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Advanced Gra mma r In t:,e Adva n"ed Gra mma r in t:se Adva'Kcd Gr3mma r in L'.., Advan,'ed Gram ma r in t:se Advanced Gram mar in t:'C

w i,h . n, we" with Cll Rom Cll [{" m CD Rom Inetwo rk

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Advanced Grammar in Use

A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English with answers

SECOND EDITI ON

Martin Hewings U

CAM BR I D G E

'iliP U~ IVER SIT Y PIl ESS


Contents Than h 1" 'he

",

"ude'"

,on,

T" 'he ,."",h.,

IX

T ".~.

I Prnm' <o,";n"o". . ...1 p..... . n' .. mrl< I II 2 I'rcwn' m Ill;"""'" and prnonl ..mplr III 3 P... " ",pi.: and p....w", ptrl....1

"S P." """""",- """ p..., "mpk Pa.. pnk..1 ...d 1'<''' .. mplr 6

~l

pnf"", "Oflltn llO", an d ptn<'n l prrlfi1

7 P. .. pt<in1 , onion 8 PTnrn, a n d ~. h IM':

1k

P' " ","",-1 a Dd P'" _

,'0<\1;0010'"

p.,.,.

, lIill . nd be ..... 1<> 10 I'tncn' ..mpl.. and I'f'C"""IC «_on"",,' f.... 1M fut

I I Futu.... """"""""" and N._ p.d....' 4"".."

.

)

12 Ik In • mfim.."" 1J 00:"" ,"'an of ,.Ik,,,,,.t.- II>< I.- _ I ' n.. future _ 0 f...., .... p_

......I.d> -.I Ii

_,--.wi.

e-. wuId. I>< <lIhk In a nd b< a/k>.. n11O

lh \\',ll ..ould anJ UW<! ,.. I"' and _hoc poouhr.hr,

\I.,

11 '10

1" S

and loa. , IllOC l lO

' l. ..... ~ n«d '0 and

' h,o.< '0

211 ~ -.r:ht 10 an.l " ad hm...

""_'ft.

1.PI~"'ll 'vrl>o. IlWOl. '," 21 Li nk,"fI ,nt>.: p poa<................".,.. II'" ..". 21 fof ... n,. p.a",,'< " ,""'-... t II l i Fonn"'lt J"" "" """nll.'ft ll t: , ....b • ""II ow ....infi ,,"i.'

2" u.i"", 1-';''''

l i R'l"'m n,. wIlh 1"''''''' ..-b., Ie; id .h••.•• 16 "'h -<l """O'" wi'h .. bo h..m hid., aDd who.c P S ."." "" q......t 1"...; 'I ....,,""'; 'I , » ·lth thal-daon.n

nc""

\nt- compkm~~lJh()": ..-1>"1 (u/l"".. ,.... 1>. 18 Verb>, oI>,c.:t> .nd CiOffi!'k..... n!>

1'J V..-h + ' .... 0 ohin~ • .JO Verb . '; n ~ for m' and ,nhn",,,,, ( II 31 V..-b. 'In~ for m, ond ",hn1l''''' (21

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NUll TO STU llY, USE THE STUDY GUIllE ON PAGE 240

'"


Reporting .\2 Reporting people', wor d, an d 'hought<

.n

Reportiog , talement" tha, -da,,''''

.\4 Ve,h + wh-d ano<

35 Tense ~ ho i~e '" repon ,ng ,16 [{epor'ing o(fe", 'UI\I;eSl'On" orders, ,ntent'o"" ef<, 37 I\-!<"bl verb- in 'epon ;nl; 3g [{epo,t;ng what people sa}' U>Lng noum and adie .., ive, .1 9 Should tha, ·d au,.., , he p'e",nl m hiunn ive

,n

Noun, 40 Agreemenl between ' Uhl"'" . nd ve, h (1 ) 41 !\j;ree",enl be,ween ' uhl«-l .nd ve,h (2) 42 !\j;ree",e nr be,w..,n ' uhj"", .nd ve,b (3) 43 Co mpound no un, . nd nOun ph,..e,

Article•. deferm,,,,,,, ""d qua"t,lie" 44 4-' 46 47 48 49 SO .1'1 .1' 2

M a n an d one Alan . lhe and 'w, ' rf,d e (1 ) AI. n. lhe an d >e m . ,,'d. (2) AI. n, lhe a" d >e m " Iid e 0 1 Some and a ny No , none (of) and not . ny M lICb (o fl, ma ny 1of) . 101 0f, 101' lofl, el<. All {ofI, .. bole, ",.ry, eac h h ... lin le. I""" fewer

RelJ'i~e

d"use, and ,,,her type. of dau,"

$.I Itela' ;ve pronou n'

O'her ,dal, ve words: .. 10""" when. wherm }" e". P,e p",i, io", 11l rel."ve dau.., O,he, way' of . ddinl; ",fo,,,,a,io n to no un ph , (1) : add "i ,m,,1 noun pb..,." erc 0,10.. way' of adding ",formalio " to no un pb ra (2): prepo"""" .1 ph .."" , <I•. .\ 8 Part i"ple dause' wi' h . dver bi.1 ",e.n"'g 0 1 .W Parti..,p~ dau.., ".-'tb ad verbi.1 me.n 'nl; 121 .14 5.1' % -'7

Pro"",."S, ,,,h>ri,u,i,,,, and lea~",g o"t word, 60 Rellexi.. prono un" he" elf. hi", ,,,lf, ,he",.. et~ . 6 1 O ne an d one. 62 So a nd no, .. ' ub-mute' lor da u"" , <1:<. (,.1 0<, ' 0 ; ,u< b 64 M ore on leaVIng " ut wo,d, after a uxiliary 'e, b6.1 l ",.. ing ou' "'_in fini'ive<

I,·""

"

If VOU ARE NOT SURE WHIOI UNITS YOU NEW TO STUOY, USE THE STU DY GUIDE ON PAGE 240


Adre<l"~'

66 67 68 69 70

71 72 7l 74 75 76

n

7K

and ad.wb.

Po, j,M," "f ad,"e" .... G"d,hlc,n<! non -l\..d,h l" adl""" '" ( I) G.. d.hlc . nd non·l\..d. h l" . J I"" " .... (2) P,<t;,;'pk 'd."e, i..... ,oo " ""I"", nd aJj""" ... Ad,c."{,wn . ,... in~ni'i" •.inK. ,ha ,·du-< h_da".., AJjc."{...... . nd .d.er'" Adj...." {'.n.nd ad "",..., ,,.nd I.""., 10,.... ComPO"".' ph' a"" and d ..""" Po.iIlO of ad (I) """ino 01 ad." (1) Ad 1 pL.",. d" ""'. ,nd,~nll" I,"!"........,.. a nd \lID< Dqrtt ad.erb- and f ~ • • d........ Com"""" ad........ and .'.... po'n' a.h"m.

"""pa,,,..

"'pc'

,w,.....tn.B d........ • "J

"',....... 79 Ad• ....n..1do of 11 m< !IO G,vtng ,.,."""" bn:auv. <t<:..; .... and w llh K1 Pu'JIO>" and in oN... '0. "" b ' 0. <t". 82 Com.....: .. ,hou~.nd ,'-~; ..... ' hoootth!if; wh~.,. ..hil" and ..........,... 83 If (l l 84 If (2 ) 85 If I w... ., you.-; lor w«<, '0 wi. 116 IL.. - and " if and w ..... hn- ; <to.:. 87 ConMetmtt ode a """,~.., and ho<tw ..... wnI<n<:n

ol,,,

-

1"""'_

of and " .... " ... and . ''''''''It P"'POO" """ of lim< Ta lk"'lt . houc n.... pn"'.. ",""powl""" .her • .,m. ~ .."",• • lIer no".... T...... and rh....,.""",d ..erb-: word and."

gg PT<po... ~ Iktw

"0 91 92

93 ~

~1I!l' '"fomul"'"

'is 110«<' ~ ,....... Wb. ne. ~ 11 •.• 11) '17 I•••• (2 )

'HI FOOl" "!\' i,-d a..,," and ..ha,...I. ..,," 9"1 In ...,., (II

100 1"

0"

II I

Gram ' .....'cw 201 Glo. " 11 9

If YO'J ARE NOT SURE WlliCH UNITS YOU NEEO TO STlJOY. USlTHE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 240


i\rP'",••h ~ 1

I'n . i

i\Pf'tnoJl ~

1\.0, .. 01""

2

i\Pf'tnoJ; ~

} i\Pf'<1'dI~ <4

rb form. 224 '" forms

225

tJ~otl'" ,.h~, pc<>pl.'h"'k or 1.. <'lI:~I~r ..... 1>s 21 1

wlu""", h~,.""d 116

"'~dy

Gu.... 2<40 10 E..",ion H l K'1' k> Addi ,i< ...al •• «<no:s ""'" II> Sludy Il~io.k 28 1 K~

J r><k~

.i

2711

282

If YOU ARE NOT SUAE WH ICH UNITS YOU NEED 10 STUOY USE T

STUOY GUll)( ON PAGE 2<40


Thanks

""I'

li,,,

by .....ny I""'rk In wril1ntt.I>< Nit"," al Ad"""c~d G,,,"'..... and , hn t mt1....~. ,"",II <,(,11 he-......., ,n ,h" II<'W nl"...... In "" 1..•• 1 ",'ou1<1 I,k. to and otu<k<lr- ,n 1M ,Iwlk J•.annt \.I.cu rt", . 1 C.m~ l: ' " . Pr.... and m,- ~oIlt.l': f~"" for Irwtrn.a""lal ",...1,.", Un" <Of l"nwn-o,.,- oI llorm'''ld>a . I

", V

l\I"tn ..·........k,.hk

for ,hn _ Nil ...... I h••• hnon """,,11y lucky on , uppon I h••• r""n~ from . "U"'..... oj kncw.lnjgnt>lo. proln.1olOlUl. and ~ pt<>plt•.'h rpe' h.ad Itu,drd "'. prot<Ct '0 .nnpWflllll w"h , .....u ..........rattrmnlt d VUI d,pkwTw.-,. Ako., c..m!>nd(tt t:",~ ,. rr....... I ..ould Llt.o rNnk Knry .\b~ ...n1, X.n' '>no<1 Taylor, Je'an Uud.on . and .... T (>rain of I'tftnno.-.. nu.mal .., .ad by ~, Olatkn, Fu E. . " :.lIon,.c..rmoru C.....,.., ~'ll..... Can... Parad, k " lu rd I.n Thnr ."Om"''''''' . iau.lu..ohk ,n http'....... loITYN.nddarif"h.. panotrlwbook. 'l'hanJ<•• I> '"I~.n Ma n ,n. R..... P""...~II 100 L.... S",,,h for .... I• •••".,,"'" and '0 " ....... On.1lJI for.h.nr "~,or. nn 'M fin,.h,N prod ....... I ,,·oul..l aho kk, 10 rlunl< Camb,idjlt l:n;.""",., ".... f...I""'·mll .... au:.... lo ,tot c...mbrid~. r.......... _ al Corru.. A o ~r n.l •• a.; " .he> u~ Ih. ~"• •.111''''' n. m. ,u~"o'" on bow '. ough, Imp.",,"', and.~ tu .. hftn ..ry u..iul ;o P'<f"""lt . hi, ~ ~ "ion- Th onk you for ... ,ng ,II. I>clOk .n.J ,. k,ng Ih. lroubk 10 ...."'. '0 m•.

vii


WIl" II>< h oo k i~ for

The b"ok i, io,<oJed fOT aJvao,~ "uJ nl" of but mighl al,o be u>eJ io d a" with a teach...

Eo~h,h ,

h i, wrifleo mdlnll' os a .d f-"",ly

b<~)k,

How the book i, orgaoised Ther e are 100 uoit, io the l><w,k . Each ooe I,w>ks at a pa" icul...... 01 ~ramm ... S""", ""tioos within each uo it fuc u, 00 the pa rticul" u>e ol a gcammarical pa" "'o, 'u,h os wi/I he + .ing (., in w,/lbe tr,,,,rlling ). O the" explore gcammarical cootra, t" , u, h as whet ....r 10 u'" would or used to to repo" past e.en", or wheo we u'" ex cept or e",ep t {or. The 100 uoit> are gro uped uoJ.,. a numbe r o f h. adlng., .uc h as Tm u. and The future, You ca n lioJ J eta il> 01 this in t.... COOleO" pag.e;" Each u" it o;<"" i" , of two pag... 0 0 t.... left haoJ pa~e a re cxplaoa""ns doJ example" 00 ,he right ar. practic'e rei..... The lene.. next to each e..rci", ,huw you which >e<.1 'oo, " f the left hand p a ~. l'OU n J TO understan d to do that exerei,.. The G rammar Rev,ew pre,. ots exampl.. anJ .. planalion, on are as of gramma r rhat you are likely to have "uJied alreadl' at earlier "a~ •• o f I.arning Engli' h, Altho,,!;h rerm. t<> de""ibe grammar have 1>«0 kept to a minimum "'m' h..e be.n ind oded, and y"U ca n lind expla"a, ion, of ,....... term, in the GI"'>ary. fou, Appemlie., tell you al>o ", pa", i....rb form, . b.,ie' '1u",ion form., '1u"",ion, and irregula r verb•. A oumber of AJditioo. 1Exereise••re i",-'Iuded f", fu" her pTaCliee of paTtieular atea,. You cao uS<' rlx- Study (;u ide f<> help you J " ide which uoit> 10 "udy .od which .re.. of grammar to revise io , .... Gcammar R..-iew. You cao ch"k your a",we" '0 ,.... prderi" e" re'..... Add"io ",,1 Exetc i",. and Study G o,J e in the l(ey. The l(ey ai,,, o;<>mmeots 00 ,,,,,,,, of , .... ao,wel"';. 1" ....Ip you lind the infor mati"" l'OU need the re i, an InJ ex at , he back "f the b,~>k, How to use the book

It "nOl n"e'-ary ,,, work thro ugh ,he uoi" in order. If you know what ~rammar I""nl> you have difficulty with, go ' tra' gh" o ,he unit>, hd' deal with Ihem, U'In~ ,he ('.oorent> <>T Index 10 help you lind the reieva", unit. If yo u th iok that it wou ld be u,efu l,o rev,,~ more basi. info,mat io" bef" .. you read , h. ref...nce material in a unit anJ J o th~ exere'i,.., man ~' units hHe links ar rhe I>onom o f the , eferro",e page poiOling you ", Ihe ,ec,ion " f rhe Gramma r R<1iiew where l'OU can lind Ihi,. In ,,,me units you will al", lind links I" the Gramma r Rniew in the expl.na,i"n,; for eumple ' I"" GR :TIl r. y"u edn u>< , he uoi" 10 a number of W'y' , You migitl >rudy rite explanation aold . xamples Ii",. d" ,he e" ete"'" <>n ,he opl""i re p.~e, check yo ur a o,we" ,n , he key, .nd Ihen I(~ )k .gain at rhe .-planation, if you made .ny mi. ,ak",. [I you IU" w.nr f<> pracri", dn drea 01 gram mar you think yo u alreaJy know, yo u could do the exerei",. li" , .nd , hen "udy the e"pla od" on, lor any you got wrong , You mighl of " )Ill'" ,i mpll' use the I>ook as. reference b<~)k w"hout J oing rhe exetci.., .

