alike.

They are good for your brand as they show guests that the hotel or guesthouse cares about sexual protection for guests The kit sets a playful and relaxed tone The kit is housed in a discreet and neat durable tin. Designed to fit discreetly into the mini-bar fridge or housed at reception. All Intimacy Kits are branded according to each Hotels requirements. Each tin contains, 2 condoms, a lubricant and two personalized mints.

As we are a small B&B with a total of 4 luxury rooms, we are able to offer our guests outstanding personal service and commitment

Tel/Fax +27 31 562 0799 / +27 83 259 2289 / +27 76 833 3363 email: bookings@seaviewmanor.co.za www.seaviewmanor.co.za 5 Emin Terrace, La Lucia, Durban

© Desmond Scholtz

For Trade Enquirers please contact: +27 76 833 3363 • +27 83 259 2289 eflinner@gmail.com

Each room enjoys spectacular views of the Ocean from the comfort of your own bed or on the Patio overlooking the sparkling pool and valley below.

Superior five star self-catering accommodation for the discerning traveller. Luxurious one bedroom Garden Suite and freestanding two bedroom Villa set on the banks of Groenvlei Lake, Knysna District, Garden Route.

info@lakeviews.co.za

CARING FOR YOUR BUSINESS CONNECTIVITY IN AFRICA

We provide: VSAT satellite internet Point to point solutions Satellite phones BGAN Terminals

Fast, Reliable and Secure internet connections www.telstream.co.za +27 786 716 963

Mobile: 0829540467 Tel: 013-7378806 Fax: 0866075222 www.plumbagoguesthouse.co.za Close to the Panorama Route

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www.cloudnine.co.za

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Timetable effective 01 october 2011

F LI G H T S – Domestic FLIGHT

route

DEPARTURE

ARRIVAL

FREQUENCY

AIRCRAFT

OPERATED BY

When planning your next flight, for business or pleasure, this flight schedule will come in handy. Take this FREE copy of Skyways with you.

Cape Town - George - Cape Town SA8621 SA8625 SA8639 SA8635 SA8622 SA8630 SA8638 SA8636

Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town George George George George

-

07:15 09:30 13:30 16:45 08:30 10:45 14:45 18:10

08:05 10:20 14:20 17:40 09:20 11:35 15:35 19:05

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 AVRO ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 AVRO

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

16:30 18:30

18:05 20:05

1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135

Airlink Airlink

10:00 13:15

12:35 15:55

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO AVRO

Airlink Airlink

09:45 11:30

11:05 12:50

1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135

Airlink Airlink

Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Durban Durban Durban Durban

06:50 15:15 16:30 16:45 08:15 17:30 18:00 18:30

07:55 16:40 17:35 18:10 09:15 18:35 19:00 19:35

1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 5 5

ERJ J41 ERJ J41 ERJ J41 ERJ J41

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

George Durban

09:40 11:50

11:30 13:15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135

Airlink Airlink

Nelspruit Nelspruit Durban Durban Durban

06:45 13:45 08:25 17:10 17:35

08:05 14:45 09:45 16:10 18:35

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

J41 ERJ -135 J41 ERJ -135 ERJ -135

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

06:30 09:00 09:00 09:00 10:00 11:10 15:30 16:25 17:30 07:50 10:15 10:15 10:15 13:35 15:05 16:40 17:30 18:45

07:20 09:55 09:55 09:55 10:55 12:00 16:15 17:15 18:20 08:45 11:20 11:20 11:20 14:30 16:00 17:30 18:35 19:40

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 3 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 3 5 1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135 J41 J41 ERJ - 135 J41 AVRO AVRO ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 ERJ - 135 J41 J41 J41 AVRO ERJ - 135 AVRO J41 ERJ - 135

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

10:00 15:30 11:05 17:15

11:25 16:55 12:20 18:30

4 7 4 7

J41 J41 J41 J41

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

06:25 11:45 16:10 08:00 13:15 17:50

07:35 12:55 17:20 09:20 14:35 19:10

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 7 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 7

J41 J41 J41 J41 J41 J41

Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink Airlink

George George George George Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town

Cape Town - Kimberley - Cape Town SA8617 SA8618

Cape Town Kimberley

- -

Kimberley Cape Town

Cape Town - Nelspruit - Cape Town SA8663 SA8664

Cape Town Nelspruit

- -

Nelspruit Cape Town

Cape Town - Upington - Cape Town SA8645 SA8646

Cape Town Upington

- -

Upington Cape Town

Durban - Bloemfontein - Durban SA8531 SA8535 SA8537 SA8533 SA8532 SA8536 SA8538 SA8534

