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Learning Contract

Medieval and Renaissance Literature


Objective Demonstrate comprehension of literary terminology giving example of each.


01 Term: Allegory


Definition: A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. Example : "I heard one say that they were yet alive, and so would be for the increase of the church, in that place where they were, for a time".  Explanation: It refers that the way to get to "Heaven" is not easy, Christian people have to be willing to give everything to church. Explanation:


02 Term: Alliteration


Definition: The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words. Example: “Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air”. Explanation: As it is shown in the example, the phenomenom occurs with the same letter /f/.


03 Term: Allusion


Definition: An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference. Example: "Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, Or memorise another Golgotha, I cannot tell". Explanation:  Here is an allusion to the place Golgotha, where Jesus was crucified.


04 Term: Anaphora


Definition:Â The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. Example: I conjure you, by that which you profess, Howe'er you come to know it, answer me: Though you untie the winds and let them fight Against the churches; though the yesty waves Confound and swallow navigation up; Though bladed corn be lodged and trees blown down; Though castles topple on their warders' heads; Though palaces and pyramids do slope Their heads to their foundations; though the treasure Of nature's germens tumble all together, Even till destruction sicken; answer me To what I ask you. Explanation: In the example, we can see the repetition of the word "though"


05 Term: Apostrophe


Definition: An exclamatory passage in a speech or poem addressed to a person (typically one who is dead or absent) or thing (typically one that is personified). Example: Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? I see thee yet, in form as palpable As this which now I draw Explanation:  Macbeth has a rare vision of this dagger and talks to it as if it were a person. he has a mental dispute before killing King Duncan.


06 Term: Assonance


Definition:Â Resemblance of sound between syllables of nearby words, arising particularly from the rhyming of two or more stressed vowels, but not consonants, but also from the use of identical consonants with different vowels.

Example: "When shall we three meet again"

Explanation: The line repeats the /e/ sound, as in we, three and meet.Â


07 Term: Ballad


Definition: A poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas. Example : The English and Scottish popular ballads. "The Twa Sisters" There was twa sisters in a bowr, Edinburgh, Edinburgh There was twa sisters in a bowr, Stirling for ay There was twa sisters in a bowr, There came a knight to be their wooer. Explanation: The example is from English and Scottish  popular ballads which is narrated in short stanzas.


08 Term: Cacophony


Definition: A harsh discordant mixture of sounds. Example: “I’ll look to like if looking liking move”  Explanation: In the example, we can see the dissonant mixture of sounds, the predominant sound is /l/.


09 Term: Couplet/Heroic Couplet


Definition: Couplet: A pair of successive lines of verse, typically rhyming and of the same length. Heroic Couplet: A pair of rhyming iambic pentameters, much used by Chaucer and the poets of the 17th and 18th centuries. Example :Couplet.  “The time is out of joint, O cursed spite That ever I was born to set it right!” Example: Heroic Couplet. "When that April with his showers soote The drought of March hath piercêd to the root And bathêd every vein in such liquor Of which virtúe engendered is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his sweetê breath Inspirêd hath in every holt and heath The tender croppês, and the youngê sun Hath in the Ram his halfê course y-run Explanation: In couplet's example, there is rhyme and same length. Moreover, in heroic couplets example, we can see the pattern of iambic pentameters.


10 Term: Consonance


Definition: The recurrence of similar-sounding consonants in close proximity, especially in prosody. Example:  "Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven and twelve, I'll visit you". Explanation: In the example, we can see the similarities in consonants which are close between them. The repetition of sound consonant is /t/.


11 Term: Conceit


Definition: An ingenious or fanciful comparison or metaphor.   Example: "Evermore showering? In one little body Thou counterfeit'st a bark, a sea, a wind; For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea".  Explanation: The comparison of her eyes with the sea is a metaphor.


12 Term: Concrete Poem


Definition: The meaning or effect is conveyed partly or wholly by visual means, using patterns of words or letters and other typographical devices.  Example:

Explanation: In the example of “Poem in the Shape of a Potted Christmas Tree”, the author uses a visual sample of a Christmas tree expressing his ideas.


13 Term: Elegy


Definition: A poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead. Example: O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. Explanation: The author wrote this elegy for Abraham Lincoln, who was murdered, the elegy  commemorates Lincoln's life and work.


14 Term: Elision


Definition: The process of joining together or merging things, especially abstract ideas.   Example: And too soon marr'd are those so early made. The earth hath swallow'd all my hopes but she, She is the hopeful lady of my earth: But woo her, gentle Paris, get her heart, My will to her consent is but a part; An she agree, within her scope of choice Lies my consent and fair according voice. This night I hold an old accustom'd feast Explanation: The author has elided some words, such as marr'd, swallow'd and accustom'd.

Learning contract part 1 (trial)  
Learning contract part 1 (trial)  
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