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Edgar Allan Poe In Boston of 1809 on January 19th, Edgar Allan Poe was born (second in line of three children) unto two traveling actors. Life was not pleasant to Poe from the very start. When Poe was only a year old, his parents agreed to separate; this left Poe without a father and without a husband for his mother, Elizabeth Poe. (Poestories) Soon after his parents separation, his mother dies from tuberculosis, leading to the adoption of Poe, by two wealthy tobacco merchants: Mr. and Mrs. John Allan. When Edgar turns 6 years old in 1815, Mr. John Allan and his wife Mrs.Valentine Allan send the young boy off to England for schooling. 5 years later, Edgar returns from England to America to live with his adopted parents in Richmond Virginia where he would then continue to further his education. Edgar was preoccupied with school, however, he always made enough time for poetry. By 1822 (13 years old) little Edgar had managed to “compile... enough poetry to publish a book”. (Bio) Yet his caretakers were not thrilled by this, his poetry fascination was not going to help maintain the family business, causing his adopted parents to shame his love to write. This carried on until the Allans would be far from Poe’s earshot when he finally attended the Academy of Berk, and later on the University of Virginia in 1826 . A year after his attendance at U.V, Poe dropped out of school due to his lack of tuition money on the Allans behalf. And as unfortunate as that may come across, the bump in the road wouldn't stop Poe from pursuing his dreams of writing poetry and bettering himself at it. In spite of his family's lack of support for his writing career, Poe would publish “Tamerlane” the same year that he dropped out of school.

Money was still a disappearing act to him. Poe spent the little money he had, and never earned it back. He was losing his money due to tuition costs, and being unemployed because he was a full time student, he wasn’t receiving any paychecks. Engaged at the time, he needed to fix the situation he was in, so in his desperate job search he found a resolution, enlisting in the military. With no intentions of ever enlisting in the military he surprisingly excelled with his service by obtaining “the rank of sergeant major”, quenching his thirst for positive recognition and pushing him to quickly get back on his feet. (Poestories) However his victory was short lived when he discovered that his fianc​é​ ​ had become engaged to someone else in his absence. At the age of 20, tragedy struck for the second time in his lifetime, and just like his biological mother, his adopted mother (Mrs. Valentine Allan) died of Tuberculosis. (Poemuseum) The death of his adopted mother introduced a long grieving process to Poe. Mrs. Allan was the only mother figure Poe had ever had a real relationship with. The death of Mrs. Allan proved to be a necessary occurrence for the relationship of her husband and adopted son, John Allan and Edgar Poe were able to reconcile for a brief period of time (just long enough for John Allan to sponsor Poes attendance at West Point.) Just before being officially enrolled in West Point, Edgar released another volume of poetry. In fear of losing his sponsorship and new found acquaintanceship with John, Poe wrote to John. With good intentions Poe wrote John a letter, but it’s contents made it a letter of debt, detailed with all of the wrongs that John has done unto him and threatening John with a guarantee of purposely flunking out of West Point if Allan did not right the wrongs he did unto Poe. John Allan took offense to the letter Poe had written, viewing his letter as a form of

entitlement and accusation and greed, leading to John cutting off the flow of riches that was keeping Poe afloat in school and in society, causing him to stay true to the promises he made in his letter to John, he dropped out of West Point. (Poemuseum) After his falling out with John, Poe released another volume of poetry. At 23 years old, Poe couldn’t find work as a writer anywhere. He was running out of money and options. He realized the letter he wrote to John was a mistake and wrote multiple letters to John pleading him to lend him his forgiveness and his money. Of course, still hurt by the harsh words Poe threw at John, he ignores Poe’s existence and his pleas and desperate attempts to retrieve money, not sparing Poe even the smallest amount of pocket change. Two years later, John Allan dies. Through the days leading to his death, John remains unforgiving of Poe and leaves him out of his will. Poe’s last hope for an ounce of forgiveness and grace are buried along with the body the dead John Allan. Penniless, and searching for a job, Edgar tries his hand one last time at a public writing position for a popular local magazine. Going off on a whim, and taking a leap of faith, he enters a contest that was advertised in the papers. A miracle happens, and for once, luck is on Poe's side. He wins the contest and earns a steady job as a magazine writer. While working for the “Messenger”, Poe makes the magazine much more popular: Poe helped make the Messenger the most popular magazine in the south with his sensational stories as well as with his scathing book reviews. Poe soon developed a reputation as a fearless critic who not only attacked an author’s work but also insulted the author and the northern literary establishment. Poe targeted some of