Durban Durban Durban Durban Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Bloemfontein

-

135 135 135 135

Durban - George - Durban SA8515 SA8514

Durban George

- -

Durban - Nelspruit - Durban SA8507 SA8505 SA8508 SA8506 SA8510

Durban Durban Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit

-

Johannesburg - Nelspruit - Johannesburg SA8823 SA8827 SA8825 SA8825 SA8843 SA8841 SA8845 SA8829 SA8849 SA8824 SA8828 SA8826 SA8826 SA8842 SA8830 SA8846 SA8844 SA8848

Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit

-

Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Nelspruit Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg

Johannesburg - Bloemfontein - Johannesburg SA8543 SA8541 SA8544 SA8540

Johannesburg Johannesburg Bloemfontein Bloemfontein

-

Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Johannesburg Johannesburg

Johannesburg - Phalaborwa - Johannesburg SA8851 SA8853 SA8857 SA8852 SA8854 SA8858

Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg Phalaborwa Phalaborwa Phalaborwa

-

Phalaborwa Phalaborwa Phalaborwa Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburg

Golf Bags: 1 bag at 15kg free baggage allowance – golf bags must be pre booked with your booking agent.

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Timetable effective 01 october 2011

F LI G H T S – Domestic FLIGHT

route

DEPARTURE

ARRIVAL

FREQUENCY

AIRCRAFT

OPERATED BY

SA8801

Johannesburg

-

Polokwane

06:35

07:25

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8809

Johannesburg

-

Polokwane

11:40

12:40

1 2 3 4 5 6

J41

Airlink

SA8809

Johannesburg

-

Polokwane

11:40

12:30

7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8817

Johannesburg

-

Polokwane

13:15

14:05

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8815

Johannesburg

-

Polokwane

16:30

17:20

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8802

Polokwane

-

Johannesburg

07:55

08:50

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8810

Polokwane

-

Johannesburg

13:00

14:05

1 2 3 4 5 6

J41

Airlink

SA8810

Polokwane

-

Johannesburg

13:00

13:55

7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8818

Polokwane

-

Johannesburg

14:25

15:20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8816

Polokwane

-

Johannesburg

17:45

18:40

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Johannesburg - Pietermaritzburg - Johannesburg SA8747

Johannesburg

-

Pietermaritzburg

07:00

08:00

1 2 3 4 5

AVRO

Airlink

SA8735

Johannesburg

-

Pietermaritzburg

09:50

11:10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

J41

Airlink

SA8741

Johannesburg

-

Pietermaritzburg

15:30

16:30

1 2 3 4 5 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8739

Johannesburg

-

Pietermaritzburg

18:00

19:00

1 2 3 4 5 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8730

Pietermaritzburg

-

Johannesburg

06:45

07:45

1 2 3 4 5

AVRO

Airlink

SA8732

Pietermaritzburg

-

Johannesburg

08:30

09:30

1 2 3 4 5 6

AVRO

Airlink

SA8738

Pietermaritzburg

-

Johannesburg

15:00

16:25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

J41

Airlink

SA8742

Pietermaritzburg

-

Johannesburg

17:00

18:00

1 2 3 4 5 7

AVRO

Airlink

Johannesburg - Upington - Johannesburg SA8767

Johannesburg

-

Upington

09:20

10:50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8769

Johannesburg

-

Upington

15:45

17:15

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8768

Upington

-

Johannesburg

11:15

12:50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8770

Upington

-

Johannesburg

17:35

19:10

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Port Elizabeth - East London - Port Elizabeth SA8480

