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Constructing Environments (Envs10003) Logbook Final Interim Submission

Content Constructing Environments Week 1 Constructing Environments Week 2 Constructing Environments Week 3 Constructing Environments Week 4 Constructing Environments Week 5 Constructing Environments Week 6 Constructing Environments Week 7 Constructing Environments Week 8 Constructing Environments Week 9 Constructing Environments Week 10 Constructing Environments Work Shop

Constructing Environment Week 1

Lecture session

This activity though us how to support a load by changing the design and the shape of support. It was to support a brick approximately 2kg by an A4 paper.

The picture on the right is my structure to withstand the brick. As you can see, the structure was a star shape because it has more surface area contact to the table which can separate load to the other parts.

This is a picture of other example of a support: The structure could not hold much load since, -The object is tall -The object has less surface area in contact -Material of the object

Materials Material is very important for one construction. 1. Strength – To support a heavier structure and maintain for a long period 2. Cost – A suitable price of material used in construction. For example, a double storey house has small loads, timber is enough to support the whole structure instead of concrete beams. 3. Shape – An easily workable material can be changed into many shapes to suit what kind of design that a structure needs. 4. Weight – In-situ object is more handy than pre-cast object since the transport is expensive and uses a lot of time. 5. Stiffness – A flexible material is able to support more weight than less flexible object.

(Smitco Concrete Construction 2014)

(Quick-garden 2014)

Loads of a structure There are static loads and dynamic loads. Static loads are assumed to be applied slowly to a structure until it reaches its peak value without fluctuating rapidly in magnitude or position. Dynamic loads are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. And dynamic loads can be comprised as wind loads and earthquake loads.

This is a structure undergoes dynamic load (Ching 2008).

Load Path Diagram

This is an example of a load path diagram that called dead loads or static loads which acting vertically downward on a structure.

Studio Sessions

First, we put few blocks between the column underneath to ensure the distance between all columns are the same. Next, we designed the building into a triangular shaped which to reduce the use of materials by comparing with squared shaped. But the disavantage of this construction is the side of the triangular base, the sides are not completely touched with other parts and makes the building unstable and might be destroyed with a touch. Next, we start building it with a two column one beam techique, making the building is abit weak because there is holes around the sides of the tower.

Thus, we manage to put another layer on top of the column and beam since there is too many holes in every section of the building. After a few layer of bricks and we’ll continue with the column and beam technique.

Studio Session

Our weakness of the building is the corner of our building, the brick is stacked with an inappropriate way, that will make the building to fall easily. The only way to solve this problem is to rebuild the base of the building, but we didn’t change it because we don’t have enough time.

The picture on top is our load path diagram. It is unstable due to the load path is transferring to the same column. But there’s a better way to stable our structure if we build it like the picture on the right.

Finally, we built finish our building in the class, although is not the tallest one but I think we have the best design. Our building have succeeded to support a dog model.

Glossary Load Path – A load path is a passageway that transfers loads on a building structure into the foundation system (Lechner 2009). Reaction Force – According to Newton’s Third Law, the reaction force has the same magnitude as the action force but opposite direction. Masonry – is the building of structure from individual structure bound together using mortar. Point Load – Load transferred to a specific location in a structure. Compression – Giving a force to a object and changing its size to be smaller. Force – any influence that produces a change in the shape or the movement of the body (Ching, 2008) Beam – are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements (Ching, 2008)

References Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4 th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Lechner. (2009). Retrieved from Quick-garden. (2014). Retrieved from Smitco Concrete Constrution. (2014). Retrieved from

Constructing Environments Week 2

Lecture session In the lecture, we have to build a water tank to support a load full of marbles. The material they provide was a small plastic cup and several straws. Our mission is to build a straw column to support a plastic cup which carries marble. In order to build a successful water tank, we need to consider 1. Joints on the plastic cup 2. Bracing of the column 3. Angle/Shape of the straw column 4. Material of the support

Successful attempt: As you can see this is a triangular method column water tank, the load was separate by the number of column.

Next: If we put the column into four corners, it might collapse due to the height. Hence, we modified it by adding bracing to stable the water tank because the columns are connected with fixed joint.

Structural Systems   

Shell systems Hybrid systems Membrane systems

(Shell System)

(Hybrid System)

(Membrane System)

Structural Points   

Roller joints - enable the beam and column to expand more while inherit force Pin joints - enables column to move in a small angle while receiving loads and prevent it from breaking Fixed joints - are the most stable joints compared with the other joints, it can be used to build mass construction.

(Pin joints)

(Roller joints)

(Fixed joints)

Construction Systems   

Frame systems - gives good air ventilation to the surroundings. Enclosure systems - protects people from the behaviour of the environment as rain, sunny day, strong wind and more. Service systems - connects electric, water and gas wires together in order to function effectively.

Studio Session

 

We built a four sided base with two stick attached together and form an ‘x’ underneath. This design is able to balance higher structures.

During our activity, we plan to increase the length of the sides by using waste short sticks, but it was not very useful because the connection between the sticks is weak.

As you can see in the picture, this is the main reason that makes our building weak. We have put only one stick between the side of the structure, therefore, the other corner without a stick could bend easily while receiving a force on top. Hence, we plan to add more sticks between corners and make it tougher.

 

Finally, we added two sticks in the middle of two corner which is called triangular bracing system. After this, we continue making it higher and higher.

Glossary Column – A building structure that used to transfer the load of the structure above it to the ground. Bracing – A diagonal method that intersects between columns and beams to strengthen the structure. System – An assembly of interrelated or interdependent parts, which form a more complex and coherent whole to serve a common purpose (Ching, 2008). Tension – An object is given two opposite force to pull apart and increase its length. Frame – Can be said as the basic structure of the building such as beams and columns.

References Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Constructing Environments Week 3

Site Activities A studio leader guide student to walk around campus by learning the basic of structural systems. The learning includes footings, foundation, masonry, materials, structural elements and more.

On the first photo, the first thing that we know that is was a mass construction with two sections of steel beam on top of the column.

Thus, the column full of bricks is supporting the beams.

As we can see from the picture on the right, a fixed joint is attached to the wall of a building and a pin joint outside to prevent beam moving.

There are many similar designs like this around the campus, the reason is because this is a mass construction, it was very stable to be a base and the material was bluestone which is very cheap.

This building is an opened structure, as known as a ventilator. The materials include timber and steel frame to support the light weight membrane structure, unlike concrete, it will collapse since it was heavy.

This picture is the other part of the structure, probably zinc padding for roof shading and collecting rain drops that will flow in to a drain.

At the bottom of the structure, they connected timber floors together and supported by another timber beam with fixed joint and pin joint as well.

This is a brick wall which can be found around the campus. The middle line in the picture is called control joints. It was used to prevent bricks from breaking due to heavy movement of ground or weather condition such as hot sunny day can result in expansion of bricks.

The sketches represent a control joints being compressed between two bricks.

The roof of the structure is mainly metal sheet roof and supporting by a steel frame. It has a small ventilator at the outside. Furthermore, there is a strip footing at the base of the structure that contains sand inside. It is because the structure is a new structure, so that it requires strip footing to linked with the old ones.

As we can see from the picture, the colour of the bricks is different. The picture on the right is the extension of the small ventilator structure as I mentioned above. Because the entrance of the building was a new project and designed by our tutor – Lisa. Hence, there was a weep hole at the bottom of the old brick wall (picture on the right), it provide a drain age system to allow water, flooding and condensation to escape the wall cavity.

The picture on the left is a sketched version of weep hole outside a house that allows water to escape the wall cavity by using this concept.

This picture shows the interior design of a strip footing and how does it works. That can support more load of other structure. Which is can be found in the building I mentioned just now.

This is the new architecture building under construction. It was a mass construction. The brackets on top of each window provide sun shading. What is more, the wall of the building is thick and full of concrete since load is going through side walls, it needs a lot of support.

Moreover, there are few windows that exchange of air to outside and circulate the air within the building.

Picture on the right shows a huge cantilever with huge steel beam supporting it. Steel is a lightweight and strong material, it can transfer heavy loads to the ground. Last but not least, this construction needs a lot of steel structure.

This is double brick masonry. Double brick is only for old buildings. These are usually strong load bearing walls. But the disadvantage of double brick is mass construction which will require foundation or concrete slabs.

This is a raked joint system structure, can be said as a frame system. It has no benefit for the building except the design of the structure is nice. This building is mainly built with steel bars and steel plates.

Next, picture on the left shows a membrane structure. Hence, it is a lightweight construction, it requires cable to support the loads. To support this structure, we need a steel cable connect to the corners of the structure or other structure to maintain the shape. This type of structure usually gives good ventilation to the surroundings.

This was a cable stay system structure, small cantilever. This cable is to support the load. This cable prevents shaking of the bridge. As we can see, there is no column under the bridge, as the bridge will be a little bit unsteady.

This is giant sized trust which called web structure. Mostly made out of steel. This is the top chord. This is the bottom chord. A small steel beam is supporting the trust.

Pavilion building: under construction. Basically a concrete ground structure in the basement and seatings. There is a timber roof supported with steel frames which made a cantilever on the left. Hence, there was a concrete wall with an exterior design of timber on the left. (In-situ concrete with wood texture) Since there are several old tall

buildings around, a light well is located on top of the building to receive light and reflect into the interior of the building. Finally, the last site visit of this tour. The car park of Melbourne University located below South Lawn. The car park was a mass construction system, main material was concrete to support the load. One reason that concrete is used since concrete will absorb heat and cools down temperature released by car. Next, the shape of the roof shell is probably a pre-cast roof shell. At the column, trees were planted above the shells to maximize their potential root spread, while drainage was also provided within the concrete columns.

This is a sketch version of south lawn carpark. As you can see, the pipe was located inside the column to dispose excess water done by rain, as the main purpose of this action was to solve the problem of impervious surface underneath the soils.

Glossary Moment - a turning force produced by an object acting at a distance. Retaining Wall - is a structure built to retain a difference in ground level. While a retaining wall can serve as the footing for a fence, the wall itself is not considered to be a fence and is covered by different laws (Legal Servies Commission). Strip Footing - Strip footings are also called 'edge beams'. A footing slab requires two separate concrete pours. It can only be used on Class A and Class S sites (Build Right). Slab on ground – Slab which means the concrete and it is a platform placed on the base in construction.

Substructure - is defined as the structural work below ground level used to support the structure above. Foundations, basement, subfloor are some components of this area (QCON). Pad Footing - is the simplest and cost effective footing used for the vertical support and the transfer of building loads to the ground (Abis).

Lecture Learning Footings and foundations: is used to stable the whole structure of a building and prevent the structure from collapse or destroyed by unstable soil. i) ii)

Shallow foundation – is used when the soil is stable and enough to support the load of the structure or when the structure is small. Deep foundation – is used when the soil is unstable, then we need to build a deeper foundation to support the whole structure.

Materials Concrete blocks versus Bricks. Properties of concrete blocks i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

Hard Low fragility Not very flexible High density Poor conductor of heat Less durable Recycleable Expensive but low labour cost

Properties of Bricks i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

Hard High fragility Low flexibility Medium density Poor conductor of heat Durable Recycleable Cheap but high labour cost

Bricks and Concrete are mostly used in construction sites. The first reason is because both of them are hard and it is enough to support the weight of a heavier load. But also depending on what structure that requires which materials to be used. For example, concrete can be used in massive construction such as high rise building whereas bricks can be used small construction such as houses, school.