Vtll


To the teacher AJ,'~ naJ

G,,,m,,,,,, m Uu ..... "'flUrn." ~1f·.(uJy gramma' b"o k bu. ,.ach...., mijl,hl .lso §nd """"lul l,,, .upplcmcn""II 'ot '''1'1'''"'''1\ ,fltLr d ."mom lu.:hing. T~ t..~,k

w,lI proNhly II< m..... ......h.1 1m • .1'0",10<1 10,,1 « ".len" In. rtfn.n"" and pro"-.",,,. Gra mma' Rn lCW "". ...1. , n., b. d , "I ,,,," l><...k ... ....!e ren q-.on ly <ttIi"" which p''''''''IS boo.." kno wkJl';< on' nurn"', of " f lI.ammar. Th i. w,lI he "",lui foo- ...U<lcn.. wi.h '0 .""'... a p.rtKuLa • • ~. boot,,« mov,,,,,,,," to 1M mon .J•• ncN mo,...,.I," ,he umn. S o .tt<mp( h• • """" m.<k to n.ok< ,Il< un," d,n~ to " .. tl of J,fh.ully. I" ..... J rou should ..Ira uni.... ,..." • ..., ",It..", 10 ,hr .,lld.... , hal you .r. foll...... i"ll ",j<1> ,our "'OOent" 0' " panicul•• diffiwltin ..i,... ~

.n.,

wno

."c...

llnt- .... mo."y way. in whl<h y"" m'llhl ..... tho hook .. "h . d;..... You might, 10. cumplt. ~ llor UpbnollOl'1' on tho Ion h.and p_ 01. unll, and the u."'i.... for d .."",,,,,m pr~ or .ct . hom .. m...... 1 for ...-11 '''00,. Ah n.U1~ly. you mogl" W3n' fO hc&an w,. h,~ ......,.... 3nd rd.... fO'~ Jef. h.anol P"1lit onl y w .....J..n.. art' ha~,nr; probkm... You <:oukl also .... p.>nk.",lar un•• or IVOUpo of un'" (, ,,,,h u ,,,,- on "met... or"fbr {tI,...... for ... If... udy if onoli.. .J....I .. uolm'. art' h.aw"'!t olli~"'lIion..

.......,.,.1."....

n.r... .. a ... ci ...deL,....... J h .... ,~ ............ of whor;h can boe .,....J 10 p..md., p...ai<.... of lVatnm..:lt poont< frum a numhtr <Ii ol.ttcnn< "".... '" ·d~ ...l,,,,,,,. 0/ Ad""""N G,..-". '" V... .. al... awalla...... I. hn no kty and ........ l.....n.n ~ I'kk< '0 ""'" If wlIb ,~" .....1m...

Advaoced E"9Ii~ Grammar in U!>(' Srtond Edition 1/ you h.an al",aoly """,.I ,~ fiN ...l,n" n ci Ad.",,,,,,,, G,..", " .. V you..-in ott..,..,. .... 10< d'la~ In , h.. """ ...lm"". Thor """'" N.oc ...u 0/ lVa r ha Mn ....,....l oul 01,,,, ...,n 10'0 a ...,ir........, ,"",,"'" .. ,boe ~k , caill ol, ~ G ramma, R..v "'I 01 tho rtfco<noor J'IliIn h.a~ br..n .1, _ ,ub.ran"ally. anol so """ """. h.a"" bttn aoIJN. .. t"" of II.. .. ~' po.j\n h.a~ ...."'<'Iy """ .....rei Of many """ q~oon..

I'"

Thor hook is "","' a.a' Lobl< .."b or wir....... ' CD-RO M. On , '" CO· RO.. t you " ';0 find '""'" ..-...,..... on d of ,'" unol. lol,1tnC'nr iron> ,,,,- ,n hook ). -0......, a..., aka hundf'C'<h, oI'nI '1...... ion .. and ,.... un ma.... y<>Uf ..... n ,nil. Thor CO-RO M can aka bt b<>ut;hr ><p.>rardy.


I


Advanced Grammar in Use


Grammar review Here is a summary o f common patterns to gether wit h exam ples o f verbs that are used in thi s pattern. Note t hat man y verbs can be used in severa l different patterns, and that so me o f the verbs given can be used just with an object, and may also be used int ransitively (e.g. He failed to sto p, He failed the test, He failed).

F4 o T hey won't agree to pay for the dam age. Verb + to-infinitive

agree. aim. ask, decline, dema nd, fail, hesitate, hope , hurry, mana ge, offer, plan , prepa re, refuse, want, wish

F5 o Stevens admitted stealing t he wallet. Verb + -ing

ad mit, avoid, cons ider, delay, deny, detest, dread, envisage, feel like. fi nish, imagine, miss, recall, resent , risk, suggest

F.

0 Befor e we began eating/to eat my father th anke d

everyone fo r co ming. Verb + to-infinitive or -ing with little d ifference in mea ning

begin, cease, continue, start

F7

0 She came hurrying up the path to bring us the news.

F8

0 How did you come to bu y the car?

Verb + ro-infinirivc or -ing but co me, go on, mean. regret, remember, stop, try with a difference in meaning

F. o My parents wou ldn't allow me to go to the part y. Verb + object + to-infinitive (= there must be an o bject)

a llo w, believe, cau se, co mmand, co nsider, enable, encourage, ent itle, force, invite, order, persuad e, show, teac h, tell, warn FlO 0 I woul d hate (her) to give the job up.

Verb + (object) + to-infinitive (= there may be an object )

hate, help , like. love, need, prefer, want, wish,

F11 o T he police caught him driving without a licence. Verb + object + -ing (= there must be an ob ject )

catch, discove r, feel, find, hear, leave, notice, ob serve, overhea r, see, spot F12 0 I can't stand (him ) wearing a suit.

Verb + (object ) + -ing (= t here may be an ob ject)

can't stand, detest, d islike, dread. envisage, hate , imagine, like, love. mind (in questions and negatives), miss, reca ll, regret, remem ber, resen t, risk, start, stop F1 3 0 She felt the m osquito bite/biting her.

Verb + object + bare infinitive or -ing, but t here is sometimes a d ifference .In meaning .

208

feel, hear, notic e, ob serve. overhear, see, watch


act ive In a n act ive clause or act ive sentence, the grammatical sub ject is the person or thi ng t hat performs the action given in the ver b (e.g. Geoff wrote the book ). Com pa re PASSIVE. adject ive A wo rd that describes a noun te.g. a n interesting book) o r a pro no un (e.g. a red on e). G radable adjectives ca n be used to say t hat a person or th ing has more or less of t his quality Ie.g. She's very happy ), wh ile non-gradable ad jectives can't (e.g. It's impossible, We can't say ' It's very impossible' ). Classifying adjectives say t hat something is of a pa rticular type (e.g. atomic. initial) . Emphasisi ng adjectives stress how strongly we feel about something (e.g. complete nonsense}. Q ualita tive ad jectives say wha t qualities a person or thing has (e.g. big, rich ). See also grad ing ADVERR'j and no n-grading ADVER flS.

adjective phrase A group of words where the main word is an adjective (e.g. it's extremely important; it wasn't strong enough ). adverb A wo rd that describes or gives more information (when, how, where. erc. l a bo ut a verb (e.g. He ran quickly ), adjective Ie.g. a n extremely expensive ca rl. another adve rb (e.g. She did it llery easily). or phrase (e.g. Th ey live ;ust across the road. ). Types of adver b inclu de : adve rbs o f ma nn er (e.g. slowly, violently) which we use to say how something is do ne; con nect ing adverbs Ie.g. consequently, sim ildrly ); time adverb s (e.g. tomorrow, ,llrtady); place adverbs (e.g. upstairs, olltside); direct ion adverbs (e.g. backwards , tl1fough ); com ment adve rbs (e.g. apparently, personally ) w hic h we use to ma ke a comment on what we a re saying; view point ad verbs (e.g. financially, politically ) w hich we use to make clea r fro m what point of view we a re spea king; a d verbs of ind efinite freq uen cy (e.g. always, nel'l'r); degree adverbs (e.g. completely, quite ) wh ich give info rmat ion a bo ut t he exte nt or deg ree o f so met hing; focus adverbs (e.g. ;ust, el'en) which we use to focu s o n a pa rt icula r word o r ph rase. G radi ng adverbs (e.g. ex tremely, l'ery) a re used w it h gradable ADJf.C11Vf.S. Non-grading adve rbs (e.g. com pletely, mainly ) a re used with non-gradablc ADJECTIVf.S. adverbia l A word or gro up of words t hat says whe n, how, w here, etc. somethi ng ha ppens. They ma y consist of a n ADVERB Ie.g. quietly), a I' RU 路OSITlO NAI. PHRASE (e.g. thr ough the door), a NOUN PIIRAS E (e.g. next we ek ), or a n AOVf.RIIlAI. Cl. AlN:. (e.g. after Silt! left ). adverbia l clau se A type of subordi na te Cl.AUSf. tha t says when. how, w here, etc. so methi ng ha ppens (e.g. Before I went to school this morning, I did my hom ework ). affirmative se nte nce A state ment (i.e. no t a quest ion) tha t is positive. not negative. agent The person or thing that performs the action described in a verb. Usually it is the sub ject in a n active clause a nd co mes after 路 hy...' in a passive clau se. arti cle The word the is the definite a rticle a nd the word a (an before vu w els ] is the indefinite arti cle. Wh en there is no article before a noun we refe r to this as the zero article. auxiliary verbs The verbs be, have and do when the)' a re used with a main verb to fo rm questions. nega tives, tenses, passive forms, etc. MOD Al. VF.RB\ are also auxiliary verbs.

219


Glossary clau se A gro up of words that conta ins a verb. A cla use ma y be a com plete sentence or a pa rt o f a sentence. A main cla use can exist as a sepa ra te sente nce, w hile a subordina te cla use ca nnot (e.g. If I see Ton)' at wor k [= sub ord ina te cla use], I'll invite him over this evening 1= main clau se /). Types o f cla use include: since-cla use (e.g. I ha ven't seen him since we left schoo l); th at-clau se (e.g. She sa id that she was thirsty ); wh-claus e (e.g. I asked Sand ra where she was going). it-clau se (e.g. It 's not surprising tha t you ' re feelin g co ld ); w hat-clause (e.g. What I want to do is buy a bett er co mpute r); if-clau se (e.g. If you leave now , you'll be home by 10.00); whether-clause (e.g. You have to ta ke the exam whether you want to or not ); to-infinitive clau se (e.g. To become a docto r ta kes yea rs of st udy ); present parti ciple H ng) clau se (e.g. Feeling hungry, I we nt into t he kitch en ); past pa rticiple f-ed ] clau se (e.g. Built during the 1950s, t he buildin g is now in need of repair ); bein g + past participle (-cd ) cla use (e.g. Being unem ployed, To m had a lot of t ime on his ha nds); ha ving + pa st parti cip le (-ed) clau se (e.g. Having seen the do cto r, I went stra ight ho me). See also CO N D1110 N AL CLAUSE, NO :-.l-FINITE CLAUSE, RELATIVE C LAUSE,

cleft se ntence A sentence in w hich focus is given to eit her the subject or ob ject using a pattern beginn ing 'It...' [e.g. It was my bro ther who lent me the money) or ' Wha t...' (e.g. Wh at you need is a ho lida y). compleme nt A word or phrase th at fo llows a LIS KING VERB and desc ribes the SUBJECT (e.g. Lind a is a lawyer) or OBJECT (e .g . I found the food inedible ). A compleme nt ma y also be an ADVERBIAL or PREPOSm ONAL PH RASE wh ich com pletes the mea ning of a verb. Some ve rbs need a com pleme nt (e.g. T he disease o riginated in Britain; 'T he disease ori ginated ' would be inco mplete). compound A co mpo un d noun consi sts of two o r more words toge t her used as a noun (e.g. a language schoo l). A compound ad jective con sists o f two o r more words togeth er used as a n adjec tive (e.g. Th ey were we/lbehaveds, co ndit iona l A co ndit ional clau se usua lly starts w ith 'if', but other pa tterns a re possible (e.g. Had it not rained, England wo uld ha ve won ). A co nditional sentence contains a co nd itional clause. A d istinct ion ca n be made bet ween real co ndit ionals, w hic h suggest that th e sit ua tion is or was t rue, or ma y have been or ma y beco me tr ue (e.g. If she ma kes a promise, she keeps it ) and unr eal co nditio na ls, w hich suggest t ha t the sit ua tion is imaginary or unt rue (e.g. If yo u had asked me, I wo uld ha ve helped ). conj unction A wo rd such as and , but, if, while, after, because wh ich con nects words, phr ases, o r cla uses in a sentence. Co mpa re SENTENCE CONNECTO R. counta ble A countable noun ca n be both singula r an d plural (e.g . cuplcltps ). An uncounta ble nou n doesn't have a plural form (e.g. electricity, but not 'electr icities' ). decla rativ e se ntence A decla rati ve sente nce is a sta tement. In a decla rati ve sente nce the subject is followed by the verb. det e rm iner A word tha t goe s in front of a no un to ident ify w ha t the noun refers to (e.g. this, some, the, a/an, each, all, my ). Possessive determine rs (also called po ssessive adjectives) a re words such as my, your a nd their. direct speec h Speec h tha t is w ritt en using the exact word s of the spea ker, without an y change s. Compa re SPF.E.CII.

