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I developed a 1:200 design based upon the principles of my 1:2000 design. This is the process of my design development, based on research, history, concepts, precedents and programme.

Andy Croft

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1:200 development

Systematic/development


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The Site

Systematic/development Andy Croft

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The site I have chosen lies just outside the designed area of my 1:2000. I chose this site after visiting it as part of the Cartography brief, in which our group defined the site as an iconic area within Trafford Park. The site lies around the crossing of the bridgewater and ship canals, providing historic infrastructure, closed vistas and could be classed as a main entrance to trafford park from Eccles.


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History 1840 - This historic map shows the site relating to the larger context of site. The focus at this point is the already existing juncture between the bridgewater canal and River Irwell.

Systematic/development Andy Croft

1890 - This historic map shows a historic turning point for trafford park, with the development of the manchester ship canal. This would become the life blood of the industrial park, allowing the mass transport of heavy goods.

River Irwell manchester ship canal

Bridgewater Aquaduct

Bridgewater Aquaduct

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Trafford Estate woodland and fields

Bridgewater canal

Bridgewater canal

1920 - This historic map shows the beginning of the industrial park, demonstrating how the industries built along the canal banks, utilising them as essential infrastructure.

Bridgewater Aquaduct

Trafford estate woodland and fields

manchester ship canal remains of trafford estate

1980 - By 1980 almost the entirety of the trafford estate had become industrial units due to the success provided by the canal and rail infrastructure.

manchester ship canal Bridgewater Aquaduct petrochemical units

industrial units Bridgewater canal

industrial units

Bridgewater canal

industrial units


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Concept from history

Systematic/development Andy Croft

To apply my concepts to my design I began at a large scale, working upon the hypothesis of creating a network through trafford park based upon the Bridgewater and Manchester Ship canals, relating again to my 1:2000 strategy of ecological and recreational spaces.

From this association I examined the chemical structure of ice, noting the angular bonds formed between the Oxygen and Hydrogen elements that give ice its structural rigidity. The array of apparent nodes and links influenced my design as it related to my 1:2000 strategy.

Further analysing the concept of nodes and links and a structural form, I turned to the structure of leaves and plants, with the tubules of xylem and phloem allowing movement of fluids through the plant. The idea of a network/framework that supports movement and interactivity became a basis for my design.

A ‘ n ecosystem is the interacting assemblage of living things and their non-living environment…ecosystems are connected by flows of energy and materials.’ Lyle, J. T. 1985. Design For Human Ecosystems. In: Theory In Landscape Architecture. Ed. Swaffield, S. 2002. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia & Pennsylvania. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Due to the permenance and importance of the canals, the concept of water becoming ice became one of the initial starting points of my design. The canals are frozen into the landscape and into time, having once been the life blood of the industrial estate.


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History

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This historic map shows the site in 1890, consisting of woodland, residential properties and a road linking the aquaduct directly to Trafford Manor.

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Bridgewater Aquaduct

woodland

link road to trafford manor

Residential


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Systematic/development Andy Croft

By 1900 industrial development had affected the site, with the construction of a petrochemical site that caused lasting damage and pollution to the ground.

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History

petrochemical site and damage spread

Residential


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Systematic/development Andy Croft

This historic map shows that by 1970 the residential properties had been demolished and futher expansion of chemical and petrochemical sites had taken place, furthering the toxicity of the ground.

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History

petrochemical site and damage spread


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Analysis - movement/accessibility

Andy Croft

Inaccesible - fenced

Inaccesible - rough terrain

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This analysis illustrates the large amount of inaccessible space within the site due to walls and restrictions, and the existing patterns of movement pedestrian movement observed by desire lines.

Systematic/development

Inaccesible - Walled

Pedestrian Movement


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Analysis - views and artefacts

Andy Croft

Aquaduct

View along the canal to horizon View along the canal to bridge and pump house

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This analysis highlights the existing view points within the site using icons that depict the range of the views. It also highlights the important historical artefacts that remain on site: the aquaduct and lock keepers house.

Systematic/development

Lock Keepers house closed view along the canal

closed view of aquaduct and site


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Analysis - Enclosure

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This analysis illustrates enclosure of the existing site, created mostly by vegetation and landform. The gradient of colour indicates the enclosure: the darkest areas are the most enclosed and lightest most exposed.