Port Elizabeth

-

East London

07:00

07:45

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8488

Port Elizabeth

-

East London

16:30

17:15

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8481

East London

-

Port Elizabeth

08:05

08:55

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8489

East London

-

Port Elizabeth

17:35

18:25

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

Port Elizabeth - Bloemfontein - Port Elizabeth SA8491

Port Elizabeth

-

Bloemfontein

09:15

10:45

1 4

J41

Airlink

SA8492

Bloemfontein

-

Port Elizabeth

12:10

13:45

1 4

J41

Airlink

Johannesburg - Mthatha - Johannesburg SA8751

Johannesburg

-

Mthatha

06:15

07:55

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8753

Johannesburg

-

Mthatha

08:20

10:00

6

J41

Airlink

SA8755

Johannesburg

-

Mthatha

14:50

16:30

1 2 3 4 5 7

J41

Airlink

SA8752

Mthatha

-

Johannesburg

08:15

10:00

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8754

Mthatha

-

Johannesburg

10:20

12:05

6

J41

Airlink

SA8756

Mthatha

-

Johannesburg

16:50

18:35

1 2 3 4 5 7

J41

Airlink

F LI G H T S – Regional FLIGHT

route

DEPARTURE

ARRIVAL

FREQUENCY

AIRCRAFT

OPERATED BY

Durban - Maputo - Durban SA8290

Durban

-

Maputo

10:10

11:25

1 2 3 4 5

7

J41

Airlink

SA8291

Maputo

-

Durban

11:45

13:05

1 2 3 4 5

7

J41

Airlink

Johannesburg - Antananarivo - Johannesburg SA8252

Johannesburg

-

Antananarivo

10:00

14:10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8253

Antananarivo

-

Johannesburg

15:00

17:40

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

When planning your next flight, for business or pleasure, this flight schedule will come in handy. Take this FREE copy of Skyways with you.

Johannesburg - Polokwane - Johannesburg

Johannesburg - Beira - Johannesburg SA8214

Johannesburg

-

Beira

11:30

13:10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8215

Beira

-

Johannesburg

13:30

15:20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Airlink's REGIONAL AND DOMESTIC flights check-in Terminal B counters B89 - B101 at OR Tambo International Airport.

85 11 11


Timetable effective 01 october 2011

F LI G H T S – Regional FLIGHT

route

DEPARTURE

ARRIVAL

FREQUENCY

AIRCRAFT

OPERATED BY

Johannesburg - Bulawayo - Johannesburg SA8110

Johannesburg

-

Bulawayo

10:40

12:05

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8111

Bulawayo

-

Johannesburg

12:50

14:25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

When planning your next flight, for business or pleasure, this flight schedule will come in handy. Take this FREE copy of Skyways with you.

Nelspruit - Livingstone - Nelspruit SA8870

Nelspruit

-

Livingstone

11:35

13:50

1 3 5

J41

Airlink

SA8871

Livingstone

-

Nelspruit

14:20

16:55

1 3 5

J41

Airlink

Johannesburg - Lusaka - Johannesburg SA8160

Johannesburg

-

Lusaka

06:35

08:30

1 2 3 4 5 6

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8164

Johannesburg

-

Lusaka

15:45

17:40

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8161

Lusaka

-

Johannesburg

09:00

11:05

1 2 3 4 5 6

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8165

Lusaka

-

Johannesburg

18:20

20:25

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Johannesburg - Harare - Johannesburg SA8100

Johannesburg

-

Harare

06:30

08:20

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8102

Johannesburg

-

Harare

16:15

18:05

1 2 3 4 5 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8101

Harare

-

Johannesburg

08:50

10:35

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8103

Harare

-

Johannesburg

18:45

20:30

1 2 3 4 5 7

AVRO

Airlink

Johannesburg - Manzini - Johannesburg SA8012

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

06:50

07:40

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7992

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

10:05

10:50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7994

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

12:40

13:25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA8014

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

16:00

16:45

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7996

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

17:00

17:45

6

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7998

Johannesburg

-

Manzini

19:00

19:45

5

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA8013

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

08:05

09:00

1 2 3 4 5

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7991

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

08:05

09:00

6

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7997

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

08:05

09:00

7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7993

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

11:10

12:05

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA7995

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

13:50

14:45

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

SA8015

Manzini

-

Johannesburg

17:05

18:00

1 2 3 4 5 7

ERJ - 135

Swaziland - Airlink

Johannesburg - Maseru - Johannesburg SA8050

Johannesburg

-

Maseru

06:40

07:50

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8052

Johannesburg

-

Maseru

09:45

10:50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8062

Johannesburg

-

Maseru

13:30

14:25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8051

Maseru

-

Johannesburg

08:10

09:25

1 2 3 4 5

J41

Airlink

SA8053

Maseru

-

Johannesburg

11:15

12:25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8063

Maseru

-

Johannesburg

14:45

15:55

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Johannesburg - Nampula - Johannesburg SA8230