the most famous writers in the country. One of his victims was the anthologist and editor Rufus Griswold.(Bio) Edgar Allan Poe's streak of luck surprisingly continued. During his stay with his aunt, he created a relationship with his cousin Virginia. At 27 years old , Poe decided to marry his younger cousin, who was 14 (or 13 according to Poestories) at the time. Poe and Virginia were very content individuals. They had proven a very successful and ,even more so, happy and bliss filled marriage. In 1803 Mr. Poe published his work titled “ Ligeia” and followed it with "​The Fall of the House of Usher​" and "Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque" (Poe's first volume of short stories whose publisher failed to send him his owed paycheck ). As Poe publishes more works, the credit and recognition begins to stop surfacing and his luck with his job becomes non existent. His outrageous work schedule proves to be non beneficial because of the unfair labor to paycheck ratio. On January 30​th ​1847, his beloved Virginia becomes the third woman in Poe’s life to be taken by Tuberculosis. The following year, Poe writes his last work entitled “The Poetic Principle”. After countless trials and errors to get his life back together, Poe’s life becomes a horrendous disaster. With no loved ones to support him and no motivation left, Poe gives up on life and gives in to his drinking problem leading to numerous blackouts and health issues. His body is later found in an alley, passed out with the smell of alcohol on his breathe. When he was discovered, Poe was immediately rushed to the hospital. However the efforts in saving him were wasted because Poe was no longer up to fighting, he had given up long before his final day. He

was officially pronounced dead at 40 years old, on October 7​th 1849 leaving the world short of one of the greatest writers of all time. I would presume any and every true Poet/Artist/Writer, is underappreciated during their living lifetime. Their works and ideas are too bold and grand for the mediocre human mind to initially grasp. Leaving the ideas to be dormantly revolutionary. Allowing room for literary enthusiasts to gather the materials and experience needed to understand the lessons given by the writing influencers. The theme of poetry during Poe’s time was Romanticism which was arguably, the largest “Artistic Movement” of the early 1700s to the late 1900s. Romanticism didn’t soley trend in America, it trended in Germany, Great Britain, England and even France. The movement was globe wide. During the movement, poetry mainly revolved around on 3 things: emotion, individuality, and nature. Romantically themed poetry was intended to be an escape from the real world to a more tranquil one. (Furst) The Romantic formulas for poetry “​led to the flourishing of lyric poetry” because of its call for “emphasis on imagination and emotion”.​Where cities and politics didn't matter and river banks and crashing waves did. ​Before the Romantic era impacted the views of the literature appreciators, there were neoclassical and classical perception of the world. The views were supposed to be pure and righteous, full of moral correctness and peace. A safe form of writing. Very controlled and secluded and limited. The purpose of these views and writings were to wholeheartedly embrace and celebrate “freedom and revolution in their art and politics” ( A Brief Guide…) Romanticism acted as the revolution against all previous types of poetry like the ones previously mentioned, altering the way one delivered, wrote, spoke and thought of

poetry. Since the Romantic movement was so strong, there was an enormous impact on the style and relation of structure and writing. Short poems that were focused on a person's emotions became very popular. Self expression and deep thinking and personality analysis appealed to many readers and writers of that time period, creating a break in the political conversations within that time periods poetry . Gothic novels began to emerge because of the world's new found appreciation for mystery and supernatural ideas. In spite of its immense popularity the romantic following needed to remain underground because of the uncertainty that the American population had in accepting the refined style of poetry into their culture. Because of the mind's tendency to appeal to items and ideas that are taboo, the basis of the movement was able to be pushed out to foreign places; affecting and ultimately impacting more people that was thought possible. "The most prominent features of Poe's poetry are a pervasive tone of melancholy, a longing for lost love and beauty, and and a preoccupation with death, particularly the deaths of beautiful women"- Lynn M. Zott. Chosen from Edgar Allen Poe’s collection of works is Annabelle Lee. In the beginning of the poem, there is a misleading implication that the tone of the poem is carried on through to the end of the work. However the false paths allow us to experience particular emotions, mainly shock “[I]t is emotional, and is nearly always lugubrious.” says Zayed. As a practiced literary analyzer I have not personally experienced the sensation of experiencing emotions through reading an author's works, until I came across Poe’s poetry. The poem delivered a unique experience as the words of the author successfully established a connection between the reader and the purpose of the poem.

It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me.

