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OVERVIEW OF THE FRESH KILLS LANDFILL VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM: Cover Type Test Plots to Assess Establishment & Maintenance Procedures

Prepared for SCS Engineers 2 Crosfield Avenue, Suite 422 West Nyack NY 10994

By

Andropogon Associates, Ltd. 374 Shurs Lane Philadelphia PA 19128

13 March 1990


Overview of the Fresh Kills Landfill Vegetation Management Program: Cover Type Test Plots to Assess Establishment & Maintenance Procedures

Contents

page

Introduction

2

Proposed Cover Types

6

Vegetation Installation Calendar

11

Vegetation Trials Spreadsheet

12

Vegetation Trials Key Plan

15

Planting Installation Specifications

16

Item 16.0 Topsoil for Capping System Pilot Program

16.0 - 4 pp

Item 17.0 Short-Term Cool-Season Hydroseed & Hydromulch

17.0 - 4 pp

Item 18.0 Short-Term Cool-Season Grass Seed Drilling

18.0 - 5pp

Item 19.0 Land Imprinting and Short-Term Cool-Season Seeding

19.0 - 6pp

Item 20.0 Warm-Season Grass Seed Drilling

20.0 - 5pp

Item 21.0 Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting

21.0 - 4pp

Item 22.0 Warm-Season Hydroseeding & Hydromulch

22.0 - 5pp

Item 23.0 Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover

23.0 - 4pp


Overview of the Fresh Kills Landfill Vegetation Management Program: Cover Type Plots to Assess Establishment & Maintenance Procedures INTRODUCTION

The general guidelines for landfill revegetation include the establishment of grass cover to acheive erosion and sediment control. Typically 24 inches (or 60 em) of cover soil above the impermeable clay or geomembrane is recommended to sustain long-term eventual growth. Wherever tree growth is anticipated or desired, 36 inches (or 90 em) is recommended in order to provide better anchorage for large specimens, as well as more favorable growing conditions such as better moisture retention (Gilman, Flower, & Leone 1983, Standardized Procedures for Planting Vegetation on Completed Sanitary Landfills). Regardless of the depth of cover soil or what kind of vegetation is initially established, empirical evidence suggests that most landfills gradually succeed to woody vegetation over time because of limited maintenance. The cover soon develops into a mixture of invasive exotics, such as Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), white mulberry (Morus alba), and tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) locally, which colonize well under disturbed conditions, as well as ubiquitous native species such as common reed (Phragmites communis), and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The habitats that such species produce are typically degraded compared to native communities and of less value ecologically. This familiar scenario, however, does not adequately address the requirements of the closure design for the Fresh Kills Landfill for several reasons: 1. Current conventional standards for landfill maintenance are very costly in the long run. In New York State, the Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) has adopted management practices which conform to federal hazardous waste landfill standards and are more restrictive regarding vegetation, exceeding the requirements typically recognized for municipal landfills. The state presently recommends limiting the vegetative growth to grass or herbaceous cover precluding trees for the thirty-year regulatory review period. Current practices for closure typically entail hydroseeding a mixture of non-native cool-season grasses, such as perennial rye over the two feet of cover soil. Continuous management, such as annual mowing and some liming and fertilization, is required until all regulatory review requirements are met. However, this is very costly and, in practice, compliance is inconsistent but, because of its size and visibility, Fresh Kills is likely to be subject to continued scrutiny.

Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

2


2. Although present cool-seeding grass costs using hydroseeding appear low, $.05 $.08 per square foot, the results are variable. Reseeding is frequently required, with additional patching also necessary. Erosion is high and sediment control is generally poor, at least at the outset. Clearly, improved techniques are required just for effective topsoil stabilization at Fresh Kills. This will, by definition, require greater monetary investment for intallation alone than is currently recognized. 3. The mown grass cover type does not satisfy the goals set by either the Department of Parks & Recreation or local environmental and community groups. The uniform grass cover where a few minor areas are planted with trees is biotically and scenically impoverished. To nearly everyone interviewed during the Key Informant Survey, real restoration of the landfill was perceived to be the return to natural landscapes which are of value as parkland, habitat, and scenery and are also largely self-sustaining. 4. The use of warm-season native grasses is neither encouraged or precluded by D.E.C., but has not yet been adopted for wide-spread use at landfills. Cool-season grasses typically require higher levels of maintenance than native species, including liming, fertilizing, and more frequent mowing. Once established, the native grasses will be significantly less costly to maintain over time. The Fresh Kills site is so large that some initial investment to develop more cost effective establishment and maintenance procedures for warm-season grasses could save millions of dollars during the closure and 30-year regulatory review periods. If cool-season grass cover, for example, were maintained according to current recommendations, the long-term cost could translate to over $260 million assuming mowing four times per year and fertilizing and liming once per year. Even with the more costly establishment methods for warm-season grasses, the long-term cost would be between $60-100 million, assuming mowing once every three years and a single application of fertilizer only during the first year after planting. 5. There is, at present, a growing body of evidence that the locally available clay, which has been used to establish the impermeable layer of the cap, produces soil conditions which stress vegetation, including high acidity and high levels of available heavy metals. At this time, it is not known over how much of the area toxic conditions might prevail. However, it is known that a wide variety of native plant communities are far more tolerant of such conditions than most cool-season grasses. Native grasslands are also more tolerant of the droughty conditions that will prevail on the landfill. Gilman, Plower & Leone 1983, Standardized Procedures for Planting Vegetation on Completed Sanitary Landfills, consistently recommends the use of irrigation. However, since this would be extremely expensive, drought tolerant cover types will be investigated as a more cost-effective option.

Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

3


In response to these concerns, an experimental program was initiated by DOS to develop appropriate techniques for establishing and maintaining native plant communities, as an alternative to the conventional approach. The initial focus has been on establishing native grasslands, which meets the current DEC requirements, while also reestablishing valuable wildlife habitat, which has diminished sharply in recent years on Staten Island.

The intent of the Vegetation Management Program currently being developed as part of the End-Use and Landscape Master Plan is to extend the existing experimental sites into a full-scale program to assess establishment and management procedures for the recommended cover types for the Fresh Kills Landfill. All existing vegetation on the landfill, whether volunteer or planted, represents an important source of information and all presently vegetated landfill areas have been incorporated in the Vegetation Management Program. The following general guidelines are proposed in evaluating the cover types and establishment & management procudures: 1. The proposed cover types should require as little maintenance over time as feasible. The proposed maintenance recommendations should be prioritized to permit flexible budgetary programming over time.

2. All procedures should be evaluated over time, and long-term costs compared with initial cost. Because of the uncertainty of funding projections, it is generally advisable to acheive as high a level of stabilization as possible during the capital cost phase. This may include lengthening the term of the capital project budget to include maintenance of the vegetation during it's most critical establishment period. 3. The development of new planting techniques and management procedures should be appropriate for large-scale application, favoring Single-season procedures, and simple adaptations of existing technologies and equipment. 4. The aesthetic values of a cover type should be recognized when evaluating it's cost effectiveness and performance. For example, an aesthetically acceptable cover type may reduce the need for additional screening, buffer planting or fencing to meet scenic requirements. It may, therefore, prove more cost effective to redirect a portion of monies, which may have been allocated for scenic remediation, into developing aesthetically improved landfill cover types.

Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

4


5. Habitat value should also be recognized as an economic value. The maintenance requirements of a stable native community are lower than those in disturbed landscapes where the cover effectiveness is more variable. Habitat quality is also of value to the NYC DPR and this would be recognized as a valuable asset in any future negotiations with DOS involving the return of any or all of the landfill site for park use. 6. The experimental program should include monitoring of all cover types. This information might be required by DEC for review, and will also provide valuable information to help determine what cover types will be best to used at Fresh Kills in the future. The recommended cover types should include cover types suited to current conditions which are in conformance with existing DEC expectations, as well as on-site evaluation of any proposed alternatives, such as woody cover types. Effective erosion and sediment control strategies should be developed which are suitable for use at any time of the year. 7. A diversity of cover types is strongly recommended to avoid the problems of a monoculture and to favor overall site diversity. Ideally, the cover types should provide a vocabulary of landscape installations which can be flexibly applied at the site in response to seasons, changing conditions or new information. This Preliminary Report is divided into the following sections: 1. Proposed Cover Types which describe the existing vegetation and proposed

establishment and management program, including pilot projects scheduled for spring 1990. 2. Planting Installation Specifications for spring 1990, including modifications to the Briar Contract.

Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

5


PROPOSED COVER TYPES The proposed cover types are divided into two major groups: field cover & woody cover. Field cover types provide primary stabilization with grasses. All the field cover types conform to current DEC management guidelines, and additional field cover types are currently being developed. Woody cover types could be planted or managed to develop from field cover types over time upon review and approval by DEC. The only proposed woody installations being developed at this time are for the assessment of root penetration as part of the capping system pilot program. The existing and proposed cover type test plots are identified on an accompanying plan which notes the area location, cover type, site aspect, installer, and date of installation, the planting mix and installation techniques, as well as additional remarks and the results of the February 1990 site review. At this time, all areas of vegetation on the landfill are proposed for monitoring and are considered to be a test plot. Those installations which are scheduled for 1990 are shaded in grey. A vegetation installation calendar is also included for all projects proposed in 1990. Field Cover Types - Cool Season Grass Existing Areas of cool-season grasses There are four existing areas of cool-season grasses, all of which are sited over a clay cap on closed landfill slopes. Area 7 is located on Section 1/9 and was sown with a native tree and shrub mix, a wildflower seed mix, as well as fescue, rye, and bluegrass. Areas 4, 5 and 6 are all located on Section 3/4 and include legumes and grasses sown in 1988 & 1989. The present rate of effective coverage ranges between 60% and 70% despite numerous overseedings. Projected maintenance costs are high. Additional seeding as well as regular liming and fertilizing would be required to improve coverage and sustain adequate cover. At this time, the exact seeding rates used are not known, as the specification then in use called for a very low seeding rate which was apparently increased by the contractors. The modified specifications provided in Part 2 of this report also increase the amount of seed, a very low cost amendment. The long-term maintenance requirements of the existing areas of cool-season grasses may be complicated by problems associated with the sulfur content of the clay used to establish an impermeable cap to the landfill. It is not known at this time what the most cost-effective remediation strategy may be; however, a monitoring and evaluation program is currently being developed. In some areas, soil acidity levels may stabilize at a pH levels with the acidity tolerance necessary to support native warm-season grasses, such as little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius. also Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

6


known as Schizachyrium scoparium). These are volunteering at the Brookfield Landfill where soil pH levels are very low, between 3 - 4.5. The transition to native grasses may occur naturally or could be enhanced by management. It is not now known how much lower the pH may eventually drop. Although cool-season grass cover types are not recommended for extensive use, because of maintenance requirements and lack of habitat value, continued development of cool-season seeding techniques is still warranted in order to address the following issues. 1. The installation and management of cool-season grasses which provide the most rapid cover and are well suited for use as interim cover, should be modified to increase effective cover and erosion control. Several techniques, including drilled vs. broadcast seed, mini-terracing, and a modified hydroseeding procedure, will be evaluated using precipation simulation for a variety of storm events in association with the capping system pilot program 1990. (See Draft Overview of the Demonstration Program proposed for the Fresh Kills Landfill Closure System, prepared by GeoServices Inc., 13 February 1990.) 2. The capital cost of establishing a cool-season grass meadow with subsequent maintenance and management to foster the development of stable native grassland should be compared with the cost of establishing a native grassland directly. 3. The cool-season grass cover type should be compared with other cover types in the root penetration studies with regard to impact on the landfill cap. 4. An upgraded interim cover type should be developed for those areas which are sensitive to off-site views and especially where interim cover may be sustained for more than one year. For relatively little cost, additions such as wildflower seed could make a significant improvement to the landfill's appearance, especially as the mounds rise into view above the screening berms. Proposed Cool-Season Grass Installations in 1990 1. In order to address the problems of rilling and furrowing of sown slopes and poor erosion and sediment control, a series of erosion test plots are included with the capping system pilot program. Three specification modifications to the current cool-season grass installation methods are proposed for assessment: a. A modified hydroseed and hydromulch specification which includes a two-step installation where the seed is hydrautically applied first, before the mulch. This insures improved soil-seed contact for better germination and reduces the Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

7


chance that the seed will lodge in the mulch where it can be pulled away from the soil as the mulch dries and contracts.

b. A seed drilling with hay mulch and tackifier specification, which is also intended to provide improved soil-seed contact for better germination. In addition, embedded seed is generally more protected from dessication. Seed drilling is not yet widely applied in the northeast.

c. A land-imprinting specification which is intended to provide mini-terracing of the soil surface to acheive better erosion control as well as better moisture retention below the soil surface. This technique may also be evaluated for use on interim cover where the low quality soils make vegetation establishment difficult and stabilization therefore also difficult to acheive. 2. An upgraded interim cover specification with wildflowers will be evaluated on Section 6/7. 3. Cool-season grasses will also be established with the other recommended cover types for the Root Penetration Test Plots. Field Cover Types - Warm-Season Grass Existing Areas of Warm-Season Grasses There are three existing areas of native warm-season grasses. Area 1 is located on Section 3/4, where in June 1989 a mix of native grasses was sown by hydroseeding and tracking. Little bluestem is predominant with 60% coverage, comparable to the existing cool-season grass sites, despite poor soil conditions. Very light seeding rates were specified. It is not known exactly what applications the contractor used. Area 2 is located on Section 2/8, where the same seed mix was dormant-seeded with winter rye for temporary cover, also hydro seeded and tracked. Soil conditions are very good, although the effectiveness of dormant seeding is not yet known. Winter rye, however, has provided approximately 80% coverage. Additional dormant seeding was installed in Section 3/4, Area 3 where a variety of soil amendments are being assessed. Because of the suitability of native grasslands to the soil conditions at Fresh Kills, the low level of maintenance anticipated and their greater scenic and habitat value, continued development of appropriate establishement techniques is strongly recommended. The warm-season installations for spring 1990 include both seed drilling and modification to the existing hydroseeding specifications. In addition, native grass plug planting will be evaluated for use in areas where very rapid effective cover by native species is required. Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