Johannesburg

-

Nampula

11:05

13:35

1 2 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

SA8231

Nampula

-

Johannesburg

14:10

16:45

1 2 4 5

ERJ - 135

Airlink

Johannesburg - Ndola - Johannesburg SA8154

Johannesburg

-

Ndola

09:45

12:15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

SA8155

Ndola

-

Johannesburg

13:00

15:30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AVRO

Airlink

Johannesburg - Pemba - Johannesburg SA8204

Johannesburg

-

Pemba

11:10

14:00

3 6

ERJ- 135

Airlink

SA8205

Pemba

-

Johannesburg

14:30

17:25

3 6

ERJ- 135

Airlink

Johannesburg - Tete - Johannesburg SA8220

Johannesburg

-

Tete

10:50

12:55

1 2 3 4 5

AVRO

Airlink

SA8221

Tete

-

Johannesburg

13:40

16:00

1 2 3 4 5

AVRO

Airlink

Day 1 = Monday, Day 7 = Sunday For reservations visit www.flyairlink.com, your travel agent or SAA Central Reservations on +27 11-978 1111 • Flight schedules subject to change • Contact your booking agent for these conditions EXCESS BAGGAGE and sporting equipment: Refer to www.flyairlink.com Important information & Conditions of Carriage Clause 8 Baggage 8.3 Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of content of the published timetable, both operational and strategic issues cause timetable changes. Due to the forward lead time required for publication, these often cannot be duly reflected. Should this occur, Airlink and its agents are not responsible for any errors, omissions, losses or detriments arising from the publication.

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MEMBER


1500

The year the yoyo was used as a weapon in the Philippines

Why d’you say that? If you’ve said anything dumb and wanted to shoot yourself for it, wait until you’ve read these

45 million

The number of active cell phones in South Africa

I love California; I practically grew up in Phoenix. Dan Quayle I owe a lot to my parents, especially my mother and father. Greg Norman I think gay marriage should be between a man and a woman. Arnold Schwarzenegger Outside of the killings, Washington has one of the lowest crime rates in the country. Marion Berry When the President does it, that means that it is not illegal. Richard Nixon Wal-Mart…Do they like make walls there? Paris Hilton

They misunderestimated me. George W Bush

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Whenever I watch TV and I see those poor starving kids all over the world, I can’t help but cry. I mean I would like to be skinny like that, but not with all those flies and death and stuff. Mariah Carey

I’ve never had major knee surgery on any other part of my body. Winston Bennett Politics gives guys so much power that they tend to behave badly around women. And I hope I never get into that. Bill Clinton


18

1946

The original number of Zodiac signs

The year the New York Yankees became the first baseball team to travel by plane

You guys, line up alphabetically by height. Bill Peterson I don’t think anybody would write his autobiography until after he’s dead. Samuel Goldwyn

Brain pain

Sure there have been injuries and deaths in boxing – but none of them serious. Alan Minter

Taken from: www.braingle.com

We apologize for the error in last week's paper in which we stated that Mr Arnold Dogbody was a defective in the police force. We meant, of course, that Mr Dogbody is a detective in the police force. Correction notice in the British newspaper

Wrap your head around these brain teasers and see what you can make of them.

1: Numbers to crack

I think that the film Clueless was very deep. I think it was deep in the way that it was very light. I think lightness has to come from a very deep place if it's true lightness. Alicia Silverstone

Series teasers are where you try to complete the sequence of a series of letters, numbers or objects. What number comes next? 1, 2, 2, 4, 8, 32, 256, 8192,...

Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; but I'm not sure about the universe. Albert Einstein

2: Word tease Five words that contain DU as a letter pair have had all of their other letters removed and placed into a pool. Put those letters back in their proper places. What are the words? *DU**, DU****, **DU**, ***DU*, ***DU**

Boxing’s all about getting the job done as quickly as possible, whether it takes 10 or 15 or 20 rounds. Frank Bruno We are sorry to announce that Mr Albert Brown has been quite unwell, owing to his recent death, and is taking a short holiday to recover. Parish Magazine I'll fight Lloyd Honeyghan for nothing, if the price is right. Marlon Starling We don't necessarily discriminate. We simply exclude certain types of people. Colonel Gerald Wellman

3: No entry zone

I have a God-given talent. I got it from my dad. Julian Wakefield

for knowledge

november/december 2011

DO AIRBAGS ALSO HAVE BEST-BY DATES? Plus many more appealing QUESTIONS & ANSWERS from page 58

MEAT vs VEGETARIAN

Can the environment be saved if we go meat-free? p. 6

Other countries: R26.32 (Excl. TAX)

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2011 #002 Price R30.00

Lady

BT02 cover.indd 11

Luck

Can we beat the odds or is it down to chance?

p. 22

Tracking Santa Claus Beer beats diabetes? Truly bizarre sports Sucking up to vacuum cleaners 2011/10/17 2:49 PM

Tracking Santa Claus Beer beats diabetes? Cultural practices face extintion Truly bizarre sports

Answers

the magazine that surprises

It’s really hard to maintain a one-on-one relationship if the other person is not going to allow me to be with other people. Axl Rose Text | Fikiswa Majikela Photography | Stankevich Alena, konstantynov

A taxi driver enters an area that says ‘no cars allowed’. The police were driving near him, yet they didn't stop him. Why?

