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Physical Alcohol Poisoning Stimulants CyberBullying

Bullying Jerk

truth Speaking the

Lame DUI

youth.

Target

MIP Prescription Drugs Inhalents

with our

A guide for educators, mentors, parents and the community.

Adolescence Addiction Signs & Symptoms

Violence

Steriods

Verbal

Drugs Fatso Relational Chewing Tobacco Trashed Sissy Cigarettes Depressants Marijuana

Alcohol

Funded by the 2008 Kansas Governor’s Discretionary Portion of the Federal Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act grant program.


truth Speaking the

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The

choices you make lead to your

Our main objective in creating this guide is to inform educators, mentors, parents, and the community about the issues of drug abuse, violence, and bullying. By providing strategies for dealing with these problems, positive adult role models will ensure that every young person will live a healthy, successful life, fully connected to his or her community. By taking action against drug abuse, alcohol, violence, and bullying, teachers, administrators, mentors, and parents will make a significant difference in the lives of all students, and have a profoundly positive impact on the climate of the school. YouthFriends Kansas, headquartered at the Southeast Kansas Education Service Center-Greenbush, provided coordination of this guide for discussing drugs, alcohol, violence, and bullying with students in middle and high school. Speaking the Truth with Our Youth worked with a cadre of individuals from a Middle School Leadership group established through the Southeast Kansas Education Service Center-Greenbush; a licensed/certified alcohol counselor from Pittsburg State University in conjunction with the PSU Student Prevention & Wellness “Gorillas in Your Midst” peer health education group; and the Southeast Kansas Regional Prevention Center.

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Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush


facts: Using this Guide Get the

This manual can be used one-on-one with parents and their kids or by adults with small discussion groups. Cover the facts about the various topics, discuss the scenarios and encourage open dialogue. Ask a lot of questions. Could something like this happen in our town/ school? How would you handle this situation? Adults should always be prepared to offer alternatives on how best to handle the various situations. Always stress the importance of going to adults when they have concerns. View this as an opportunity to equip kids with the knowledge they need to successfully navigate through similiar situations they might encounter. Finally, remember to respect the confidentiality of the kids – and if you should encounter a difficult situation consult a professional in your local school district or community.

Youth

This manual can be read by individuals or discussed with small groups. Use this manual to learn the facts about the issues. When you read the various scenarios, ask yourself how you would react in the situations. Most importantly remember that this manual is no substitute for going to a trusted adult (family member, principal, teacher, counselor, etc.) when you have questions – especially when dealing with these serious issues.

“ no

I just say

Educators, Parents & Mentors

people respect it.

and

— PSU Gorillas in Your Midst member

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Table of Contents: Bullying & Violence Get the Facts......................................................................................... 5-6 Scenarios................................................................................................. 7. Drugs Get the Facts............................................................................................ 8 Scenarios................................................................................................. 9 Tobacco Get the Facts.......................................................................................... 10 Scenarios............................................................................................... 11 Alcohol Get the Facts..................................................................................... 12-14 Scenarios............................................................................................... 15 References and Suggested Readings.......................................................... 17

“Your

reputation will go out the

window and your health will be ruined

truth

by using drugs.”

Speaking the

youth.

— Middle School Leadership Series student

with our

4

Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush


facts: Bullying & Violence Get the

What is Bullying? It’s REPEATEDLY and PURPOSELY hurting someone with LESS POWER. Physical

• Typically occurs between boys and is easiest to recognize • Accounts for less than 1/3 of bullying • Results in attacking targets • Includes hitting, choking, kicking, biting, pinching, scratching, or damaging clothes

Verbal

• Most common form of bullying • Used by both boys and girls • Accounts for 70% of bullying • Name-calling, belittling, cruel criticism, anonymous notes, false rumors or gossip

Relational

Cyber Bullying

• Misuse of technology such as e-mail, cell phone, text messages, instant messaging, defamatory personal web sites, and online personal polling websites, also includes MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, Xanga, etc. • No computer or cell phone is really anonymous. Usage of this technology generates an electronic fingerprint called an Internet Protocol (IP) address that can be traced. • Behaviors in cyberspace are downloadable, printable, and sometimes punishable by law. Bullying represents 66% of reported student attacks in schools, the attacker felt persecuted, bullied or threatened- not teased but tormented, by other students.

