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Head Lice

What are these?

Head lice are tiny, wingless parasitic insects that live among human hairs and feeds on extremely small amounts of blood drawn from the scalp.

Lice eggs (called nits) - these look like tiny yellow, tan, or brown dots before they hatch. Lice lay nits on hair shafts close to the scalp, where the temperature is perfect for keeping warm until they hatch. Adult lice and nymphs (baby lice) - the adult louse is no bigger than a sesame seed and is grayish-white or tan. Nymphs are smaller and become adult lice about 1 to 2 weeks after they hatch.

Head Lice Facts

1. Head lice are parasites that are found on human heads. 2. Head lice are spread by personal contact or the sharing of combs, brushes, caps, and other clothing. 3. Head lice are a common problem with preschool and schoolchildren. Head lice cause a tickling feeling of something moving in the hair, itching, and sores on the head. 4. The affected individual, family members also infected, and the home all should be treated. 5. Remember: one head louse + one head louse = two head lice = the beginning of a head-lice infection. 6. Very young children should be evaluated by a health care professional before beginning medications.

Signs of Head Lice

Scratching - This is actually due to a reaction to the saliva of lice. Small, red bumps or sores from scratching. Excessive scratching can lead the skin to become red and tender and may have crusting


Are Lice Contagious?

Lice are highly contagious and can spread quickly from person to person, especially in group settings (schools, childcare centers, slumber parties, sports activities, and camps

Removing by Hand. remove lice and nits by hand, use a fine-tooth comb on wet, conditioned hair every 3 to 4 days for 2 weeks Preventing Reinfestation. Wash all bed linens and clothing that’s been infested with lice; Soak hair-care items like combs, barrettes, hair ties or bands, headbands, and brushes in rubbing alcohol or medicated shampoo for 1 hour. Use of Medicated Shampoo. Use a delousing shampoo and leave it on the child’s hair for 10 minutes.

Preventing Lice

1. Avoid head-to-head contact at school (in gym, on the playground, or during sports) and while playing at home with other children. 2. Do not share combs, brushes, hats, scarves, bandanas, ribbons, barrettes, hair ties or bands, towels, helmets, or other personal care items with anyone else, whether they may have lice or not. 3. Do not lie on bedding, pillows, and carpets that have recently been used by someone with lice. 4. Every 3 or 4 days, examine members of your household who have had close contact with a person who has lice. Then, treat those who are found to have lice or nits close to the scalp.

dental caries What are these?

Also known as Tooth Decay. It happens when acids in your mouth dissolve outer layers of the teeth. If left untreated, this can lead to Gum Disease (Gingivitis) or Dental Abscess

Symptoms Treatment

1. Toothache 2. Tooth Sensitivity (Pain when eating/ drinking something cold or hot) 3. Discolored Spots (Gray, Brown, Black) Appearing on your teeth 4. Bad Breath 5. Unpleasant Taste in Mouth

1. Fluoride Varnish (Early Stage) 2. Removing the Decay and Restoring Tooth with a Filling 3. Root Canal (removing nerve and restoring tooth with filling or crown) 4. Tooth Extraction


1. Brush your teeth at least TWICE a day with Fluoride Toothpaste 2. Brush your teeth at least 30 minutes after eating 3. Flossing 4. Mouthwash 5. Avoid Food high in sugar or fermented carbohydrates

Avoid these:

Soft drinks, Coffee and Tea with sugar added, Chocolates Sweets, Cakes, Crisps, Biscuits, White Bread

Instead, eat these: Cheese Fruits and Vegetables Sugar Free Gum Coffee and Tea without sugar Whole wheat or brown bread Pasta


infection control handwashing “The basic principle of infection prevention and control is hygiene.”

- World Health Organization, 2013

What is infection?

It is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body.

Modes of Transmission

a.) Direct Transmission – the disease causing microbe is passed from one person to another through body contact. Example: touching, kissing b.) Indirect Transmission – occurs when an inanimate object serves as a temporary reservoir for the infectious agent. Example: droplets of air, water, food

Most common infections in children and ways to control them A.) COUGH AND COLDS (Upper respiratory infection) • Wash Your Hands. You’ve heard it many times before, but washing your hands is the single most important way to stop the spread of colds. • Cover Your Nose and Mouth. Use the crook of your elbow -- or a tissue. That way, the cold germs won’t get onto your hands and spread. • Disinfect. Cold germs can live on surfaces for hours. • Go Disposable. Colds can be spread by shared towels and cups in the bathroom. • Take Care of Yourself. Keep your immune system strong. B.) SKIN INFECTIONS • Wash hands often with soap and water. • Do not touch, scratch, or rub growths. • Keep areas with growths clean. • Do not share towels, clothing, and other personal items.

• Do not touch or scratch bumps or blisters on your skin or other people’s skin. • Have a good personal hygiene practices including a daily bath or shower. • Do not share toilet articles and cover cuts and abrasions. • Wash clothing, sheets, and towels in hot water. • If someone in your family is being treated for scabies, all other members of the household should be treated, too. C.) INFECTIONS DUE TO CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER • Wash hands thoroughly before and after eating • Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods • Choose foods processed for safety • Store cooked food carefully • Eat cooked food immediately • Avoid water and foods cooked and sold in unsanitary places

Six steps to effective Handwashing:

Step 1: Wet hands and apply soap. Rub palms together until soap is bubbly. Step 2: Rub each palm over the back of the other hand. Step 3: Rub between your fingers on each hand. Step 4: Rub your hands with the fingers together. Step 5: Rub around each of your thumbs. Step 6: Rub in circles on your palms. Then rinse and dry your hands

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