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Level 2 Unit 2 Material for Test


WORKS AND JOBS

accountant(s)

baker(s)

barber(s)

barman (barmen)

builder(s)

butcher(s)

carpenter(s)

cashier(s)

chambermaid(s)

chef(s)

cleaner(s)

dentist(s)

doctor(s)

electrician(s)

engineer(s)

fireman (firemen)

fishmonger(s)

flight attendant(s)


hairdresser(s)

judge(s)

lawyer(s)

nurse(s)

optician(s)

painter(s)

photographer(s)

plumber(s)

policeman (policemen)

porter(s)

post[wo]man (post[wo]men)

receptionist(s)

reporter(s)

sales assistant(s)

sales representative(s)

scientist(s)

secretary (secretaries)

surgeon(s)

tailor(s)

teacher(s)

technician(s)


vet(s)

waiter(s)

welder(s)

Work - What do they do? Where do they work?

Job Accountants Bakers Barbers

What do they do? Look after the finances in an organisastion. Bake bread. Shave men's beards and cut men's hair.

Where do they work? They work in an office. They work in a bakery. They work in a barbers. They work in a bar, pub

Barmen/women

Serve drinks.

Butchers

Prepare and sell meat.

Chambermaids

Clean and tidy rooms.

They work in a hotel.

Chefs

Prepare and cook food.

They work in a kitchen.

Dentists

Look after people's teeth.

They work in a dentists.

Doctors

Look after people's health.

Fishmongers

Prepare and sell fish.

Flight attendants

Look after passengers.

Hair dressers

Cut and style people's hair.

Judges

Judge and sentence people.

or restaurant. They work in a butchers.

They work in a hospital or surgery. They work in a fishmongers. They work in an airplane. They work in a hair salon. They work in a law


court. They work in a law Lawyers

Defend and prosecute people.

court and in a lawyers office.

Nurses

Look after patients .

Opticians

Look after people's eye sight.

Porters Receptionists Sales Assistants

Secretaries

Surgeons

Tailors Teachers Technicians

They work in a hospital or doctor's surgery. They work in an opticians.

Carry other people's bags and

They work in a hotel or

luggage.

train station.

Meet and greet visitors.

They work in reception.

Sell goods and look after customers. Arrange appointments, type letters and organise meetings. Operate on people who are sick.

They work in a shop.

They work in an office.

They work in a hospital.

Design, make, alter or repair

They work in factories

garments,

and shops.

Teach people.

They work in a school.

Organise and repair technical equipment.

They work everywhere! They work in a

Vets

Look after people's animals.

veterinary surgery or vets.

Waiters/Waitresses

Serve people food and drink.

Welders

Weld metal to make things.

They work in a restaurant. They work in factories and construction.


The Past Tenses Simple Past Simple Past

Used to show

I studied English last Saturday.

a completed action

Past Progressive/Continuous Past

Often used to

Progressive

say when

Monday when my friend rang.

something was being done or what

I was studying English last

I was studying English at 5pm last Monday.

was happening when something else happened

The Future Tenses

The future can be indicated in several different ways in English. It is often created with the use of auxiliaries: "She will be a student.", "She is going to drive a new car."


English can even create the future by using the simple present (used for timetables,programs etc.), "The train arrives at 10pm" or the present progressive (used for future plans), "He is collecting his mother from the station tonight." Simple Future (uses will or shall or going to + base form) Simple Future

Decide to do

I think I'll do my English homework

(Some

something at

tonight.

uncertainty)

the time of speaking

Simple Future

Have already

I am going to study English next

(Certain)

decided or

Saturday.

arranged to do something

Future Progressive/Continous (uses will be, shall be or going to be +-ing form)

On the hour

Past / to the hour

Prepositions

What to say

Writing the

Time

time

Idioms

When it's "on the hour" we say "o'clock". But only when it's on the hour.

