The effects of
FASHION FILMS ﾂｷ Research Report
ﾃ］gela Aguinaco Martﾃｭn Seminar Visual
The effects of Fashion Films Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to analyze and study the elements that have motivated the success of the new fashion ad format: Fashion Films. Small audiovisual pieces that have transformed the way brands communicate their values. Traditional 30-second commercials have turned into "audiovisual experience" that display the values of the brand aimed to their target group. When did they start? How did they progress? And where have they influenced? With this research we are trying to answer all these questions on this very recent phenomenon.
1. Definition of the problem……1 2. Research question……3 3. Sub-question……4 4. Fashion films: a whole world to discover……5 4.1. Definition……5 4.2. Background: from commercials to fashion films……6 4.3. Elements and characteristics……8 4.4. Consequences……10
5. Answering sub-questions……12 6. Answering research question……14 7. Conclusion……15
1.Definition of the problem
One day we wake up and noticed that something had changed in fashion brand commercials. The ads were longer, the aesthetic was crafted to detail and we could feel a story. These were the most significant facts that popped up in our minds when we watched these short audiovisual pieces for the first time. They are called “Fashion Films”. And what are these clips? Is it a special commercial or a short film? When did this start? Why are all the big fashion brands dedicating a huge amount of money producing these pieces? Is it just a new trend of the fashion world or they came to stay? Why is everyone talking about them? There are many definitions of what a fashion film is but our role is not to discern which one is more correct. Some directors argue that these pieces must contain a story, others opt for the humor, to include social criticism, dialogue ... There are as many styles as the audiovisual possibilities has. But what is certain is that you can set them in large groups or trends conducting fashion films. In common one thing: the clothes and the aesthetic of the brand are the protagonists. Experimenting with the norms of traditional advertising techniques and moving fashion shoots, designers have embraced film as an art form and have moved away from perfume-bottlemonologues and the use of product placement. Bridging the gap between reality and fantasy: the creative's use of tech, their collaborations and their futuristic approach to video have created a powerful intersection between feature music video, documentary and fashion. The truth is that the relationship of these small audiovisual pieces with the film world has narrowed to the point that more and more filmmakers have been signed by fashion brands to create this marks short-films, from Guy Ritchie (H & M, Dior) Wes Anderson (Prada) through David Lynch (Dior) or Jean Pierre Jeunet (Channel). Some of them have even released in film festivals, such as the short film “A Therapy” that made Roman Polanski for Prada and saw the light in Cannes. With this rise of the fashion film since 2009, it is time to re-examine this relationship as public opinion has become divided between those who think fashion films is a form of expression in which fashion houses get to play auteur and those who think they are nothing more than pretentious product placement disguised as ‘art’. There are also others that argue fashion films are the natural evolution of fashion photography, ready to conquer and supplant. But almost everyone prefers not defined and say it is too early to know exactly what and where its boundaries are. In any case the Fashion Film exists and is growing. And it's not just an advertising spot where the narrator must be limited to announce products just in 30 seconds it allows the format. The new format, which has found its host on the internet, allows a new versatility which helps making small works of art, small pieces of auteur. It comes with the intention of being the new language in the world of fashion. Its success now depends on their quality and their codes are crossing their borders.
Finally we should also mention that the major fashion headers off-line have been adapting their content to digital format, and today exploding audiovisual creations for fashion editorials in magazines like VOGUE, L'Officiel Magazine, Fantastic Man ...
In the last decade Fashion Films have become one of the most common tense of the big clothing brands. Combining art and movement, fashion and video, the fashion films show us a parallel reality that the designer and director have created to capture the soul of the collection. I've always been interested in fashion and since the first time I saw this kind of videos I wanted to know what's behind them, their history and its secret of success. The designer-filmmaker couple has created these pieces of art that have gone around the world creating a new way to promote and see fashion. So with the main objective to analyze and study this new phenomenon the following question will be the start point of this research:
â€œHow a trend as Fashion Films seems to have turned into an entire culture in the 21st century fashion world.â€?
