Issuu on Google+

Judas Iscariot The one who betrayed Jesus

Most Christians still consider Judas a traitor. Indeed the term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer.

Most Christians still consider Judas a traitor. Indeed the term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer.

Hebrew: ‫יהודה איש־קריות‬‎"Yehuda" Yəhûḏāh ʾΚqəriyyôṯ was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus. Among the twelve, he was apparently designated to keep account of the "money bag" (Grk. γλωσσόκομον),

Joh 12:6 Now he did not say this because he cared for the poor but because he was a thief; and having the bag (the money box, the purse of the Twelve), he took for himself what was put into it [pilfering the collections].

Joh 13:29 Some thought that, since Judas had the money box (the purse), Jesus was telling him, Buy what we need for the Festival, or that he should give something to the poor. • but he is best known for his role in betraying Jesus into the hands of Roman authorities.

Mat 26:14 Then one of the Twelve [apostles], who was called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests Mat 26:47 As He was still speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve [apostles], came up, and with him a great crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and elders of the people. Mar 14:10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the Twelve [apostles], went off to the chief priests in order to betray and hand Him over to them. Mar 14:42 Get up, let us be going! See, My betrayer is at hand! Luk 22:3 But [then] Satan entered into Judas, called Iscariot, who was one of the Twelve [apostles]. 4 And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and captains how he might betray Him and deliver Him up to them.

Luk 22:47 And while He was still speaking, behold, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the Twelve [apostles], was going before [leading] them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss Him, Joh 13:18 I am not speaking of and I do not mean all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but it is that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He who eats My bread with Me has raised up his heel against Me. [Ps. 41:9.]

Joh 18:1 HAVING SAID these things, Jesus went out with His disciples beyond (across) the winter torrent of the Kidron [in the ravine]. There was a garden there, which He and His disciples entered. 2 And Judas, who was betraying Him and delivering Him up, also knew the place, because Jesus had often retired there with His disciples. 3 So Judas, obtaining and taking charge of the band of soldiers and some guards (attendants) of the high priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4 Then Jesus, knowing all that was about to befall Him, went out to them and said, Whom are you seeking? [Whom do you want?] 5 They answered Him, Jesus the Nazarene. Jesus said to them, I am He. Judas, who was betraying Him, was also standing with them. 6 When Jesus said to them, I am He, they went backwards (drew back, lurched backward) and fell to the ground.

• 7 Then again He asked them, Whom are you seeking? And they said, Jesus the Nazarene. 8 Jesus answered, I told you that I am He. So, if you want Me [if it is only I for Whom you are looking], let these men go their way. 9 Thus what He had said was fulfilled and verified, Of those whom You have given Me, I have not lost even one. [John 6:39; 17:12.] 10 Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's servant and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus. 11 Therefore, Jesus said to Peter, Put the sword [back] into the sheath! The cup which My Father has given Me, shall I not drink it? 12 So the troops and their captain and the guards (attendants) of the Jews seized Jesus and bound Him,

In the Greek New Testament, Judas is called Ιούδας Ισκάριωθ (Ioúdas Iskáriōth) and Ισκαριώτης (Iskariṓtēs). "Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin, pronounced ˈyudas' in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (‫יהודה‬, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for "God is praised"). The same Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude.

The precise significance of "Iscariot," however, is uncertain. There are two major theories on its etymology: The most likely explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew ‫איש־קריות‬, ΚQrîyôth, or "man of Kerioth." The Gospel of John refers to Judas as "son of Simon Iscariot", Joh 6:71 He was speaking of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, for he was about to betray Him, [although] he was one of the Twelve. Joh 13:26 Jesus answered, It is the one to whom I am going to give this morsel (bit) of food after I have dipped it. So when He had dipped the morsel of bread [into the dish], He gave it to Judas, Simon Iscariot's son. implying it was not Judas, but his father, who came from there. Some speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known Judean towns.

Mat 11:1 WHEN JESUS had finished His charge to His twelve disciples, He left there to teach and to preach in their [Galilean] cities.

A second theory is "Iscariot" identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii. These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea. However, many historians maintain the sicarii only arose in the '40s or '50s of the first century, in which case Judas could not have been a member.