• Most difficult to detect • Includes ignoring, isolating, excluding, shunning • Can be used to alienate and reject a peer or ruin a friendship • Often involves stares, rolling eyes, sighs, frowns, snickers, and hostile body language

Did you know? According to the National Association of School Psychologists, about 1 in 7 school children (about 5 million kids) have either been a bully or a target.

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facts: Bullying & Violence Get the

Bystander:

Someone who witnesses the bullying. They may experience: • Guilt for not helping the student who is bullied • Anger and a sense of helplessness • Fear they may be targeted next

Defender:

Dislikes the bullying and helps or tries to help the one being bullied, the target.

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Characteristics of a bully/bullies:

Creates resentment and frustration in peer groups, inconsistent discipline procedures at home, has an average or high self-esteem and focuses on angry or revengeful thoughts.

Characteristics of a target:

Shy, socially isolated, sensitive, insecure, physical weakness, low self-esteem, disability, quiet, withdrawn, cautious and prone to stomach aches and nightmares.

Strategies for bystanders:

Be someone’s friend, report to an adult, refuse to join in, walk away when bullies are acting up, distract the bully so they will stop the bullying behavior, stand behind the victim and strength in numbers.

Strategies for victims:

Learn avoidance techniques, use humor to defuse bullying behaviors, be assertive, recruit a friend, don’t let a bully see you’re afraid and if bullied, tell someone and keep telling until someone listens.

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Violence Continuum

(Non-physical violence escalates to physical violence) Shooting Someone with a Gun Stabbing Someone Flashing a Weapon Hitting/Kicking Shoving/Punching Spitting/Pushing Intimidation/Extortion Stalking Sexual Harassment Damaging Property Stealing Taunting/Ridiculing Name Calling Threatening Writing Graffiti Starting Rumors/Gossiping Staring/Leering Gesturing Eye Rolling


scenarios Bullying Verbal & Physical Bullying

At school, kids are constantly teasing a girl because she is clumsy. One day someone pulled a chair out from under her as she was sitting down. She hurt herself and started crying. Some of her classmates thought it was funny and laughed. Discussion Questions: • Have you ever witnessed a scenario like this? • How do you think this would make the girl feel? • What could a bystander do to make the situation better? • What should the girl who is hurt do?

Relational Bullying

Two girls are making fun of the new girl in school. They tease her about how out of style her clothes and hair are. Soon lots of other students have started teasing the new girl as well. Discussion Questions: • Have you ever witnessed a scenario like this? • How do you think the new girl feels? • What do you think made the two girls bully the new girl? • What are some of the consequences of this bullying incident? • What could a bystander do to make the situation better?

Cyber Bullying

Lindsey and Beth get in an argument about an exboyfriend. Lindsey retaliates by posting a message on Facebook falsely accusing Beth of cheating on a test. Now not only is it a fight between friends, the school becomes involved because of the false accusation of cheating. Beth was a straight-A student, but is now in danger of being suspended. Discussion Questions: • Have you ever witnessed a scenario like this? • Is it bullying if it only occurs online? • What are some of the consequences of this bullying incident? • What could have prevented this situation?

“I’ve caught myself

laughing when

mean things

are said to other kids that did or could have hurt their

feelings.” — Middle School Leadership Series student

Individual or group activity:

Write down an example of bullying you’ve seen at school or outside of school (don’t use real names). Discuss how this made you feel. • What type of feelings did you have about the bully and the victim? • Did you do anything about the bullying incident? • Looking back, what could you have done differently?