Twelve o'clock

Six o'clock


One o'clock

Seven o'clock

Two o'clock

Eight o'clock

Three o'clock

Nine o'clock

Four o'clock

Ten o'clock

Five o'clock

Eleven o'clock

Because it can be difficult to say whether 12 o'clock is during the day or the night, we use two special terms. 00:00 and 24:00 = Twelve

12:00 = Twelve noon

midnight (or midnight)

(or noon)

Time (2)

In five minute increments, when it's past the hour (up to 30 minutes past) we say "past". When it's before the hour (after 30 minutes past) we say "to". There are 60 minutes in an hour. 30 minutes is half an hour, we say "half past" or "thirty".


15 minutes is quarter of an hour, we say "quarter past" or "fifteen" or "quarter to" or "forty-five".

Twelve fifteen

or

Twelve o'clock

Quarter past twelve

Twelve thirty Twelve forty-five

or or Half past twelve Quarter to one

We never say "half to". At other "odd" times, when we want to be accurate, we add the word "minute(s)":It's twenty-eight minutes to

It's one minute

twelve.

past three.

If you want to avoid trying to remember when to use "minutes" and when not to just say "nearly" or "just turned".


It's just turned half past

It's nearly

eleven.

three o'clock.

Prepositions used with time

At a point

In a length of

in time

time

"When

"Let's

"It's 12.45,

"I'll see you in

shall we

meet at

when will you

an hour, at

meet?

12.30."

be ready?

about 1.45."

Naturally speaking

Digital clocks often show the time this way using the 24-hour-clock, only the police and the military actually speak using the 24 hour clock:If it's before noon we tend If it's after noon we say "in to say "in the morning".

the afternoon".

07:00

14:00

It's seven o'clock in the

It's two o'clock in the

morning

afternoon

If it's late we say "at night". 22:00 It's ten o'clock at night

15 minutes past the hour is quarter past:

07:15

14:15

22:15

It's quarter past seven in

It's quarter past two in

It's quarter past ten at

the morning

the afternoon

night

30 minutes past the hour


is half past:

07:30

14:30

It's half past seven in the

It's half past two in the

morning

afternoon

22:30 It's half past ten at night

45 minutes past the hour is quarter to:

07:45

14:45

22:45

It's quarter to eight in the

It's quarter to three in

It's quarter to eleven at

morning

the afternoon

night

How to ask the time in English. §

It's exactly eight o'clock.

o

Excuse me. What time is it,

or

please? §

It's half past twelve.

§

o

It's eight.

Excuse me. Do you have the time,

or

please? §

It's twelve thirty.


§

It's about half past eleven.

o

Excuse me. Could you tell me the

or

time, please? §

It's around eleven thirty.

Writing the time

morning

00:01 11:59

a.m. - stands for Ante Meridiem (the time

00:01 hrs -

between midnight and noon)

12:00

noon or midday

12:00

p.m. - stands for Post Meridian (after noon)

afternoon

evening

night

midnight

12:01 24:00 hrs 12:01 18:00 18:01 22:00 22:01 24:00 24:00 / 00:00

There are 24 hours in a day, but only the military, police and computer programmers use the 24-hour clock. When writing or speaking generally we tend to use the 12-hour clock. The 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called a.m. (Latin "ante meridiem" | English: "before mid day") and p.m. (Latin "post meridiem" | English: "after mid day").


The way people write the time varies. I prefer a.m. and p.m. Choose from the following styles or use what your English teacher tells you to and stick to it:a.m. p.m. am pm AM PM A.M. P.M. Some people (myself included) use a dot as the separator: 2.30 pm. Some people use a colon as the separator: 2:30 pm. The colon is usually used with the 24-hour clock: 14:30. When you are writing the time decide whether to write it using numerals or words, and stick to that.


El pretérito (pasado) se utiliza para referir acciones o situaciones del pasado.

EL PASADO SIMPLE (Simple Past) El pasado simple funciona de manera similar al Presente simple, salvo que empleamos el auxiliar 'did' para todas las personas (incluida la tercera persona singular 'he/she/it'). En la forma afirmativa, el auxiliar 'did' no aparece, empleando en su lugar la terminación 'ed'. Esta es la forma de pasado para todos los 'Verbos Regulares' Existe un amplio conjunto de verbos que no cumplen esta condición, es decir, para la forma afirmativa no emplean la terminación 'ed' sino que su forma es irregular. No siguen ninguna regla, por lo que la única manera de conocer su forma de pasado es aprenderla. Se denominan 'Verbos Irregulares'.