Get your copy and entertain your brain!

1. 2,097,152 You take the first two numbers as 1 and 2, then the 3rd number will be the 1st multiplied with the 2nd ... and so on. 2. ADULT, DUPLEX, ENDURE, FONDUE, VIADUCT 3. It was just the taxi driver who had gone into that area. He wasn't driving his car.

In an action film you act in the action, in a drama film you act in the drama. Jean-Claude Van Damme

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AFP/Roberto Schmidt

Fighting Hunger Worldwide

Drought in the Horn of Africa: Hunger puts lives of millions at risk. It is one of the worst droughts in living memory, and millions are at risk especially the very young. The World Food Programme (WFP) is providing a lifeline to those living on the edge, streaming food into Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti and Uganda.

Children are the most vulnerable. By providing highly nutritious, fortified food products, WFP is helping to protect the next generation from the destructive cycle of drought and hunger. Support us in our mission to help the hungry in the Horn of Africa:

wfp.org/hornofafrica or SMS the word "FOOD" to 38727 to donate R10 (free minutes do not apply)


80%

118.1 decibels

of American men say they would marry the same woman if they had it to do all over again

Each Battleship puzzle represents a section of ocean with a hidden fleet of one battleship, two cruisers and three submarines. The ships may be oriented horizontally or vertically within the grid such that no ship touches another, not even diagonally. Any remaining squares in the grid contain water segments, which are shown as a symbol of water or as an X. The numbers on the bottom and on the right of the grid show how many squares in the corresponding rows and columns are occupied by ships. The object is to discover where all six ships are located.

sudoku

Try the addictive game of Sudoku. The aim is to fill each block with a number from 1 to 9. Each number must not appear more than once in each row, column and square. If you can’t finish this puzzle during your flight, please take this free copy of Skyways with you. The cabin attendant will make sure that the next passengers get their own magazine, with a clean Sudoku for them to puzzle over! Puzzles taken from www.krazydad.com

5

1

9

3 3 3

1 x Battleship

9

6

4

2

9

8

8 5 1

7

1

2 x Cruisers 3 x Submarines

8

8

easy

Easy

2

7 5 9

7

3

Medium

5 6

9

8

4

7

1 8

9

5 6

4

3

9

8 7

1

2 7

9

9

5 2

2

1

4

3

2 3

3

5

Puzzles supplied by Conceptis, www.conceptispuzzles.com

9

3

5 2

challenging

battleship

The record for the loudest burp, held by Paul Hunn

Solutions can be found on page 15

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6 million

97 minutes

The number of parts in a Boeing 747-400

Garden

trends Great ideas for the green fingered

The length of time it takes the Hubble telescope to complete an orbit of the Earth

reflecting

on 2011, there are many wonderful gardening trends that emerged. Many of them are an indication of a sense of responsibility towards the environment – a trend that is likely to continue. Here’s our top 10 garden trends for the year. 1.

2.

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You are what you eat, so eat what you grow. This was a practical and useful trend that saw an increase of about 20% over the past year. More people are on the road to self-sustainability by growing their own fresh produce. With concerns about the global economic crisis and food instability, practicing this form of gardening won’t be diminishing any time soon. Gardens in a pot. People are living in smaller spaces. For many a balcony is the only form of outdoor property. In order to feel like they have some form of natural surroundings, they plant gardens in a variety of pots. It’s a pretty trend, and it can be useful too, as often, people plant their own herbs in this manner.