References Abis: Footing. (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Allied home inspections: Weep Holes. (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Build Right: Footings – concrete slabs. (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from oncrete_slabs/page_003.htm Chen, L. (2011). Underground Car Park and South Lawn. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from k_and_South_Lawn_CMP.pdf Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Clay brick and Paver institute: Control joints. (2014). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Legal Services Commission: Retaining Walls. (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from The building centre network: Double brick. (2014). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from QCON: Substructure. (2014). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 4

Floor systems and Horizontal Elements There are several floor systems such as timber frame systems, concrete systems and steel systems. Floor systems are the horizontal planes that must support both live loads and dead loads. Floor systems must transfer their loads horizontally across space to either beams and columns or to loadbearing walls.

Concrete systems - can be used to provide great thermal comfort and lifestyle advantages. Slabs can be on-ground, suspended, or a mix of both. They can be insulated, both underneath and on the edges, it is very durable. Conventional concrete has high embodied energy. It has been the most common material used in slabs but several new materials are available with dramatically reduced ecological impact. Moreover, concrete can withstand high compression and can also be used to carry horizontal loads (Clarke, 2013).

Steel systems – is simple and easy to build, simple also means less labour and cost, fewer structural elements, less fabrication , fewer surfaces to be fire protected and less time to design. Furthermore, steel can be said as durable metal compared with other metal element. (Steel

Timber systems     

A light footprint on earth which the most environmental friendly building material compared to others Easy on people’s legs since concrete is hard and very cold Easy to construct and adjust on site, and include transportation to site Flexible material that can be compressed Good heat insulator

Tutorial worksheet: Case Study Oval Pavilion 1 Title Block List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page.          

Scale Co-ordinated Revision Project Architect Project Director Date Project Number Drawing Number Title North site

Why might this information be important? The information is useful because it mentioned scale to let the reader understand the actual size of the building, the date of the projects starts, the approval of both Project Architect and Project Director, and which side of the building is faced north to ensure the location of the building.

2 Drawing Content – Plans What type of information is shown in this floor plan?           

Legend Room name/ number Materials (in code) Type of walls Fire Rating Wall Height Acoustic Rating Set out point Window/Door Number Finished Floor level (Meters) Spot level

Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions? Distance above sea level – m Area - m² Distance between columns – mm

Is there a grid? What system is used for identifying the grid lines? Yes. Grid lines re represented as dashed lines. The purpose of dashed lines is to prevent confusion between walls, arrows and other objects that represents with lines.

What is the purpose of the legend? Legend allows readers to understand the whole graph/diagram in a short time.

Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. It is because some of the object could not be explain clearly by symbol or numbers, as they will have to add annotations in the diagram to explain what the object is. In addition, the object is not a common object that can be found in other buildings, only in the building itself has.

Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? The symbols mean the reference of the region. And it has a bigger scale version of the region on the other page, which clearly stated that what object or materials it includes.

How are windows and doors identified? Provide an example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings?

Door represent as D01, D02, D03… And windows represent W01,W02,W03… The number of doors/windows show there are how many doors/windows in this building. Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan? It represents as FFL 4.500. Finished Floor Level (METERS) Above Datum.

Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? The clouded bubble means the object has been recently added into the building and need to inform the builders as a change of plan.

3 Drawing Content – Elevations What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan? It shows the façade of the whole building. By comparison, the plan is a view from the bird’s eye view, whereas elevation is a view from a far horizontal direction.

Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation. The dimensions are shown by the numbers from 3 to 7. It has the same dimensions compared with plan and elevation.

- As we can see, the distance between 3 and 4 is 5235mm on both dimension elevation and plan. That we can ensure that the dimension of the plan and elevation are the same.

What types of levels are shown on elevations? Illustrate how levels are shown in relation to the elevation. The levels shown are Existing Pavillion, Level G and Function Parapet.

Is there a grid? If so, how/where is it shown? Yes, the grid used to represent the dimension of the building as number 3 to 7.

What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. The object is being expressed by using an arrow point towards to it. There are clouded type and word type.

Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations. Same as the plan, D01, D02, D03… W01, W02, W03…

Find where this elevation is located on the elevations.

4 Drawing Content – Sections What type of information is shown in the section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation? On the section page, it shows the height of each level in the building. And it only mentions major objects instead of detailed minor objects that can be found in plan and elevation.

Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond). The section drawing uses grid lines as well to cut through the building to show the height of the building relative to the sea level.

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections. Materials are shown using symbolic presentations of material.

Find where this section is located on the plans. -

The picture one the right is a plan drawings, and the tiny spikey object is representing grass.

5 Drawing Content – Details (A46-02) What sorts of things are detailed? The structure is detailed by using a bigger scale, for example, the plan uses 1:100, and details uses 1:20. Another perspective is reader reads only a small part of the building, which is more likely to understand the part they are referring to. Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale. The materials are representing as a code. In this case, they use GL-03 as window glazing.

Find the locations of these details on the plans, elevations and sections.




Glossary Joist – A timber bar or Steel bar to support a structure. Usually parallel to each other. Girder – The main beam that supports the load. Steel Decking – A steel material that use to build a steel floor system. Concrete Plank – is used in floor systems that are supported by beams. Spacing – The distance between a series of beams or columns. Span – the full extent of something from end to end; the amount of space that something covers.

References Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Clarke, D. (2013). Your Home: Australia’s guide to environmentally sustainable homes. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Steel (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from 6-star timber sub floors. (n.d.). Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENV10003]. (2014, March 25). W04_m3 PRE CAST CONCRETE. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENV10003]. (2014, March 25). W04_m2 IN SITU CONCRETE. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENV10003]. (2014, March 25). W04_m1 CONCRETE. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENV10003]. (2014, March 25). W04_c1 FLOOR SYSTEMS. Date retrieved April 1, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 5

Wall system, Grid and Column Wall system can be separate into 3 parts, which are stud wall, structural frames and concrete bearing frames.