220

REPORTE D


Gloss a ry dynam ic ver b A verb tha t describes an act ion (e.g . walk, throw ). Com pa re STATE VERB. impera tive An impera tive clau se uses the bar e 1~ F1NmVE for m o f a ver b fo r such things as giving o rde rs a nd making suggest ions (e.g. Go 10 bedt s. infin itive The form o f a verb t hat usually goes after 'ro' , The form can be eithe r the to-infinitive (e.g. to sing, to eat ) or the bare infinitive Ie.g. sing, eat ). intransitive verb A verb that doesn 't ta ke a n obj ect (e.g. She sm iled ). Compare TRAl"SmVE \'E RB. invers ion Changing t he usual wo rd o rder

\0

tha t the verb comes before the subject (e.g. Up wenl the balloon ).

linking verb A verb (e.g. be, become. appear ) that con nects a

SUBJECT

with its

CO,\ I Pl. I::M U.'T.

moda l ve rbs A grou p of verbs (can. could, dare, may, might. must, need, ought to. shall, should , will, would. uSt'd to ) t hat give info rmation a bo ut such things as poss ibility, necessity, an d obligation. Semi-modal verb s (ought to, used to, need, dare. had better. bare (got ) to, be able to ) have similar mea nings to moda l verbs. non- affirm ative Referring to a lack of pos itive, affirmat ive mea ning; for example, in most q uestions a nd nega tives. However, quest ions which expect a pos itive re ply a re affirmative. Th e term s ' no n-asse rtive ' and 'asse rtive ' a re so metimes used fo r ' no n-af firma tive ' a nd 'a ffirma tive ' .

non - finit e clau se A cla use w ith a non -finite VERB; either a to- infinitive form (e.g . I wa nt to leave soon ), a n -ing (present participle) form (e.g. I caught him stealing my camera), or -ed (past pa rt iciple) form (e.g. We clea red up the mess feft after the IJarty ). noun A word that refers to a perso n, place, t hing, qua lity, etc. A collective nou n refe rs to a gro up of people or things (c.g. aud ience, crowd , herd). See also COUNTABI.E NOUN. noun phr ase A group of words where the mai n wo rd is a noun (e.g. I've been talking to the woman across the road; We spoke to several small children ). object The direct object is the pers on o r th ing affec ted by the act ion of the verb (e.g. I put the 1w ok [= direct ob ject ) back on [he shelf) . T he indirect ob ject is the person or th ing who benefits fro m the actio n or who receives something (e.g. I ga ve my mother [= ind irect ob ject ] some flowe rs [= direct ob jecrj}. Compa re SUBJ ECT. participle Th e present part iciple is the -ing fo rm of a verb te.g. walking, singing, eating ) used. for exam ple. in continuous tenses. Th e past partic ip le is the -ed form of a verb (e.g. walked, SJng, eatm ) used. fo r exa mple. in perfect tenses. A participl e ad jecti ve is one formed fro m the present or past pa rticiple of a verb (e.g. the ca ndidates dppl ying, a brok en plate). A participle clause has a present participle o r past pa rticiple verb form (e.g. Feeling unu'ell, he went to bed; The person appointed to the post wi ll have a difficul t job to do).

22 1


Glossa ry parti cle An adverb or preposition tha t follows a verb in TWO - WORD VERBS and T IIR EE-WO RD VERBS {e.g. What time d id yo u get in? [in =ad verb]; I flicked through the magazine [t hro ugh =preposition]; She looks up to her mother (up =ad verb, to =preposirionj]. passive In a pass ive clause or passive sentence, the grammatica l subjecr is the perso n or thing tha t experiences th e effect of the action given in the verb (e.g. T he book was written by Geoff). Compare AcnVE. performative A performative is a verb whic h states the action that is performed when a speaker uses the verb (e.g. I promise I' ll do it to morro w; I apologise ). phrasal verb A verb together with a follo wing ad verb and/or a preposition that has a single mean ing (e.g. set off. look up to ). Compare ' I ran across Tanya at the co ncert' (= met unexpectedl y; a phrasal verb) an d 'She ran across the road' (= a PREPOSITIO NAL VERB). possessive Th e possessive form of a noun ends in either -'s Ie.g. Mark 's car ) or -s' (e.g. the girls' changing roo m). preposition A wo rd such as in, on, or lJy t hat co mes befo re a noun, pronoun, noun phrase or -ing form (e.g. in M arch, above my uncle's head, by investing ). prepositional phrase A gro up of words that con sists of a PREPOSITIO N an d its pr epositional object (a nou n, pro noun, noun phrase o r -ing form ) (e.g. behind our house, across it ). preposit ional verb A verb an d a following preposition (e.g. believe in, consist of, look after). Co mpare

PII RASAL VERB.

pronoun A word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Prono uns inclu de personal pronouns (e.g. I , she, me ), reflexive pronouns (e.g. myself, herself), possessive pronoun s (e.g. my, mine, your , yOllrs), an d REI.ATIVE PRO NOUNS (e.g. wh o, which ). quantifier A word or phrase t hat goes befo re a noun or noun phrase to ta lk abo ut the qua ntity of something [e.g. a little water, man y of the women in the room ). question A wh-qu esrion begins with a WH -WOR D (c.g. Where are you going?). A yes/ no questio n is one that can be answered with 'yes' or 'no' (e.g. Do )'ou like coffee?). An echo que stion repeats part of a previous utterance and asks for a repetition of all or part of it (e.g. ' I' m moving to Alaska .' ' You 're moving where?' ). We can ask an indirect question by putti ng it int o a subordinate CLAUSE beginning with a WH-WORD o r with if or whether (e.g. Can yo u tell me where you live?). relat ive clause A kind of subordinate C1.AUSF. that describes a no un tha t co mes before it in a ma in CLAUSE. A defining relative clause says which person o r th ing is being talked a bout (e.g. A friend who lilies in London is getting mar ried ). A non-defi ning relative clause gives more information abo ut the noun (e.g. M y bicycle, whi ch I've left outside your house, is over 20 years old). A nom inal relative clause begins with a WH -WORD or whatever, when ever, etc. an d functions as a NOUN PHRASE in a sentence (e.g. What 1 need now is a long, hot bat h). A reduced relative clause usually begins with an -ing (present parti ciple) or -ed (past participle) form and has a similar meani ng to a relative clause (e.g. I mer the peop le living in ou r old hou se 1= ...who live in our old hou se], T he new rules on ly affect peopl e born before 1950 [= ...who were born befor e 1950 ]).

222


Glossary relative pronoun A pronoun such as who, wh ich, or that which is used at t he begin ning o f a relative clau se. relative word Words including

RELATIVE PRO NO UNS

and ot hers (e.g. whereby, wh y ) that ca n begin a

RELAllV E CLAU,S L

reported speec h Speech tha t is reported wit hout using the exact wo rds of the speaker. Sometimes called ' ind irect speech'. reporti ng clause Et repo rted clause A statement that reports wha t people think or say is oft en div ided into a reporting clause and a reported clause (e.g. She said 1= reporting clause] that the building was unsafe [= reported clause j). reporting verb A verb used in a

REPO RTING ctAUSE

th at describes what people say or think (e.g. ask, claim, say).

sentence connector A word or phrase th at shows a connection between two separate sente nces (e.g. M y car isn't very comforta ble. Hoioeoer, it's very cheap to ru n.: T he house is large and has a beaut iful ga rden. What 's more, it's very close to the srano n.). Compare CONJUN CTION. simple sentence A sentence co nsisting of one clause. state verb A verb tha t is used to describe a state (e.g. believe, think ) ra ther tha n an action. Co mpare

DYNAMIC

VERB.

subject The persoll or th ing that docs the action o f the verb [e.g. Tom my went hom e). Compa re

O BJ ECr.

subjunctive T he subjunctive is a set o f verb for ms used ma inly in ra ther formal English to talk about possibilities rather than facts. Th e present subjunct ive uses the base form of t he verb (e.g. We suggest tha t she leave immediately) an d the past subjunctive uses were (e.g. If I were you, I'd go home now). tran sitive verb A verb that takes an object (e.g. She was holding a bunch of flowers). Compare

!!"'frn ANSm VF. VERB.

t wo- word verbs Et three-word verbs Verbs tha t are co mmonly used with a particular PARTICLE (adverb or preposition ) are referred to here as two-wor d verbs (e.g. She look ed afte r her elde rly parents). Verbs that are co mmonl y used with two particular particles (adver b + prepo sition ) are referred to here as three-word verb s Ie.g. He luuk ed up to his older brothers). See also I' REPOSITIO NAI. VERB and PHRASAL VERB. verb A finite verb has a tense (e.g. She waited; She is waiting for y o u'. N on-finite verb form s arc INFlNmVE (e.g. He came to see me) and PA RTIClPI.E for ms (e.g. Shout ing loudly, I was able to mak e myself hea rd; Built in 1980, the tower is still the tal lest const ruction in Europe). verb phrase A group o f word s co nsisting of une or more verbs (e.g. gives, is giving, has been giving ). wh-wo rds A group of wo rds (who, wh om , wh ose, where, when, wh y, how ) that a re used in

Wh - QUESTIO NS.

223


Index A

ala n, the, and zero article ~( ncra hsati tlns about da~..n of Ih inl':s 90 geogra phical area s 90 holida ys, seasons, da ys o f the

.....eek, and f~tiV3 ls 94 io hs/joh lit b 91 mean s o f tr an sport and com mcnica uon 94 n,l m ("l of people 92 nouns both cou ntable and ullI;ounlab l(' 90 ~alnJIrd;ucd words

joinnl by

pr eposition 94 spn:ific I 'ffSU S gene ral 94 with s upe rlative aJ ja."'ti,"("l 92 wilh there + M 190 t hin~

that are ueiq ce 90 this, in srones and ink" 92 ti~ of day a nd nil4h1 94 alan and o ne ahhrrvial ion s 88 in numhc-r/q u3mil y

C'x pr~Si(HlS

8H o ne •••olhcr/ ano lhcr pattern 8S pa nkular. hUI unspecified pc-l'w nl,hinw'evC'OI 88 with p""''oC'!Osivcs 811 before singuJ.u co unta ble no uns 8H before ..... wchlcon«lm3nr S 88 abb reviations 1111 ahilify he able 10 30

ca n/co uld 30,34,204.105 acade mic wrilinlt few and lill ie 104 may 34 much (of). many (uf) 100 preJlt" ilion al phra ses 114 such th.n, ltl introd uce ,I result

' 62

282

act ive (1'1"$ 11$ pa ssi ve ) fo rm s 44, 46,48, 2 19, 224 aJ Ji n!\ information conjuncrion v 174 noun phr;lSl:s 1 12,1 14 prepositional phrase'> 114 senrence con necrors 174 ad jectives and ad verbs, usc o f 142. 2 16 J ctlnilio n of 2 19 easily confused 2 16 gradahle and non-grada ble 134 borh senses 136 d ass il),ing ad Jn :t is'n 136 diffe ren t senses 136 good andllovdy and/nice and ... + grada ble ad jective 136 gra mm3r review 2 16 more an d mo re + ad jectiv e 136 nat ionality a din;tiv~ 136 q u.!lira tive adjectives 136 p.:I ttt' ms 3fter linki ng ver bs

ad jective + -ingl lhat1:lausd lo-inflnilivdwh1:la usc 140 il + linking verb + ad iect ive (+ toinfinitive) 140 il + mak e + adjcaive (+ toinflnirivd -ingl tha H lause) 140 position o f addinonal exe rcise 238 hefu relafter nou n 132 class ifying ad jecnves 132 em phasis ing adjectives 132 grammar review 2 16 with linking verbs 132 qualiearive ad jectives 132 red uced relative cla uses 132 stu dy guide 248-49 types of 2 t 9 ~ also compa rative fo rm s; compound ad jecrives, pa n id pk adjectives; supe rlative fo rms adve rbial clauses addit ion.al exe rcise 138 con tra st s 164 defininon o f 2 19 st udy guide 250 len ses in 21 7 o f time 158 adverbial ph ra ses, as com plemen t

22. adverbials adverb as 2 19 adverbial clause as 2 19 dt'finit inn tlf 2 19 inve rsion afte r neg ative 200 no un phrase as 2 19 participle clauses 116, 118 prepositional phrase as 2 19 adverbs a nd adjectives, use of 2 16 de finition of 219 formation of 142 participle adjecti ves in -ed, ad ve rbia l fo rm of 142 panicles 222 ph rasal verbs 222 position of add itiona l ex ercise 238 aft er objec t 148 com ment adv erbs 150. 156 connecting adverbs 150 degree adve rbs 150, 154 foc us adverbs 154 frequency ad ver bs 148. I SO, 152 lo ng ad verh ials 1411 and meaning 148 more tha n o ne ad,'crhial 148 o rder of events 150 pla ce an d direction adverbs 150.