In the beginning of the poem the author introduces to the readers a maiden who has been extremely well known in her “Kingdom”. The use of the words: “Kingdom”and “maiden”, and the apparent well known demeanor of the individual leads to the classification of her being perceived as a greatly desired, extremely beautiful woman. Her devotion and sincerity is called to attention within the last two lines of the displayed text. The simple phrase “no other thought than to be loved by me” delivers the powerful message that she has dedicated herself and her love to the author. But we loved with a love that was more than love— I and my Annabel Lee— With a love that the wingèd seraphs of Heaven Coveted her and me. In the second stanza, the poet professes his love to his ‘Annabel Lee” and emphasises this point extremely well by using the tool of repetition with the word“ Love.” He paints the picture of a balanced and reciprocated relationship between himself and “Annabel Lee”. Glorifying their relationship by comparing it to “heavenly” things.

However as the poem continues on, there is a noticeable difference in tones that indicates that the theme of poem is not what was originally predicted. The poem differed from its happy go lucky and loving tone to transform into a shocking, sad and bitter tone. And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling My beautiful Annabel Lee; So that her highborn kinsmen came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea. In this section of the poem there is a lot of symbolism taking place. The wind coming out of the cloud represents the unexpected turn of events that changes Annabel Lee and takes her away. The cloud is meant to be a person and the wind is supposed to be a suppressed emotion that presents itself in a whirlwind type of action. The “highborn kinsmen” are the generalization of the phrase “a better man”, telling us that a better man swayed Annabel Lee’s affection which caused her to leave the relationship she had with the author to join in on the relationship with the better man; thus making it so Annabel Lee would become dead to the author:“To shut her up in a sepulchre”. In transitioning on explaining to the reader that his love is now dead, we see a change in the rhyming scheme, most deliberately to create a jolt in the fluidity of the poem. The first stanza followed an A, B, A, B, C, B pattern, and as the poem progresses he does not stick to a set pattern. He creates a different rhythm while he concludes his poem. When the poem has a rhyming scheme that is easily identifiable, it represents the calm waves that suite the background tone of the beginning of the poem. In the final stanzas of the piece, the fierce repetition of

phrases, sounds and words emphasize the harshness of the actions acted out by the female character. The side by side comparison of the first and last stanza of the poem demonstrate the contrast in rhythm and tone and theme.

It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me.

For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise, but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling—my darling—my life and my bride, In her sepulchre there by the sea— In her tomb by the sounding sea.

In analyzing the poem there is an apparent connection between the poem and Poe’s life events. When Poe was young he was engaged to a woman that he loved completely. With faith in their relationship, Poe enlisted in the army as a means of income. However, when he got back from his service, there was an issue. The woman whom he had planned to marry was now engaged to another man. Mystified by his discovery, he contemplated the reason she would want to leave him. He came to the conclusion that only a person with a heart of ice could become numb enough to their own emotions to be capable of committing the social crime that would wreck Poe’s emotional stability and already miniscule level of hope. Thus sparking Poe’s inspiration for writing his poem “Annabel Lee.” With “Annabel Lee” as a poem of reference, Lerners quote “Poe resists easy interpretation and broad generalization” can be justifiably labeled as is inaccurate. The message inscribed within the majority of Poe’s poetry is easily picked up on. Knowledge on the

background of Poe (and most writers in general) helps make the simple connections necessary to uncover the purpose and the meaning of the volumes of carefully articulated poetry that have been written and published by each poet. The majority of Poe’s works are focused on expressing his sorrow that comes from losing his loved ones to the hand of death. "Numerous scholars, both contemporary and modern, have suggested that the experiences of Poe's life provide the basis for much of his poetry, particularly the early death of his mother, a trauma that was repeated in the later deaths of two mother-surrogates to whom the poet was devoted." (The Poetry of Edgar...) Poe had written a poem entitled “To My Mother”. Focusing on the title alone, we can easily indicate that this writing piece is dedicated to his mother. However, it is not totally clear which mother he is focusing his piece on: Biological, In-Law, or Adopted ? In the following poem, Poe begins his text with pleasant imagery of the heavens and angels. Which of whom are whispering about someone quickly identified as his mother. Poe characterizes his mother to be extraordinarily caring, more so than the angels themselves. Creating the image of his mother to be a very holy and giving and righteous one. By associating the individual with good deeds, he creates a bond between the reader and his mother through text because of the humans tendency to appeal to individuals with good intentions. Creating extreme pathos the reader will unconsciously experience. The writer expresses his agony by trying to reflect his emotions into the reader. In analyzing this poem, it is observed that there is a slow exposure to the true meaning of the poem, we develop a sentimental relationship with the author and his emotions, causing us to begin to care for things the author cares about. In addition to the character classification, he uses other items to deliver his message. The constant repetition of the