The concept of “Fashion Films” could cover many disciplines, from fashion, commercials, brands, through music, to films, directors or aesthetic. So that’s why this first research question has been broken down in other different and more specific sub-questions. In this way the topic will be show in all directions.
What is a fashion film? With all the definitions we can find on the internet and magazines, this research will try to make a simple, clear and concise definition in order to have a better understanding.
How/who and when does it start? These are other essential details the research will try to show. The background of a story is always a must in order to understand the present and visualize the future.
Is it actually a new trend or an evolution of something else? What was there before fashion films? Any precedent? Especially in the world of fashion nothing is completely new. The past trends always come back. Is this the same case of the Fashion Films? We will figure it out.
What make fashion films special? Which characteristics do they have? This question will help us to understand if there is any kind of patron or characteristic that make the format of fashion films a completely success.
What aspects has it subsequently motivated? As every trend in fashion it motivated other different initiative and movements. Is this also happening with fashion films?
In which way fashion films change the view of fashion brands? Changing the traditional commercial in a short movie where every visual detail are cared, a whole story is related and famous director sign them, alter the way fashion brands are shown.
4.Fashion films: a whole world to discover
Until recent times, advertising has constructed all kinds of strategies to reach their target group, invading every centimeter of their space. But now, the brand communication is not satisfied just getting the attention of the target and its faint memory for a few seconds. Now the new brand advertising is trying to find a permanent place in the audience mind. Getting to this magnificent point, it was not just a matter of changing the perspective of the communication, a long evolutionary process was necessary at all levels, in which brands have gone from selling products to represent values. Over this process, advertising has been introduced in all kinds of contexts in order to surprise the receiver. In its various forms, the fashion film has become an indispensable element between producers and advertisers; not only by the revenue gained, but also by the narrative skill that involved. In this way, the product or the brand not only serve to give realism to the created universe, they have sufficient communicative power to shape the personality of the characters or interact with the story itself. However, the brands continue dodging the limits, and the next step was to become the providers of the entertainment themselves. Either as a video game or any other form of entertainment, brands start to produce their own contents of their universe, in order to integrate their message or their values in "commercials" that the target group is willing and interested in see, enjoy and share. In the world of fashion, these facts motivated a whole change in the way they see advertising and communication. This has meant the turning point that fashion world needed to innovate and experiment through the fashion films; a phenomenon that today has generated the creation of numerous online platforms, specialized courses and festivals in the major capitals of Europe or America.
Both film making and fashion design are collective endeavors with hundreds of people involved in the process of making a major film or collection, in which one person is wholly responsible for the artistic vision. In the world of film, this person is the director. And for fashion, it is the designer. Despite the parallels between film and fashion, the latter has usually played second fiddle when the two worlds come together creating a new way to communicate brand values: the Fashion Film. As I said before there are many definitions of what a fashion film is. Some directors argue that these pieces must contain a story, others opt for the humor, to include social criticism, dialogue... Some say the Fashion Film is still experimental genre, which is developing and in full blast. And there are also others that argue fashion films are the natural evolution of fashion
photography, ready to conquer and supplant. But almost everyone prefers not defined and say it is too early to know exactly what and where its boundaries are. Technically we could say a fashion film is an audiovisual piece, usually of short duration (between 1 and 5 minutes), with a rich visual aesthetics heiress of the fashion photography and a narrative straddling the music video, the TV spot and short fiction. Basically fashion films are an extension of the brand… another way to experience clothing, fashion or a brand. It's not just an advertising spot where the narrator must be limited to announce products just in 30 seconds it allows the format. Fashion films provide an online experience of the brand/collection what allows a new versatility that helps making small works of art, small pieces of auteur. It comes with the intention of being the new language in the world of fashion. And its demand is steadily growing, especially as people become more familiar with ‘the concept of fashion films’.