152 time ad verbs 150 ,1 52 viewpo int adverbs 150 pre posinooal phu,ses. ad verh ial usc o f 142 stud )' guide 2 48 -49 ty pes o f 2 19

with and with out -ly 142

see ,,1$0 com para tive fo rms; supe rlative forms ad vice 40, 78 a f!irmalive semences 2 19. 22 1 agem 2 1'J Yr oJl$o passive forms agreernen r, suh ject and verb d.1 usc. as sub jC\.1: 80 co-ordinated nuun v phrases. as su bject 112 collective noun s 80 com plex subject 80 tktermi llCTS 82 how lha cb"'heft + belhave 82 items joined by (either) ••. o r or (neithal .•• no r 82 mc:.asurcmcnl1am< lU nl/ tt u:.a nril)', wit h s i n~uJa r verb 84 nameVlitks ending in ~ 110 no uns end ing in ·s 84 suh j«t, posiliun of 80 IhCTe + bclhave 82 whar -cla uce, ;u suhiC\.'t 80 :.all (00 . whole, every, each time ex pressions 102 " 'ho lcJrn lirt , hefort no uns 102 amt lllMan d between 1711 amounts 104 :.a ny su som e and :.any apost rn phl". fnr p<lSsessivcs 2 10 a n icks additional e xercise 235-36 dl·finili" n Ilf 2 19 gramm a r review 2 11 stu dy guide 245-46 see also al an, the, and aero arti cle a ux iliary ver bs 2 19 in inversion l 'JlI l ea \' in ~ words ou t afte r 128 he as ma in verb ill previous cla use/sente nce 1211 have as ;l\l xiliary + don e 1211 moda l au xilia ry + dulbc 128 more tha n one au xiliar y 128 no a uxiliar y 1211 su bstit ute do 1211 negative quest io11s 54, 207 sun..tilute sO an d no r 12 4 see oJlso mod;, l verbs

B hare in!initive 22 1 b..-i nM+ pasl parti ciple cla use 220 bet ween and among 178

C ca n ~ ah ihty ; perrmssion; pos si"ilily cha nge, prO(~s o f 42 ' choos ing' verbs. 611 dnsifying adjectives 132. 134 , 136, 21 ,} da usn de finilion o f 220


Index srudy guide 247 types o f 220 cleft sente nces 196, 220 clima te 90 collective nouns 1\0, 22 [ colon 174, 226 colour ad jectives 122 co mma 226 co mment adverbs 150, 156 , 219 comp ara tive fm ms 2 17 ad jectives with corn parn nve/ super lat ive meaning 144 com pa ra tive adjec tives, linking with ao.\ 136 mo re + o ne-syllable adject ive 144 more/l ess + rwo-syllahle ad jectives 144

on e-syllable ad jectives an d adverbs + -er 144 phrases and cla uses as + adjecti ve + alan + nou n 146 as + adjective/ad verb as 146 go so/as far as + to-infinitive 146 Il:SS + adjective + tha n 146 as liul d few as 146 as m uch/many as 146 nnr + ad jccrivc/ ad vcrb + eno ugh + to -infinitive 146 so + adjective/ad verb + as + tointini rive 146 so + ad jl"(.1:ivel advl.'rb + thatclause 146 sufficiently + adjective 146 too + ad jective + alan + no uo 146 100 + ad jective/ adverb + tointinirivc 146 see also few, little, less, and fewer com plaining 12

complcmcur aJ verbial phrases as 220 definition of 220 and linki ng verbs 42, 220, 221 and object 22 0 prep<Jsitiona l phrase as 220 and subjec t 220 transitive/intransitive verbs 56 see <115" verb compleme nta tion compo und adjectives 138, 220 compo und no uns counta ble compo und nou ns 1\6 de finition of 220 gra mma r review 21 0 hyphen ated phrases, be fore noun s

86 nn un + nou o 1\6 no un + preposition + nou n 1\6 on e wo rd, sepa ra te wo rds, hyphenated 210 plural forms !i6 posses sive form s !i6 two- an d three-word verbs, nouns related to 86 conclusi ons, dr awing grammar review 205-6 must 36, 74

prlosc nt perfect co ntinuous/preMont perfect 12 will/would 32 condi nonal clauses definition of 220 real and un real cond itio ns 2 17- 1S,220 real conditionals, tenses in 20, 166, 16S, 172 , 21 8 unreal co ndi t ionals, tenses in 166, 170, 172 , 21 8 co nd itiona l se n tences 22 0 conjunctions 174 sentence connecto rs 174 conjunctions additiona l exe rcise 23 8-9 con ditions 174 ddini tion o f 22 0 no un phrases, adding info rm at io n to I 12 reasons and resu lts 174 study guid e 250 timc 174 ,2 17 connecting adverbs 150, 2 19 conrrasriug alt hou gh, though, while and whils t, with particip le clauses 164 although and thou gh 164 conju nctio ns 174 even tho ugh and even if 164 senre ncc connec tors 174 in spill' o f the fael tha t 164 wh ile/ whereas 164 while/ whilsl 164 could sec a bility; pe rm ission; possibility; rqlurting; unrea l past 'ountabldun'o unta ble noun s definiti on of 220 gene ralisat ions ab out classes of things 90 grammar review 209 with therc + be 190 sec also alan, the, and zero a rticle; alan an a n ne; agreement, subject a nd verb; all (of), whole, every, ea ch; few, linle , less, an d fewer; mu ch (o f), many (o f), a 101 of, lots (o f); o n e and o nes; SOOle and any cr uic ising 12 might/ could + have + paSI parlkiple 34 negative ques tions 54, 207 wilVwo uld , usc o f 32

u dash (-) 174 days o f the w ee k 94 dec lara tive sen te nces 220 defining rela tive clauses 222 see <llso relative clauses detinue article 2 19 set'also a/ au, the, a nd zero article degree adver bs 2 I 9 m uch, very m uch 154 wi th owing 10 160 posi lio n of 150, 154

very, 100 154 determine rs 220 gr ammar review 2 11-12 study guid e 24 5-46 direct obj ect SR,22 1 see also comple me n t; oh jC(t; rra nsinv e/in rra nsinv c verbs; verb com pleme nrarion dire ct speech 220 direction ad verbs 150, 152, 19R, 2 19 d isapp ro val 168 'dislikingt verbs 60 dista nce 104 du, afte r negativ e adv erbinls 20 0 sec also auxiliary ve rbs; substitution d ynamic ver bs 22 1 E -cd cla u ses see past part iciple

each see all (of), whole, every, eac h echo q uestions 54,222 em phasising ad jectives 132, 2 19 every sn' all (of), who le, every , each exceptions 182 excla ma tion ma rk 226 cxpccrurions 40

p festiva ls 94 few, little, koss, and few er (a) few, (a) little, ;15 pronou ns 1114 the few , the lin k + noun, as 'nor enough ' [04 few + person al prono uns 104 few and little, as informal alternatives 104 less (th'ln) and fewer (Ihan) 104 a little, as informal ale-m auv e 104 what few/w hat lirrlc, as ' rhe sma ll (num b...r/a mount )' I G4 fewer see few, lillie , less, and fewer finite verbs 223 focu s adverbs 154 , 2 19 fo,usiug fro nti ng, fo r emp has is 198 it-cla uses 196 wh-cla uscc 196 w ha r-clnuses I ~6 frequency ad ver bs wit h ha ve 10 36 indefirure frequency 2 19 pasl conti nuous with 4 posit io n of 14S, ISO, 152 present connnuous wi th 4 fuJI stop 226 futur e continuous arranged even ts/activities 22 grammar review 204 imagining what is hap pening around no w 22 pa rtic ular po int in futu re, relat ing sta rt o f event to 22 repeatcdlr egula r events 22 willin gness, avo idin g 22

283


Index future events addi tiona l exercise 23 I he abou t to + infinitive 24, 26 he goin g In + infinitive 20, 166, 203 be to + mfinuive 24 co mmo n phrases fo r ta lking about 16 gramma r review 20 3-4 past a nd present co ntinuo us for intent io n II p ossibility, can/ co uld 30 present conti nuous for 20 gra mmar review 20 4 info rmal arran gement s 22 present sim ple fo r co ndino na l clauses 20 fixed events 20 gra mm ar rev iew 20 3 if¡ cla uses 24 supposc/s upposjng/w har if ...

20 rime clause s 20 rea l co nditio na ls 166 seen f W IIl t he past be supp osed 10 2 8 inte nt io ns 26 re porting 28 wa s/ were to + infinitive 211 wa s/w ere to have + past particip le 28 shall/shan'r ucrsus will/won'! 26 stu d}' guide 24 1 verbs + tu-infinirive, for intenti ons

26 will + infinitiv e 203 will and be go ing ro 18, 20 futu re perfect and futu re pe rfect co ntin uo us 22 passive fnrm 22 4 future sim ple 22 4

172 possihiliries, talki ng a bou t 172 repo rt ing yes/ no questions 64 hd ore to-in finitiv e 171 wheth er ... or not 171 if-clauses 120 afte r wou ld/wo uld like lJO futu re events 24 inve rsio n instead nf 19K sho uld, were, had, and o mission of if 168 without mai n clauses 168 see also co nd it iona l clauses imagina ry sit uations 31, 1 18 impe rative clauses 42, 166, 1 2 1 indefinite a rt icle 1 19 see ateo alan, the, and zero article indirec t obje ct 58, 11 1 see <1150 o bject; verb

complementation indirect questio ns 22 2 see <llso reportin g indirec r speech 113 see IllsfJ reporting in tinirive for ms 11 1 inst rucrion s 24 , 166, 196 gra mma r review 1 04-5 if-clau ses, without ma in clauses

'68

intent io ns 26, 7H inrcrru pred past actions/events 8 int rans itive ver bs see rransirive/in rmnsinve verbs introducing new mpic 196 IIIV CrSIO n additio nal exe rcise 139 adve rbs u f direc tion of moveme nt

'"

G gene ralisations 90 geog ra phical areas 90 glossary 2 19-23 going 10 see will and be goin g 10 grada blc adjecnves 1.14, lJ6, 2 16, 219 gr ading ad verhs IJ 4,2 19

H have (got) 10 36, 205 -6 having + past particip le (-cd) cla use 62, 116, 220 hol idays 94 however 174

a fter negative adv erbials 200 a fter neither and nor 20 0 a fter lime adve rbs 151 fro m ing, for em phas is 19H with here co mes, there g ill 'S 19H instea d of if-clau ses 198 with so + ad jective 1 00 with suc h + be, for emphasis of extent/ degree 200 with as and th a n, in com par isons

'9"

o f verb and subjec t 21 1 irregu la r verbs 117-18

284

'92

it-clauses 4 8, 196, 1 20

J

jo hs/jo h t ides 92

L less St'e few, little, I ~s, an d fewer lin king veri'S adjective patterns with UH, 140, 16' beco me and get 41 ' bec oming'verbs 42 'bei ng'verhs 42 a nd complem ent 42, 11 0, 1 21 go and ru m 41 'sITming' verbs 42 stu dy guide 242-43 supe rl.lIives 144 little see few, lin k , less, a nd few er M

ma in clauses definition o f 22ll and relative clau se 11 2 ma nne r; ad verbs o f 148, 2 19 ma y see possibility might see possibility; un real past mod a l ver bs ad ditiona l exercise 23 1-32 au xilia ry verbs 2 19 definition o f 21 1 gra mmar review 204-6 with pcrforrnanves 2 repllr ling to repo n ed cla use, summary of cha nges 74 slUd~' gu ide 241 much (of), many (o f), a lot of, lOIS (o f)

roo

mu sl dr awi ng concl usions 36 form al rules, reg ulat ion, and warnings ,16 an d hav e (got) to 36, 205-6 must/m ust n't , in repo rt ing 74 nccd tn't ], don't have In , mustn'l 206 pro posing future arrangements 36

;, il is/ wa s no

I -ing (preSt'n t part ici ple) form gra mma r review 21 4- 15 no n-finite cla uses 22 1 prepositiona l object 222 red uced relative clauses 221 see <llso partici ple ad jectives: ver b co mplc menra riou if, in co mp arison cla uses 168 if and whet her

il + verb . obj ect â&#x20AC;˘ ro-in finuivc clau se 192 il + verb + that -clause 191 il + verb + In-infinitive cla use 192 no t as a lternative to noun as subject 191 wh ere subjec t is to-infi nitive , that clau se, wh-clause or -ing clause

a fter certai n verbs 172 a fter prepo sition 172 in clau se act ing as subject or complement 172 noun + ad jective + as 10 wh et her

I'USIIS

there is/ was no

'9' as ohlect of verb 194

reporting with passive for ms 50 with view poin t ver bs 194 it, irnrod ucm ry to foc us attenti on on se ntence cle ment 192 ir + he + adjective/ nou n 192 il + verb + obj ect + that-cla use 192

N names, of people 80, ~2 na rrative 64 na tionality adjectives 1.16 necessity 205-6 need ill formal writt en English 311 need(n 'I), don 'I have 10 , mu sm 'r, don 'I need 10 38, 206 as ordi nar y t 'erSlf 5 moda l verb 38 in qu estions 38