word “mother” triggers us to relate this poem to ourselves, thinking of his mother like she were our own. Other powerful words that activate the reaction of the reader would be, for example: angel, heart, dearly, loved. All of these words are words used to describe pleasant things or things that are cared about. In the attempts made to thoroughly comprehend the contents of the poem dedicated to his mother, we discover that the sweet ode explains Poe’s relationship with his mother-in-law. With the mention of the name Virginia and reference to information provided in his biography, the reader is able to make the connection that the mother he is addressing in the poem is his wife’s (virginia) mother,it makes it possible to understand that this poem was intended to be dedicated to his mother-in-law Because I feel that, in the Heavens above, The angels, whispering to one another, Can find, among their burning terms of love, None so devotional as that of "Mother," Therefore by that dear name I long have called you --You who are more than mother unto me, And fill my heart of hearts, where Death installed you In setting my Virginia's spirit free. My mother --- my own mother, who died early, Was but the mother of myself; but you Are mother to the one I loved so dearly, And thus are dearer than the mother I knew By that infinity with which my wife Was dearer to my soul than its soul-life.

"I cannot read the poems of Edgar Poe without feeling a sensation-of pain" - Daniel Hoffman (1972). Poe’s tendency to have his “ideas and emotions ... reflected in his work.” was a common practice among many modern and old time poets. In order to write poetry there must be

a cause, some form of influence for the author to write. (Lerner) Edgar plays on pathos in most of his poems in order to capture the reader's attention and harness their emotion, utilizing the tools he has that will help him connect the reader's mind to his. The intention for this poem is to mourn over his dead mother. The purpose and the morals of every single one of Poe's poems truly uphold his famously generalized reputation to write about women who have wronged him, mothers he has loved, death that has been unavoidable, and ultimately evil that people cannot escape. Yet the deception is this: his knack for writing these poems that contain his praisable exertion of relatable circumstances, are a shameful thing. James Postema acknowledges that “Poe has in fact controlled readers' responses.”. In "Edgar Allan Poe's Control Of Readers:...”. His diction contributes to the strategies he utilizes that assists him with his capability to dictate his readers responses. The rhythm, the tone and the diction are all things Poe realized were important and focused on in order to be successful in controlling the readers reactions to the his poetry. Edgar Allan Poe’s poetry was deeply rejected in the United States. Many of his critics would describe poe in foul manners: "I resist 'The Raven' as though it were a plague " Claudel states. Many critics would concur with Hoffman's assessment that much of Poe's verses consist of "pounding rhythms and changing rhymes, whose regularity can be likened to a Chinese water torture.” Another writer states that “Poe … writing ‘The Raven’ … rejects Plato's conception of poetic creation as an unconscious, irrational process.” (Fyre) Always hearing about the poetry and never reading it for myself I ignorantly agreed with the negative accusations made by harsh critics. Before exposing myself to Poe’s works, I had

stupidly assumed the contents of poem being restricted to: a talking raven, preaching how death would affect him “nevermore” However putting my wrongful assumptions aside it has been revealed to me that the poem contents are more complex than I had previously presumed. The first few stanzas of the Poem set up the contents of the story necessary to successfully proceed with the delivery of the message within the writing. The poem takes place late in the year and in the night inside of the chamber of a man who is half reading, and half asleep making an attempt to forget Lenore, his lost love. Although “The Raven” has an extremely consistent rhyming scheme, I don’t view the poem as monotonous or “torturous”. In fact the uniformity appeals to me. “he draws from the ancient recognition that poetry and poetic language are rooted in song, in the lyric blending of words and music” (Fyre) The A,B,C,D,D,D (including afterwards when it becomes a A,B,C,B,B,B) creates a strong flow of words that keep the poem running smoothly at the pace intended to be read.

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Thrilled me—filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating “’Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door— Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;— This it is and nothing more.”

It is obvious that Poe sincerely focuses on the tempo of the poem. Yet the flow of the rhythm makes the poem that much more interesting. If there were no tempo within his poetry, and more free style, the poems he writes would not be as emotionally taxing. The suspense

written into the Poem builds in sync with story within the text. The tempo sets expectations for the story. Reading the poem out loud allows you to experience the lead up to the climax, excitement rises as the reader proceeds to read aloud. Repetition is very common in his poems, however the repetition of the word “nevermore” grows tired. It may be a crucial aspect of the poem to lead us to the purpose of the writing, however after exposing myself to the repetition I begin to not care for it. Yet with the acknowledgment of the said repetition, it still is not comparable to chinese water torture. We can gather that this poem is about evil because of the diction the author utilizes throughout the stanzas of his poem. (Dhahir) He uses: terror, evil, devil, scarcely. However the evil that is spoken of is the evil inside of him. The evil that is directed by the devil himself, to be afraid of yourself and of nothing and of the unknown.