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facts: Drugs Get the

Types of Drugs and the Effects:

Taking drugs can be dangerous — not only because of the

physical effects to your body, but they can also limit your

ability

to set limits.

Be aware of your

environment , and realize when you are in

danger. truth Speaking the

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8

Inhalants are products that are inhaled or sniffed to get high. They are highly dangerous and can cause memory loss, increased heart rate, lethargy, nausea/vomiting, loss of coordination, organ and muscle damage and heart failure and death.

Narcotics are drugs that generally alleviate physical pain and induce anesthesia. They cause drowsiness, inability to concentrate, apathy, constipation, nausea and vomiting and most significantly respiratory depression. Examples include codeine, heroin, opium, and morphine.

Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and awareness. Stimulants can cause irritability, insomnia, convulsions, anxiety, paranoia, violent behavior, stroke, psychosis, cardiovascular collapse and death. Examples include: amphetamines, methamphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, and diet pills.

Marijuana consists of the buds, leaves, and resin of the cannabis plant. The drug causes impaired memory, anxiety, panic attacks, daily coughs and phlegm, frequent chest colds and injury to lung tissue.

Depressants are substances that depress the activity of the central nervous system. Depressants can cause sedative, hypnotic and tranquilizing effects. Examples include: alcohol, sleeping pills, and depressant medications. Hallucinogens are substances that cause people to experience hallucinations. They distort the way the five senses work and change impressions of time and space. They make it difficult to tell the difference between reality and illusion. Examples include: ‘shrooms, LSD and PCP. Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush

Steroids are drugs that promote muscle growth. They can cause pimples, hair loss, male breast growth, growth of female facial hair, depression and damaged or weakened bones. Without a prescription from a doctor, steroids are illegal.

&

Stimulants Depressants

are the most common prescription and over-thecounter drugs abused.


scenarios Drugs Illegal drugs

Mallory went to a party over the weekend where a few kids were smoking pot (marijuana). She never touched the stuff, but the smell got all over her jacket. Monday at school the police did a routine check of her school. Drug sniffing dogs detected a drug substance on her jacket. Discussion Questions: • If you were at a party where kids were smoking pot what would you do? • What could happen to Mallory? • What would you say if someone offered pot to you at a party?

Steroids

John is really into sports and wants to get stronger. A friend tells him about a great pill that will make him stronger and have more energy. John trusts his friend, but is not sure about taking the drug. Discussion Questions: • What could happen to John if he takes the pills? • What are some of the possible side effects of steroids? • What should John do?

Prescription drugs

Ted was diagnosed with ADHD and was selling his meds for $2.00 a pill. Discussion Questions: • What could happen to Ted if he was caught? • What would happen if you took medication not prescribed to you by a doctor? • Is Ted doing anything illegal? • If you bought from Ted would you be breaking the law?

“People I know

drugs &ruined have taken it has

Inhalants

Amy told her friend Jill that she has been snuffing cleaning supplies to get high. Amy is urging Jill to try it as well. Discussion Questions: • What should Jill do? • How could Jill decline Amy’s offer? • What are some consequences of inhalants? • What could Jill do to get Amy to stop?

their life.” — Middle School Leadership Series student

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facts: Tobacco Get the

“My

positive

choices not to use drugs

good. makes me feel

— PSU Gorillas in Your Midst member

Smoking is responsible for 87% of lung cancer cases. Twenty-eight percent of deaths attributable to smoking involve lung cancer and more than 100,000 men and women die of lung cancer caused by smoking each year. Secondhand smoke is a complex mixture of over 4,000 chemicals that are produced by the burning materials of a cigarette. Secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, accute and chronic coronary heart disease, and eye and nasal irritation. Smokeless tobacco contains 28 cancer-causing agents (carcinogens). It is a known cause of human cancer, as it increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity. Oral health problems strongly associated with smokeless tobacco use are leukoplakia and recession of the gums. • Smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction and dependence. • Adolescents who use smokeless tobacco are more likely to become cigarette smokers.