Stud wall is an internal, non-load bearing wall faced with lath and plaster or plasterboard. Often timber framed although metal frames are being introduced into domestic building. Which the material will be used is metal and wood. Studs carry vertical loads while sheathing or diagonal bracing stiffens the plane of the wall.

Structural frame walls can be concrete frames and are typically rigid frames and qualify as non-combustible, fireresistive construction. Besides, it can also be a timber frame which require diagonal bracing or shear planes for lateral stability and may qualify as heavy timber construction. Next, Steel can also be a structure frame as steel and concrete frames are able to span greater distances and carry heavier loads than timber structures.

Bearing frames can be concrete and Masonry Bearing walls. Concrete and Masonry walls qualify as a noncombustible construction as well and rely on their mass for their load-carrying capability. Furthermore, they are very strong in compression.

Material – Timber Timber is a natural material, which is formed by wood in the forest. As the stiffness of timber was very strong if a force is acting of parallel direction to the grain, whereas timber will be weak if a force is acting perpendicularly to the grain. Furthermore, a seasoning process is important to remove moisture from the inside of the timber and provide increased dimension stability.

Properties of timber Hardness – Medium-low, most timbers can be reasonably easily marked Fragility – Medium-low, generally will not shattered and break Ductility – Low, some timber can be manipulated into ranges of shapes Flexibility – High Plasticity – Medium Density - Extremely depending on timber type Conductivity – Poor conductor of heat and electricity Permeability – High Durability – High, can be very durable depending on the timber type Reusability – High, can be recycled and it is very sustainable is correctly sourced

Use of timber

(BestCasaLine) LVL – Laminated Veneer Lumber Made from laminating thin sheets of timber, most laminates with grain designed to longitudinal direction, very deep and long sections possible, high strength. Mainly use in structural beams, posts, portal frames.

(BestCasaLine) Glulam – Glue Laminated Timber

Made from gluing pieces of dressed sawn timber together to from a deep member, most laminates with grain aligned to longitudinal direction. Mainly use in structural beams, posts, portal frames.

(BestCasaLine) CLT – Cross Laminated Timber Made by bluing and pressing thin laminates together to form a laminate grain laid in alternate directions (90 degrees), provides strength in two directions. Mostly use is structural panels (horizontal or vertical).

(Wikipedia) Plywood Made by gluing and pressing thin laminates together to form a sheet, grain in laminates in alternate directions strength in two directions. The uses of plywood are structural bracing, formworks and flooring.

(AutoDeskSeek) MDF – Medium Density Fiberboard Made by breaking down hardwood or softwood waste into wood fibres, combining it with wax and a resin binder by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally dense than a plywood.

Engineered timber

I Beams Timber/LVL, plywood/OSB webs, light weighted, suitable for medium spans such as floor joists and rafters.

Box Beams Timber/LVL, two plywood/OSB webs, suitable for larger spans, very stiff, can use decorative plywood such as floor joists and rafters.

Timber Flanged Steel Web Joists Lightweight, open webs give across for service webs by light tubes, solid rounds, corrugated sheets such as floor joists and rafters.

Studio Activities

This structural model should be horizontal roof section. It was a frame system for the roof since steel can be handled easily on site and able to create a large cantilever.

This is a model of steel beam (I beam), that is the main support of the structure. Since steel material is flexible and high in stiffness.

This model looks like a frame system. This structure should be located at the roof section as well and material could be steel as steel is light can stiff while comparing at the weight/strength ratio.

This is a model made by myself. As you can see on the drawing book compared with my model. The purpose of this structure is concrete footing that holds the foundation of the basement to stable the whole structure as well. In addition, the material located between two concrete walls might be long steel plates, it is used to make sure the length between two walls are equal.

Glossary Stud – an upright timber in the wall of a building to which laths and plasterboard are nailed. Axial Load – Axial load is a force that is exerted along the lines of an axis of a straight structural member. It is an essential mechanical force that is used to determine an ideal column in structural design. Buckling – is an action that gives a force to an object and making it to change shape.

Seasoned Timber – is a timber which is dry out from moisture, this type of timber usually stable/stiff than wet timbers. Nogging – is used for the filling in-between wall framing in buildings, such as a gap between timber frames or steel frames. Lintel – can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors, windows, and fireplaces. Plywood – is an engineered product use for bracing.

Columns are considered as short if the ratio of the length of the column and the smallest cross section area is less than 12:1. Short Columns become shorter when a compressive load is applied and then fail by crushing when the compressive strength is exceeded. Columns are considered long if the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is greater than 12:1. Long Columns become unstable and fail by BUCKLING.

References Autodeskseek(image) (n.d.). Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from BestCasaLine (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Diydata (n.d.). Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Wikipedia (image) (2013). Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS1003]. (2014, April 1). W05_m3 Engineered Timber Products. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS1003]. (2014, April 1). W05_m2 Timber Properties and Considerations. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS1003]. (2014, April 1). W05_c1 WALLS, GRIDS AND COLUMNS. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS1003]. (2014, April 1). W05_m1 From Wood to Timber. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 6

Roof Systems There are two types of roof system such as flat roofs and sloping roofs. Flat roofs usually have a slope around 1-3 degrees. The slope usually leads to interior drains. The structure of a flat roof may consist of reinforced concrete slabs, flat timber or steel trusses, timber or steel beams and decking, wood or steel joists and sheathing.