Index negat ive qu estions 54, 207 newspape r writing be to + infinilive, fo r events likely to happen 24 participle clau ses, use of 112 past perfect co ntin uous, use of 14 no, nonetof], and nor any 911 nominal rela tive clauses 108 ,222 see also relat ive clauses non-a ffirma tive mea ning 22 1 non -defining relative cla uses for ad ding infor mation 106 definition of 222 pa rticiple clauses, use o f instead of 112 prepositional ph rases 114 wh ose, claus es with lOll set' also relative clause s non -finite cla uses 221 non-finite ve rbs 22 3 nou-grada ble adjectives 134 , 1.16, 2 16,2 19 non-gradi ng adv er bs 134 , 2 19 noun phrases ad ding inform ation to 112 conj unc tions 112 namel y, use of 112 particip le cla uses 112 prepos itiona l phrases 114 th at is, use o f 112 ro-infinuive cla uses 112 complements 42 dl'li nilion of 22 1 nom ina l relative clauses 222 no uns additional exercise 234 - .15 definition of 22 1 study guide 245 see also co mpound nouns; countable/uncou nta ble no uns num ber exp ressions !Ill

o object and complement 220 definit ion of 22 1 pos it ion o f in two - and th reeword verbs 188 transitive verbs 223 see also transit ive/intra nsitive verbs: verb com plementation obligations 40, 206 offers 18, 72 , 166 , 204-5 one and ones with co untable noun s 122 inc lus ion o f 122 not used afte r nouns used as a djec tives 122 omission o f 122 with possessive det ermin ers 122 referring ro people 122 seealso alan and on e opi nions 62 or ders 24,72, 78 orga nisations, nam es of 80 org anising information 25 1 ou ghl to sce should and ought 10

p participle adjectives 22 1 -ing and -ed forms, as a dj ec rives

13' a fter nou ns, redu ced rela nves 138 in com pound adjectives 138 with mu ch, very mu ch 154 position of 138 that/those before 138 pa rticiple clau ses ac tive and pass ive in noun phrases 112 wi th adverb ial meani ng 116 cont rasting 164 defini tion of 221 having + participle, and timing of action 116 im plied subject, and subject of ma in cla use 116 not, posit ion of 116 with ow n subjec t 116 use of pre positions with 118 paruclples 221 pan icles 188,222 passive fo rms 222 active pattern s 44,46 addit ional exe rcise 2_12-33 ag ent, o mission of 411 'appoin tin gt verhs 44 'giving' verbs 44 gramma r review 206 - 7 it-clause as s ubject o f 48 ' Iiki ng/wa nti ng' verbs 46 mod al verbs 224 ' naming' verbs 44 re po rting with 50 study guide 242-43 'te lling' ver bs 44 tenses 224 topic emp hasis 48 rra nsinve two- an d three-word verbs 44 verbs wirh related nouns 48 past contin uous with adv erbs of frequ en cy 4 as/when/while 158 g ra mmar review 203 passive fmm 224 past perfect con tinuous, and pas t perfect 14 and past simpl e 8, 16 intentions not ca rried our 8, 10 in nar ratives 8 past events in succes sion 8 past events over sa me period 8 repea ted past action s K past pa rtic iple t-ed) 220,221 gra mmar review 2 15 non -finite clause 22 1 red uced relative clause 222 see also pa rt iciple adjec tives. participle cla uses past perfect grammar review 203 passive for m 224 past perfect contin uous, and pas t co n rm uous 14 and past simple

add itiona l exercise 230-31 inten tio ns not carried o ut 10 ordering past even ts 10 rep ort ing pas t events 10 review o f use o f 16 tim e cla uses 6 past perfect continuo us add itio na l exercise 230-3 1 gr amma r revie w 203 inte nt ions not ca rried ou t 10 past pe rfect and past continuous ac riviry in progr ess recently versus finished 14 number of times so mething ha ppen ed 14 part icula r past time, relati ng events to 14 review of use of 16 sta te verbs 14 pa st sim ple gra mmar review 202 passive for m 22 4 and pa st con t inu ous 4, ll, 10, 16 an d past per fect 10 ,1 6 , B0-3 1 and present perfect 6, 230 past subjunctive 22 3 as il were 170 unreal conditionals, were in ifclause 170 wer e, fur imagi nary situations 170 were, in comparisons 170 perfect fo rms 16 performarive verbs definition of 22 2 present sim ple 2 permiss ion 34, 38, 204 co uld, be allo wed to 30 pe rso na l pron ouns 222 pc rr.uading 54 phrasa l verbs definition of 222 word order 188 see also two- anJ thr ee-word verbs place ad verbs 2 19 possessive de termine rs 22 0 po ssessive n ouns 2 ID- I I, 222 pos sessive pron ouns 210, 222 pos sibility ca n and co uld 30, 34 gramma r review 204 may and might 34 , 205 predictions 18 preferences 170 prepos ition alo bjects 5 8, 222 preposi tion al phrases as co m pleme nt 220 definit io n of 222 prepositio nal verbs 222 see also phrasal verb s; I W O - and thr ee-word verbs prepositio ns add itional exercise 23 9 af ter no uns 186 af ter verbs 184 defini tion o f 22 2 pa rticles 222

285


Index ph rasal verbs 222 of place 17S of pos ition and movem ent 176 reason s, giving 160 in relativ e clau ses 110 sllldy guide 25 I of time 180 present and past time, review 16,

type s o f 222 purposes an d results in order /so as + to-infi nitive 162 in order thai an d so that 162 so + adjective/ adverb + that-clau se 146 suc h that. in suc h a way th at, such ' .. tha t 162

present co ntinuo us with ad verbs of frequency 4 for futu re events 20, 22, 204 gram ma r revie w 202 inte n tio ns 26 passive form 224 and present simpl e 2,4,16 present part iciple (-ing) 220, 221 see also participle ad jectives; participl e clau ses pr esent perfect gramma r review 202- .1 pas sive form 224 a nd past sim ple 6, and present pe rfect cont inuous

Q

zzs

no

12,1 6, 230 real cond it ionals 166 pr esen t pcrfIXt continuous gr am mar review 20.1 pas sive form 224 a nd present perfect ac tivities in progr ess un til recently 12 additiona l exe rcise 230 conclusions fro m what can he seen/heard etc, 12 recently com ple ted ev ents 12 repeated I't'rSIIS on e-off ac tivit ies

12 res ult s of circ umstances/activities

12 review of use s of 16 sit ua tio ns existin g until present

12 presen t simple con te n ts of hook s/films etc. 4 fo r fut ure eve nts 20, 24, 166,

172,203 gra mmar review 20 2 intent io ns 26 newspape r head lines 4 passive form 224 phrases introd ucin g news 4 and present co ntinuo us 16 immeJi'lc y 4 life co m me ntaries 4 men tal sta tl's 2

perfcrmanve verbs 2

28 6

sta le verbs 2 reul co nd itio na ls 166 tim e cla uses 6 present subjuncnve n, 223 present tenses, in re pon ing and reported clau ses 70 product nam es 92 promises IS pronouns definiti on of 222 study guide 24 7-48

qualirarive adjectives 132, 136, 219 qua mi fiers definition of 222 grammar review 2 1 I . 2 12- 13 stud )' guid e 245-46 with an d without 'o f' 2 12, 21 3, 214 quantity expressio ns 1l4, ss see also so me and any q uestio n form s 225 gramma r review 207 indi rect questions 222 nega tive que stions 54 study guide 242-43 with that-clauses 54 types of 222 see also w h-q ucstions; yes/ no q uestions qu estion mark 226 question tags 207 quotation ma rks 226

"

real con dinonals if-clau ses 166, 168 real and unreal con ditions

2 17- 18, 220 tenses in 20. 166, 168. 172 , 2 1l!

un less and if not 172 reasons cleft sentences 196 co n junctions 174 prepositions I IH, 160 sente nce con nec tors 174 reduced relati ve cla uses 1.12, 138,

m sec also relative clauses

reflexive pronoun s de finitio n of 222 for emp hasis 120 for mality 120 grammar review 2 15 incl usio n/omission o f, with some

verbs 120 in verb + o bject + ad jective com ple m en t structu re $6 regret 170 relanve clauses add ition al exe rcise 236-37 defining 106, IOH, 112.222 definition of 222 gram mar review 2 14 nominal 108, 22 2 non -dcfinm g 106, 108,1 12, 114,

zzz

prepositions in 110 reduced 132, 138, 222 slUdy guide 247

relat ive pronouns definit ion of 222, 223 omi ssion/inclusion of 106,1 10,

1'0 as subject/object o f relative clause 106 relative words 223 a/t he reason why/tha t 108 nomin al relative clau ses. with who/what 108 what ever. whoe ver, whichever 108 when , wher eby, wher e, why 108 whose, cla uses with 10 8

reported speech 223 reporting 64 addirionul exe rcise 234 gra mm ar review 209 modal auxili ari es 74 negative form s 64 of ferslsuv.gest ions/orders/ intent ions/requcsts 72 pas sive forlll s 44 punc tuation for 226 q uestions 64 quotation s 64 study gu ide 24 4 re use cho ice in 70 that-claus es 66. 72, 76 usin g ad jectives 76 usin g no uns 76 repo rtinwrcported clause s 64,72 definition of 223 past tenses 70 present suh jun<:t ive 78 repo rting verbs 64, 22J requests grammar review 204-5 j f-cla uscs

168

reporting 72, 78 will and be jloinjl to 18

S seaso ns 88 , 94 sem i-colon 174 semi-mod al verbs 22 I gram mar review 204-6 see also mod al verbs sen se verb s 30 sen te nce con nec tors 174. 223 short answe rs 124 should a nd ought to he supposed to 206 expect ations 40 ha d bencr, in spoken English 40 ohli galiol1s1rccommend,ltions 40 qaestions/rcqu cst s fo r co nfirmatio n or advice 40 regr et/cri ticism 40 should and sha ll 40 sim ple se ntences 223 sim ple versus continuous form s, s u m mar ~' of uses of 16 since and for 12, 14 since-c lauses 220 some a nd any with hefore 96 ' appro ximately' 96


Ind ex with com pa risons 96 general sratemcnrs ab out wh ole classes of t hin gs 96 gr ammar review 2 11-12 with negative words 96 non -affirmative co nte xts 96 nun-specific, u n s pL~ i fi ed Ihings 96 odure plural a mi uncountable no uns 96 slro ng and weak forms 96 unknown/unim porra nr person or th ing % stall: verbs 2, 12, 14,1 66 , 223 subject an d com plement 220 definition of 223 it-cla use as 4S passive, uses of 4S placement o f long 4S relative pronou ns as 106 whu ur what as 52 sec a/so ag rcvmcnn invers ion suhiu nctive 223 past 170 present 7!l su bordmarc clauses 220,222 see .lIm adverbial clauses; rela tive cla uses substitution 10, for to-in finlrive clau se 130 additional exercise 237 do 128,200,207,2 16 do so and such 126 so and nor 124 stud y guide 247-48 suggestions 54, 72, 7R, 20 7 superla tive forms the + ad jective with -eSI 144 the + mos t + adjective 144 of + plural no un phrase, a fter superlative 144 in + singula r nou n ph rase, af te r supe rlati ve 144 adjectives with alan, the, a nd zero article 92 most + ad jcl:t ivd aJ vcr b 144 noun + o f which I 10

T tenses grammar review 202-4 stu dy guide 240-4 1 that-cl auses 22 0 passive semen....es 48 reporting 66, 72, 76 should in 7ll wh-q ucstio ns with 54 the sec ala n. the, and zero oni dc ther e + he cha nge of topic , rupic Known to lisreuer/ reader 190 ir nroducmg topics 190 noun fo llowing, ag reeme nt of be wit h 190 no un fo llowi ng, indefinite/ nonspecific mea ning of 190 with nouns followed by that-,

wh -, to-infinitive or -ing cla use 190 ' Ihinki ng'verbs .10, 60 three-wor d verbs SCI' two- and three-word verbs nm e adverbs 2 19 time clauses conjunCiio ns 174 tenses in 2 17 times, o f day and night 94 rirles, of newspape rs, books, films

'0 to-infinitive with co me and g ro w 42 definiriun uf 220 leavi ng out 130 with linking verbs 140 non-finite cla uses 22 1 no un phrases, add ing informa tion ttl 112 sec ulsfJ verb comple mcmarion tra nsitive/int ra nsit ive verbs 56 gra mmar review 207 im plied objec t ,S6 intrans itive verbs 56, 22 1 passives, gra mmar review 206 transiti ve or int ransit ive verbs 56 tran sitive verbs 56, 223 t wo- and thr ee-word verbs, word Imle r 188 sec u1so ve rb co mplemen tati on two - and three-word verb s definition of 223 particle in 222 posit ion of prepos itions in 110 word orde r 111 8

U uncertainty 76 un chan ging states 12 u ncounta ble nouns see co ulltabldunClluma ble nouns un less and if nor 172 unrea l co nd itiona ls bu t fur 166 if + past sim ple 166 rea l and unre al conditions

n z-rs.zzo

unlt:ss and if nu t 172 we re in if-clause 166, 170 unreal pas t might/co uld have + pasr participle

na

would have + paw participle 32 ,

zis used to gram mar revie w 204-5 repea ted eve nts in past 32 in rep ortin g 74 V

verb com plcmc mation additional exercise 233-34 dire ct a nd indi rect oblects 5 R negative for ms 62 preposi tiona l obje ct, with for/ IO

5'

study guide 243-44 su mma ry o f commo n pat terns 20 7-R verb + -iug or bare infinitive 60 verb + objec t + hare infinitive 60 ve rb + object + to -infinitive 62 verb + object/po ssessive + ing 60 ve rb + pr eposition + objec t + toinfinitive 62 verb + ttl ha ve + pa st partici ple 62 verb + to (preposition) + in~ 60 St'e aim transitive/in tr ansitive verbs verb phrases 22 3 verbs 22 1, 223 viewpoint adverbs 156, 2 19