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Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush

Tobacco, whether in cigarettes or smokeless, kills more than 400,000 people each year in the United States. This is more than the total number killed by AIDS, alcohol, motor vehicles, homicide, illegal drugs, and suicide combined. The tar that comes from cigarettes is the same tar that is used to make asphalt roads. People who smoke one pack of cigarettes per day for a year, inhale the equivalent of a quart of tar into their lungs per year.


scenarios Tobacco Cigarettes

Dillon smokes. He thinks it is cool and says it relaxes him. Yesterday he got so out of breath in gym class he could hardly breathe. His best friend Lucas borrowed his pack of cigarettes, but was caught on school grounds. Discussion Questions: • What could the consequences be for Dillon and Lucas at school? • What are the physical side effects of smoking? • What would you say to someone who tried to pressure you into smoking by saying it was cool?

Smokeless Tobacco

Jen was excited to go out on her first date with Jack. Jack was chewing tobacco the whole night and spitting in a cup at the movies. Jen thought it was gross. She decided it was her last date with Jack. Years later Jen heard that Jack had been diagnosed with lip cancer. Discussion Questions: • Is smokeless tobacco safer than cigarettes? • What could Jen have said to Jack to get him to stop using smokeless tobacco? • Why do you think Jack started using smokeless tobacco?

The Toll of Tobacco in Kansas

• 21% (34,000) high school students smoke • 17.4% of male high school students use spit tobacco • 3,800 kids (under 18) become new daily smokers each year • 161,000 kids are exposed to secondhand smoke at home • 3.8 million packs of cigarettes are bought or smoked by kids each year • 17.9% (370,200) of adults in Kansas smoke • 54,000 kids now under 18 and alive in Kansas will ultimately die prematurely from smoking • $13.4 billion is spent annually by the tobacco industry for marketing nationwide • $106.7 million is the estimated portion spent on marketing in Kansas each year

“I go to

parties

and it’s everywhere.

I hate being around it. Going out

dancing, bowling, or anywhere

smoke!”

there is always

­— PSU Gorillas in Your Midst member

Individual or Group Activity:

Have each student stand up and jog in place taking deep breaths as they are jogging. Do this for about 30 seconds. Next, give each student a straw. Repeat the same process, but have them only breathe through the straw. Do not let this part of the activity go on so long that students feel faint. This activity shows how a smoker feels when trying to participate in a physical activity. Ask the students what kind of activities would be difficult for a smoker. Discuss the long term health effects of smoking to their bodies and to dangers of second-hand smoke to innocent bystanders. www.greenbush.org • 620.724.6281

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facts: Alcohol Get the

Being drunk costs someone their reasoning ability, movement control, and reaction speed, making them deadly behind the wheel of a car.

What is alcohol?

Ethyl alcohol is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor.

“Do you think getting drunk and not remembering it is all thatfun?

— Middle School Leadership Series student

How does alcohol affect a person?

Alcohol affects every organ in the body. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. Noticeable signs of alcohol consumption include: slurred, too-loud, or too-fast speech, weakened balance, staggering, and loss of consciousness.

What is “binge drinking”?

Binge drinking is defined as a pattern of alcohol consumption that brings the blood alcohol concentration level to .08% or above.

Is binge drinking the same as alcoholism?

Binge drinking is not alcoholism, but binge drinkers are more likely to become alcoholics.

Does the disease of alcoholism worsens over time?

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Alcoholics need more and more alcohol to feel the same effect. It is a physical addiction complete with painful withdrawal symptoms.

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Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush

When large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period of time, alcohol poisoning can result. Alcohol poisoning is exactly what it sounds like — the body has become poisoned. Violent vomiting is usually the first symptom of alcohol poisoning. Extreme sleepiness, unconsciousness, difficulty breathing, dangerously low blood sugar, seizures, and even death may result.


facts: Alcohol Get the

Teen drinkers are more likely to be overweight or have health problems. People who continue drinking heavily as adults risk damaging their organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain.