• "The Judas Kiss" (1866) by Gustave Doré. • Judas is mentioned in the Gospel of John and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles. • Mark states that the chief priests were looking for a "sly" way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast because they were afraid that the people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. In the Gospel of Luke, Satan enters Judas at this time.

According to the account given in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag Joh 12:6 Now he did not say this because he cared for the poor but because he was a thief; and having the bag (the money box, the purse of the Twelve), he took for himself what was put into it [pilfering the collections]. and betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver" Mat 26:14 Then one of the Twelve [apostles], who was called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests by identifying him with a kiss—"the kiss of Judas"—to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.

There are two different references to the remainder of Judas' life: The Gospel of Matthew says that, after Jesus' arrest by the Roman authorities (but before his execution), the guilt-ridden Judas returned the bribe to the priests and committed suicide by hanging. The priests, forbidden by Jewish law from returning the money to the treasury, used it to buy the potter's field in order to bury strangers. The Gospel account presents this as a fulfilment of prophecy. Mat 27:9 Then were fulfilled the words spoken by Jeremiah the prophet when he said, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him on Whom a price had been set by some of the sons of Israel, [Zech. 11:12, 13.] 10 And they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed me.

The Acts of the Apostles says that Judas used the bribe to buy a field, but fell down headfirst, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field Of Blood. Act 1:18 Now this man obtained a piece of land with the [money paid him as a] reward for his treachery and wickedness, and falling headlong he burst open in the middle [of his body] and all his intestines poured forth. Another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: "Judas walked about in this world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out." Yet another possibility is suggested by the apocryphal Gospel of Judas, which says that Judas had a vision in which the other eleven disciples stone him to death after they find out about the betrayal.

Act 1:15 Now on one of those days Peter arose among the brethren, the whole number of whom gathered together was about a hundred and twenty. Act 1:16 Brethren, he said, it was necessary that the Scripture be fulfilled which the Holy Spirit foretold by the lips of David, about Judas who acted as guide to those who arrested Jesus. Act 1:17 For he was counted among us and received [by divine allotment] his portion in this ministry. Act 1:18 Now this man obtained a piece of land with the [money paid him as a] reward for his treachery and wickedness, and falling headlong he burst open in the middle [of his body] and all his intestines poured forth. Act 1:19 And all the residents of Jerusalem became acquainted with the facts, so that they called the piece of land in their own dialect-Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood. Act 1:20 For in the book of Psalms it is written, Let his place of residence become deserted and gloomy, and let there be no one to live in it; and [again], Let another take his position or overseership. [Ps. 69:25; 109:8.] Act 1:21 So one of the [other] men who have accompanied us [apostles] during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us,

Act 1:22 From the baptism of John at the outset until the day when He was taken up from among us--one of these men must join with us and become a witness to testify to His resurrection. Act 1:23 And they accordingly proposed (nominated) two men, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. Act 1:24 And they prayed and said, You, Lord, Who know all hearts (their thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, purposes, and endeavors), indicate to us which one of these two You have chosen Act 1:25 To take the place in this ministry and receive the position of an apostle, from which Judas fell away and went astray to go [where he belonged] to his own [proper] place. Act 1:26 And they drew lots [between the two], and the lot fell on Matthias; and he was added to and counted with the eleven apostles (special messengers).

Maybe Judas hanged himself in the field, and afterwards the rope snapped, and his body burst open on the ground, or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions. Matthew's reference to the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused some controversy, since it clearly paraphrases a story from the Book of Zechariah (Zechariah 11:12-13) which refers to the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver. A passage from Jeremiah states such as chapters 18 (Jeremiah 18:1–4) and 19 (Jeremiah 19:1–13), which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32 (Jeremiah 32:6-15) which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.

Why did Judas betray Jesus? A common explanation is that Judas betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver (Matthew 26:14-16).

Mat 26:14 Then one of the Twelve [apostles], who was called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests Mat 26:15 And said, What are you willing to give me if I hand Him over to you? And they weighed out for and paid to him thirty pieces of silver [about twenty-one dollars and sixty cents]. [Exod. 21:32; Zech. 11:12.] Mat 26:16 And from that moment he sought a fitting opportunity to betray Him.