W wh-clauvcs 220 focusing 196 with linking verbs 140 verbs wit h 611 wh-q uesrion s 52,222, 223 auxili ary verb 54 how J nJ wh at 52 repo rting 64 with that -cla uses 54 wha t 52 which 52 who 52 whum .52 whose 52 see u/so negati ve questio ns wh-words 222, 223 whar-clauves 80, 196 , 220 whether Sl'C if a nd whether whet her-clauses 220 whole SI'C all (of), whole , every . eal:h will, would and used ttl churac rcns ric behaviou r/ha bits .12 conc lusions/ass urn ptionv 32 crit icism .12 gra m mar review 20 4-5 repeated eve nts in past 32 unreal pas r situa tions 32 will a nd he loIoiolol lO he lIoin).: to + go/com e 20 co nd ition al se ntences III decisions 18 forrna lityJinformali ty 18, 20 offcrslrequ estsl prOlllises 18 plarmeJll ikcl y events 18,20 pr edic tions III willingness 22 works of art 92 would SCI' if-clauses; will. would and used to

y ycs/no questions 64 , 222 sec also qu est ion forms

Z zero article 2 19 see also ala n, the, and zero article

287


Index of lexical items A alan Nil, 'JO.

sz, <) 4,

146 ,

190 , 21 <,1 , 220 h it 134 bit o f 104 fe w (0 1) 2 14 hnle (0 1) 2 14 .1 101100 Nl. 100, 2 1.J a n umber o f 82, 110 allhe ma jo ri l)' o f lil ahililY 186 able 140 about IS4 .above 176 a a a a

above a ll 174 a~ 1 from 120

absolur e 132 ahwluldy 134 ahusive 76 academic J 36 ;l C'"CV1 124, 194 "'o:d dcol 194 ac d im ;u i'>e 120 accoe dmg 10 156 accou m for 111 11

ache 202 admowlc:Jl{c 2. 50, 66 ack rsowledgemcm 76 acr..." 176 act o n IRII active 144 ada mant 7b adap t 60, 12 0 adapt ed 4 2 addrc.... hoo k lUi

ad here to 56 ad jU\ l 60 admir ati,," 186 ad mire 1.~ 4 ad mit 2, SH, 60, 62 , M, 124, 194 , 2UIl adult U 6 advi ce 76 ud visable 711 advise 2, 46, 62. 66 , OIl , 72, 78. \ ,10, 172 a ffcele d 1.111

a ffor d 130 afraid 130,

n z, 140.

144 a ftlT 6, 20, 118, 158,

174, IlN . 220 a fter all 174 a fte r thai 17 4 afternoon 94 ;1furwilrd , 174 a~i l a lcd l y 14 2 a~r« 2. 26. 46. 50. 62. 66.72. 124. 130.202.

l O, .altf~~

288

.about/on/wilh 184 agreed 76 aim 26. 46. 186. 20H ala rmed 140 .al<lrmaVal.a rmin~ 2 16

alert 144 alik e 132. 144 alive 132 .all 110. 220 .all (o f) H2. 102. 21 2. 2 13 all of .a sudden 4 all o ver 176 a ll the same 174 allqtalion 76 allege 50. 62 alleged 138 all~oo ly 142 .alloc.alO:d 138 a l1o••, 46. 58. 62. 20 8 almO'u 102.134. 150. lS 4 alone 132. 144. 154 .alonl/; 176. 198 a lw 174 a hcrna tiliC' 194 altern atively 174 alth ough 118. 164.1 74 altoget her 154 .alway, 4. 36. 150 amaze 192 a mazed 78. 140 amalNla malin~ 216 a mazeme nt 186 amazing 140 ambition 186 amonK 171:1 a mo ng o the r Thing, 171:1 among others 178 a mongst 178 amo unt of 100 amused 78 and 112.1 74.220 a" lI:r y 76. 134. 140 a nnounce 44. 50. 58.66 a nnouncement 76 a nnoy 192 anno yed 76. 140 anno ying 140 a nn ual 132 a nnually 152 a not her 122 an swer 56. 66. 76 answ er back 188 anticipa te 2. 46. 202 a n l(iou ~ 78 a ny 96. 186. 211- 12 any- 82 any (o f) H2.2 12 anybody 98. 2 12 a nyone 96. 98, 190. 2 12 a nylhing 96. 98. 2 12 an yway 174 a ny...here 98 a pan 182 apart fro m 182 apol~etic 76 apo 'ORiK' 2 ap palling 78 appar~n t 42 a ppar~ntly 156

appeal 62 appear 2. 42. 46. 62. 124.132. 140. 164. 190. 192. 207 apply 62 applying 13H appoint 44 appreciat e 46. 154. 10 2 approve 60 appro\'r of 60. I IUI argue 66 . 194 argu~ abo ut/fm/ with 184 arg ument 76 ari se 227 arms tra de 86. 90 ann}' 80 arrange 46. 62. 68 arres t 107 an, fnlilial 116 a~ 144. 146. 15 8. 174. 198 a~ a conKqurnce 174 a~ a resuh 174 av a rule 150 avif 170 a, it were 170 a, lon g a, 174 a~ man y 146 a\ much 146 av soon a, 6. 20. 174 a\ thou~h 170 a, 10 68. 76. 171 as ... d l 174 as ha med 132. 140.144. IS' aside 1112 ask 44.46. 56. 58.62. 66. 611. 71. 78. I .lO. 20 11 a sk aho ut/afler/for/ uf 184 ask of 184 asleep 1,12 aspire to ,S6 a"no a lc wirh 56 a ~ \()t:iat i {)n 110 ass u me 50.56. 66. 124. 20 2 ass uming (that ) 174 assure 66 auoni\ h 192 asm niched 140 a~ lO ni,hi nKly 156 asto unded 78 al no tim e 152 al thai lime 174 at lh e ,arne limc 174 athletics 84 atmosphe re \10 atomic 132 attempt 46. 186 att ract 2. 20 2 ,lUrib ule 10 Sf, audience SO aut umn 94 nail of 120

availa ble 132 ave rage 1.16 avoid 46.207.208 awake 1.12, 227 awa rd 44. 58 awa re 42. 132. 140. 144 away 19S awful 134. 140 a w k...-a rd 140

b ahy ', bedroom 86 back 198 bole!. to back 94 bold 140 bald 41 ha n 186 ha rdy 96. 200 base on 56 be 41, 128. 130, 132. 140.1 64. 219. 227 he able 10 30. 130. 204 .

zz:

he be be he be be he

abo ut 10 24.26 afraid 124 allo wed 10 30. 104 bou nd TO 26 cenain 124 due to 26 going 10 18. 20. 166.

l03 be likely 34

be be be be

on the brink of 26 on the point of 26 on th e licrge of 26 ~ u prmed to 211. 190.

zos

be sure to 26. 124 he til 24 beach 90 bea r 227 bea r 227 bea utiful 0 2 becau\c 1111. 160. 174.

no

be ca use of 160

becom e 42. 132. 140. 164. 227 before 20. "6 . 118.1 58. 174. 2 00 before that 174 hl.1l, 2. 711 hl.1tin 46. 56. 60. 130. lOS. 127 behav e 120 believe 2. 30. 46. 50. 56. 62.64.66. 124. 194. 202.208 belnnK 12. 166 belon g 10 202 be:lnn~i nR' 84 below 176 bend 56. 127 beneath 176 bnidn 118.1 74.1 82


Index of lexica l it em s bet 227 between 178

capable 132 care 150

bi~ 134

care about/for 1114 careful 140, 144 a rdns 144 cardnsly 156 ca rry out 44 eaSI 22 7 a SI back 44 each 46, 58 ,208,227 catch oul 188 cause 62 , 2011 caused 138 cautious 144 cease 2011 certain 76, 140, 144 certainl y 156 chance 102, 130 , 186,

bind 227 biolOjtically 156 bird of prey 86 hird ~' n~ts 86 bill: 22 7 bleed 227 blind 42 blo ...路 227 book 58 bored 144 bored/horinR 2 16 borin g 144 bOlh 110 both (of) 2 12 bo ther 311 boy's arm 116 brave 140 bravely 156 break 56,227 break in 111 11 break-out 116 brick-built 1311 hrid ly 14 11 brin g 46, 511, 227 brinR abo ut 11111 broadcast 227 brok en 138 brot her-in-law 86 brush up on 44 build 511, 22 7 build ing m aterials indu ~lry 86 bum 56 ,227 bunt 227 hu ~ y 134, 140 bu ~y wirh 120 hUI 174, 1112,220 hUI for 166, 1112 buy 58,227 by 94, 118, 1110 by air 94 by bus 94 by car 94 hy comran 174 by email 94 by phon e 94 by plane 94 by pos t 94 by Ka 94 by Ini 94 by Ihl: time 6, 20 by tr ain 94

C calculate 50, 68 calculated 131 call 44 call back 44, 188 call o n 72, 11111 call up 44 campajgn 62 can 30,74, 111l, 204 , 205, 22 1 can't bear 46, 194 can'l sta nd 194,108

'94

change 56 cheap 144 chcap{ly) 142 check 66, 6S check into ISS chemical 1.12 chicken dr umsticks 86 Chid o f Siaff 86 choice 194 choos e 511, 68, 130, 172,

227 chosen 138 civil 136 claim 50 ,76 d an 110 clean 136 clean up 188 clear 140, 144 clear away 1118 clearly 148, I SO, 156 d tar(1y) 142 clever 1.14 climate 90 d imb 46 d inll 22 7 close 56, 60 cloth es 84 clothes shop 86 du b 80 , 0011 mine 116 coffee 90 coincidence 194 w id 144 w ll('(1 58 college 80 come 42 , 46, 152, 198, 20 7,2011,217 come: abo ut 192 come: acros s 110 come: in for 1118 come: 10 1118 come up ajtainsl 44 , 188 command 62, 72, 78, 208 commander-in-chief 86 comment 76 com mitte e 80 common 134 , 136 community 80 compe er 80

co m paer director 92 co mplain 66 co mplete 132, 144 completely 134 ,1 50 co mplex 144 co mplimentary 76 computer 90 co mputer keyboard 86 concen tra te 60 co ncern 38 , 186, 192 co ncern with 120 co ncern ed 78, 132, 140, 172 co nclude: 2, 68 conclusion 76 confess 2, 60, 66 confide 66 co nfide nce 101 co nfident 140 con flict 172 co nfusion 172 congratula te 2 cc ngrarulano ns 114 co nsenl 62 con sequent ly 174 consid er 2, 8, 10, 46, 50, 56, 62, 66, 68 , 172 , 194 , 201, 20 11 consis l of 2, 202 con n ant ly 4 co nstitu te 202 co nta in 202 co ntent 132 continually 4 co ntin ue 46, 208 conversa tio n 90 co nvince 66 convinced 4 2 coo k 56,58 cost 2,58,186,192, 202,227 could 30,34,74, 12 8, 20 4,205, 2 18,22 1,

22.

co uncil 80 co unt 60, 62 co unt out 1118 cc umry tside) 90 co ver up 1118 co wardly 142 co w's milk 116 cra zy 140 creased 144 creep 22 7 Cf('W 80 criteria 84 critical 76, 136 crop up 188 crowd 80 crucial 78 culminate in/wilh 56 cup o f lea 86 curious 140 curiously 150 customs o ff icer 86 cui 227 CUI back on 188 CUI OUI 111 11

[)

dai ly 152 dan ce: 56 dare: 60,204,22 1 dar k 144 dat a 84 dawn 94 da wn o n 192 d;ly 102 day by day 94 day-to-d ay 86 deaf 42 de:al 22 7 debate 68, 172 decide 30, 50, 62, 68 decision 76, 186 declare 2, 44 ,56, 66 decline 20 8 decrease 56 deep 134 deep/ly) 142 definitely 156 delay 208 delighted 130 demand 66, 72, 711, 208 democratic 132 demonstra te 44 , 50 , 5S deny 2, 46, 58, 62, 61" 96, 194, 208 depart ment 110 depend 60, 62 depend on 172 descri be 44 ,46, 58 descripti on 186 deserve 130 deseevedly 142 desire 186, 202 despite 164 deter 60 dete rmina tio n 186 dete rm ine 6 8 determined 130 determinedly 142 det est 60, 208 derracr fro m 56 develop 150 dia bet es 84 di ffer 150 di ffer from 202 differ emia re bet ween 56 di flicuh 42,1 40 dig 227 digita l 132 dignified 14 2 diplomanc 136 direct 78, 144 dir芦t(lyl 14 2 disagree 66 disagrc:nnml 172 disappoin ted 78, 140 disappointedly 142 disapprove of 44 , 60 discou rag e: 60 discover 50 , 68, 208 d iscuss 68, 172 d iscussion 76 , 172 , IS6 d islike 12, 46, 60 , 194 ,

208

289


Index of lexica l items di smissive 76 d ive 227 do 126, 128, 192, 200,

207,2 16, 2 19, 227 do 0 11I of 188 do so 126

do mestic 1] 4 don't ha ve III 311, 206 dou bt 2, 124, 166, 172, 202 do ubtful 76, 140 do w n 1911 do wn stai rs 148 dra w 227 d read 201l dreadfull y 134 d rea m 227 d ress 120 d rink 56, 22 7 d rink up 1118 d rive 56,227 d rop 56 d uck's eg gs 86 d ue to 160 du rinl( 180 d w ell 227

