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Document Activity Level 3 Unit 4 Â


Nationalities Country

Description

Australia

The Australian flag

Austria

The Austrian flag

Belgium

The Belgium flag

Brazil

The Brazilian flag

Canada

The Canadian flag

China

The Chinese flag

Denmark

The Danish flag

The Flag


Egypt

The Egyptian flag

England

The English Flag

Finland

The Finnish flag

France

The French flag

Germany

The German flag

Greece

The Greek flag

Hungary

The Hungarian flag


Ireland

The Irish flag

Italy

The Italian flag

Japan

The Japanese flag

Mexico

The Mexican flag

Poland

The Polish flag

Portugal

The Portugese flag

Russia

The Russian flag

Scotland

The Scottish flag


South Africa

The South African flag

Spain

The Spanish flag

Sweden

The Swedish flag

Switzerland The Swiss flag The Netherland

The Dutch flag

s

Turkey

The Turkish flag

The UK

The Union Flag

The USA

The American flag


Examples: Indian Mexican Japanese American Italian Russian German Egyptian French Chinese

CONTENT

Simple Present Conjugacion Verbo TO BE en Presente Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

(Forma afirmativa)

(Forma negativa)

(Fra interrogativa)

I am Student/ at Home

I am not Student/ at Home

Am I Student/ at Home?

You are Student/ at Home

You are not Student/ at Home

Are you Student/ at Home?

He is Student/ at Home

He is not Student/ at Home

Is he Student/ at Home?

She is Student/ at Home

She is not Student/ at Home

Is she Student/ at Home?

We are Students/ at Home

We are not Students/ at Home

Are we Students/ at Home?

They are Students/ at Home

They are not Students/ at Home

Are They Students/ at Home?

You are Students/ at Home

You are not Students/ at Home

Are you Students/ at Home?

It is Student/ at Home

It is not Student/ at Home

Is it Student/ at Home?


Conjugacion de Verbos en Presente El Do (I, you, they, we) y Does (It, He, She) son auxiliaries que nos ayudan a negar y a preguntar Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

(Forma afirmativa)

(Forma negativa)

(Fra interrogativa)

I work in a school

I don’t work in a school

Do I work in a school

You work in a school

You don’t work in a school

Do You work in a school

He works in a school

He doesn’t work in a school

Does He work in a school

She works in a school

She doesn’t work in a school

Does She work in a school

We work in a school

We don’t work in a school

Do We work in a school

They work in a school

They don’t work in a school

Do They work in a school

You work in a school

You don’t work in a school

Do You work in a school

It works in a school

It doesn’t work in a school

Does It work in a school

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do. Examples: • I play tennis. • She does not play tennis. • Does he play tennis? • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. • The train does not leave at 9 AM. • When does the train usually leave? • She always forgets her purse. • He never forgets his wallet.


• Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Examples: • Cats like milk. • Birds do not like milk. • Do pigs like milk? • California is in America. • California is not in the United Kingdom. • Windows are made of glass. • Windows are not made of wood. • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.


Examples: • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. • When do we board the plane? • The party starts at 8 o'clock. • When does class begin tomorrow? USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs. Examples: • I am here now. • She is not here now. • He needs help right now. • He does not need help now. • He has his passport in his hand. • Do you have your passport with you? ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples: You only speak English. Do you only speak English? Examples: This is a country. It’s also a continent. I’m a mother. I’m also a daughter. This man is exercising. He’s also watching television. You speak English and Russian. Do you speak other languages? Yes, I also speak Spanish.


Simple Past Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

(Forma afirmativa)

(Forma negativa)

(Fra interrogativa)

I was Student/ at Home

I was not Student/ at Home

Was I Student/ at Home?

You were Student/ at Home

You were not Student/ at Home

Were you Student/ at Home?

He was Student/ at Home

He was not Student/ at Home

Was he Student/ at Home?

She was Student/ at Home

She was not Student/ at Home

Was she Student/ at Home?

We were Students/ at Home

We were not Students/ at Home

Were we Students/ at Home?

They were Students/ at Home

They were not Students/ at Home

Were They Students/ at Home?

You were Students/ at Home

You were not Students/ at Home

Were you Students/ at Home?

It was Student/ at Home

It was not Student/ at Home

Was it Student/ at Home?

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.


Examples: • I saw a movie yesterday. • I didn't see a play yesterday. • Last year, I traveled to Japan. • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea. • Did you have dinner last night? • She washed her car. • He didn't wash his car. USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. Examples: • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two y


ears, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc. Examples: • I lived in Brazil for two years. • Shauna studied Japanese for five years. • They sat at the beach all day. • They did not stay at the party the entire time. • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes. • A: How long did you wait for them? B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc. Examples: • I studied French when I was a child. • He played the violin. • He didn't play the piano. • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? • She worked at the movie theater after school. • They never went to school, they always skipped class.


USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to." Examples: • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing. • He didn't like tomatoes before. Did you live in Texas when you were a kid? Examples: What did you bring to the party? I brought French food. The election was yesterday. He lost the election. He won the election. Last month he won the election. Did you win? Yes, we won again! Where is your book? I forgot it again


Pronouns Personal pronouns, Possessive determiners, Possessive pronouns Personal pronouns as object as subject (accusative and (nominative) dative) I me you you he him she her it it we us you you they them 1 2 We have some The books are for books. us.

Examples: His mother is a businesswoman. Her father is a businessman. His wife is a businesswoman.

Possessive determiners

Possessive pronouns

my your his her its our your their 3 These are our books.

mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs 4 The books are ours.