(Home Services Information)

Sloping roofs can be separate as low-slope roofs and medium to high slope roofs. Low slope roofs can have an inclined angle up to 15 degrees and medium-high slope roofs are around 30-45 degrees. The design of sloping roof is to support eave flashing or wind loads. And the height and area of a sloping roof increase with its horizontal dimensions. Furthermore, low-slope roofs require roll or continuous membrane roofing, whereas medium-high slope roofs may be covered with tiles.


Concrete roof is a kind of flat roof. It is use to protect against strong winds, and earthquake. Concrete roofs aren’t a costly investment, and it is an uncomplicated construction. Of course, a concrete roof requires more support than a typical wooden roof. Concrete weighs a lot, and the outside walls have to be capable of supporting the giant slab. Interior support beams can help, but the construction works best when concrete walls, floor and roof form a solid shell.

The sketch above is a detailed concrete roof. Picture on the left show how concrete roof look like and picture on the right shows the material of the layers on the concrete roof.

Structural steel roof framing is used when needed to build sloping roofs. Steel is strong and durable, offering long lasting structural integrity and have a greater flexibility, steel framing won’t warp, twist or shrink. Moreover, Steel Framing is relatively lightweight, reducing transport and installation costs.


Truss Truss is a type of frame roof constructed from a series of steel or timber elements and form like a shape of web. Truss has many types such as Flat truss, Bowstring truss, Belgian truss, Warren truss, Raised-chord truss.

Flat truss Have parallel top and bottom chords.

Raised-chord truss Have bottom chord raised substantially above the level of supports.

Bowstring truss Have a curved top chord meeting a straight bottom chord at each end.

Warren truss Have a inclined web members forming a series of equilateral triangles. Vertical web members are sometimes introduced to reduce the panel lengths of the top chord.

Metals Metals can be separated into ferrous metal, non-ferrous metal and alloys. Ferrous Metal – is a metal that contain iron. Non- Ferrous Metal – is a metal that do not have any iron elements in it. Alloy – is a mixture composed of two or more metal elements in it.

Ferrous Metals The following are ferrous metals and the kind of uses to which they are usually put: 

Mild Steel – Carbon content of 0.1 to 0.3% and Iron content of 99.7 – 99.9%. Used for engineering purposes and in general, none specialised metal products.

Carbon steel – Carbon content of 0.6 to 1.4% and Iron content of 98.6 to 99.4 %. Used to make cutting tools such as drill bits.

Stainless steel – Made up of Iron, nickel and chromium. Resists staining and corrosion and is therefore used for the likes of cutlery and surgical instrumentation.

Cast Iron – carbon 2 – 6% and Iron at 94 to 98%. Very strong but brittle. Used to manufacture items such as engine blocks and manhole covers.

Wrought Iron – Composed of almost 100% iron. Used to make items such as ornamental gates and fencing.

Non Ferrous Metals These are the non-ferrous metals and their uses: 

Aluminium – An alloy of aluminium, copper and manganese. Very lightweight and easily worked. Used in aircraft manufacture, window frames and some kitchen ware.

Copper – Copper is a natural occurring substance. The fact that it conducts heat and electricity means that it is used for wiring, tubing and pipe work.

Brass – A combination of copper and zinc, usually in the proportions of 65% to 35% respectively. Is used for ornamental purposes and within electrical fittings.

Silver – Mainly a natural substance, but mixing with copper creates sterling silver. Used for decorative impact in jewellery and ornaments, and also to solder different metals together.

Lead – Lead is a naturally occurring substance. It is heavy and very soft and is often used in roofing, in batteries and to make pipes.

Glossary Rafter – is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams) that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate, downslope perimeter or eave, and that are designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads. Eave – is a bottom edge of a roof Purlin – a purlin is any longitudinal, horizontal, structural member in a roof. Alloy – is a mixture composed of two or more metal elements in it. Cantilever – A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. Soffit – it describe the underside of any construction element. Truss – are a type of frame roof constructed from a series of steel or timber elements and form like a shape of web. Portal Frame – is a method of building and designing structures, primarily using steel or steelreinforced precast concrete.

References Castle Metals (n.d.). Ferrous & Non-Ferrous Metal and Their Uses. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. InscpectApedia (image) (n.d.). Sloping Roof. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Lamb, R. (n.d.). How Concrete Roofs Work? Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Lewis, M. (2014, April 9). Spanning spaces. Date retrieved April30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 9). W06_m1 Introduction to Metals. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 9). W06_m3 Non Ferrous Metals. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 9). W06_m2 Ferrous Metals. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 9). W06_c1 Roof Systems. Date retrieved April 30, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 7

E-learning Prevent of Moisture Moisture is very troublesome to human especially rain water flows in to houses through walls and roofs. There are important parts to avoid water from going in to the building, there are walls, roof and basement foundation. Furthermore, there are 3 ways to prevent moisture in the building.   

Remove Opening Keep water away from opening Neutralise the forces that move water through opening

Openings can be planned elements such as windows, doors, skylights. Or unplanned openings in the building fabric created by poor construction workmanship. The best technique to prevent water flow into building is to seal the openings with silicone sealants and gaskets. Keep water away from opening is usually used strategy construction detailing. Which means water is disposed away from any potential openings in the building by:

1) Grading roofs so that the water is collected in Gutters which then leads the water to downpipes and stormwater systems. 2) Sloping window and door sills and roof/wall flashings. 3) Sloping the ground surface away from the walls at the base of the buildings (to allow water run away from the building) Neutralising the forces is the most convenient strategy to keep water away from houses. The forces included are Gravity, Momentum, Surface Tension and Capillary action and Air Pressure differential.

Prevent of Heat The controlling of heat can be separated into 3 parts. Conduction of heat, Radiant Heat and Thermal mass. The benefit of heat control is save money and increases comfort levels for building occupants.