Background: from commercials to fashion films
Fashion films are not necessarily new and should not be taken as just a passing phase. The earliest films were silent films with a live music soundtrack and the technology lent itself to dance, costume and special effects. If you compare early films like Danse du Papillon (1900) and Danse Serpentine (1896) with Ruth Hogben’s fashion films for Gareth Pugh (2011) you can see how fashion and costume has been used, then as now, to show aesthetic considerations over narrative. If we go back to the origins of this piece and do a brief historical overview The Serpentine Dance (1899) by the Lumiere brothers was surely the first fashion film history. It show a woman blowing her dress which changes color as she spins endlessly like a top. The piece is considered one of the earliest examples of video art of all time. Already in the twentieth century the big brands with own fragrance would be the first to adopt the little movie as an advertising mechanism. How are the women using the perfume? In most cases it is used to thread of the love story with a great deal of attraction and seduction. Often with a familiar face as protagonist. 2009 marked a turning point in this fashion-film/commercial-art relationship when Tom Ford made his directorial debut with A Single Man. As the first fashion designer to cross over into the mainstream world of cinema, he was put up to scrutiny and he had to prove that he could back up his fashion/directorial style with substance. Despite the critical success of the film, it is unlikely that many will follow in Ford’s footsteps. Few fashion designers could even afford the ‘modest’ $7 million budget of Ford’s film and even fewer film producers would take a risk on
first-time fashion designer-directors without major intervention. Ford ended up financing himself so that he could maintain creative control. Instead, it has been the short film format that has provided the means in which fashion films, that is, fashion designer as auteur, have flourished. How were these connections made? We can start with the emergence of a new form of visual culture in the 1980s that allowed young filmmakers to experiment and refine their craft: the music video. Fashion had a new medium to collaborate but once again it played a supporting role. Artists like Madonna and Michael Jackson not only sung the songs but also wore the clothes that defined a generation. The music video was an effective way of selling a product, a branding exercise that fashion houses could excel at. The rise of the music video auteur began in the 1990s when directors like David Fincher, Spike Jonze and Michel Gondry came into prominence from the music video scene and made the transition into feature films. Their aesthetics changed the way films looked and felt, particularly with their technical know-how, and validated music video as a medium to cultivate new talent. When YouTube launched in 2005, the Internet became video friendly. Meanwhile, the relationship between fashion and music videos remained strong and true. Performers like Kylie Minogue and Lady Gaga wore exclusive designer clothes while others like Gwen Stefani made their own. But since 2009, we have seen a proliferation of fashion films that have taken over music videos to become the new vehicle for auteur film making. Up and coming directors are attracted to this genre because it affords them more freedom than the music video. There are less time constraints, the film is not a slave to the interpretation of a song and the whims of the band, and there is also narrative freedom. As the genre was so new, there were no rules. For savvy fashion houses, it was an exciting way to present a collection and identity for their brand and reach new audiences, especially for designers who could not afford to stage an elaborate runway show. Notable fashion film directors include Ruth Hogben (Nick Knightâ€™s former assistant who has worked with Gareth Pugh, Alexander McQueen and Celine), Stephanie Di Giusto (Vanessa Bruno) and Jason Last (Exito, Rodarte). Fashion houses have also turned to first-time filmmakers that come from â€œfilm royaltyâ€? (Gia Coppola, Lola Schnabel, Jake Sumner) to lend their sense of style to a brand. But we cannot make an analysis of the phenomenon without mentioning the two major platforms or projects around the genre. The first and pioneer in this form of communicating fashion through new media is Showstudio (2000). From London this cabinet led by photographer Nick Knight has earned the title of undisputed king of the new genre, and offers a unique platform to encourage fashion based on the motion picture starring in the digital era. In this way, we could say Showstudio has established a bridge between fashion and the Internet. Their productions are daring and transgressive, very close to video art. They go a step further,
one step ahead. But Showstudio is not limited to fashion film they also produce documentaries and interviews, always focused on the world of fashion. In 2003, they released eleven previously unseen fashion films by radical fashion photographer Guy Bourdin. SHOWstudio attributes the genius of Bourdin in realizing how fashion can be translated into moving image. Bourdin himself was a protege of Man Ray (1890-1976), a pioneer of fashion and the still image in his own time by bringing fashion into the realm of art. The Surrealist intent behind Man Ray’s work, to be provocative and push the boundaries, is the same now as it was then for those like Nick Knight who want to represent fashion at its most “vital, engaging and revolutionary”. Early collaborators with Knight included Alexander McQueen, Gareth Pugh and John Galliano. In 2005 SHOWStudio commissioned a mix of photographers like Tim Walker, Steven Klein, and Jason Evans as well fashion designers, stylists and models to create a 30-second film featuring a garment from the A/W 2005 collections. This project, Moving Fashion, aimed to strengthen the idea that fashion is seen best through movement and that film brings fashion to life in a way that cannot be done by a magazine. In an interview with Vogue UK Knight asserts, “We are in the midst of a revolution in fashion imagery” [...] “Moving away from illustration and stills photography, we are now entering the restless world of interactive, self-created, digital-imaging: accessible, downloadable and constantly changing. This is what interests me. Working with the very top fashion creators, opening up the whole process of fashion to literally everyone, instead of just an informed few.” The other major initiative has been Nowness created by the LVMH group, which describes itself as a platform of global culture of digital narrative, which premieres exclusive content every day. A meeting point for people with cultural interests and a reference point for media and style leaders. In short, a creative community that welcomes the work of exceptional artists. We can say that the website is not focused exclusively on fashion.