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Analysis - Microclimate

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This analysis illustrates the microclimatic conditions on site, which exist due to the sites polar orientation and spatial layout.

prevailing wind across the open canal PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Summer Sun path


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Analysis - Enclosure

This analysis shows the spatial composition of the site as it already exists.

Systematic/development Andy Croft

Water

Water

embankment PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

footpath Walled concrete hardscape Vegetated land

Water

Vegetated land

Road


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1:2000 Relation

Systematic/development Andy Croft

For my 1:2000 design i proposed an intervention that focussed on adding a mixture of textures to the site to break away from the smooth planar surfaces whilst promoting movement through the site and creating enclosure at a human scale. These are ideas which I have carried through into my 1:200 Design.

Encouraging slow pedestrian movement through human scale enclosure. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Using rough vegetative textures and colours to break from the smooth grey surfaces. Transforming continuous planar surfaces into ordered but fragmented hardscapes with a medium ofecology to be developed upon


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Generating Form and Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

At this stage I began to generate form from my concepts. I began by using the existing viewing platform as a central point and applied the concept of a rippled motion radiating from this point. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

‘Start with facts or data concerning the situation at hand and “concept”, the general notions, ideas or principles conceived in the mind. Concepts provide access to the mechanisms that join all the facts…handles with which to grasp the unseeable.’ Lyle, J.T., 1985. Design for Human Ecosystems. In: Theory In Landscape Achitecture. Ed. Swaffield, S., 2002. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia and Pennsylvania. P. 183


Systematic/development Andy Croft

I applied the pattern and geometry of the bridge to the sinuous curving canal lines to develop a spatial property and form that I could apply to the site. I took the flat planes of the bridges structure and tried to use them in an abstract way which created new and interesting forms that would contrast the continuous flat and planar surfaces I identified in my 1:2000.

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I developeped the ripple concept into an angular and geometric form using inspiration from the site itself. I began to use the form of the aquaduct as a reflection on the industrial nature of the site and applied the forms of the bridges engineering to the canal.

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Generating Form and Design


I developeped the ripple concept into an angular and geometric form using inspiration from the site itself and analytical cubism to create an abstract representation of the bridge and water bodies on site.

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Generating Form and Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

Looking at the analytical cubism work of Picasso and Braque, where the intention of their work was to means to ‘depict different viewpoints simultaneously; in other works, it was used more as a method of visually laying out the FACTS of the object, rather than providing a limited mimetic representation’ (Artchive, 2013), I took inspiration for developing my design. I applied a variation of those techniques to my initial concept to further develop it, considering the views around the site and their relation to the site.

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Picasso’s ‘Wine glass’ transforms a wine glass into an image of its raw geometrical interpretation. Image: Artchive, 2013 Artchive, 2013. Pablo Picasso. [Online] Available at: <http://www.artchive.com/ artchive/P/picasso_analyticalcubism.html> [Accessed on: 29 April 2013]


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Form to spatial principles

Systematic/development Andy Croft

Taking the planar geometric forms I had developed for the site, I began to examine the spatial principles of applying these forms to site design. An initial design concept applies to planar forms to the site in a bold manner, beginning to generate spatial properties on site. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Sketches and card models were used to explore the 3 dimensional properties of the forms.


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Precedents - Form

Systematic/development Andy Croft

These precedents use a similar geometric form as a fundamental principle of their design. Analysing these precedents allowed me to understand how the form can become a reality and how it can be applied successfully to site.

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Development Bank Of The Meurthe - Atelier Cite Architecture This design utilises a geometric form of path ways and raised walk ways that lead across and over the site in a continuous flow. The geometric form contrasts the landform and stands out against the distinct lack of other formalities. Image: Landezine. Development Bank Of The Meurthe by Atelier Cite Architecture [Online] Available at: <http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2013/03/development-bank-of-the-meurthe-by-atelier-citearchitecture/>

Hoke Residence - 2.Ink studio This design utilises a geometric form of path ways and walls that is similar to the folding plane concept I applied to my design. The angles and forms are carried throughout the site and make it a coherent and fluid design where each element compliments the next. Image: Landezine. Hoke Residence by 2.ink studio [Online] Available at: <http://www.landezine.com/index. php/2013/02/hoke-residence-by-2-ink-studio/>


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Generating Programme

Systematic/development Andy Croft

I began to generate a programme by considering three main aims for my design, which were: ecology, recreation/leisure/pleasure and homelessness/ rough sleeping. I created a simple graphic to show how these elements could overlap and the processes that they encompassed. My intention was to challenge the preconception of homelessness by overlapping the issue with ecology and public recreation. ‘Whilst tree like structures lead to rigid separations, semi lattices contain very complex overlappings, mergings and fusings together. So clearly a city which is zoned, say, into working residential and service areas forms a tree…whilst a melange of houses, shops and so on…in his terms a lattice.’ PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Broadbent, G. 1996. Emeging Concepts in Urban Space Design. London: E & FN Spon.