AFIRMATIVA

NEGATIVA

I played

Yo jugué

I did not play

You played

Tú jugaste

You did not play

He played

Él jugó

He did not play

We played

Nosotros jugamos We did not play

You played

Vosotros jugasteis You did not play

They played Ellos jugaron INTERROGATIVA

They did not play

Yo no jugué Tú no jugaste Él no jugó Nosotros no jugamos Vosotros no jugasteis Ellos no jugaron

INT.-NEGATIVA

Did I play?

¿Jugué?

Didn't I play?

Did you play?

¿Jugaste? Didn't you play? ¿No jugaste?

Did he play?

¿Jugó?

Did we play?

¿Jugamos? Didn't we play?

Did you play?

¿Jugasteis? Didn't you play? ¿No jugasteis?

Did they play?

¿Jugaron? Didn't they play? ¿No jugaron?

Didn't he play?

¿No jugué? ¿No jugó? ¿No jugamos?

USO DEL PASADO SIMPLE a.) Para acciones pasadas. Indican el período de tiempo durante el que se desarrolló y completó una acción ya finalizada. Es habitual que vaya acompañado de un adverbio de tiempo. I bought this car last year / Compré este coche el año pasado b.) Para expresar una acción indeterminada en el pasado:


They used pencils and paper / Utilizaron lápices y papel c.) Para expresar una acción habitual en el pasado They never drank alcohol / Nunca bebían alcohol d.) Puede servir para expresar una condición improbable. If I saw her, I should speak to her / Si le viera le hablaría EL PASADO PROGRESIVO (Past Continuous) Su estructura se forma con el pretérito del verbo auxiliar to be + el gerundio del verbo que se quiere conjugar. I was playing / Estuve jugando Para la forma negativa se añade la 'not' al auxiliar I was not playing / No estuve jugando En la forma interrogativa se invierte el orden del sujeto y el auxiliar: Was I playing? / ¿Estuve jugando? USO DEL PASADO PROGRESIVO a.) Para expresar una acción que se estaba desarrollando en el pasado pero cuyo fin no conocemos o carece de importancia: It was raining / Estaba lloviendo b.) Para expresar dos acciones que se desarrollan simultáneamente I was reading the newspaper while I was walking home / Estaba leyendo el periódico mientras volvía a casa caminando c.) Para expresar dos acciones que se desarrollan en el pasado, una de las cuales tuvo su comienzo antes que la otra: When I arrived John was talking on the phone / Cuando llegué John estaba hablando por teléfono.

1 - Cambia el tiempo verbal a 'past simple' en las siguientes frases, siguiendo el ejemplo: We love England

We loved England

2. They don't like the film 3. They work on a farm 4. Do you work in this factory? 5. Where do you live? 6. I don't like Tokyo 7. Does he play the guitar?


8. I don't study French 9. They hate waiting 10. Does your son study here?

2 - Completa las frases escribiendo el tiempo de pasado que proceda. 1. He

his motorbike when he suddenly felt ill. (ride)

2. We (watch)

the television when it suddenly stopped working.

3. When the ambulance came they 4. I

him inside. (put)

to the radio when the phone rang. (listen)

5. When I arrived, they

hello but continued studying. (say)

2. PERIODOS DE TIEMPO era, época

era, epoch

íra, ípok (UK) épok (US)

siglo, secular

century, secular

cénturi, sékiular

lustro

five-year period

fáiv-íar píriod

año, año bisiesto

year, leap year

íar, líp íar

el año pasado (próximo)

last (next) year,

last (next) íar

tiempos prehistóricos

prehistoric times

pri-jistóric táims

edad antigua, edad media, edad moderna, edad contemporánea

ancient times, middle ages, modern times, contemporary age

énshent táims, midl eídchis, módern táims contémporari éidch

era cristiana

christian era

krístian íra

feudalismo

feudalism

fiúdalism

siglo 21

XXI century

tuénti-uán cénturi

después (antes) de Cristo

after (before) Christ

áfter (bifór) kráist

calendario

calendar

kálendar

trimestre (negocios)