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Thrilled me—filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating “’Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door— Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;— This it is and nothing more.” Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before; But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token, And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, “Lenore?” This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, “Lenore!”— Merely this and nothing more. Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before. “Surely,” said I, “surely that is something at my window lattice; Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore— Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;— ’Tis the wind and nothing more!”

“A poem's exclusive aim is to create a unique and deeply emotional response in the reader.” (Frye) We can tell that the character in the story is becoming more and more frightened with every revelation that is made. The terror he has, keeps building inside of him.Turning the man into a fearing individual, focusing on how he can only depend on himself for support this night because no one else will come to his aid. The author includes a detailed portion of imagery so he can easily insert the desired image into each reader's mind. “As the poetic persona experiences an enrapture though [the] ephemeral state of heightened aesthetic consciousness, a kind of divine madness [is detected in his poetry]” imprinting an awareness upon the reader, awareness caused by fright (Fyre). Poe has the dark yet “wonderful fecundity of imagination” needed to make this poem relevant and effective. (Cuddon) The evil items that are the subject of his writing can be related back to Poe’s own life. In the very beginning of the poem we immediately pick up on the hints Poe has left for us to find. The male character that is described resembles Poe. He is a dazed man attempting to preoccupy his mind with things that will distract him from the hardships (of not being able to find a job or receive a donation from his adopted father) and losses within his family (like his biological, adopted and mother-in-law and wife) that he has frequently encountered within his short lived lifetime. The knocking on his chamber door is meant to represent the growing fear that lives inside of Poe as he realizes that no one is going to help him through the hardships that he will face head on without any idea on knowing how to prepare for the trouble that comes his way (because he cannot see it, he only knows by the festering feeling of dread that remains in his gut

that it is present or is soon to be). Evil and the Devil (revealed to the readers through the analysis of the poem) were meant to represent the fear Poe has instilled in himself, of himself in addition to the fear of knowing the material value of nothingness and being controlled by it. This translates that, the downward spiral Poe led himself down was created by greed, self-inflicted pain (his drinking) and reclusiveness; which in relativity, draws the conclusion that the association of his sinning within the three primary areas that the devil specializes in, causes him do things to himself with bad intentions inflicting harm, instead of doing things that would be of assistance to himself for his own well being. Poe wrote numerous easily analyzed pieces of literature, however he did write a piece of misleading and confusing poetry about what initially comes across as an odd description of a play. Toward the start of the play, the tone comes across as exciting, and extremely intriguing. However even though it seems so very captivating in its dramatic state, the kind of excitement that is displayed in the poem overwhelms the actual purpose and theme of the poem, making the reader over look its many indications of it being a darker piece of poetry in its first read.

Within the lonesome latter years! An angel throng, bewinged, bedight In veils, and drowned in tears,

Sit in a theatre, to see A play of hopes and fears

The punctuation of the poem is a contributing factor as to why this poem's structure is misleading to the theme of the poem. In a more detailed explanation, it’s punctuation contradicts the poem's given diction. “Lonesome”, and “fear” are words that are used to describe subjects that are not uplifting. These words indicate feelings of sorrow, remorse, regret and things of a similar theme. However it is hard to pick up on the trend of ongoing negativity because of its inconsistent tracking of events and difference between the ideal subjects and the diction within the work This poem “blends poorly with the theme, contains luminous symbolism that reveals clearly who is the triumphant hero of this puppet-show where the actors are poor human beings, mimes in the form of God, and where the protagonist is Death, and the spectators are angels drowned in tears.”(Zayed) With its non easy read this poem can be categorized as one of the, very few, more confusing piece of the works Edgar Allan Poe has contributed to his inspirational literary movement.

But see, amid the mimic rout, A crawling shape intrude! A blood-red thing that writhes from out The scenic solitude! It writhes!—it writhes!—with mortal pangs The mimes become its food, And seraphs sob at vermin fangs

In human gore imbued.

Out—out are the lights—out all! And, over each quivering form, The curtain, a funeral pall, Comes down with the rush of a storm, While the angels, all pallid and wan, Uprising, unveiling, affirm That the play is the tragedy, “Man,” And its hero, the Conqueror Worm.