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Generating Programme

Systematic/development Andy Croft

At this stage i began to apply my proposed programme to the site, considering the spatial layout of the site and where the different elements of the programme physically occur. ‘When the elements of a set belong together, because they work together…Alexander calls the set a system (example, the store by the traffic light where a news rack outside attracts waiting pedestrians – the newsrack, traffic light and sidewalk are fixed parts of the system; product, as it were, of design. The people, money and newspapers are the changing parts in which the designer has over much less control)’ PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Broadbent, G. 1996. Emeging Concepts in Urban Space Design. London: E & FN Spon.


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Generating Programme

Systematic/development Andy Croft

At this stage I applied a sketch programme to the site using a sketch idea of the site layout to analyse the important nodes within the site and the main axis of movement. I began by considering the aquaduct as a potential main gateway into the site, leading into a space which would ideally be a public communal/recreational space, with the site then dispersed by a gradient of order, being most orderly at this node and becoming increasingly loose.

Main gateway PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

public recreational/ communal space

increasingly ordered/ arranged

loose ecological/ homeless space loose ecological/ homeless space


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Developing a Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

At this stage I began to divide the site into spaces for viewing the vistas across the water, public recreation, homeless shelters and phytoremediation sites. I examined the transition between spaces the waters edge and the site. The sites relationship to the water needs to be emphasised. The experience of the human relation to the water is a pleasurable one which can be exploited. Through pleasure ‘we can circumscribe the range of possible reactions to a designed place’ (Treib, 1995, p114) (Figure 11). Treib believes that ‘pleasure is one of the necessary entry points to significance’ (Treib, 1995, p115) and that ‘pleasure is more predictable than meaning’ (Treib, 1995, p117) PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Treib, M. 1995. Must Landscapes Mean? In: Treib, M. 1995. Meaning in Landscape Architecture & Gardens. Routledge.

viewing platforms provide the pleasure of prospect across the water

trees provide a permeable These sketches show how trees can provide free permeable access between the waters division betweein viewing edge and public space, where as solid walls can provide more enclosure, shelter and space and open public space definition to space expanding the canal into the site for mooring brings activity Paths course through p h y t o r e m e d i at i o n , ameliorating the soil This sketch section illustrates a possible gradient between vegetated phytoremediation beds and the waters edge, with the bridge becoming a new entry point to the site

homeless shelters can be integrated into the landscape, combined with ecology


These precedents relate to the section of my design which forms a an edge between the landscape and the water and provides viewpoints to the vistas over the water. The focus was upon edges and the placement of the human body in relation to its surroundings to invoke pleasure and enjoyment.

Pirrama Park by ASPECT Studios provides a combination of abrupt and gradual edges to the water, using steps as well as suspended walk ways to create a combination of immediacy and distance between the person and the water whilst promoting pleasure through the varying experiences of the relationships between the people and the water.

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Askv책gen by 3RW Arkitekter & Smedsvig Landskap AS creates a simple viewpoint with a concrete platform and glass barrier that allows vistas across the water combined with the suspension of the person above the water on the platform. This design is simple, yet very effective for invoking pleasure and enjoyment. Images: Landezone [online] Available at: http://www.landezine. com/index.php/2010/10/askvagen/

Images: landezine [online] Available at: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/03/pirrama-park-byaspect-studios/

Jack Evans Boat Harbour by Aspect Studios creates a terrace of large steps leading down to the waters edge, providing seating and prospect along the steps and walk way. This method of connecting the landscape to the water allows multiple uses and a gradient of connectivity between person, water and landscape. Images: Landezine[online] Available at: http://www.landezine. com/index.php/2011/09/tweeds-landscape-architecture/

Systematic/development Andy Croft

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Precedents


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Developing a Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

I re-examined the site, focussing on enclosure created through 3d forms within the site, especially vegetation. This design idea kept spaces open and free to interpretation, but too undefined.