Passive Voice Use of Passive Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action. Example: My bike was stolen. In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it. Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was made. In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.). Form of Passive Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: A letter was written. When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following: • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)


Examples of Passive Tense Simple Active: Present Passive: Simple Past Active: Passive: Present Active: Perfect Passive: Future I Active: Passive: Hilfsverben Active: Passive:

Subject Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter

Verb writes is written wrote was written has written has been written will write will be written can write can be written

Object a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita.

Examples of Passive Tense Present Active: Progressive Passive: Past Active: Progressive Passive: Past Perfect Active: Passive: Future II Active: Passive:

Subject Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter

Verb is writing is being written was writing was being written had written had been written will have written will have been written would write would be written would have written would have been written

Object a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita.

Conditional I Conditional II

Active: Passive: Active: Passive:

Rita A letter Rita A letter

a letter. by Rita. a letter. by Rita.


Passive Sentences with Two Object Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Active: Passive: Passive:

Subject Rita A letter I

Verb wrote was written was written

Object 1 a letter to me a letter

Object 2 to me. by Rita. by Rita.

Examples: When was this photo taken? This photo was taken last winter. Where is Spanish spoken? Spanish is spoken in Spain, Mexico, and most of South America. When was this mosque built? This mosque was built in 1287. Antarctica was discovered in 1820. This temple was discovered in Mexico. These statues were discovered on an island. This city was discovered in South America.


Use of Articles A and An "A" goes before all words that begin with consonants. • a cat • a dog • a purple onion • a buffalo • a big apple With one exception: Use "an" before unsounded h. • an honorable peace • an honest error "An" goes before all words that begin with vowels: • an apricot • an egg • an Indian • an orbit • an uprising With two exceptions: When u makes the same sound as the y in you, or o makes the same sound as w in won, then a is used. • • • • • •

a a a a a a

union united front unicorn used napkin U.S. ship one-legged man


Prepositions Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction) English Usage Example • in • room, building, street, town, country • in the kitchen, in London

• at

• on

• by,

• book, paper etc.

• in the book

• car, taxi

• in the car, in a taxi

• picture, world

• in the picture, in the world

• meaning next to, by an object

• at the door, at the station

• for table

• at the table

• for events

• at a concert, at the party

• place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)

• at the cinema, at school, at work

• attached

• the picture on the wall

• for a place with a river

• London lies on the Thames.

• being on a surface

• on the table

• for a certain side (left, right)

• on the left

• for a floor in a house

• on the first floor

• for public transport

• on the bus, on a plane

• for television, radio

• on TV, on the radio

• left or right of somebody or n something e x t t o , b e s i d e

• under • on the ground, lower than (or

• Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

• the bag is under the table


covered by) something else • below • lower than something else but above ground • over

• the fish are below the surface

• covered by something else

• put a jacket over your shirt

• meaning more than

• over 16 years of age

• getting to the other side (also across)

• walk over the bridge • climb over the wall

• overcoming an obstacle • above • higher than something else, but not directly over it

• a path above the lake

• acros • getting to the other side (also over) s • getting to the other side

• walk across the bridge • swim across the lake

• throu • something with limits on top, bottom • drive through the tunnel g and the sides h • to

• movement to person or building

• go to the cinema

• movement to a place or country

• go to London / Ireland

• for bed

• go to bed

• enter a room / a building

• go into the kitchen / the house

• towar • movement in the direction of d something (but not directly to s it)

• go 5 steps towards the house

• onto

• movement to the top of something

• jump onto the table

• from

• in the sense of where from

• a flower from the garden

• into

I am IN the desk

The cat is UNDER the chair.


The dog is BESIDE his friend.

The mother is BETWEEN the kids.

The dog is ON the table.


There is – There are • Use "this" when something is nearby. • Use "that" when something is a distance away. something is a distance away. This book belongs to you.

That dog is asleep. This shirt is mine. That car is his. - "These"(this) and "those" (that) are the plural forms of "this" and "that". These children have been reading all afternoon. (Meaning the ones in the same room) These are mine. Those children have been playing outside all day. Those are yours.

Examples: There are too many people on the subway.

There are not enough chairs for all of the children. I have too many books to carry. There are not enough computers for the children.


WH Questions

We use question words to ask certain types of questions. We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, How). Question Function Word what asking for information about something asking for repetition or confirmation

Example What is your name?

What? I can't hear you. You did what? what...for asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for? when asking about time When did he leave? where asking in or at what place or position Where do they live? which asking about choice Which colour do you want? who asking what or which person or Who opened the door? people (subject) whom asking what or which person or Whom did you see? people (object) whose asking about ownership Whose are these keys? Whose turn is it? why asking for reason, asking what...for Why do you say that? why don't making a suggestion Why don't I help you?


how how + adj/adv how far how long how many how much how old how come (informal)

asking about manner asking about condition or quality asking about extent or degree

How does this work? How was your exam? see examples below

distance length (time or space) quantity (countable) quantity (uncountable) age asking for reason, asking why

How far is Pattaya from Bangkok? How long will it take? How many cars are there? How much money do you have? How old are you? How come I can't see her?

Examples: How many languages do you speak? Three: English, Italian, and a little Chinese. What’s on television? The king’s wedding is on television. Yes, I remember. This is when men first walked on the...on the...what is it called in English? In English, it’s called the “moon.” When did you see it? i saw it in 1973, when i was on vacation in the United States. How much do the flags cost? The flags cost two dollars.

For further Information visit these web pages: http://www.ego4u.com/ http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html

Document Activity Level 3 Unit 4  

Document Activity Level 3 Unit 4

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