Conduction of heat :   

Thermal insulation to reduce heat conduction. Thermal breaks made from low conductive materials like rubbers and plastics to reduce the heat transfer from outside to inside. Double Glazing or triple glazing so that the air spaces between glass panes reduces the flow of heat through the glazed elements.

Heat Radiation :  

Reflective surfaces contains reflecting elements that can reflect sunlight on the surface of the building. Shading systems it is a structure that blocks sunlight to prevent radiation striking through the building such as blinds and screens.

Thermal mass : Is a large area that can absorb and store heat for a period of time, and after a while when the surrounding temperature is drop, the stored heat is released. This system works well during the day and night, the materials include Masonry, Concrete, Water bodies.

Rubbers Rubbers can be separate as two types of rubber which is natural rubber and artificial rubber. Natural rubbers can be obtained from rubber tree whereas artificial rubber can be obtained from industry. Properties of rubber 

Hardness – High

      

Flexibility – High Fragility – Low (Very hard to break) Density – Higher than water Can be used as a waterproof material Very durable Ductility high when heated, low under room temperature Cost – Cheap

(To get natural rubber) Natural Rubbers can be used for Housing piping, Flooring, Seals, Gaskets, Insulation.

(Forbes) Artificial Rubbers can be used for Gaskets, Control Joints and Silicones.


(Lipman 2014) Plastics is a synthetic material made from several organic polymers such as, PVC, nylon, naphthalene, carbon, silicone, oxygen, hydrogen and chloride.

Properties of Plastics     

Hardness – Medium Flexibility – High Plasticity – High Very durable Fragility – Low (Very hard to break)

    

Density lower than water Can be used as a waterproof material Cost – Cheap Can be reusable Cannot absorb water and water proof


(How to build a house) Paint is a coloured liquid substance and placed it on a surface and to a thin layer of protecting coating. Paint can be define into 3 components such as binder, diluent and pigment.

Components Binder – it is the film while forming the colour. Diluent – A liquid that a dissolves concentrated paint into a more diluted paint. Pigment – The natural colour of the paint, the view of opacity.

Paint Types Oil based – Used for plastic paints, not water soluble (hard to clean), very good while using at on glass Water based – Most common paints used, durable and flexible, can be cleaned easily

Properties of Paint Colour Consistency - The colour of the paint could resist ultra-violet light which is bad for human’s skin. Durability - Paint has to be consistently repainted by every year in order to keep its gloss. Gloss – Surface finishes can make dull surface to become shiny. Flexibility/Plasticity – Water based paint is more flexible than oil based paint, and water based paint has more plasticity than oil based paint.

Glossary Down Pipe – is a pipe to carry rainwater from a roof to a drain or to ground level. Flashing – is thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the water goes into the structure from a joint or as part of a weather resistant system. Insulation – is a cost effective barrier to gain or lose heat. Vapour Barrier – sheet made out of plastic or foil sheet to use for damp proofing. Gutter – is a shallow trough fixed beneath the edge of a roof for carrying off rainwater. Sealant –A sealant may be a liquid component at first, and it dries out after a while. The use of sealant is to block any substances penetrate through it. Parapet – is a barrier which is an expansion of the wall at the edge of a roof or a balcony.

References Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Forbes (image) (n.d.). Breakthrough Science and Tech Inventions. Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from Lipman, F (image) (2014). Plastics: Live Better Without ‘Em. Date retrieved April 20,2014, from How to build a house: Oil Based paint versus Water Based paint (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from To Get Natural Rubber (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 16). W07_c1 Detailing for Heat and Moisture. Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 16). W07_m1 Rubber. Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 16). W07_m2 Plastics. Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 16). W07_m3 Paints. Date retrieved April 20, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 8

E-Learning Doors and Windows are important elements in the design of building facades. The purpose of door is to allow people to enter or exit the building. To build a door you need to consider the Door Type, Door Hardware and Door Operation. The material to build a door can be timber and steel.

(The green window company) This is an example of a steel door. It could be light weighted, very stiff, but expensive. Steel door have a shiny surface and looks fresh in the exterior. Steel is also great for impact protection, and is good in security protection.

(The green window company) This is an example of a timber door. A timber door is heavy to move and transport, but timber door have a better appearance compared with steel door. The components of doors:    

Door Stop (to avoid wind from going inside, such as weathertight seal) Door Head/Jamb (is covered by architrave) Door Leaf (The main component of the door) Handle, Latch and Lock

Windows which affects not only the physical appearance of a building, but also the natural lighting, ventilation view potential, and spatial quality of the building’s interior spaces. The benefit of window frames could have low thermal conductivity to interrupt the flow of heat. For example, double glazing or triple glazing window is a good example of insulation of heat for buildings. The material to build a window can be steel and timber.

(MinidiaMart) Steel window is strong and durable and it is enough to support thick glass. And it can be maintain for a few years. Not only that, steel can be handled easily during transportation and construct. Steel window can be shaped easily on site as well.

( Wood frames windows are thicker and steel frame windows, but they are also more effective as thermal insulators. To maintain the appearance of the window, the wood may be painted, stained, or primed on site.

(InspectApedia, 2009) The picture on the left represents a detailed version of a window structure.

The picture above is a sketched version of both window and door with a timber frame system. Which the picture is taken from the quiz in week 9 tutorial class and includes annotated of names of different part.

The components of windows:    

Window head (is the uppermost member of a window frame) Window Sill (is the horizontal member beneath a door or window opening, having an upper surface sloped to shed rainwater) Window Jamb Subsill (is an additional still fitted to a window frame to cause rainwater to drop farther away from a wall surface.