‘Design begins in the programming, and programs are modified as design progresses...Fine places develop out of an intimate understanding of form possibility, which has been gained by constantly reframing the problem, by repeatedly searching for solutions’. An important factor in site design is the ‘human experience of place: what we see, hear smell and feel and what that means to us.’ PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Lynch, k & Hack, G. 1984. Site Design. In: Theory In Landscape Architecture. Ed. Swaffield, S. 2002. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia and Pennsylvania.

This sketch is the basis of my idea to keep the site relatively flat, whilst giving definition through 3d extrusions within the site.

agricultural beds in the social space provide a communal purpose for the site

Vegetation of varying heights in blocks defines the land in 3D forms

these sketches show the effect of vegetation on the enclosure at a human scale.

tree density could be used to create a transition between the road and define the space


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Precedents

Systematic/development Andy Croft

These precedents relate to the section of my design which forms ecological space that are accessible and usable by the public. The focus was aimed at the interaction between people and the vegetation, considering edges, boundaries, textures and functionality.

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Schöneberger Südgelände Park by Odious is a precedent I used to understand the phenomenological experience of people moving through wilderness and vegetation. In this space there is no boundry between the walkway and the vegetation, allowing people to connect with their surroundings.

Pieter Theuws& Mark Wilschut proposed methods of phytoremediation and rhizofiltration in their project concept ‘Healing Urban Landscapes’. This precedent provided me with an example of how vegetation can be used for enclosure and functionality as well as aesthetics.

Images: landezine [online] Available at: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2013/02/schoneberger-sudgelande-parkby-odious/

Images: Pieter Theuws& Mark Wilschut [online] Available at: http://landarchs.com/phytoremediation-healing-urban-landscapesbuiksloterham/


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Developing a Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This section diagram does not relate to the spatial properties of the site, but illustrates how the public can interact with the ecological elements present within the site.

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Rhizofiltration takes canal water into site for filtration

phytoremediation extracts hydrocarbon contaminants from ground Constructed wetlands allow for further interaction between people and the water. The wetlands would be constructed using a stone aggregate to create a textured gradual edge between the hardscape and the water, softened by vegetation. Trees would again provide a comfotable enclosure whilst allowing visibility. ‘The (Bridgewater) canal is graded as of doubtful quality and needing improvement (Class 2), except for a small section of poorer quality (Class 3) in the Salford area. It is my Department’s general policy to achieve a major further reduction in water pollution’ Eldon Griffiths, HC Deb 23 February 1973 vol 851 [online] Available at: http://hansard. millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1973/feb/23/bridgewater-canal-pollution


Now as a more developed design, i further examined shelter for the homeless and the layout of public recreation space and phytoremediation and the link between the site and the water.

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Precedents

Systematic/development Andy Croft

‘The most important for Sitte, are those which we associate normally with the interiors of buildings but transfer for this purpose, to the exterior. It is precisely the external use of interior architectural elements that is a most essential ingredient in the charm of ancient and medieval designs.’ ‘The melancholic city dweller suffers from a partly imaginary, partly real sickness…a longing, a nostalgia for unfettered nature…This ailment…is…to be cured…only by the sight of greenery, by the presence of beloved Mother Nature’ PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Broadbent, G. 1996. Emeging Concepts in Urban Space Design. London: E & FN Spon.

Viewing platforms define the waters edge and a terrace of steps provide access and seating.

Trees enclose and define public space which could be kept open to allow free movement, with an agricultural bed as the focus Boardwalks lead to the waterfront through the permeable walls

These sketches show how simple frames could provide canopy shelters for the homeless, whilst the layout on site creates a transition from chaos to order through vegetation

cat walks through ecological havens could provide shelter for the homeless using frames as shelter


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Developing a Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This section diagram does not relate to the spatial properties of the site, but illustrates how public space can be used for recreation and communal events as well as the homeless for warmth, generated by burning the cropped biomass from the phytoremediation planting.

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Phytoremediation biomass is cropped

Biomass is burnt on site during communal events and to provide warmth/gathering of homeless

Viewing and recreational space is used by public, encouraging mix with the homeless inhabitants


These precedents relate to the section of my design which forms a public recreational and communal space. The intention was to form a space that was easy to use, understandable and functional.

