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a&SUaeq&mBuD; odoGm;avaomf? yGJpm;u ajc&m azsmufoGm;cJhNyD/ aemufqHk; uHqdk;ol armif&Sif pma&;q&mom emrnfvnf;ysuf? a&SUaeBuD;udk vnf ; ajcovH k ; zuf c J h & onf h &S u f z G , f v d v d tjzpf / ,ck v nf ; ... rd r d \ vuf & if ; wynf h u aevdkvvdkxif&Sm;aom *EÅ0if pma&;q&mBuD; iSucf g;\vuf&mudk cd;k csum? q&m&if;\ r*¾Zif;rSm tcefYom; ae&m0if,lcJhNyD/ cdk;rIudk azmfonfholu wd k ; wd k ; wd w f w d w f azmf a eavNyD / us,f u s,f avmifavmif azmfxkwf&if; olcdk;udkvnf;qJ/ t,f ' D w mud k v nf ; ½I y f c srnf h o l a wG b,f ESpfa,mufay:xGufvmMuOD;rnfrod/ ]uRefawmf pm;0wfaea&;twGuf t,f'Dwm 0if v k y f r d w m rS m ;NyD a'guf w mrd k ; &m...? ud k , f h bmomudk,f ig;ydwdkYp&meJY pm;NyD; pma&;wJhtvkyf yJ vkyfae&if... 'Dvdk *kPfodu©myGef;yJhwJhtjzpfeJY? BuHK&rSmr[kwfbl;} [k q&maeomu toHtuf tuf rsufESmaoBuD;jzifhajymonf/ a'gufwm rdk;ndKu q&maeom\ nmbufvufaumuf 0wfudk vSrf;qkyfxm;vdkuf\/ ]pmaytEkynmorm;awG ta&xl&ovdk...? t,f'DwmawGvnf; ta&xl&r,fAs? b,fol bmajymajym udk,fvkyfp&m&Sdwm qufvkyfAsm? pum;yHk wpfck&dSw,fav/ acG;a[mifvdkY awmif ra½G U b l ; wJ h ? pmayavmuxJ u t,f ' D w m wpfa,muf&JU rajz&Sif;Edkif? ajz&Sif;zdkY rvG,fwJh jyóemaygif; aomif;ajcmufaxmif taMumif; rodMuwJh evNydef;wHk;awG a[mifcsifoavmuf a[mif M uprf ; yap...? pma&;q&m t,f ' D w m aeomqdkwJh awmifBuD;uawmh ra½GU bl;vdkYom rSwfvdkuf} a'gufwmrdk ;ndKu BuHK;0g;oHjzifh ajymtNyD;rSm vd I u f v S J p G m toH z G i f h í &,f y pf v d k u f o nf / q&maeomuvnf ; ol \ &if t H k E S i f h 0rf ; acgif ; xJrSmom jrnf[nf;½dkufcwfvmaom emusnf; ½GH &SmoHBuD;jzifh BuHK;0g;onf/ ... aus;Zl;&Sdw,fqdkNyD; aus;pGyfcsifwJh vlAmv t,kwfwrmaumif apmxGPf; ? rif;xyfydkYvm r,fh pmrlawGudk igarQmfvifhwBuD;apmifhBudKaeo a[h...? xyfydkYvdkufprf;yguG? vdyfjymoefY&if xyfydkY Munfhvdkufprf;yg..... MuL;epf


*Refbwfay;wJh'ku© opömeD *Refbwfqdkwm uRefawmhfoli,fcsif; r[k w f y g/ tar&d u ef r S armf ' ef ? yd k Y p f a rmf ' ef pma&;q&mBu;D jzpfygw,f/taemufwikd ;f acwfay: pmayudk avhvmwJholwdkif; ausmfvTm;& rJh bD (B) BuD; av;vHk;&Sdw,f/ tJ'gawGu awmh........ (1) Jorge Luis Borges