290

E eac h 82, 10 2, I I o, 122, 2 14,220 each of 82 each (of) 2 12 each other 2 15 eager 144 ea rl ier 174 ea rn ings 84 easy 140 easy-going 138 eat 56,227 econ o m ic 132 econom ics 114 effect l Sb eit her 122, 2 13 either ••• o r 112 eith er of 82 elderly 142 electorate 110 elecrrjc 136 em erge 192 em phasi",~ 194 empty 136 enable 62, 20S e nco urage 50, 62, 72, 20S enco uragcmcm 76 e nd 60 e nd III end 94 end u p 42 enem y 80 e n joy 46, 154, 166, 194, 207 e no rm o usly 150, 154 enough 146 enquire a ho ut/after 1114 entire 102, 132 entir ely 134, 150, 160 e ntit le 62, 208 environm ent 90 envi ronmental 132, 134

env iro nment ally 156 envisage 208 envy 5S eq ual 144 eq ua te with 56 esp edally 154

essential n, 134 establish 50, 68 esrimarc 50 e ven 154 even if 164, 170 e ve n so 174 even thou gh 164, 174 e ven ing 94 ever y 82, 102, 11l6, 2 14 every few (mo nths ) 102 every no w a nd aga in 102 every o th er (kilo m elre)

102 everr single (day ) 102 every so oft en 102, 150

everybody 82 eve ryo ne 82 everyt hing 112 exact 144 excellent 1] 4 except 182 except for 182 exce pted 182 exc ited / exciting 2 16 excited ly 142 excl usively 134 ex pect 2, 8, 10, 26, 46,

50, 54, 64, 66, 72, 124, 130,202 exp la in 44, 50, 66, 61l ex pla na tio n 76 extremely 134, 154 F face 46 face to face 94 fail 56, 62,96, 130,208 failu re 1116 fair 144 fai rly I J 4 fa ll 207,227 fall throug h I lI8 false 136 fa m iliarise wit h 120 fam ily 80 far-reaching 138 fashi o n 142 fast 134 fast-gro w ing 138 fa \'Ourite 144 fea r 38, 90, 186 feed 227 feel 2,30, 44, 46 ,50,60, 64, 66, 132,1 40,1 64, 194,202, 208 , 227 feci like 201l fet ch 58 few 104, 146 few (o f) 2 12 few er 104 fight 227 fi ll in 110

finally 141l fina ncially 150, 1$6 find 2, 46, 50, $6, 58, 66,

194, 202, 207, 208, 227 find o ut 46,68 fine 132 fine(ly) 142 finis h 56, 60, 201l first 122, 150, 1.s2 fit 2, 227 fix 58 f1 a t(ly) 142 flee 227 f1i,k through 188 fling 227 fly 1.'i2, 198, 227 fo cus 60 fo llo w 192 fo nd 186 fond ness IIl6 foolish 140 foolishly 156 fo r 12,14,1 74, 1114 fo r o ne thinM 174 fo r {rea son s] 160 fo rbid 2, 96, 227

force 62, 207,208 fo recast 76, 227 fo re ign 136 fo rest 90 fo re ver 4 forget 46, 60, 62, 68, UO,227 fOrKive 58,227 fo rma l 144 forwards 148 fo und 138 frank ly 150,1 56 free 140 free(ly) 142 freeze 227 frequ ent 144 friend ly 134, 142 frighten 192 frightened 132 frilo;h tcncd / friio\hteninl( 2 16 fro m m y/ his/h er per spective 156 from ti m e III time 150 fully 134 fun 144 furio us 140 furniture 96 furt hermore 174 future 90

G gather 124 Ma ther u p I118 gencrul 132 generally 156 ge neratio n 110 I(encrously 156 genuine 136 get 42, 51l, 132,206-7, 207,227 ge l d o wn 44, 1118

get up IIlIl

girls' school 86 giv e 44, 51l, 227 gla d 132, 140 glasses case 86 go 42, 146, 152, 1911, 207, 2011, 227 go bad 42 go bu st 42 gc dead 42 go mi~~i n g 42 go mo uld y 42 10\0 off 42 go on 62 go ove r l lll! 10\0 ro tten 42 go th rou gh ..... ith 1M8 1(0 u p ISO go w rong 42 Iloat '~

cheese 86

go od 140, 194 good a nd 136

good-look ing 138 good s 84 govern m ent SO

grab 207 grammar 90 !tra teful 76 !tread y ISO ground 90 Io;rouP 80

grow 42, 227 grow u p 188 grumble 66 gua ra nt ee 2,26, 51l, 72, 76, 194 !tu e~~ 61l, 124 guess so/nor 124 g uilt y 136, 140 gymnastics 84

"

h abit 1116 had better 40, 204, 22 1 hair 90 hair-raising 138 han d 44, 58 ha ng 152, 227 hanger-on 116 hap pen 168, 192, 207 ha ppi ly 142 ha p py 134, 140 ha rd 140 ha rd ly .J8, 96, 150,1 58, 200,205 hardly e\'Cr 150, 152 ha te 46, 60, 130,194, 202,208 ha ve 2, 60, 62, 114, 121l, 202, 2 19,227 have 101m 121l ha ve go t 10 36, 204, 20,)-6,22 1 hav e to 36, 31l , 74, 205-6 hea r ] 0, 44, 46, 60, 124, 202, 208, 227 hea r o ul 188 help 44, 60, 192, 208


Index of lexical items help o n with 111 11 help out 1811 hence 174 her 122 here 82 here ctlmn 198 herself 120, 2 1.5 h..... ira te 2011 hide 120, 227 high{ly) 142 him~l f 120,21.5 hit 192,207,227 hoM 56,227 bold out 188 hold over 44 ho liday 180 home-made 13S ho nndy 150, 156 hope 8, 10, 26, 46, 50, H, 62. 72, 102, 124, 130, 194, 202, 208 horizon 90 hou rly 152 how 52, 68, 82, 146, 196,223 howev er 174, 22 3 huge 134 hu~dy 134 hum an 136 hum an race: 90 hurriedly 142 hun 192, 227

bet 18 C:X~'a 18 gather 4 hear 4 hope 18 imagine 18 reckon 18 sec 4 think 18 understand 4 wo nder III Idea 130, 1116 idea l 144

idenrificd UK ideologically 156 if 20,64, 166,1 72, 174, 200, 220 if ont 172 if on ly 170 if so 174 ill 42, 132 illnn s 1110 I'm ~ UTl: 18 imaginab le 132 imagi ne 2. 46, 60, 611, 124, 170, 202, 208 immen~dy 134 imperati ve 78 imponanc..: 90 imponant 78, 134 imf'O"sible 96, 134, 140 improvement 186 in 118,1 80,1 911 in add itio n 174

in in in in in in

amaz ement 142 any caw 174 cave 20 consequence 174 co nlfa ~l 174 my/ hiVhe r opinion 1S6

in ord er th oU 162 in or de r III 162 in spite of 164 in such a way that 162 in that 160,1 74 inJ bility 186 inappropriate 78 inavmuch a~ 160 ind ine toltowa rd~ 56 incl ined 140 ind ude.! 138 income ta ll 86 inconceivable 711 increave 56 indicate 66 ind ication 76 ind ifferen t 172 indivi dual 136 ind ustrially 156 infect ed 4 2 intliet o n 56 intlu ence 1116 info nn 50, 66, 68 innocent 136 invist 60, 78 insistent 76 imofar as 174 instead 174 instruct 46, 68, 72, 78 instru ction 76 insulting 76 intake 86 intend S, 10, 26, 50 , 64 , 72,711, 130 imensely 134 intent ion 186 interested 42, 138 interested/ interesting 2 16 i ntere~ ti ng l oi n i ntere~tin gl y 156 interview 1116 introdu ce 44, 58 invalua ble 134 invitation 76 invite 62,72, 20 8 invo lved 132 iron 90 irrel evant 42 inu e 76 it 50, 140, 192, 194 it uys here 4 itself 2 15

J

joke 66 journa list 92 judg e 56 jury 80 just I H justtly) 142

K

keep 4 2,46,60, 227 kee p on 62 kind 140 kind l)" 142, 156 kneel 227 knit 227 know 2, 12, 50 , 60, 68, 124,166, 202, 227 know abo ut/of 184

L lack 186 lamh chops 86 largely 134, 154 , 160 last 150 late 136 lat e{ly) 141 lat er 174 la y 227 lead 227 lean 217 leap 127 learn 68, 227 learn about/of 184 least 144 lea ve 58 , 194, 208 , 227 leave ou t 188 lend 44, 58,207,227 In~ 104, 144, 146 less (00 2 1-4 let 60, 227 let go 60 let in 44 let in on 188 let out 44 lie 152, 227 light 227 like 2, 46, 60, 130, 1H, 166, 194, 202, 207,

20' likelihood 1116 likewise 174 linguistics 84 lion's den 86 lill ie 104, 146,200 lillie (of) 212 lill ie ones 122 live 152 live up 10 188 lively 142 logically 156 Lo ndon-ba sed 138 lone 132 lond y 142 lon g 72 lon g-Iaseing 138 lo ngn t-so.:rving 138 look 2, 42, 164, 202 look aha 110, 188 look down o n 188 look forward 60 100J,; forward to 154 look o ut 188 look to 26 lookup 188 look up 10 188 looker-on 86

lo..e 227 lOI S o f too, 2 13 luud (1 y) 142 lo ve 2, 46, 60, 130, 194,

20' I.....ed "nl'" 122 lovel y 140,142 lovely a nd 136 low 134 luc kily 156 luc ky"n los 122 M ma d 140 ma de-up 138 ma inly 134, I H , 160 mAl e 44,58,60, 140, 227 mal e up 188 ma nage 62, 208 ma nner 142 many 100,11 0,1 46 ma ny 2 12,2 13 ma rch 152 ma thematics 84 matter 207 maxi mum 132 may 34,74, 128,205,

("n

221 me 222 meal 1110 mean H, 10, 26,46,1 30, 140,1 92,202,208,

227 mea ns 84 meanwh ile 174 measles 84 measur e 2, 20 2 med ia 84 medical 132 med icall y 156 meet 227 mend 58 mention 44, 50 , 58,66,

'"

mere 1.12 mes~ up 11111 midd ay 94 midn ight 94 might 34, 128, 205, 2 111, 22 1,224 mind 46, 208 mine 222 minimum 132 miverable 140 mi..~ 20 8 mi\ take fu r 56 mobile 136 modern 144 mo ney -ma king 138 month 102 monthly 152 mo ra lly 156 mo re 144 more and mo re 136 more wro ng 144 moreov er 174 morning 94

291


Index of lexical Items ml"t 110,144 mo\ d y 154 Olmt (1 y) 141 mo unt up 11111 mo ve: 56, 110 m o ve o ff 111 11 mo w 117 much 100 , 146, 154 much (of) 1 11,1 13 mU\1 36, 40, 74, 1111, 111 mU\ln'1 36,311,74 ,106 my 111, 110, 121 my\c:lf 120, lIS

N

292

nam e 1, 4 4 namel y II I naturally I SO, 156 ne:arby ISO nearl y 101, U4, 150 need 311, 46, 130, 194, 204 , 2011, 22 1 needn't 311,106 neither 122,200 neith er do I 100, 2 16 neilh er/n or 111 neith er o f 82, 110 neith er j o O 213 nerve-wr ackin g 138 nCO'OUl 140 nCVl-r .1",38,54,96,911, 1SO, 200, 10 5 n evcnhdl~~ 174 new s 114 next 150,151 nk c 140 nice and 1.16 nilfht 102 no 54,911, 1111, 1116, 100,1 13 no amount of 911 no hot her 98 no chance 'JII no comment 98 no idea 9 11 no long er 194 rio-on e .111, 'IX no probl em 98 no soone r 15 11 no sooner th an 200 no way 9K no wonder 911 nobod y 311,54,98, 1111 no (bod y) 190 nominate 44 non e: (0 0 112,911, 110 , 111,113 noon 94 nor 200 nor do I 200 norma lly 31t northern 132 not 200 nOI a \ inltle: 911 nOI a ny 98 , 186 n or ce:rtain 76 nOI many 104 n or much 104

ne t

once 151

not o ne 98

nOlhinlf 54, 1111 notice 46, 60, 66 , 6 8, 194, 20 2, 2011 nmify 66 now 151 nowhere 54,98 numbcr o f too

o o bject 60 obliltalory 711 o bservation 76 o~e 44 ,46, 60, 10 11 o bvio us 41 ob\'iou~ly 156 occas ional 132 occupy ••. with 110 od d 136, 140 oddl y 150 of 144, 184 off 198 offer 44,58,61, 72.107.