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Systematic/development Andy Croft

The City Dune / SEB Bank by SLA Landscape Architecture contrasts hardscape with vegetation to keep the space functional and accessible whilst also softening the space. The hardscape and built edges allow for multiple uses as seating, skatable objects, cylcing and walking. Images: Landezine [online] Available at: http://www.landezine. com/index.php/2011/10/park-by-sla-landscape-architecture/

The Edge Park by W-Architecture is a waterfront development that combines large open hardscapes with open planes of recreational lawn. This simple composition is successful because of its usability and recognition by the public as an open space to use as they please. Images: Landezine [online] Available at: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/11/the-edge-park-landscapearchitecture/

Feyssine Park by Ilex Paysage Urbanisme creates an open space of grassland coursed through by footpaths. The openness is kept comfortable though by surrounding walls and vegetation that keep the space slightly enclosed whilst letting excessive light onto the site. Images: Eric Saillet, Landezine [online] Available at: http://www. landezine.com/index.php/2013/04/feyssine-park-by-iles-paysageurbanisme/

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Precedents


though studying the effect of shadows on the site, I finalised ideas of vegetational order. This lead to the design of the homeless shelters, looking at the idea of refuge and low lying structures.

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Systematic/development Andy Croft

An L shaped shelter provides refuge, but limits views and creates a niche that could be exploited and misused Overhead shelter only leaves the occupant too exposed.

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Developing a Design

A gradient of vegetation and enclosure from south to north would cast the site into shadow.

Instead, enclosure could be created by vegetation enclosing the canal and public space, but dispersing towards the waterfront

A shelter that matches the site form becomes a modular unit, simply composed of a concrete base, waist high walls, and support columns to hold the transparent roof, which allows sunlight to warm the concrete base through the day


Back on track by Sarah Crowley is a project that repurposes a derelict rail road track into a programmatic space to help the homeless. This precedent provided the context for creating a system that provides shelter and rehabilitation for the homeless by providing a community situation and skill building tasks to undertake. Images: Sarah Crowley [online] Available at: http://weburbanist.com/2012/03/19/ housing-for-the-homeless-14-smart-sensitive-solutions/

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Systematic/development Andy Croft

Mini Capsule Hotel by Atelier Van Lieshout creates modular units to be used by the homeless. Each unit is a stand alone structure that provides enclosure, warmth and shelter for the occupant. This method is ideal for short term and simplistic refuge.

The sidewalk shelter by Arvind Ramachandran is an Openarchitecture competition entry that proposes a simple and flexible shelter for the homeless in an urban space. From this precedent i took inspiration for a basic shelter that can simply provide protection from the external environment and a temporary place to rest.

Images: atelier van lieshout [online] Available at: http://weburbanist. com/2012/03/19/housing-for-the-homeless-14-smart-sensitive-solutions/

Images: Arvind Ramachandran [online] Available at: http://openarchitecturenetwork.org/ projects/5566 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Precedents


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Developing a Design

Systematic/development Andy Croft

This section diagram does not relate to the spatial properties of the site, but illustrates how the homeless shelters sit within an ecological space, with the homeless and community working to produce a small agricultural yield which supplies the public cafe.

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Homeless shelters lie within meadow/ wildscape.

Homeless and community work together producing small agricultural yield.

agricultural produce supplies the cafe for public purchase.

The final shelter idea uses a series of thin strips of wood in a folding form that allows climbers to grow at the base to around half the height of the structure (limited by pruning) whilst supporting a strengthened glass roof. This structure allows the optimal combination of visibilty and shelter, with the vegetation acting as a wind break and the glass roof allowing sunlight to heat the concrete base.


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Systematic/development Andy Croft

1:200@A1 My design continues from my 1:2000 work, with the intention of creating an ecological medium that allows grwoth and development. The site embraces the existing views and vistas of the Manchester Ship canal and creates a public social and communal space developed around Phytoremediation and Rhizofiltration. Meadows which will become wildscapes host the programme of homeless rehabilitation through shelter and agricultural production. The design aims to challenge conceptions between people and place.

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1:200 Plan


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Systematic/development Andy Croft

1:200@A1 Long sections through the site indicate how the elements of the site work together and how they connect with each other . I have created perspectives in areas of the design which are most indicative of the design intention: to connect people to place and people to each other.

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1:200 Sections and Perspectives


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Systematic/development Andy Croft

Original@A1 I created a layered isometric diagram to emphasise some of the elements that compose my design such as the edging types, circulation and ecological types. The diagram further illustrates the programme of my design and how elements overlap and combine. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Layered Diagram


1:200 Design Work