Why Shouldn’t You Drink?

Although it’s illegal to buy alcohol in the US under the age of 21, underage drinkers still get access to it. It’s up to you to make a decision about drinking. In addition to the possibility of becoming addicted, there are some downsides to drinking:

“Drinking is so

dangerous,

The punishment is severe. It’s illegal; you can get arrested. Teens who drink are also more likely to get into fights and commit crimes than those who don’t.

especially for those who go way too far!”

People who drink regularly also often have problems with school. Drinking can damage your ability to study well and get decent grades, as well as affect sports performance.

— PSU Gorillas in Your Midst member

You can look really stupid. Drinking is not cool! Your nervous system changes from drinking alcohol and can make people do stupid or embarrassing things. Alcohol puts your health at risk. Teens who drink are more likely to be sexually active and to have unsafe, unprotected sex. Resulting pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases can change — or even end — lives. The risk of injuring yourself is higher when you’re drinking. One half of all drowning deaths among teenage males are related to alcohol use. Alcohol use increases the chance that a teen will be involved in a car crash, homicide, or suicide. Alcohol has long-term health consequences. Heavy or long-term drinking causes irreversible, often fatal damage to the body. Effects include: liver diseases, heart disease, stroke, brain cell death, cancer, limited normal growth in young people, damage to eyes and skin, malnutrition, gastric illnesses, and sexual problems in both men and women.

Did you Know?

Alcohol affects women more quickly than men, adjusting for weight, because men’s bodies have a greater percentage of water by volume.

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facts: Alcohol Get the

Is it safe to drink alcohol and drive?

In the state of Kansas, if you are under age 21, you can be charged with an alcohol offense for having barely any alcohol in your system and you face tougher license suspensions (mandatory 30 days) under the Kansas “Zero Tolerance” laws. Juveniles charged with DUI are treated the same as adults and can face jail time.

What is the legal limit for drinking? The legal limit for drinking is the alcohol level above which an individual is subject to legal penalties. Legal limits are measured using either a blood alcohol test or a breathalyzer. Legal limits are typically defined by state law and may vary based on individual characteristics such as age and occupation.

In Kansas the legal drinking age is 21. The legal blood alcohol content is 0.08. If caught drinking and driving (first offense), your license is suspended for 30 days. In some jurisdictions, you can still be charged and arrested for consumption of alcohol if your drinking has affected your ability to drive, even if your blood alcohol level is below the legal limit.

DUI (Driving Under the Influence) DUI laws make it unlawful for a person to operate a car, truck, motorcycle or commercial vehicle if the driver’s ability to safely operate the vehicle is impaired by the effects of alcohol, illegal drugs, prescribed medication, over-the-counter medications and/or the driver is intoxicated at a level above established DUI standards, such as blood-alcohol content.

Speaking the

MIP (Minor In Possession)

youth.

Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush

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with our

14

No, alcohol slows reaction time and impairs judgement and coordination, all skills needed to drive a car safely. The more alcohol consumed, the greater the impairment.

Any minor who is found to possess, consume, obtain, purchase or attempt to purchase alcoholic liquor or a cereal malt beverage.


scenarios Alcohol Memory Loss

At a party on Saturday night, Beth was drinking and got drunk. She did some things she doesn’t even remember – things she wouldn’t normally do. Rumors are going around school about her. Discussion Questions: • Why do you think Beth would drink alcohol? • What consequences could Beth face because of this incident? • What do you think people were saying about Beth at school? • How could continued alcohol use affect Beth’s body?

Parents Buying Alcohol for Teens

Jake’s mom buys beer for him. She says it is okay as long as he only drinks it around her. The other night she even bought beer for a party Jake was having. Lots of kids were drinking. Discussion Questions: • Who is breaking the law in this scenario? • What could happen to Jake’s mom? • What could happen to Jake? • What would you do if you knew an adult was buying alcohol for minors?