3,900 metres The length of the world’s deepest mine (Tau Tona in Carletonville)

1810

The year Peter Durand invented the tin can for preserving food

Trend alerts for 2012

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Old school flowers made a comeback. Stepping away from modern trends, we saw the rise of ‘granny flowers’ – the ones you became accustomed to as a child. Sweet peas, roses and daisies were among the revived trends. Low maintenance gardens. Negotiating the daily rat race means that many people rarely see their gardens in daylight. Fussy plants are out of fashion and have been replaced by those with easy upkeep. Succulents are a favourite, and you cannot go astray with a cactus garden. Even people who travel a lot can upkeep those. Water conservation. Those concerned about the environment have found ways to collect and store rain water, which is use to keep their gardens going. It’s a great idea that is building momentum – and is a lot less effort than you’d imagine. Garden art. Not your average garden-variety gnome though. Sculptures and Asian-inspired water features were the order of the day. Go organic. Many are becoming aware about the toxins that can be found in food. Most want to go the organic route but buying these produce in stores can be costly. This inspired a lot of people to grow their own organic fruit and vegetables. For more info visit www.healthyorganic.co.za. Mix and match. A popular choice was to mix vegetables with herbs and flowers. There are benefits to doing this. Some plants help others grow and thrive.

9.

House plants were back in favour. Those craving a bit of nature embraced the trend of numerous house plants. The orchid was a particular favourite. It’s all about merging the indoors with the outdoors. 10. Relaxation gardens. Gardens became a place to escape the hustle and bustle of everyday life. Create a sanctuary for yourself. Incorporate water, lush greenery and nature. Place bird feeders to encourage the natural sounds and relax.

A lot of the same trends will carry through, but here are a few on the horizon for next year: • Colours – everything will be colourful. Bird houses, potted plants, flowers themselves. • Metals – silver, copper and iron will be incorporated into gardens. • Birds are big – people are coming out with lovely bird feeders to encourage this trend. • Blurring of interior and exterior – Many will even use grass indoors. • Green roofs – buildings will see an increase in ‘green roofs’ where rooftop gardens can be enjoyed by those who live there.

Tips for starting a herb garden • •

• •

• •

Choose a sunny day (4 – 7 hours of sunlight), open but sheltered spot with well-drained, fertile soil. Plant the herbs between pavers, in a geometric shape. This isn’t a steadfast rule; it just separates them nicely and allows you to get in between the herbs when you want to pick some. Remove all weeds from the soil, mix in some compost and rake to get the soil level. Water the herbs in their containers first, then lift them out and gently loosen the soil attached to the root ball. This will ensure the roots can move. Space the herbs according to how big they are likely to get, so they have enough room to grow. Plant the soil firmly around the plant and water thoroughly.

Summer seedlings These are great to plant at this time of year: Antirrhinum, Celosia, Delphinium, Marigold, Phlox, Salvia, Zinnia, Foxglove, Begonia, Impatiens, Petunias.

Text | Deanne Birkholtz Photography | Vasilius, Gordana Sermek, Clara

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30%

500,000 tons

of all bingo players are under the age of 35

of dog excrement are dumped annually on the streets of Paris

Didya know? Test your trivia knowledge in our monthly quiz!

Current affairs Questions 1. Which African country has had no government control over most of its territory since 1991? 2. Where did the first ever aerial bombardment take place, exactly 100 years ago this month? 3. Who is the very attractive leader of the student movement in Chile, which has held creative protests like ‘el gagazo’ (a dance-a-thon staged using guess-who’s music?) and ‘el besaton’, a mass kissing demonstration? 4. Why was Anna Hazare in the news this year? 5. A previous Ukrainian head of state (with an unusual hairstyle) was arrested in August this year for abuse of office over a natural gas import contract with Russia. Can you name the politician? 6. According to insurer Munich Re, there were 98 natural disasters in the USA in the first six months of this year, more than was usual in the 1990s for the first half of any year. By how much did this number exceed the 90s average? 7. Can you name a Latin American politician who has served both as First Lady and as her country’s first elected female President? 8. Perhaps the only politician in the world to go on trial for his role in the banking crisis which began in 2008 is the former Prime Minister of a country badly affected by that crisis. Who is he?

9.