However, this setup for this specific piece of poetry, and slow climax with a surprising turn of events are what keep Edgar Allan Poe relevant and entertaining. The complexity of his poem is not what is taken to be at face value. The complex interpretation of this poem allows his work to be valued in a much higher regard. In addition to his complex explanation for the poem his unique topics and style make this poem memorable. His hate for mortality and creative interpretations allow us to embrace our most secret side as human. Lener was reading into Poe’s works and came up with this conclusion, The thought of death in love [was always haunting him], of the death of his mother, then the death of the woman he loved, then of the death of his foster-mother, and finally of his wife. These four he loved died as though his kiss were lethal. In the grave, surrendered to the conqueror worm, their once quick

flesh rotted, and his desires turned naturally from life towards death. Death, the enemy, became the loved one, and he relished more the thought of dissolution than the living body he clasped, feeling always the skull beneath the hair he touched, the small bones moving in the hand he clasped, and the teeth felt under a kiss. The critics successful analysis provided support to categorize Poe's poetry under a small, dark umbrella. The repeated discovery of the connection between Poe's works and his life create a strong backing to the initial theory that his poetry was relatable to his own life. Which meant that most of his poetry did indeed have topics concerning: death, women, loneliness failure and hardships.

Thank Heaven! the crisis, The danger, is past, And the lingering illness Is over at last​ And the fever called "Living" Is conquered at last. Sadly, I know I am shorn of my strength, And no muscle I move As I lie at full length​ But no matter!​I feel I am better at length. And I rest so composedly, Now, in my bed, That any beholder Might fancy me dead​ Might start at beholding me, Thinking me dead. The moaning and groaning, The sighing and sobbing, Are quieted now, With that horrible throbbing At heart:​ah, that horrible, Horrible throbbing! The sickness ​the nausea​ The pitiless pain​ Have ceased, with the fever That maddened my brain​ With the fever called "Living" That burned in my brain.

And oh! of all tortures That torture the worst Has abated​the terrible Torture of thirst For the naphthaline river Of Passion accurst:​ I have drank of a water That quenches all thirst:​ Of a water that flows, With a lullaby sound, From a spring but a very few Feet under ground​ From a cavern not very far Down under ground. And ah! let it never Be foolishly said That my room it is gloomy And narrow my bed; For man never slept In a different bed​ And, to ​sleep, you must slumber In just such a bed. My tantalized spirit Here blandly reposes, Forgetting, or never Regretting, its roses​ Its old agitations Of myrtles and roses: For now, while so quietly Lying, it fancies A holier odor About it, of pansies​ A rosemary odor, Commingled with pansies​ With rue and the beautiful Puritan pansies.

And so it lies happily, Bathing in many A dream of the truth And the beauty of Annie​ Drowned in a bath Of the tresses of Annie. She tenderly kissed me, She fondly caressed, And then I fell gently To sleep on her breast​ Deeply to sleep From the heaven of her breast. When the light was extinguished, She covered me warm, And she prayed to the angels To keep me from harm​ To the queen of the angels To shield me from harm. And I lie so composedly, Now, in my bed, (Knowing her love) That you fancy me dead​ And I rest so contentedly, Now in my bed (With her love at my breast). That you fancy me dead​ That you shudder to look at me, Thinking me dead:​ But my heart it is brighter Than all of the many Stars in the sky, For it sparkles with Annie​ It glows with the light Of the love of my Annie​ With the thought of the light Of the eyes of my Annie.

In “For Annie” The narrator seems to be either dead or on the verge of death challenging this terminal illness. Poe “zig-zags” back and forth within the following stanzas going from past to present in his explanation of a long lost loved one. With prior exposure to Poe's style of writing it is possible for me to infer that this poem's contents will be about something dark. To Edgar Allan Poe, life is an absolute sickness. (Fyre) In the stanzas of his poem “For Annie” he explains to the reader how much better he feels now since he is ‘cured’ of the awful beating, that aweful moaning and throbbing that tells us his heart is presently beating. To Edgar,to be alive is to be dead because of the constant inflictions of pain, upon oneself and unto others. Mortality is a sickness that you catch while creating relationships with loved ones after they have passed. “Heaven is in her arms” means that when you can finally die and be reunited with other loved ones who have passed on into the afterlife, then, you are in heaven. (Bachinger) I take a liking to the consistency Poe has when he writes. When he brings up his beloved “Annie”, he repeats her name throughout the entirety of the poem, indicating the importance of this woman he talks about. His lengthy poem (as would prefer to be referred to by Edgar Allan Poe because he “hold[s] that a long poem does not exist. [he] maintains that the phrase, “a long poem,” is simply a flat contradiction in terms.), serves as a declaration of hate for life without his love Annie. This poem is the figuratively the summary of all of Poe’s poetry. Poe summarizes his resentment towards existence and envy of after life for all of the repeatedly accounted for reasons. With Poe as a witness, life can be absolutely meaningless and miserable without the company of loved ones. Without loved ones and their motivation, it’s challenging to maintain the drive needed in order to succeed and increases the likelihood of beginning to desire to give up on living. His familiarity with death and misfortune left Poe with a severely unhealthy outlook on