Elements and characteristics
As I said before there are as many styles as the audiovisual possibilities has. But what is certain is that Fashion films have something in common: the clothes and the aesthetic of the brand are the protagonists. They began (by their budget) large fashion houses (Dior, Chanel) with some, glamorous stories in which women aims to shine and seduce a handsome young man, who observes from a distance. Fashion, we all know, has always relegated to the role of women beautiful and seductive.
But in the last few years we have observed a new aspect: video-art pieces that show the fears, concerns and worries of the "fashion filmmakers" and humorous stories. Uniting fashion with art, with social criticism or humor has been one of the greatest challenges in recent years. In the first group (the fashion of the films of the luxury market) predominates a refined appearance based on soft lighting (white is the protagonist), with professional models, the use of audiovisual techniques such as motion tracking shots and spectacular special effects. In many cases, they turn to celebrities (actresses, singers and models). One of the first was Nicole Kidman, directed by Baz Luhrmann (director of Moulin Rouge) for Channel. And most recently, Gisele Bundchen and the duo of Cara Delevigne and Pharrell Williams, also for Karl Lagerfeldâ€™s brand. The mind behind Fendi and Channel has been an innovator since the beginning and Lagerfeld even dares to run his own fashion films and bet on the dream and surreal world of Nick Knight with Sans Couture. Other fashion films look for the individuality, trying to defend this genre as video art, wanting to simulate the "amateur" video and camera on his shoulder but of course careful to detail. The glamor and glitz disappear, giving way to purity and youth, as the video Coach New York. In other cases, the fashion filmmaker chooses two aspects: humor and social criticism. We cannot to stop talking about Monica Menez, a German artist who makes some very interesting visual pieces that also border the absurd humor and containing, as the main element the surprise. And Gsus Lopez is a Spanish boy who is also creating buzz lately. His fashion films have a touch of surrealism, humor and also, as a recurring theme, sexuality. His fashion film "It Melts" is essential, and wildly funny. The fashion film as a genre still has a lot to say. The aesthetic possibilities are the same as granting the audiovisual format. The differences lie in the creativity of each particular author and audience response. But there is one characteristic that most fashion films have: they are built through the storytelling technique. The storytelling does not intended to persuade the audience about the benefits of a product, but connect with the emotional component of users generating a bond of attachment to ensure loyalty to the brand. Namely what storytelling is intended to generate is engagement. The real brands, strong, are based on stories, metaphors or analogies that make them grow. Brands are no longer simple logos, they become social, cultural and symbolic narratives that are not strictly identified with a particular reference, they become the reference itself. The consumer is attracted to the whole "narrative universe" that expresses the worldview propose by the brand, and it becomes in a belief once the person experiences the brand, its values, through the content the storytelling generates. In this way, brands providers of experiences found in the technique of the storytelling a great ally because of the human need to have their own history, to forge a particular sense.
