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How a brand should choose its brand elements to build brand equity? Aneta Chabibulina


Table of contents Executive summary Introduction Literature review Methodology Criteria for choosing brand elements Options and tactics for brand elements Results Analysis Conclusion Recommendations Reflections References

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How a brand should choose its brand elements to build brand equity? - Aneta Chabibulina

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Executive summary This assignment is presenting a short analysis of how a brand should choose its brand elements to build brand equity. There are described criteria and tactics for developing brand name, website address (URL), logo, slogan and packaging. The research is based on Kapferer (2008) Strategic Brand Management (4th ed.) and on Keller et al. (2012) Strategic Brand Management – European Perspective (2nd ed.). Although the most important brand element is brand name, it is also the most difficult element to fit all the six criteria suggested by Keller (2012). In general, all the brand elements have to bring the same message thus to enhance brand awareness and brand recall and create a synergy for building strong brand equity.

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Introduction The decision to write about how a brand should choose its brand elements to build brand equity was made, because the well thought brand elements help the brands to differentiate in the market, to build brand awareness and to form strong positive and unique brand associations.

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Literature review The research is based on Kapferer (2008) Strategic Brand Management (4th ed.) and on Keller et al. (2012) Strategic Brand Management – European Perspective (2nd ed.). It was selected Keller’s book for gathering the main data, because it is providing profound information about brand elements. Kapferer’s book is chosen for an alternative view for brand naming analysis.

How a brand should choose its brand elements to build brand equity? - Aneta Chabibulina

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Methodology In this assignment it is not analyzed the examples of other companies’ brand elements. The research is based only on theory, because of required number of words (1000 words). It is written about criteria, options and tactics for choosing branding elements. From the brand elements are excluded characters and jingles.

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Criteria for choosing brand elements Keller (2012) is specifying six criteria for choosing brand elements: Memorability Keller considers that names and logos that are attracting attention and easy to remember build a higher level of brand awareness. Meaningfulness Keller points out that the name has to be indicating the product category and / or suggesting product ingredient or the type of user. Likeability Keller reveals that associations aroused by brand elements may be not relating to product, it is important for them to be visually and verbally interesting and appealing to the customer. Transferability Keller argues that the less specific the name, the more easily it can be transferred in product category and in geographic sense. Adaptability According to Keller, the more the brand element is adaptable over time, the easier is to adjust it to consumer’s changing values and opinions. Protectability Keller suggests that “much of the uniqueness of the brand may disappear�, if the elements are easy to copy.

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Options and tactics for brand elements Brand elements are designed for mutual reinforcement and for sharing an important meaning. Brand names The name is a brand’s communication which can be registered in customer’s memory in just few seconds if the word used for the name is familiar and meaningful, but unique. To reinforce an important benefit association the name should have a broader meaning in sense of word itself, letters or combination of syllables. According to Keller (2012), it favors word-of-mouth if it is simple to pronounce or spell. Considering brand names as perhaps the most important of all brand elements, Keller (2012) suggests that “ideally, a brand name would be <…> highly suggestive of both the product class and the particular benefits that served as the basis of its positioning”. Kapferer (2008) argues that the brand name “should not describe what the product does but reveal or suggest the difference “. Kapferer (2008) reveals that “to make a strong brand any name can be used” if “there is consistent effort over time to give meaning to this name <…> trying to choose the right name can save you time <…> when it comes to making a baby brand to a big brand”. Website addresses (URLs) According to Keller (2012, URL name has to be easy remembered; usually it is the same or shorter version of the brand’s name.

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Logos Keller (2012) describes logos as graphic elements indicating brand’s origin, ownership or association. According to Keller (2012), logos can be literal representations of the brand name or abstract and thus relevant and appropriate in a range of categories. He believes that “because they are often non-verbal, they can be updated as needed and generally transfer well across cultures”. Slogans According to Keller (2012), slogans are “short phrases that communicate descriptive or persuasive information about a brand”. He indicates few ways slogans can help building brand awareness: “by playing off the brand name in some way <...> by making strong links between the brand and the corresponding product” and by expressing “subjective opinions, superlatives and exaggerations”. Packaging Keller (2012) points out the objectives the packaging must achieve: “identify the brand, convey descriptive and persuasive information, provide protection during distribution, assist storage in the home and aid product consumption”.

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Results Keller et al. 2012 Strategic Brand Management â&#x20AC;&#x201C; European Perspective 2nd edition provides a table of critique of brand element options: Criteria Memorability

Meaningfulness

Likeability

Transferability Adaptability Protectability

Names and URLs Can be chosen to enhance brand recall and recognition Can reinforce almost any type of association, although sometimes only indirectly Can evoke much verbal imagery Can be limited Difficult

Brand elements Logos Slogans Generally more useful for brand recognition

Can be chosen to enhance brand recall and recognition Can reinforce Can convey alalmost any most any type type of associ- of association ation, although explicitly sometimes only indirectly Can provoke Can evoke visual appeal much verbal imagery Excellent Can be limited Can typically Can be modibe redesigned fied Excellent Excellent

Generally good, but with limits Table of critique of brand element options.

Packaging Generally more useful for brand recognition Can convey almost any type of association explicitly

Can combine visual and verbal appeal Good Can typically be redesigned Can be closely copied

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Analysis From Kellerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s table of critique of brand element options it is visible that it is difficult to choose brand images that would correspond to all criteria. The name, URLs and slogans can be easier memorized then transferred. The names in general are the brand elements that are most difficult to choose, because they may have limited protectability and difficult adaptability. The packaging can easy correspond to all criteria except protectability. The most easy to choose are logos, although sometimes the associations can be reinforced only indirectly.

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Conclusion For choosing the brand elements are important these criteria: memorability, meaningfulness, likeability, transferability, adaptability and protectability. All the brand elements have to share the same idea and create a synergy between them. For achieving higher recall and recognition the most important role is played by the name of brand. For choosing a band name it has to be thought if it will fit in the international market, if it is easy spelled and thus transmitted with a word-of-mouth. The meaning of the word itself is not as important as the meaning that the brand will create with its marketing strategy over time. Other brand elements are building brand equity too. Logos are those elements that are easiest to design according to the six Kellerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s criteria. If designed professionally it should be easy remembered, transferred, adapted and protected, may be liked visually and bring almost any associations although sometimes indirect.

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Recommendations The main attention it could be directed to finding the best name, thus it should be kept in mind to choose all brand elements bringing the same message. In order to enhance the brand awareness and recall it should be chosen brand elements optimally corresponding to the six Kellerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s criteria.

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Reflections Writing this assignment I used the guidelines which I found very useful for structuring the content. The project let me analyze Kellerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (2012) and Kapfererâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (2008) books deeper. For future assignments I learned that I have to use more literature thus to reach a broader view of the topic. The most difficult was to fit into 1000 words.

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References Kapferer J. N. (2008). Strategic Brand Management (4th ed.), Kogan Page. Keller K. L., ApĂŠria T. and Georgson M. (2012). Strategic Brand Management â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A European Perspective (2nd ed.), Pearson Education Limited.

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Brand Elements