life, driving him to do unrighteous things that would only increase the opportunity for misguidance to occur. Poe had given up on living in an early stage of his life, pushing himself to do things that would pass the time until he would finally be able to escape with the “sweet release of death”. This may be why it was so hard for the Americans to catch on to Poe's trends. Because they were familiar with the actions that inspired him write. The inspiration on himself to not try and fix his situations for the better only increased the hesitance that lived in each person. Which is completely understandable, no one in a sane state of mind would encourage their peers to follow suite and participate in life the way Poe had. Poe may not have been praised for his works during his lifetime in America, however if we “examine[] the relationship between Poe and the Symbolists[:]Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Paul Valéry, [we can see] for whom Poe served as inspiration and "catalyst"[for]” in [the aspect of] moving away from the conventions of Romanticism." (The poetry of Edgar Allan Poe…) So even though Poe was an outcast during his living working period his revolutionary poetry would be recognized at a later date. Creating a literary movement isn't realistic for all individuals (especially in places of the world that have never been a homeland) which makes it amazing that Poe was capable of influencing an entire form of literature to adapt to how Poe was writing. Even influencing parts of south eastern Europe. For example: Ali Podrimja (an Albanian poet) spoke up in an interview about “​the genius poet Edgar Allan Poe and his poem about Skanderbeg” (Skanderborg: the military commander of ​Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death​) and how that influenced him to write in a similar style to Poe. (​Goldwyn)

Poe had an unbelievably strong influence on, believe it or not, the Japanese culture as well. In Keiji Minato’s Essay, “Poe and the Position of the Poet in Contemporary Japan” Minato explains how Poe helped shape Japanese literature. Keiji Minato demonstrates this through examples from the works of Hagiwara Sakutaro, Edogawa Rampo and Mishima Yukio. Hagiwara's writings have an explicit resemblance to those of Poe's. Sakutaro conducted a massive poetry study just like Poe’s and even entitled his work “Shi no Genri” which translates to: The Poetic Principle (after Poe’s own essay on his own study of poetry). The thing that indicates the significance of this relation, is that Hagiwara Sakutaro is referred to as “the founding father of genuinely modern poetry in Japan” meaning , of course, that he is an important literary figure, pushing Poes ideas into the world of Japanese literature. Edogawa Rampo ,(“The most influential detective fiction writer in Japan”) took a liking to the style of writing “created by father of the genre” and detailed his works in the magnificent shadow of Edgar Allan Poe. Sakaguchi Ango, Tanizaki Junichiro and Mishima Yukio found something in Poe’s works that had “been largely disregarded or overlooked in [Poe’s] country...”; they found humor, and successfully praised it, in the novels they wrote. 100 and 40 years later, the influence trend found it’s way back to America, making an impression on the young Allen Ginsberg at the age of “six or seven”. When Ginsberg discovered Poe he studied his poetry to the point that “Poe[’s] verse …’entered his nervous system’”. With Poe as his literary influence, Allen Ginsberg was capable to mimic Poe. Ginsberg led a literary movement after World War II in the 1950’s inspiring a social revolution and a culture full of nonconformity pushing others to question mainstream politics and culture, creating something called: The Beat Generation.

Poe's influence out was not the same as his influence in. “Readers can clearly see the connection to Poe and the other people in his life to the characters in his poems and stories.”(Eckert). His way of writing was directed by the occurrences within his measly life... “[h]e did not look to any literary works for inspiration, [his influence was] from his imagination and the experiences he went through…[so since he didn’t have much influence coming in, he was] more as a literary inspiration for others [and his life was the influence for himself].”(Eckert) Poe’s purpose was to be the unusual, original, idealist for poetry that would make it possible for other poets all over the globe to follow suit in breaking the orthodox form of writing, creating massive Literary revolutions in the farthest corners of the world.