2o,

o ffice-wo rker 116 o fte:tl 150 old 136 o n 118,1 84 on co nditi on thai 174 on many occasions 150 on rhe ccnnary 174 on th e oth er hand 174 once: 6 once a week 151 one 811. 112 one another 88, 1 15 o ne of III ones 122 o neself 110 on ly 38, IS4, 200, 205 only lat er 152 open 56, 60 opportunity 130, 1116 opposite 132 op position sn opl ion 1116 or 112, 174 orchestra 80 order 2, 46 .5 8. 62,72, 76. 78. 201l o rder about 188 ori llina l 136 o therwise 174 oUllht to 40, 128, 20 4, 206. 22 1. 22 4 ourselves 215 OUI 198 o u tco me 86 o Ulskirts 114 o utwardly 156 o ver 176, 180 o verheads 84 o verbear 60, 208 owe 58, 194 owing eo 160 ow n 1,202 own up 60

"p anic

38 pa rk 56 part 110 pa rticular 1.16 particularly 154 parnculars 84 partly 160 pass 511 pa l S(T-hy 86 pas l 'KI pau \C' 56 pay 58 , 192,207,227 pea ce-keeping 1] 11 peculiar 144 pen to p 86 peop le: 411, 114 per cen t 84 perfea 134, 144 perfealy 134 permiwion 186 pennil 2,58 perso n 10 penon 94 perso nally 156 pers uade 50, 62, 66, 72,

pretend 62 prelly 1] 4 prevail 62 prevent 60, 96 pre\·iou ~l y 174 prid e: 1116 prid e: on 120 pri mari ly 134 private 136 pmbabililY 186 probahly 156 pr oblem 76, 186 pr ofessional 136 proh ib u 60, 96 pecmise 2, 26, 66, 72, 76, 124, 1] 0 pronoun ce: 56 proper 132 propc:n y 90 pro pmal 186 pro~ 26,44 ,50,64, 66 ,72, 78 prospect 1116 pro od 11!6 pro ve 42, 56, 58, 164,

m

20' phmomena 84 phone: 56 phonetic 132 phon L-rio 114 physically 156 p hysics 84 pick up I III! plainly 150 plan 8, 10, 26, so, 61, 64, 61l, I Il6, 2011 plan s 130 play 56, 51! pl ea ~ed 140, 144 plea ~(d1plca ~in~ 1 16 pleasure 'JO plenty of 1l2, roo point 194 po int o ut JIi , 66 po intedly 142 po lice li4 polit ically I S6 politin 114 pop ular 1.14 pop ulation 110 poairiv e 140 ptme\s 202 pt}\~ihili ty 1116 poss ible 1] 2 pml 5 11 pour 58 practically 134 pr edict 2, 194 pr efer 2, 46, 78, 1]0, 154 , 194 , 102, 20 11 pr egnanl 42 pr emises 1I4 prep are 120, 208 prep ared 140 pr esent 'KI pre:-.~ 80 presumably 150, 156 presume 66, 124

provid e for 11111 provided 20 , 138 provided Ihat 174 publ ic 1l0, 1]6 puhl i calion ~ department

,.

pull 20 7 pull to 11! 8 pu ~h 10 1111! pu sh -up Ill,

put 22 7 pUI dow n as I 118 PUIOUI 44 PUI pen In pape r 'J4 pUI up 10 11111 pUI up with 188

Q quarterly 152 question 76, 172, 194 qoickly 142, 148 quick{ly) 142 quie t 134 q uietly 1411 qui l 22 7 qu ite 150, 1 17

R rabin 114 ra rely ]6, 96 , 150, 152, 200 rather 134, I SO, 170 read 44 , 56, ss, 22 7 read-o ur 86 read y 140 read y-made: 138 real 144 ru li'>C' 2, 61!, 201 rea lly 134, 154 re:a\Oll 102, 108, 11I6, 194 rca\Onably 134 reaw ur e 50, 66


Index of lexical it ems recall 46, 60, 62, 208 recent 144 reckon 54 recognised 42 recoermeed 50, 66 , 72, 78 recommend aric n 76 refusal 76, 1116 refuse 2, 46,58,62,72, 96, 130,2011 regard 194 regard u / with 56 r egion to regio n 94 rqutt 2,62,154,202,

20. regularly 150 reluctance 1116 reluctant 96 rely 60, 62 remain 42 remaining 1JII remember 30, 46, 60, 62, 611, 166, 194,20S remind 2, 50, 62, 66, 611, 72 remind of 56 repair 58 repeatedly 142 rt'ply 66, 76 report 44 , 46, 50, 56, 58, 66,207 reponedly 142 reput edly 142 requese 2, 72, 78 req uire 46, 66, 711 resemble 20 2 resmt 46, 60 ,1 94, 20 8 resolve 26 ~n 60

responsible 132 resull from 188 rcsulling 1311 reveal 50 rich 134 riches S4 ride 227 right 144 right across 176 rip;h tly 156 ring 227 rip 56 rise 227 risk 186, 20 8 roll 152 ro ugh 144 rule of th umb 86 ru n 152,227 run inro 188 runn er-up 86 S sad 140 s,adly 156 u .tisfaetion I K6 satisfied 186 save 5 8 sa vings 114 u vings account 116 saw 227

say 50 ,54,511,62,66, 611,72, 124,209, 227 sca rcely 96, ISO, 158,

200 sca re 192 schoo l SO scient ific 136 sco rnful 76 ~. 90 ~aside 90 secret 194 see 30, 44, 50, 60, 68, 194, 202, 20S, 22 7 seeing;a s 160 smng Ihat 160 seek 227 seem 42, 46,62, 114, 1J2, 164, 190, 192 ,

202 seen 140

seldo m 96, ISO, 152,

200 self 120 sell 58, 207, 227 selves 120 send 44,46, 511,227 sense 1116 seriously ISO, 156 set 227 sew 227 sha ke 22 7 sha ll 40, 74,1 28,121 sh;aIVsha n't 26 sha me 1116 sham poo 90 sha ve 120 she 112 shea r 227 shed 22 7 sheer 131 shine 22 7 shock 192, 107 shock ed 7 8, 140 shoot 227 s ho o t down 188 shop around I ll lI short-term 1311 shon(ly) 142 sho uld 40 , 74 , 128, 198, 205,206,22 1,224 sho w 46, 50, 58, 62, 66 , 68 , 20 8 shrink 217 shul 56,127 shul up 11111 side by side 94 sign 1116 similar 132 similarly 174 simple 140 simply 134, 154 since 6, 12, 14, 1111, 174 since ( beca u~l 160, 174 sing 56,58, 227 sink 227 sister-in-law 86 sil 152,227 sky 90

d eep 207,227 sleeping 132 slide 227 slighdy 134, 150 sling 128 slowly 148 slow(ly) 142 sma ll-Kale U S smell 30 , 202 , 228 smoke 56 so 146,1 74 , 200 so as 10 162 so do 1 200 , 216 so far 180 so lo ng as 174 so Ihat 162,1 74 soft 144 sofH po ken 138 solely 154 some 96 , 110, 122, 2 11- 12,220 some' 82 some (o f) 82, 212 somebod y 48, 96, 2 12 someone 48, 96, 1 11 something 4 8, 96, 190,

212 sometimes 36, 148 so mew ha t 154 soon 174 sooner 15K, 170 , 200 sorry 1J 2, 140 so rt OUI 188 sound 2, 42 , 90 , 164 ,

202 so ur-tasting 138

sow 128 speak 60 , 21 8 special 144 special ise in 56 specifically 154 speculate 66 , 68 specula tion 76 , 172 speed 228 spell 22 8 spend 228 spill 228 spin 128 spit 22 8 splash out 188 split 22 8 split up 188 spoi l 22 11 spo t 208 spread 128 spri ng 94 , 228 sla ff 84 Sla m 114 seand 151, 118 sra nd up 188 sia n 46, 56, 60, 62, 130,

20. sian 10 finish 94 state-of-the-art 86 state ment 76 srarisuc s 84 Slay 42 , 1110 steal 228

Sik k 128 Sling 22 8 Slink 22 8 sdp ulate 78 stol en 138 stop 60 , 1011 srraig hr 136 str a nge-soundin g 138

stri ke 192, 22 8 strive 228 srrong 134 study 56 stu pid 140 stu pidly 156 subd ued 142 subsequently 174 such 200 such th at 162 sudden ly 4 , 142 suffer 150 sufficiently 146 suggcsr 2,44, 50, 54 , 58, 66 , 72, 78, 124, 20 11 sUgKtslio n 76, 130 suita ble 132 sum mer 94 sun 90 superb 134 su p pose 20 , 50 , 54 ,64, 124 , 170 scppcsed 10 28, 190 , 106 sup posedl y 142 supposing 20, 170 , 174 sure 76, 132, 140 surp rise 191, 194 surp rised 78 surp risedlsurprisinR 2 I 6 surp risingly 156 surr oundings 84 suspect 114 suspicio us 42 swea r 72 , 228 sweep 22 8 swee t-smelling 138 swell 128 swim 151, 20 7, 228 swing 22 8 sympathetic 76 sympa thy 102

T tact ful 76 la ke 5 8, 191, 194 , 207,

m

lak e a h n 44 , 1118 lake aga inst 188 tak e on 110 ta ke o ver 188 lake up on 18 8 lakto 138 ralk 60 la lk aboulloUo nlwi lh 68, 172, 184 talk dow n to 44 talk OUI of 188 ta ste 30, 192, 201 lea cup 116 lea leaf 86

293


Index of lexical item s

294

teach 44. 46 , 58 ,62, b6, 68 , 208 , 228 team 80 lea r 228 lear aw a y fro m 110 tech nic al 1] 6 tech nically 156 tell 44 ,46, 50, 58 ,60. 62, 66 , 68, 72 , 124, 20 7,208,209,228 tell apa rt 188 len d 46, 190 terr ible 134, 140 terrific 140 th an 198 tha nk 2 than ks 84 that 106, 110, 112, 138, 196 , 209, 22 3 t hat is 112 the 92 , 94, 122, 144, 2 19, 22 0 th e afflu en t 122 the disa dvant ag ed 122 the elderly 122 the ho meless 122 the lo w-paid 122 the mai n 122 th e majorit y of 82 th e min ute/ second! momen t 6 th e num be r of 112 th e onl y 122 the ponr 122 th e position of 92 th e post o f 92 the privileged 122 the rich 122 the ro le of 92 th e sligh les t 186 the sole 186 th e wa y 6S the wea lthy 122 the who le of ISO the young 122 their 220 them selves 120, 2 15 then 152, 174 th ere 50, 82, 190 th ere goe s 198 there is 190 t herefore 174 the se 122, 209 they 48 the y say 4 thi nk 2,8,10,50, 54 , 56,62,64,66,68, 124,194, 202 ,228 think ab o ut 8, 10, 172 thin k o f 8, 10,60 thin{]y) 142 this 92 , 122,209 , 22 0 this mo rning/week/ month 6 those 122, 138 thoug h 164, 174 thoughlful 140 th rea t 76

threaten 62, 72 thro ugh 118,1 76, I IlO throu gho ut 176 , 1110 th ro w 44 , 58, 207, 228 throw awa y 188 thrust 228 thus 174 tid y aw ay 188 lill 180 tired 140 tired/ tir ing 216 title 44 10 130 10 da le ISO to m y/h is/her knowledge 156 tod ay 6 tom orro w 150 too 146,1 54,1 74 total 132 tota lly 134 tou ch 207 tow n 90 tra nspire 192 travel industry 90 tread 228 trea tme nt 11W tr ee-lined 138 tr emendo us 134 tr emen dously 154 troub le abou t/ with 120 tr ue 136, 144 tr y 130,20S try out IS8 tu rn 4 2 turn in 18S turn ou t 42, 192

U un able 96, 140 un aware 140 unbelievabl y 156 un certain 76, 140, 172 un cer tain ty 172 un co mfortable 140 un decided 172 un der 176 under lying Ll 2 undern eath 176 un dersta nd 2, 12, 30, 46. 50,66, sa. 124, 166, 194, 202, 22 8 un dert ake 26 undoubtedly 156 undr ess 120 unexpectedly 142 unh appy 42, 140 un iqu e 134, 144 un iversit y 80 unknown 134 unless 20 , 172 , 174 unlik ely 96 un necessary 78 unprofession al 140 un reasonable 140 unsu re 132, 140, 172 unsure, nor sure 76 until 6, 20, l SI!, 174,

180, 200 un til now 180 un well 132 unw illingness 186 up 1911 up liII 180 up to 180 upset 78. 140. 192 upsta irs 148 urge 72, 78 urgent 78 usc 194 use up 18S used to 32,74, 190,204. 205 . 22 1 usuall y 148 utt er 1] 2 utt erly 134 V vary 56, 150 very 134, 154 very m uch 154 view 194 violentl y 148 virt uall y 102, Ll4. 1J4 visit 180 visually 156 vital 78 volu n tee r 62 , 72 vote 44 vow 72

W wait 62,207 wak e 56, 22S walk 152 want 8, 10, 26 , 46 , 64 ,

72 , 130 , 207 ,208 warn 2, 50, 62, 66, 68, 72 ,78,207, 208 wa rn ing 76, 78 was h 56 , 110 was h up 56. 18S w a tch 60 , 208 wave 56 way 142,186 we 48 weak 134 wear 228 wea ve 228 week 102 week ly 152 weep 228 weigh 2, 202 welco me 140 wel l 132 well-be haved 138 well-reso urced 138 were 170 we t 228 what 52. 64.68.76. 108.207 what if 20 what with 118 wha tever 108 wh at's more 174 , 22J when 6,20,54,68, 108,

158, 174, 196, 200, 213 whe never 118, 174 whe re (,4, 68, 82, 108, 196,22J whereabou ts S4 whereas 164, 174 whereby 108 whe the r 64,68,76, 172 which 52, 64 , 68, 106, 110, 122,1 96, 207, 222, 223 whic hever 108 while 20. 111I, 1511, 164, 174, 220 whilst 164 who 52, 64,68, 106, 10~ , 196, 207, 22 2. 213 whoe ver 108 who le 102, 134 whom 52 , 106, 110, 223 whose 52. 10 8, 207, 223 why 68, 108, 196,223 wide (ly) 142 wild 136 will 18, 20, 26, 32, Il8, 204,22 1 willin g 140 willingness. 186 win % , 228 wind 2211 wind up 188 wint er 94, 102 wisely 156 wi\h 170, 201l with 118, 184 with confusion 142 withou t 96, 118 wo man 's face 116 women 's clinic 86 wo nd er 4, 8, 68 wond er ful IJ4, 140 world 90 worn 144 wo rried 42, 140, 144 worried/ wnrryinK 216 worriedl y 142 worry 31l, 19l would 32. 74, 128. 204, 205 ,2 18, 221 would like 130 would rather 170 would soone r 170 wrinK 22 8 wrue 56, 58 , 228 wrong 144 wro ngly L'i6 y yeste rda y 152 yet 174 yo u 48 yo ung 134 your 122, 220, 22 2 yo urs 222 yourself 120, 2 15 yourselves 2 15


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