Who was Mohamed Bouazizi (died 4 January 2011), and why was he a newsmaker this year? 10. What percentage of the vote did Ugandan President Museveni (in office since 1986) get in the February 2011 elections? Answers 1. Somalia 2. On 1 November 1911, Second Lieutenant Giolio Gavotti dropped four bombs on two oases held by the Turks in Libya, in the war the Italians know as Guerra di Libia, or ‘Libyan war’. 3. Camila Vallejo 4. Anna Hazare is an Indian social activist who fasted against corruption, sweeping many Indians up into a peaceful protest movement 5. Yulia Tymoshenko, she of the thick blond plait wound round her head in old-fashioned style 6. 100% – it’s about twice the average recorded in the 90s 7. Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner, who was First Lady when her husband Nestor Kirchner was President of Argentina, and then became President herself (Argentina was going to the polls in October, so as we go to print, we don’t know whether she’s still President) 8. Iceland’s Geir Haarde – all three of Iceland’s banks collapsed in the crisis 9. Bouazizi was a Tunisian street vendor who set himself on fire on 17 December, 2010, in protest against harassment by officials and the confiscation of his wares. His action is credited with setting off the Tunisian Revolution that ousted President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, and was soon followed by a similar revolt in Egypt and other actions now known as the ‘Arab Spring’ 10. 68%

Colour me surprised!

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Questions 1. Who invented Pantone, the useful tool that helps graphic artists get their colours just right? 2. Which pencil makes the smudgier lines – the 9H or the 9B? 3. Why should Napoleon have steered clear of green wallpaper? 4. Why do vegans not eat red jellies and other foods coloured red?


61%

of South African primary school children receive free food as part of the school feeding scheme

What rock used to be ground up to create the paint colour ultramarine? 6. Saffron creates a wonderful golden dye, but it is the most expensive herb in the world. How many flowers would you need to yield 500gm of saffron? 7. The cosmetics that Queen Elizabeth I, the geishas and society women into the late 19th century used to whiten their skin had one dreadful ingredient that could eventually kill the user. What was that? 8. Which plant was used for up to 5,000 years to dye leather, wool, cotton and silk red? 9. Why did the cloth dyers of Pompeii have urine pots outside their shops? 10. What did cloth dyers use to produce the ‘royal purple’ of ancient times? Answers 1. Lawrence Herbert 2. 9B – B stands for blackness and H for hardness; the harder the pencil, the lighter the mark 3. The wallpaper in the bedroom of his house on St Helena, where he was exiled, was printed green using Scheele’s Green, a paint colour which contained arsenic. It’s believed to have caused his death 4. Some food colouring is still made using cochineal, which is a little insect that feeds on prickly pear (we use it as a biological control in South Africa) and is killed to extract the carmine dye – a no-no for vegans who avoid eating any animals 5. Lapis lazuli – found only in Chile, Zambia, Siberia and Afghanistan 6. Between 50,000 and 75,000 7. Lead 8. Madder – plants from the madder family Rubiaceae. 9. Urine was used until quite recently as a reducing agent in dyes 10. A group of shellfishes all bearing the name Murex (for example, Murex brandaris and Murex trunculus). They were killed to obtain the purple juice

>250 million

The number of Slinky toys sold since its debut in 1946

5.

‘Allo, statue? Questions 1. What was the name of the enormous statues that the Taliban dynamited in March 2001? 2. There’s a famous statue in Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolis, opened in 1905, that’s a provincial heritage site, depicting a soldier and a horse. What does it honour?

3.

Which presidents of the USA are commemorated in the massive carving at Mount Rushmore? 4. What tubby little figure (about 24,000 years old) was found in Austria near the city of Krems in 1908? 5. Why did Ed Drummond climb Nelson’s Column, in Trafalgar Square, in 1979? 6. Where is the Genghis Khan Statue complex ? 7. What massive monument in the Black Hills of South Dakota did Chief Henry Standing Bear commission? 8. Which religious figure do the three tallest statues in the world depict? 9. You’ll recognise Manneken Pis, the 17th century statue of a small boy peeing into a fountain in Brussels, much copied. What is Jeanneke Pis? 10. What is Den lille havfrue better known as? Answers 1. The Buddhas of Bamiyan 2. It’s in memory of the horses who served and died during the South African War (more than 300,000 horses died in British service alone during that conflict) 3. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln 4. The Venus of Willendorf 5. To protest against apartheid 6. 54 km outside Mongolia’s capital, Ulaanbaatar 7. The Crazy Horse Memorial, which when finished will be the world’s largest sculpture 8. Buddha, in China, Myanmar and Japan, at heights of 128m, 116m and 110m – most people think of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, but that’s only 39m high 9. It’s a modern female counterpart in Brussels, showing a young girl-child squatting 10. Copenhagen’s Little Mermaid statue Text | Mandi Smallhorne Photography | balein, fstockphoto

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1836

W The year Mexican General Santa Anna held an elaborate state funeral for his amputated leg

1,83m

The height that penguins can jump in the air

it’s end

Berserk

Berserkers were the shock troops of the Norse warriors who, according to legend, worked themselves up into a state before battle and seemed to be impervious to ‘fire or iron’. (Many believe they used drugs to achieve this). Apparently they were terrifying in action. The term berserker comes from their habit of wearing shirts (Old Norse: serkr) made of the hide of a bear (Old Norse:ber).