Glazing systems Is two pieces of glass setting together and leave a gap between the two windows. The use of glazing system can dramatically insulates high or low temperature from the environment outside. There are different types of glazing system such as face glazing, wet glazing, dry glazing and structural glazing. Face glazing has small panes may be set in a rabbeted frame, held in place with glazier’s points, and sealed with a bevelled bead of putty or glazing compound. Wet glazing is the setting of glass in a window frame with glazing tape or a liquid sealant.

Dry glazing is the setting of glass in a window frame with a compression gasket instead of glazing tape or a liquid sealant.

Materials Glass is a common material to build window. Most of the glass is made from silica (which can be called as a former, a basic element to produce glass). Not only former, Fluxes must be added into former to melt at a lower temperature. And lastly, stabilizer is added into the mixture in order to keep the finished glass from dissolving or crumbling.

Properties of glass           

Density – Medium-High Conductivity – Transmit only heat but no electricity Permeability – Water Proof Hardness – High Fragility – High Ductility – Very Low Plasticity/Flexibility – Very High Flexibility/Plasticity when in molten state but not in solid state Durability – Very High Sustainability – Very Sustainable Cost – Expensive to produce and transport Reusability – Very High

Glossary Window Sash – a framework that holds the panes of a window in the window frame Door Furniture – can be said as the whole component of the door Stress – is a compression or a pressure exerted on an object Deflection – is the bending angle in a structure which is being exerted by a force. Moment of Inertia – is the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation (Ching 2008). Shear Force – is a force that acts on an object in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the object, such as a wind blowing and giving a force to a building

References Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from GLASS SKINS (video) (30 April, 2014). Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from InspectApedia (2009). Repairing doors, windows and skylights. Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from MindiaMart (Image) (n.d.). Date Retrieved May 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 30). W08_c1 OPENINGS: DOORS & WINDOWS. Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, April 30). W08_m1 GLASS. Date retrieved May 1, 2014, TheGreenWindowCompany (Image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from Polyframe (Image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 1, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 9

E-learning Composite material are two or more materials combined together and form a better quality material in order to support more load. The composite material formed will forever remain together, and their characteristics and properties become better and more durable. The examples of composite materials are fibrous(containing discontinuous or continuous fibres), particulate (combination of gravels and resins), hybrid (combinations of more than 2 types of elements) and laminar (is used is sandwich panel).

Examples of composite materials:

Fibre reinforced cement (FRC)    

It is made from cellulose fibres, Portland cement, sand & water Commonly made into sheet and board products (FC sheet) or shaped products (Pipes, roof tiles) Used for cladding for exterior or interior walls, floors panels It is good in fire and water proofing, termite damage, and electric resistant

Fibreglass    

It is made from a mixture of glass fibres ad epoxy resins Commonly made into flat and profiled sheet products and formed products Used for transparent wall cladding and for performed shaped products It is good in fire and water proofing, weatherproof, and the structure is extremely light and strong.

Aluminium sheet composites      

It is made from aluminium and plastics Commonly formed into plastic core or phenolic resin lined with two external skins of thin aluminium sheet Used for cladding material in interior and exterior applications It is benefit in reduce the total usage of aluminium for maximum efficiency It decreases the weight of the structure and cheap Weather resistant and shock resistant

Timber composites    

It is made from combinations of solid timber, engineered timber and galvanised pressed steel Commonly formed top and bottom chords with galvanised pressed steel or engineered board Used for beams (floors joists and roof rafters), and trusses It brings benefit such as easy to install, cheap and decrease the amount of timber used for maximum efficiency

Fibre reinforced polymers  

It is made from plastics polymers with timber, glass or carbon fibres It is often associated with moulded or pultrusion processed products



Used for decking (external cladding), structural elements such as beams and columns for public pedestrian bridges using glass or carbon fibres, carbon fibres reinforced polymer rebar It brings benefits as strength-to-weight ratio greater than steel, and corrosion-resistant

Site visit Location: Royal Melbourne Hospital, Royal Parade, Parkville

This room is an anti-radiadioactive room in the hospital which is located at the basement floor. It is used for and emergency hideout if there’s a war or a nucler missle invasion. The walls and the foundation of this room has about 1 meter thick to prevent radiation emits into the room.

From the picture, A steel beam is attached on top of the room, it is said to be the support of the room. Because steel has a larger strength-in-weight ratio compared to other material.

Next, this place is a goods transport area, it is located around basement one or basement two. Every machinery, furniture, goods and etc. are being transport to this area.

There are blue plastic sheet (sealant) on the ventilator system and cooling system. Blue plastic sheets covered the place that it is expose the air for hygene purposes, as it prevent dust or polluted air to flow inside the ventilation system and brings disease into the hospital.

This is a thick concrete wall and columns. The small grey dot on the columns is to fill up the gap which bonded a long reinforced steel bar. The purpose of the thick concrete wall and reinforced steel bar is to stable the whole building from collapse, as the basement is 4-5 floors deep and it needs a huge support to push against the soil from the outside.

This place is at around 4 to 5 floors above the ground. There are a lot of steel-like support at the edge of the building. The steel support gives support to the expose steel frame system, which is going to attached glass windows on it.

The picture on the left, have a steel plate support on top of the floor. Since steel is light and strong and easy to handle on site, that the construction uses steel plate act as a frame system at every floor of this building.

This long steel column had a reinforced recycled concrete. Which the concrete can be broken easily, but the steel frame at the exterior is protecting it and make a good combination to support a structure.

The two picture above is a concrete column under repairing. There is a crack in he previous concrete column, so that the engineers had to remove it and rebuild with a new concrete column. First, they use few rounded-steel column to give support at the surrounding of concrete column. Next, they remove the cracked concrete column, and then attached a new pre-cast concrete to replace to old one.