One of Judas's main weaknesses seemed to be money Joh 12:4 But Judas Iscariot, the one of His disciples who was about to betray Him, said, Joh 12:5 Why was this perfume not sold for 300 denarii [a year's wages for an ordinary workman] and that [money] given to the poor (the destitute)? Joh 12:6 Now he did not say this because he cared for the poor but because he was a thief; and having the bag (the money box, the purse of the Twelve), he took for himself what was put into it [pilfering the collections]. Another reason is that Judas expected Jesus to overthrow Roman rule of Israel. In this view, Judas is a disillusioned disciple betraying Jesus not so much because he loved money, but because he loved his country and thought Jesus had failed it. According to Luke 22:3-6 and John 13:27, Satan entered into him and called him to do it.

If Jesus knew Judas would betray him, why did he trust him and allow himself to be betrayed? The text of the Gospels suggests that Jesus both foresaw (John 6:64, Matthew 26:25) and allowed Judas's betrayal (John 13:27-28). An explanation is that Jesus allowed the betrayal because it would allow God's plan to be fulfilled Judas acted in obedience to God's will. Judas is apparently bound up with the fulfillment of God's purposes(John 13:18, John 17:12, Matthew 26:23-25, Luke 22:21-22, Matt 27:9-10, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:20), yet woe is upon him, and he would have been better unborn(Matthew 26:23-25). The difficulty inherent in the saying is its paradoxicality - if Judas had not been born, the Son of Man will apparently no longer go "as it is written of him". The consequence of this apologetic approach is that Judas's actions come to be seen as necessary and unavoidable, yet leading to condemnation. Asserting the providence of God involves an uncomfortable tension with injustice or even tragedy.

• Erasmus believed that Judas was free to change his intention, but Martin Luther argued in rebuttal that Judas's will was immutable. John Calvin states that Judas was predestined to damnation, but writes on the question of Judas's guilt: "...surely in Judas betrayal, it will be no more right, because God himself willed that his son be delivered up and delivered him up to death, to ascribe the guilt of the crime to God than to transfer the credit for redemption to Judas." The question has also been approached by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, which differentiates between foreknowledge and predestination, and argues that the omnipotence of the divine is compatible with freewill.

• It has been speculated that Judas's damnation, which seems to be possible from the Gospels' text, may not actually stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide. This position is not without its problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide (see John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas's predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation. The damnation of Judas is not a universal conclusion, and some have argued that there is no indication that Judas was condemned with eternal punishment. Adam Clarke writes: "he[Judas] committed a heinous act of sin...but he repented(Matthew 27:3-5) and did what he could to undo his wicked act: he had committed the sin unto death, i.e. a sin that involves the death of the body; but who can say, (if mercy was offered to Christ's murderers?(Luke 23:34)...) that the same mercy could not be extended to wretched Judas?..."

• Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money.

Mar 3:14 And He ordained twelve, that they should be with Him, and that He might send them out to proclaim, Mar 3:15 and to have authority to heal sicknesses, and to cast out demons. Mar 3:16 And He put on Simon the name Peter. Mar 3:17 And He put on James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, the names Boanerges, which is, the Sons of Thunder. Mar 3:18 And He appointed Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Canaanite, Mar 3:19 and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. And they went into a house.

UNITY Act 1:14 these all were continuing with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers. Act 2:1 And in the fulfilling of the day of Pentecost, they were all with one accord in one place. Act 3:11 And as the lame one who was healed held Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the porch that is called Solomon's, greatly wondering.

Act 4:32 And the multitude of those who believed were of one heart and one soul. And not one said that any of the things which he possessed was his own. But they had all things common. Act 5:12 And many miracles and wonders were done among the people by the hands of the apostles; and they were all with one accord in Solomon's Porch. 13 And of the rest no one dared to join himself to them, but the people magnified them; Act 6:15 And looking intently at him. all those sitting in the sanhedrin saw his face as if it were the face of an angel.

Act 7:57 And crying out with a loud voice, they stopped their ears and ran on him with one accord. Act 8:6 And the people with one accord gave heed to those things which Philip spoke, hearing and seeing the many miracles which he did.