(2) Samuel Becket

eJY (4) John Barth wdkY jzpfygw,f/ ol U emrnf & if ; uvJ John Simmons Barth jzpfNyD; ar&Dvef; jynfe,f? udef;b&pfrSm 1930? ar rS m arG ; cJ h y gw,f / bvf w D r d k ; u *Refa[mhuif;wuúodkvfrS ? r[m0dZÆmbGJUudk 1952 rSm &cJhygw,f/ tJ'D wuúodkvfrSmyJ 1973 txd? t*F v d y f p meJ Y ? pmaya&;om;rI t wwf y nm bmom&yfudk ygarmu©tjzpfydkYcscJhygw,f/ olU&JU yxrqHk;0w¬K The Floating Opera (1956) [m rif ; rJ h 0 g'D w pf O D ; taMumif ; jzpf y g w,f / oludk,fwdkifuvJ 'óersm; tdwfZif;pwf&S,f vpf Z if ; buf u d k ud k i f ; ñT w f c J h w ,f / T h e Sot - Weed Factor (1960) 0w¬K&Snf[m emrnfBu;D ayrJ?h ol&U UJ taumif;qH;k vuf&mu awmh Giles-Goat-Boy (1966) vdkY qdkMuygw,f/ 1968 rSm xkwfa0cJhwJh Lost in the Funhouse uawmh ol i,f i ,f b 0 taMumif ; ud k tajccH x m;wJ h 0w¬ K wd k a v;awG jzpf & w,f / ol[m 0w¬K&Snfrsm;tjyif? olU&JU tufaq;awGeJY 0w¬Kr[kwfwmawGudk pkxm; wJh The Friday Book (1984) eJY Further opera (1994) awGudkvJ xkwfa0cJhygw,f/ tck az:jycsifwJh olUvuf&muawmh tGefvdkif; ay:rSm awGU&wJh olU&JU ]pm} wpfyk'fygyJ/ uAsmvdk pD x m;wm jrif w meJ Y uAsmvd k Y owf r S w f r I rvmapcsifbl;/ olUb0rSm uAsmpmtkyf xkwfa0 cJhwm? uAsma&;cJhwm? rawGUrodcJhzl; bl;/ pmzwf oludk,fwdkif tuJcwfapcsifvdkY az:jyay; vdkuf ygw,f/

(3) Donaled Barthelme


(continued)

.......................................................

AB to ab, CD to cd.

b

Twist end once and fasten

A B ONCE

C

UPON A TIME THREED

.......................................................

Cut on dotted line.

BEGANa

FRAME TALE

d WAS A STORY THAT c


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................................................... A B ONCE

C

UPON A TIME THREED

.................................................... d WAS A STORY THAT c

b

BEGANa

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awG[m 'Davmb? a'go? arm[ tay:rSm tajc cHw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dt&mawGu vlawG&JU arG;&myg ADZ pdwfawGyJ? urÇmay:rSm vl&,fvdkY pjzpfvmu wnf;u 'DpdwfawGu ygvmNyD;om;jzpfw,f/ 'D pdwfawG[m vlawGtvkyfvkyfzdkY vdktyfcsufjzpf wJh avmifpmqDjzpfw,f/ 'DpdwfawGxJrSm vl;vGefU ½kef;uef&if;u vlYavmu wdk;wufcJh&w,f? 'D pdwfawGrvGefuJatmif bmoma&; tqHk;tr awG udk,fusifhw&m;awGeJY xdef;csKyfMuw,f? 'D pdwf awG yg;&Sm;olawGudk olawmfaumif;awGvdkY ac:NyD; vHk;vHk;uif;pif&ifawmh olawmfpifvdkY ac: w,f? tjzL[m trJay: wifrS ydkay:vGifovdk vlavm uBuD;vnf; vlrdkufawG olawmf aumif; awG a'G;a&m,Sufwif&SdrS ydkvSw,fvdkY ig xifw,f} uRefawmfu rausreyfESifh ]½l;oGyfrdIufrJawG? &r®ufqE´awGu vnf; . . . vlawG&JU vdktyfcsufvdkY cifAsm;ajymrS yJ r[kwfvm;} [k jyefyufvdkufonf/ olu w [m;[m; oabmusaeonf/ NyD;rS ]yk x k Z aem Or® w aumvd k Y rif ; wd k Y Ak'¨ bmomrSm tqdk&Sdw,f r[kwfvm;? ykxkZOf vlom; rSef&if tenf;eJY trsm; ½l;oGyfrdkufrJwm yJuG? aemuf &r®ufqE´qdkwm cspfjcif;&JU rdcifyJ? cspf jcif;r&SdbJ vljzpf&wm bmt"dyÜg,f&SdawmhrvJ? uJ ewfobiftpnf;ta0;&SdvdkY igoGm;OD;ra[h? t&ufwdkufwJhtwGuf aus;Zl;yJ aumifav; a&} y½dkrdo,yf(p)u uRefawmfha&SUrS vSpf ueJ aysmufuG,foGm;avonf/ ewfrSL;


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tar&duefEikd if o H m;pma&;q&mr ]tdik ;f &pfcse;f } &JU pmtkyu f kd a&;om;jzpfykH ud k ½d k u f u l ; xm;wmyg/ pmtk y f x J u ord k i f ; tcsuf t vuf a wG u d k y g xnfhoGif;½dkuful;xm;wm awGU&ygw,f/ 1937-ckESpfrSm erfuif;NrdKUudk *syef b k & if h p pf w yf r sm; 0if a &muf u sL;ausmf N yD ; tpk v d k u f tNyH K vd k u f owfjzwfjcif;udk &uf&ufpufpuf usL;vGefcJhwJhordkif;aMumif;udk "The rape of Nanking: The forgotten Holocaust of World