This is one of the windows in the building. It was a steel frame system window. In addition, there is a gap between steel frame and the concrete wall attached, the project manager said they going to use a silicone sealant to seal up the gap between the steel frame and the concrete wall to avoid wind or water going into the building.

This is a picture of In-situ concrete wall along the staircase of the building. Hence, there are people asking that why there are holes on the in-situ concrete. It is because while constructing an In-situ concrete wall, the force of the molten state concrete will push outwards through the mould of the concrete walls. That is why the mould will need steel bars or metal bars connected between the moulds and prevent it collapse, and last it leaves small holes in the middle of the wall and needed to be filled with concrete as well.

Glossary Sandwich Panel – is a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminium sheets bonded to a nonaluminium core. Banding – procedures that use elastic bands for constriction Skirting – is a constructing elements to provide a protective barrier such as baseboards Composite Beam – a composite beam which is two material combines together and forms the most effective of a structure, for example, combining both steel and concrete will form a stronger structure such that Concrete is stronger in compression than in tension, and steel is susceptible to buckling in compression. Shadow line joint – is the joint located at the corner of the structure which two column/beam bonded together in a 90 degree. Cornice – is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element, it can be attach on doors or windows

References Aluminium Foam Panel (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Domain (image) (2012). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from IndiaTradePage (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from tm Mechanical Engineering (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, May 8). W09_c1 Construction Detailing. Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Newton, C. [ENVS10003]. (2014, May 8). W09_m1 Composite Materials. Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from SouthCoast (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Week 10


Material Corrosion: Galvanic Corrosion & Copper Corrosion

Galvanic Corrosion is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially to another metal, for example the copper and iron have similar properties and which will occur failure to a structure if the problems did not consider at first.

One of the solutions to solve galvanic corrosion is the application of protective metallic coating, it can provide protection to the base metal when the coating is measurably more anodic than the base metal. Protective metallic coating such as Teflon coated stainless steel.

Copper oxidisation is a process occurs when copper exposed to the air. The copper starts to become dull and becoming a darker brown colour then forming into a green copper oxide patina.

Collapses and Failures Constructing a building have to made many considerations to prevent collapse and failures. The first thing has to be considered is whether the building can support lateral forces and earthquake.

Lateral Forces is a force done by natural environments which is acted on the surface of the building. Usually it gives horizontal forces to the structure and different moment can have different amount of force. For example, wind. An earthquake is also a natural phenomenon of earth, but it can have huge forces acting on a large surface. Earthquake can be considered as a horizontal force which is only moving on the ground. The solutions to solve lateral forces and earthquake force:   

Diagonal bracing Shear Walls Moment resisting frame

A shear wall is a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that shear walls are designed to carry.

Diagonal bracing is used to keep a building project square and structurally solid. It is usually attached on a frame system and increases its stability. Without bracing, buildings can collapse easily. Moment-resisting frames are rectilinear assemblages of beams and columns, with the beams rigidly connected to the columns. Resistance to lateral forces is provided primarily by rigid frame actionthat is, by the development of bending moment and shear force in the frame members and joints

3D Drawing

Glossary Shear Wall – is a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that shear walls are designed to carry. Defect – may refer to the lack of something necessary or desirable for completion or perfection in a structure or material Fascia – is a band running horizontally and situated vertically under a roof edge, or which forms the outer surface of a cornice. Corrosion – is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with its environment. IEQ – Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) is most simply described as the conditions inside a building. It does not refer to the air quality alone, but the entire environmental quality of a space, which includes air quality, access to daylight and views, pleasant acoustic conditions, and occupant control over lighting and thermal comfort. Soft Storey – is a multi-storey building in which one or more floors have windows, wide doors, large unobstructed commercial spaces Lifecycle – refers to how long the material could be used (lifespan). Braced Frame –is a structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces

References 9-11 Research (image) (2011). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Ching, D.K. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed). New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. W10_c1 Collapses and Failures (video) (2014, May 13). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from W10_m2 A Tale of Corrosion (video) (2014, May 13). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Whatarethefunctionsofshearwall? (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from (image) (n.d.). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from Wikipedia (image) (2014, June 6). Date retrieved May 15, 2014, from

Constructing Environments Workshop Session

Constructing Workshop Task: Build a strong bridge Time: 45mins

First, according to the picture on the right, we are given 3 pieces of long column timber and a piece of long wood sheet. And our task is to use this materials to build a bridge that can carry as many loads as we can.

Me and my team members decided to build a bridge with 2 long columns at the bottom and one long column at the top, hence in the middle we add several quadrilateral shaped timber sheet to provide more stiffness to the bridge.

After the process of our building and fixing, we bring our bridge to support the load as shown in the picture above. As you can see, our structure was bending due to the load applied, the main reason is

because there are only one wood column at the top and two wood column at the bottom, it occurs imbalance of the bridge and cause bending.

Lastly, our bridge structure fails due to our design of the structure was not very well organized.

Next, this design of the bridge structure is done by other group members. Its is very smart as they stacked 3 long column together to increase the stiffness of the bridge. But for the picture on the right, they do not have enough time to carefully nail all their timber sheet together to lock with the 3 long column timber.

Furthermore, during the process of compression. Their bridge surprised us when the compression hits 689kg and did not collapse yet. According to the tutor, their 3 column timber stacked together show an important role of supporting the loads, which can maintain a large amount of loads.

In addition, this bridge design was also done by another group. They attached two pieces of wood sheet at both sides of the bridge, which is becaue a vertical wood sheet can carry more load than a horizontal wood sheet. Unfortunately, they failed to support the increasing of the load as shown in the picture on the right. In my observation, I think they had inserted too many nails into the wood and weakens the whole structure.

Conclusion, to build a good sustainable bridge. We need good materials to have a durable structure, the shape of the structure to support loads effectively, the design of the structure whether the loads are being transported equally.

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