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HEAT PUMPING TECHNOLOGY IS ESSENTIAL TO
Net Zero Energy Buildings
A change from boiler to heat pump lowers your carbon footprints and use of non-renewable energy What is the environmental impact of a typical household with 15,000 kWh annual heating demand? This example shows the annual CO2 emissions of an electric heat pump compared with conventional boilers. The difference is very clear.
his example shows that heat pumps offer a distinct advantage over conventional heating equipment in terms of CO2 emissions. The environmental impact of a heat pump applied in a domestic home with an annual heating demand of 15,000 kWh is compared with that of conventional boilers. The emission rates of a boiler and a heat pump depend on the energy efficiency of the equipment, and on the fuel mix or the efficiency of electricity generation. An OECD average of 0.446 kg CO2/kWh has been used for electricity.
A heat pump operating on electricity from renewable energy sources does not emit any CO2 at all. The annual CO2 emission with an oil boiler is 5,138 kg. All heat pump cases emit considerably less CO2 than the boiler cases. This effect will increase with the de-carbonisation of electricity production (secondary effect).
Heat pumps offer a distinct advantage over conventional heating equipment
In conclusion, it is possible to lower your carbon footprint. Heat pumps offer a distinct advantage over conventional heating equipment in terms of CO2 emissions.
The CO2 emissions of conventional heating systems are compared with heat pumps with two levels of efficiency (Seasonal Performance Factor, SPF), shown in the table below. The SPF=3 case represents typical systems today, while SPF=6 represents efficiencies that can be expected in the future.
Annual CO2 emissions with an electric heat pump with electricity from renewables = 0 kg. Annual CO2 emissions with an oil-fired boiler = 5,138 kg.
Primary energy Another way to calculate the environmental impact of different heating methods is to estimate the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This is done by using the concept of primary energy, which is a way of including how well we make use of a native energy source such as insolation, coal in a mine, trees, crude oil, wind or water and similar sources. Instead of taking into account only the amount of energy actually used in a building, the primary energy factor describes how much energy that is needed to take a natural energy source in nature and convert it into electricity, fuel oil or pellets.
It includes all the work needed to transform a natural energy source, extraction, refining, transport, distribution and energy conversion. Different energy forms have different factors, but they also vary between different countries and regions, and so national primary energy factors are often used. The example below shows the percentage of non-renewable energy that is needed in order to heat a house from different energy sources. In order to get the correct total percentage, the example also includes how well the specific equipment (heat pump, boiler) converts the energy into heat.
Energy demand of the building
Energy needed to cover the building demand Non-renewable primary energy demand
100% 80% 60% 40%
Annual CO2 emissions for a domestic home with 15,000 kWh annual heating demand (kg CO2/year) Type
Primary energy use (kWh)
Specific CO2 emissions (kg CO2/kWh)
Annual CO2 emissions (kg)
Heat pump, SPF = 3
Heat pump, SPF = 6
Heat pump, SPF = 3 electricity from renewables
Primary energy factor
Non renewable primary energy demand
Energy needed to cover the building demand
Heat pump* renewable electricity 33 % 0 0% *SPF=3
Heat pumps can cut CO2 emissions from buildings by 30 % IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME
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