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In his book, The Rules of Life, Richard Templar tells this story: “I remember reading once of someone who was on the Metro in Paris during a major strike. It was chaos and people were shoving and pushing and it was pretty horrendous. There was a woman with a small child there and it could have been quite scary. She bent down to the child and said quite brightly, ‘This, my dear, is what they call an adventure’.” I wrote that out in big black letters and stuck it up next to my desk. When asked about it, I tell people that this is the only way I can think of, these days, to make it through Life, the Universe and Everything. Double-dip recession morphing into a Depression to End All Depressions? “This, my dear, is what they call an adventure.” Dodging service-delivery protests en route to pick up a friend? “This, my dear, is what they call an adventure.” Coping with a surly municipal clerk? “This, my dear, is what they call an adventure.” You get the idea, I’m sure. My mantra had quite a workout recently, however. I set off on what should have been a short trip of 22 kilometres. (Hey, in Joburg that IS a short trip!) Unfortunately, this involved negotiating Main Reef Road – parts of which have begun to feel like a foreign country, come to think of it, with large swathes of it taken over by people from the Far East. About one kilometre shy of the Langlaagte Testing Station, all three lanes of traffic ground to a sullen halt. My tiny car was stuck between a massive Tiger Brands truck, a waste truck, a cold-chain truck and something that I could not identify – it looked a bit like a fugitive from some noir science fiction film… Blade Runner, perhaps. As the fumes seeped into my car, I found myself humming, “Welcome, carbon monoxide, hell, sulphur dioxide, the air, the air is everywhere…” (I think it’s from Hair the Musical.) What would happen if I passed out, I wondered? Would the science fiction number drive just straight over me in slow-mo, with a horrible sound of crumpling metal? Time passed in the way time does when you’re stuck in a situation you can’t control (backed up against a wall at a party, cornered by the mountaineering bore who wants to tell you what he put in every single little squeeze-tube he packed on his last trip up Annapurna; standing in the queue at the Licensing Department; waiting while

a bright, perky call centre voice goes through each of 14 possible buttons to press…). I thought long and hard about the expression “we inched forward”: it would really be impossible to decimalise it, I thought. Even shortening centimetre to cim would not do: it has to be a nice, hard, Anglo-Saxon word like inch. (Actually, I found out later from my etymology dictionary that inch, like centimetre, comes from Latin ‘uncia’, a twelfth part. Those Romans inched their way into everything…) Finally, we passed a car stuck in the right-hand lane. All around me, faces brightened with hope. NOW we could get moving. But no. The inch-worm of traffic continued to move at snail’s pace. My mantra came into play as I stretched my arms and tried to get some blood circulation going in my calves. “This, my dear, is what they call an adventure.”About fifteen minutes later, just before the M2 off-ramp, we passed a young woman sitting in another car, this time in the left-hand lane. At last, surely, surely, now we could move? Uh-uh. One by one we put on our flickers and looked pleadingly at the truck-drivers lined up in the middle lane. Please, Mr Driver, let me in? Not, by the hair on my chinny-chin-chin! Eventually, someone kind would agree to hold back a smidgeon and one by one we pulled out, wiggled round the stuck vehicle, and made it onto the off-ramp. Up which the inch-worm continued to inch. At this point I had to battle not to lose my grip on the mantra. And on sanity. How could we still be going so slowly? At the crest of the off-ramp, the truth became clear. The Metro police were stopping vehicles – well, one of them was, while another two leant over the bridge to look down on the utter gridlocked chaos below. It had taken me a full half-hour to negotiate two kilometres, and that’s the closest I’ve come to yielding to road rage in a long time. If I’d had anything hard in the car – a wrench, a champagne bottle, a crowbar – I think I would have leapt out and smashed their windscreen. With glee. Roaring some swearwords that would sound a lot like a Viking berserker going into battle. For a few tense seconds a red mist rose before my eyes, and I let out a scream so piercing I’m surprised the local factories didn’t all down tools and head for the exit. For a moment I couldn’t remember. “This my dear… this my dear… oh yes! This, my dear, is what they call an adventure.” And sanity returned. Text: Mandi Smallhorne


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Skyways Magazine November 2011