quarter

kuórter


trimestre (educación)

term

term

meses, mensual

months, monthly

mánzs, mánzli

día, diario

day, daily

déi, deíli

semana, semanal

week, weekly

uík, uíkli

quincena, quincenal

fortnight, biweekly

FUTURO SIMPLE Como tal, no existe un tiempo específico de futuro en inglés, pero existen distintos verbos y expresiones para referirnos a él. Una forma habitual de futuro en inglés tiene la siguiente estructura: Sujeto + will + verbo I will play / Yo jugaré Como vemos, ésta forma de futuro en inglés es bastante simple. De hecho, suele denominarse FUTURO SIMPLE (Future Simple) Podemos encontrarnos con otra forma auxiliar, válida también para expresar el futuro, que es 'shall'. En este caso, 'shall' sirve como auxiliar para la primera persona del singular y plural empleándose 'will' para todas las demás. Tanto 'shall' como 'will' pueden contraerse en sus formas afirmativa y negativa (You will You'll). 'Shall' es menos utilizado, especialmente en Estados Unidos. En inglés moderno se tiende a usar 'will' para todas las personas. AFIRMATIVA I (shall / will) play You will play He will play We (shall / will) play You will play They will play

NEGATIVA Yo jugaré I (shall / will) not play Tú jugarás You will not play Él jugará He will not play Nosotros jugaremos We (shall / will) not play Vosotros jugareis You will not play Ellos jugarán They will not play

Yo no jugaré Tú no jugarás Él no jugará Nosotros no jugaremos Vosotros no jugaréis Ellos no jugarán

En la forma interrogativa se invirte el orden de sujeto y auxiliar: Will you play? / ¿Jugarás? La forma estructura de la forma interrogativa-negativa es: auxiliar + sujeto + not Will you not play? / ¿No jugarás? EL FUTURO PROGRESIVO Esta forma del futuro es usada en inglés con mayor frecuencia que en español. Su estructura es la siguiente:


sujeto+ futuro de 'to be' + gerundio del verbo a conjugar You will be flying to Paris tomorrow at this hour / Mañana a esta hora estarás volando hacia Paris Las formas negativa, interrogativa e interrogativa-negativa se construyen de forma análoga a la explicada para el futuro simple. FORMA NEGATIVA I shall / will not be playing no estaré jugando

FORMA INTERROGATIVA shall / will I be playing? ¿estaré jugando?

FORMA INT. NEGATIVA shall / will I not be playing? ¿no estaré jugando?

USO DEL FUTURO PROGRESIVO Sirve para indicar una acción que se desarrollará en el futuro. Pueden ser acciones o situaciones que no conocemos cuándo exactamente se producirán aunque también puede expresar acciones ya planificadas y que se producirán en un determinado momento. They will be leaving tomorrow / Ellos saldrán mañana OTRAS FORMAS DE EXPRESAR EL FUTURO - El Presente como futuro. En inglés, al igual que en español, podemos emplear tiempos del presente para hablar del futuro. El Presente Simple puede ser usado para hablar de acciones conocidas de antemano o planificadas (que no dependen de nuestra voluntad). Our holidays begin in August / Nuestras vacaciones comienzan en agosto Your flight leaves at 17:15 on Monday / Su vuelo sale a las 17:15 el lunes El Presente progresivo o Presente continuo como futuro. Cuando hablamos de planes, proyectos, citas, etc. utilizamos el Presente continuo. We're playing football this afternoon / Vamos a jugar al fútbol esta tarde - El futuro con 'going to' Es una forma muy habitual para referirse a una acción relativa a una intención o una decisión que se había tomado con anterioridad. Al igual que el Presente Progresivo se puede utilizar para expresar planes, citas, etc. Are you going to take the car tonight? / ¿Vas a coger el coche esta noche? - Con 'to be' + infinitivo, para indicar lo que está programado para el futuro The president is to meet the congressmen tomorrow / El presidente se reunirá con los congresistas mañana - Con 'to have to' (tener que) I have to go to the dentist / Tengo que ir al dentista


Level 2 Unit 2  

Level 2 Unit 2

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