Works Cited “About Edgar Allan Poe." ​PBS. PBS, 01 June 2006. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. "A Brief Guide To Romanticism." ​ Academy of American Poets, 27 May 2004. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Allen, James Lane. "N​ight Shadows in Poe's Poetry." The continent 5, no.4 (23 January 1884): 102-04 "Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe: Summary, Analysis & Theme." Study. Com. N.p., 2003. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Bachinger, Katrina. "Poe's "For Annie.." ​Explicator 43.1 (1984): 33. ​Literary Reference Center. Web. 30 Sept. 2016. Baudelaire, Charles​. "Edgar Allan Poe, His Life and Works." Trans. Lois Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. Baudelaire on Poe: Critical Papers. Charles Baudelaire. Ed. Lois Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. Bald Eagle Press, 1952. 35-86. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Jay Parini and Janet Mullane. Vol. 16. Detroit: Gale, 1987. 19th Century Literature Criticism Online. Web. 26 Sept.​ 2016. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. "COMPLETE COLLECTION OF POEMS BY EDGAR ALLAN POE: The Raven, Alone, Annabel Lee, The Bells, Eldorado, Ulalume and More." ​Poetry Lovers Page. N.p., 1995. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. "The Conqueror Worm by Edgar Allan Poe - Poetry Foundation." ​Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

Cuddon, J. A. "What Is Romanticism?" ​Introduction to Romanticism. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory., 1991. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Dhahir, Sanna. "Literary Contexts In Poetry: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven." Literary Contexts In Poetry: Edgar Allan Poe's 'The Raven' (2007): 1. Literary Reference Center. Web. 29 Sep. 2016. (literary analysis) Eckert, Mallory. "Edgar Allan Poe." ​'s Inspiration. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. “Edgar Allan Poe Museum : Poe's Life, Legacy, and Works : Richmond, Virginia."​Edgar Allan Poe Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Goldwyn, Adam J., and Rineta Hoxha. "Finally, Ali Podrimja Spoke." World Literature Today 86.3 (2012): 28-32. Literary Reference Center. Web. 26 Nov. 2016. Furst, Lilian R. "Romanticism (late 1700s-mid 1800s)." ​Scholastic Publishes Literacy Resources and Children's Books for Kids of All Ages. Scholastic, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Giordano, Robert. "Edgar Allan Poe Timeline -" ​Poestories. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 July, 2016. "Gothic Romantic Poetry - Gothic Romantic." ​Gothic Romantic Poetry - Gothic Romantic. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2016. "How the Nineteenth Century Influenced Poe and How Poe Influenced the Development of Detective Fiction and Mysteries." ​Development of Detective Fiction and Mysteries. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2016. Minato, Keiji. "Poe And The Position Of The Poet In Contemporary Japan." Critical Insights: The Poetry Of Edgar Allan Poe (2010): 301-321. Literary Reference Center. Web. 26 Nov. 2016

"The Poetry of Edgar Allan Poe, An Introduction to." Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Lynn M. Zott. Vol. 117. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 19th Century Literature Criticism Online. Web. 19 Sept. 2016 Poe, Edgar Allan, and Andrew Barger. ​Edgar Allan Poe's Annotated Poems. Memphis, TN: BottleTree, 2008. Print. Poe, Edgar Allan. "Text: Edgar Allan Poe, “The Poetic Principle” (reprint), Home Journal, Series for 1850, No. 36 (whole Number 238), August 31, 1850, P. 1, Cols. 1-6." ​Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2016. Pollin, Burton R. "Edgar Allan Poe As A Major Influence Upon Allen Ginsberg." ​Mississippi Quarterly 52.4 (1999): 535. ​Literary Reference Center. Web. 26 Nov. 2016. Postema, James. "Edgar Allan Poe's Control Of Readers: Formal Pressures In Poe's Dream Poems." Critical Insights: The Poetry Of Edgar Allan Poe (2010): 290-300. Literary Reference Center. Web. 20 Aug. 2016. "The Raven Criticism." ​EBSCOhost Online Research Databases. N.p., n.d. Web. Taylor, Matthew A. "Edgar Allan Poe's (Meta)Physics: A Pre—History of the Post—Human." Nineteenth-Century Literature 62.2 (Sept. 2007): 193-221. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Kathy D. Darrow. Vol. 211. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 19th Century Literature Criticism Online. Web. 25 Sept. 2016. "Writing Romantic Poetry." ​Explore Writing. N.p., 2000. Web. 26 Sept. 2016. Zayed, Georges. "The Symbolism of the Poems." ​The Genius of Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing, 1985. 127-136. Rpt. in ​Nineteenth-Century Literature

Criticism. Ed. Lynn M. Zott. Vol. 117. Detroit: Gale, 2003. ​19th Century Literature Criticism Online. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

Edgar Allan Poe Research Paper  

Reasearch Paper Assigned As A Senior Project

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