Stories work because we want to experience emotions, feelings and passions of others who have encountered the challenges that we face daily. We love to see a hero prevail; evils get their due, or cry a tragic lost. The stories carried reason what involves conclusions. In the same way that emotion leads to actions, that is why those stories should excite, but not waking up any emotion, but related to the message and the idea to be conveyed.
Changing the traditional commercial in a short movie where every visual detail are cared, a whole story is related and famous director sign them, alter the way fashion brands are shown. It is no more a commercial, no more selling a brand. Now it is the experience the main protagonist. Feeling the brand. The Fashion Film phenomenon has reached the point of consolidating festivals of the genre. Outside Spain the phenomenon is more consolidated. But the fact is that since 2008 the neighboring country hosts one of the most important festivals of fashion films, A Shaded View On Fashion Films (ASVOFF), organized by the American designer and fashion critic Diane Pernet. It is held in Paris in parallel with the Paris Fashion Week and has become a global benchmark. After we would add the Berlin Fashion Film Festival (BFFF) that with just three years of life suggests ways. In 2013, after realizing the importance of this type of audiovisual works have been acquired in the sector, the Spanish capital hosted the first edition of Madrid Fashion Film Festival (MFFF), which has shown that there is also talent among our borders, even if much way to go. From MFFF website it was talked about fashion film as a "new way of capturing fashion images giving them movement and content. Audiovisual, innovative, a new way to communicate and invest in image. "Many people have wondered about the relationship between this new genre and photography, is it intended to replace the first to the second? We do not think so, as the director of the newly Madrid event said in an interview “fashion photography is completed and evolves today with this new product, tool and gender to explore and exploit," so there is no replacement but coexistence. Today’s magazines have shown for years now that they want to embrace more interactive media for their online audiences… Vogue and Elle have begun to commission and shoot some video pieces for iPad and online consumption. Recently Esquire shot the first ‘digital magazine cover’ (which just meant the model moved a bit on the cover). Vogue even goes as far as to try
to animate some editorials to make them more interesting online. Other times Vogue has shot â€˜behind the scenes videoâ€™ and tried to edit it into a more meaningful visual piece. Since the fashion films are becoming more and more popular, the changes they are motivating are more visible. These are the first ones but surely this new phenomenon will keep showing us a new way to see and what is more important a new way to feel fashion.
After this research we will try to find the answers to our first questions. With all the information we found we need to put everything in order due to achieve the objective of the research: to analyze and study the elements that have motivated the success of the new fashion ad format: Fashion Films.
What is a fashion film? With all the definitions we found on the internet after this research we could say that there is no common definition. Some argue that these pieces must contain a story with humor, social criticism, dialogue... others say the Fashion Film is still experimental genre, which is developing and in full blast. And there are also others that argue fashion films are the natural evolution of fashion photography. But in regards to technical features everyone agrees: fashion film is an audiovisual piece, usually of short duration (between 1 and 5 minutes), with a rich visual aesthetics heiress of the fashion photography and a narrative straddling the music video, the TV spot and short fiction.
How/who and when does it start? As we mentioned at the beginning the background of a story is always a must in order to understand the present and visualize the future. That is why we made a deep research about the story of the Fashion Films. Fashion Films as the genre itself began with the opening of platforms like Showstudio in 2000. From London this cabinet led by photographer Nick Knight has earned the title of undisputed king of the new genre, and offers a unique platform to encourage fashion based on the motion picture starring in the digital era. Then the phenomenon keeps going and all kind of directors (in fashion and film) start exploring this genre and make their own pieces.
Is it actually a new trend or an evolution of something else? What was there before fashion films? Any precedent? Especially in the world of fashion nothing is completely new. An in the case of Fashion films is just the same. They are not necessarily new and should not be taken as just a passing phase. 12
The earliest films were silent films with a live music soundtrack and the technology lent itself to dance, costume and special effects. In films like The Serpentine Dance (1899) by the Lumiere brothers you can see how fashion and costume has been used, then as now, to show aesthetic considerations over narrative.