Act 9:8 And Saul was lifted up from the earth, his eyes were opened, but he saw no one. But they led him by the hand and brought him into Damascus. Act 10:2 one devout and fearing God, with all his household, both doing many merciful deeds to the people, and praying continually to God. Act 10:22 And they said, Cornelius the centurion, a just man and one who fears God, and one of good report among all the nation of the Jews, was warned from God by a holy angel to send for you to come to his house and to hear words from you. Act 10:28 And he said to them, You know that it is an unlawful thing for a man, a Jew to keep company with or to come near to one of another nation. But God has shown me not to call any man common or unclean.

Act 11:19 Then, indeed, they who were scattered abroad by the persecution that rose about Stephen traveled as far as Phoenicia and Cyprus and Antioch, preaching the Word to no one except the Jews. Act 12:10 When they were past the first and second guard, they came to the iron gate that leads to the city, which opened to them of its own accord. And they went out and passed on through one street. And immediately the angel departed from him.

Act 12:20 And Herod was in bitter hostility with the men of Tyre and Sidon. But they came to him with one accord and, having made Blastus (who had charge of the king's bedroom) their friend, desired peace, because their country was fed by the king's country. Act 13:22 And when He had removed him, He raised up David to them to be their king; to whom He also witnessed and said, I have found David the son of Jesse to be a man after My own heart, who shall fulfill all My will.

Act 14:16 who in past generations allowed all nations to walk in their own ways. Act 15:25 it seemed good to us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, Act 16:6 And coming through the Phrygian and the Galatian region; and by the Holy Spirit being forbidden to speak the Word in Asia; 7 having come to Mysia, they attempted to go into Bithynia. But the Spirit did not allow them. 8 Then passing by Mysia, they came down into Troas. 9 And a vision appeared to Paul in the night. A certain man of Macedonia stood, begging him, saying, Come over into Macedonia and help us! 10 And after he saw the vision, we immediately tried to go into Macedonia, gathering that the Lord had called us in order to preach the gospel to them. Act 17:26 And He has made all nations of men of one blood to dwell on all the face of the earth, ordaining fore-appointed seasons and boundaries of their dwelling,

Act 18:12 But Gallio being pro-consul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rushed against Paul and brought him to the judgment seat,13 saying, This one persuades men to worship God contrary to the Law. Act 19:29 And all the city was filled with confusion. And they rushed with one accord to the theater, keeping a firm grip on Gaius and Aristarchus, Macedonians, traveling companions of Paul. Act 19:34 But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice cried out for two hours' time, Great is Artemis of the Ephesians! Act 21:6 And giving parting greetings to one another, we went up into the ship; and they returned to their own things.

Act 22:14 And he said, The God of our fathers has chosen you to know His will and to see the Just One, and to hear a voice out of His mouth.

Act 23:6 But Paul, when he perceived that one part of them were Sadducees and the other part Pharisees, cried out to the council (Sanhedrin), Brethren, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees; it is with regard to the hope and the resurrection of the dead that I am indicted and being judged. Act 24:13 Nor can they prove the things of which they now accuse me. 14 But I confess this to you, that after the Way which they call heresy, so I worship the God of my fathers, believing all things that are written in the Law and in the Prophets. 15 And I have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 16 And in this I exercise myself, always to have a blameless conscience toward God and men.

Act 25:11 For if I am an offender or have committed anything worthy of death, I do not refuse to die. But if there is nothing of which these accuse me, no one can deliver me to them. I appeal to Caesar. Act 26:31 And withdrawing, they spoke with one another, saying, This man does nothing worthy of death or of bonds.

Act 27:35 And saying these things, and taking bread, he gave thanks to God before all, and breaking, he began to eat. 36 And all becoming cheered, they also took food. 37 And we were, all the souls in the ship, two hundred and seventy-six. 38 And being filled with food, they lightened the ship, throwing the wheat into the sea. Act 28:3 And Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laying them on the fire, a viper came out of the heat and fastened on his hand.4 And when the foreigners saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said to one another, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, being saved from the sea, Justice has not allowed to live. 5 Then indeed he shook off the creature into the fire, suffering no harm.6 But they expected him to be about to become inflamed, or to fall down dead suddenly, But over much time expecting and seeing nothing amiss happening to him, they changed their minds and said that he was a god. Act 28:25 And disagreeing with one another, they were let go, Paul saying one word: Well did the Holy Spirit speak through Isaiah the prophet to our fathers,

Judas Iscariot FINAL