Peer Pressure

Cassie was at a party. Somebody had brought beer and lots of the other kids were drinking. One of the older kids offered Cassie a drink. When Cassie didn’t take the drink he made fun of her and called her a little kid. Discussion Questions: • What would you do if you were Cassie? • Why do you think the other kids were drinking? • What are some ways to say “no” when someone asks you to drink? • If Cassie had taken a drink, what are some of the consequences she could face?

It is “immature & irresponsible to drive

drunk.”

— PSU Gorillas in Your Midst member

Individual or Group Activity: On a blackboard or dry erase board brainstorm and then write down the various things people say to try and convince you to take a drink. Then brainstorm a list of things you can say to turn them down. Role play the various scenarios.

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Southeast Kansas Regional Prevention Center (RPC)

Established in 1987, the RPC is one of 13 prevention centers in the state serving 11 counties in the Southeast Kansas region. The RPC assists school personnel, parents, and other community members in preventing alcohol and drug abuse and promoting healthy lifestyles. The RPC works directly with local groups and individuals to mobilize communities through the Communities That Care (CTC) process.

YouthFriends

YouthFriends, in partnership with school districts, connects young people with caring adult volunteers in schools to promote success, encourage healthy behaviors and build stronger communities. Mentoring has proven to result in positive outcomes for young people. Additionally, a growing body of science-based research shows that mentoring can create positive changes in youth with regard to decreased negative behaviors and drug and alcohol use.

Gorillas In Your Midst

Pittsburg State University’s Gorrillas In Your Midst is a Peer Health Education group interested in reaching peers concerning various social issues through interactive skits, performances and presentations in order to help them make healthier, more informed decisions. Gorillas In Your Midst have produced a variety of programming on such topics as: drug and alcohol abuse, rape, date rape, sexual assault, eating disorders, suicide, depression, stress management, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and more.

Middle School Leadership Series (MSLS)

MSLS provides a seven session opportunity for students from Title IV school districts to learn about The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens. MSLS began in the 2004-2005 school year with two students from each district to improve problem-solving, communication and knowledge about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Each session provides students with refusal skills and the self-confidence to use when faced with the decisions related to using drugs.

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This grant project is funded or partially funded by the Governor’s Discretionary Portion of the Federal and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act awarded by the U.S. Department of Education as administered by Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius’ grants program. The opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Office of the Kansas Governor or the U.S. Department of Education. Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush


References Acknowledgements

Dr. John Dudley, Are you Ready? Addressing School Safety and Security; Jones Institute, Emporia State University, 2007 Bullying at School by Dr. Dan Olweus Activities that Teach by Tom Jackson www.webmd.com www.streetdrugs.org http://teens.drugabuse.gov Palo Alto Medical Foundation - www.pamf.org U.S. Department of Justice National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Focus Adolescent Service - www.focusas.com Center for Substance Abuse Prevention www.tobaccofreekids.org www.drugabuse.gov www.intheknowzone.com

Resources & Reading Suggestions Activities that Teach book by Tom Jackson Bullying at School book by Dr. Dan Olweus www.tobaccofreekids.org www.drugabuse.gov www.intheknowzone.com www.streetdrugs.org http://teens.drugabuse.gov www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp http://www.stopbullyingnow.com http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/friends/bullies/

YouthFriends www.youthfriends.org RPC blog site http://regionalpreventioncenter.blogspot.com Southeast Kansas Education Service Center www.greenbush.org PSU Gorillas In Your Midst www.pittstate.edu/union/giym

www.greenbush.org • 620.724.6281

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Southeast Kansas Education Service Center • Greenbush PO Box 189

Girard, KS 66743 620.724.6281 www.greenbush.org

truth Speaking the

youth. with our

A guide for educators, mentors, parents and the community.

Speaking the Truth With Youth  

An 18 page booklet designed for the Southeast Kansas Educational Service Center at Greenbush.

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