ď ś What make fashion films special? Which characteristics do they have? There are as many styles as the audiovisual possibilities has. But what is certain is that Fashion films have something in common: the clothes and the aesthetic of the brand are the protagonists. Also all of them have something to tell us. This is the technique of the storytelling. The real brands, strong, are based on stories, metaphors or analogies that make them grow. Brands are no longer simple logos, they become social, cultural and symbolic narratives that are not strictly identified with a particular reference, they become the reference itself. The consumer is attracted to the whole "narrative universe" that expresses the worldview propose by the brand, and it becomes in a belief once the person experiences the brand, its values, through the content the storytelling generates.
ď ś What aspects has it subsequently motivated? As every trend in fashion it motivated other different initiative and movements. In this case Fashion Films are so consolidated that some countries host their own fashion films festivals rewarding the best of the genre. One of the most important is A Shaded View On Fashion Films (ASVOFF), organized by the American designer and fashion critic Diane Pernet in France. We also would mention the Berlin Fashion Film Festival (BFFF) and since 2013 the Madrid Fashion Film Festival (MFFF). Finally we should also mention that the major fashion headers off-line have been adapting their content to digital format, and today exploding audiovisual creations for fashion editorials in magazines like VOGUE, L'Officiel Magazine, Fantastic Man ...
6.Answering research question
Now it is time for the big question: â€œHow a trend as Fashion Films seems to have turned into an entire culture in the 21st century fashion world.â€? This was our start point and after this deep research around commercials, short films, fashion and the new genre, we will try to find the answer. We all know that the use of the moving image is not new in the fashion industry, since previously there have been commercials, documentaries, films in which fashion is a key element, etc. But what has changed recently is the categorization of this new genre as fashion film, which means accepting that is an audiovisual genre in itself and something that the fashion industry recognized as useful. This is evidenced by the emergence of specialized platforms, as ShowStudio or Nowness, and international festivals such as A Shaded View Of Fashion Film, La Jolla held in world capitals such as London, Berlin, New York, Sao Paolo, Miami and Madrid. The fashion film goes for public entertainment, seduction through an experience that the brand builds by merging the universe they created and its contents. The values have to structure around coherent narratives, stories that involve products within a story and, by extension, involving the same to potential consumers. The result is that "fashion has returned to Earth" and seems more accessible, more affordable, even when it is not the case. People identify with Prada, Dior and Louis Vuitton in a way they had never done before. The audience, whether or not consumers feel part of their world, nowadays it is not necessary to belong to the elite in order to be part of their community and they feel authorized to protect what they understand as brand.
How far actually reaches the Fashion Film? Just because of having certain codes of the language of fashion can be considered fashion film? Is it art? Or is itself necessarily linked to a brand and advertising? Should it sell a product? Or the brand? Or brand identity and culture? Is the Fashion Film destined to be the natural successor to fashion photography? Will it end disappearing one over the other? Will the image on paper disappear to be succeeded by the interactive whiteboard? As it has been proven, it is difficult to find a complete and unanimous definition of Fashion Film. Bu it is confirmed, in communication and advertising level, that is a valuable and effective tool in transmitting values, positioning and the personality of a brand. By its own characteristics and versatility in which it materializes, the fashion film has a great potential to be molded according to the brand values and to transmit them to the consumer in a clear and attractive way. In terms of entertainment, it is constituted as a format able to generate value while integrating a commercial message which interests the target audience for itself in playfulness. The balance between art and commercial endeavor is at the heart of where the fashion film is heading as it becomes more mainstream. In the end, the fashion film is a marketing tool and filmmakers cannot continue what they are doing without the support (financially and creatively) from the fashion houses. This will lead to one aspect of fashion film making that will be shot cheaply on a Canon 5D and used as editorial material for magazines. This work will continue to be experimental as it explores fashion through the moving image. But fashion clients with bigger budgets will turn to established filmmakers to make their brand stand out with strong ideas and high production values. What will always matter is the collaboration between the director and the fashion designer and how they push each other to explore, capture and transmit the energy of a collection. Fashion film is no longer just about showcasing the designerâ€™s product because it relies on the vision of the director to not only use the medium of film to break out from still images but also deliver a strong concept for the brand. It keeps the spirit of the auteur alive but it is fashion that provides the inspiration.
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