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jcm;jcm; odvdkuf&wmuawmh w½kwfEdkifiH&JU emZDygwDacgif;aqmif *smref vlrsKd; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SifvJjzpfwJh "John Rabe" u w½kwfvlrsKd; rsm;pGmudk *syefppfwyfvufwGif;u u,fwifcJhwmyg/ ol[m w½kwfvlrsKd; ajcmuf&mhig;q,fudk olU NcHaemufrSm wGif;wl;NyD; zGufxm;ay;cJhygw,f/ [pfwvmqDvJ pma&;Ny;D *syefppfwyf&JU tjyKtrlawGudk wifjyjcif;awGvJ jyKvkyfcJhygw,f/ tar&duefvlrsKd; trsKd;orD;BuD;wpfa,muf[mvJ *syef awG&JUwm;jrpfrIMum;u u,fq,fa&;pcef;awG zGifhvSpfNyD; trsKd;orD; ajrmufrsm;pGmudk u,fwifcJhyHk rSwfwrf;½kyf&Sifum;wdkYukdvJ Munfh½I& ygw,f/ 1937 ck E S p f r S m *syef b k & if h w yf r awmf [ m erf u sif ; Nrd K U u d k usL;ausmf od r f ; yd k u f c J h N yD ; &uf p uf M urf ; MuKwf w J h vl o wf y G J a wG y g aemufqufwGJ usL;vGefcJhygw,f/ oufBuD;½G,ftdkrsm;? uav;oli,frsm; tygt0if vlaygif;oHk;odef;? usL;ausmfppftwGif;rSm aoqHk;cJhygw,f/ acgif ; jzwf owf j cif ; ? touf & S i f v suf ajrjr§KyfowfcH&jcif;? rD;avmifwdkufoGif;jcif; pwJh enf ; rsKd ; pH k e J Y aoqH k ; cJ h & wmyg/ touf & S i f v suf usef & pf o l t csKd U r S m vJ xd k t jzpf t ysuf q d k ; BuD ; &J U ajcmuf v S e f Y r I u d k wpf o uf v H k ; cH p m;oG m ;Mu&yg w,f/ touf&Sifusef&pfolawGudk ]tdkif;&pfcsef;} u erfuif;NrdKUtxd oGm;a&mufNyD; tifwmAsL;awG jyKvk y f c J h y gw,f / ol w d k U & J U ajymMum;csuf r sm; u aMuuG J e musif z G , f aumif ; ygw,f / ol w d k Y & J U a&S U r S m wif rd b armif E S r eJ Y tbd k ; tbG m ;awG owfjzwfcHcJh&NyD;? rdcif? tpfr? ta': polwdkYudk t"r® jyKusif h c J h w mawG u d k awG U & S d c J h M uwmyg/ tif w mAsL;ajz&if ; xd k t jzpf t ysuf awG u d k owd&NyD; idka<u;Muwmudk rSwfwrf;½kyf&SifxJrSm Munfh½IcJh& ygw,f/ jiif;qdkol *syeftpdk;&t&m&SdwpfOD;uawmh 'gawG[m o½k y f a qmif a wG u d k [ef a qmif ½ d k u f u l ; xm;wmygvd k Y ajymif a jymif wif;wif;jiif;qdkwmudkvJ rSwfwrf;½kyf&SifxJrSm awGUvdkuf&yg ao;w,f/ bmaMumifh 0efrcH&JwmvJ pOf;pm;p&myg/ tJ'Dwkef;u tjzpftysufawGudk rS w f w rf ; wif ½ d k u f u l ; xm;ol a wG u d k a wmh av;pm;csD ; usL;&ygr,f / xdkrSwfwrf;awGuom oufaotaxmuftxm;tjzpf usefcJhwmyg/ MuufoD;xzG,frSwfwrf;yHkawGyg/ wu,f[kwfyghrvm;awmif cHpm;rd& wJhtxdygyJ/ 'gayr,fh tJ'gawG[m wu,fjzpfyGm;cJhwmyg/ ra&rwGuf EdkifwJh vlUtavmif;awG[m ]erfuif;NrdKU} ae&mtESHUtjym;rSm jyefYusJaeyHk awG u d k awG U & ygw,f / aMumuf r uf z G , f ted | m½H k a wG u d k b,f v d k ESvHk;om;rsKd;eJYrsm; usL;vGefcJhovJ pOf;pm;rdygw,f/ rSwfwrf;½kyf&SifMunfh NyD; vlvlcsif; ESdyfpufn§if;yef;owfjzwfrIawGudk ½GH&Smpufqkyfvmapyg w,f/ ppfyGJrSm touf&Sifusef&pfwJh tarhavsmhcH vlom;awGudk pmem em;vnfzdkY ]tdkif;&pfcsef;}u BudK;pm;cJhygw,f/ olwdkYawG[m ouf&Sd oufaoawGjzpfygw,f/ vlawG&JU twGif;pdwfxJrSm&SdwJh qdk;0g;,kwfrmrI awGudk oufaocHaewJholrsm; jzpfygw,f/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m emusifrI? cE¨mudk,femusifrIawGudk tvGefEke,fi,f½G,fpOfrSm cHpm;cJh&olrsm;

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pwJh owif;pmawGrSm ordkif; qd k i f & m aqmif ; yg;awG u d k a&;om;cJ h y gw,f / The college of Wooster in Ohio eJ Y

Angeles time

California state University at Hayward

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