8


Proposed Warm-season grass installations in 1990: 1. In order to develop the most cost-effective seed drilling specification, DOS, the contractor and the design team are working closely with Carlos Montoya, from Martha's Vineyard, who has developed a modified seed drill for use with native grasses. Warm-season grasses will be installed on strips 3 & 4 of the Vegetation Test Plots on Section 3/4. Embedded seed is preferable to broadcast seed, especially for native grasses; however, only minimal experimentation has been undertaken locally.

2. A modified two-step hydroseeding specification will be assessed for use on both Sections 3/4 & 2/8. 3. A warm-season grass plug specification will be assessed for use on Strip 2 of the Vegetation Test Plots on Section 3/4. 4. Warm-season grasses will also be established on the Root Penetration Test Plots. Woody Cover Types - Shrubland Shrubland cover types native to Staten Island occur both in early successional communities and as relatively stable habitats. If analogous communities could be established on the landfill, they would be very economical to maintain and have very high habitat and scenic value. The species which typify these communities are also characterized by a very dense network of shallow roots and provide excellent stabilization on the droughty sandy soils similar to those found on the landfill. There is a very high probability that these communities would present no greater threat to the impermeable cap layer clay or geomembrane than cool-season grasses, although test plots are required for verification before proceeding with extensive planting. Existing Areas of Shrubland Two existing shrubland plantings occur. In the fall of 1988 a test plot on the NW corner of section 3/4 was oversown with sumac, bayberry, wildflowers and native grasses as well as grass plugs. Small red cedar was also planted. Erosion control was poor at the outset and bare patches persist. In the fall of 1989, container-grown shrubs species were planted over a clay layer intended to simulate a clay cap on the NE corner of section 3/4. Additional shrubs and scrub tree species will be planted for evaluation in 1990. Proposed Shrub land Installations in 1990. 1. Species evaluation on Section 3/4

2. Root Penetration Shrubland Cover Type Evaluation Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

9


Woody Cover Types - Woodland

The lowest level of maintenance feasible would result in gradual return to forest cover although there is, at present, no woodland cover over closed landfill operations. Even if more restrictive maintenance is carried out during the 30-year regulatory review interval, the return to woodland is the most likely scenario in the long-term. Proposed Woodlands Installation in 1990 1. At this time, the only proposed tree plots are those of the Root Penetration Test

Plots. These will be installed in the fall of 1990. Trees which are known for deep roots will be included among the species tested. Topsoil Improvements In addition to assessing these modifications to the installation techniques, the topsoil specification has also been modified to require more extensive soil testing and a higher organic content as well as a revised installation technique. The most significant change in the specification is to ensure compliance with appropriate soil testing procedures to ensure a more reliable and consistent product. Assuring effective compliance with soil specifications will become increasing important as reliance on made soils increasing, such as the yard-waste compost will be processed at Fresh Kills. This compost should all be used as soil amendment on site and the produce specification should reflect this anticipated use. No other soil amendment has produced better results than organic matter in the existing trial sites at Fresh Kills.

Fresh Kills Vegetation Management Program

10


FRESH KILLS - VEGETATION INSTALLATION CALENDAR - 3/12/90 COVER TYPE

NOV

DEC

INTERIM COVER -Perennial & Annual Rye

FINAL COVER -Cool Season Grasses Warm Season Grasses Warm Season Grasses (dormant seeding with winter rye) Warm Season Grass Plugs Trees & Shrubs - B&B Trees & Shrubs - BR

Section 6/7: 1 April - 1 May 1-May May 2-8/15 May 9-16 May 10-16+

Installation of cap test plots -- geomembrane & sub/top soil etc. Cool-season grass installation for erosion test plot (cap test plot 1) Erosion plot assesment Cool-season grass installation for stability test plot (cap test plot 2) Installation of remaining area to be closed in test plot area; either interim cover (Annual/Perennial Rye mix & wildflowers trials) a/or final cover seeding for Root Penetration Test plot in Fall '90 (cap test plot 3)

Sections 2/8 and 3/4: May 16/21 - 1 June

Warm-season grass installations on 2/8 and 3/4 including Montoya and Dixon -- Plugs/Drilling DOS mix Drilling A. scoparius & F. avina/Drilling A. scoparius alone/Hydroseed-track-hydromulch techniques/Imprinting

Specifications: Item 16. Topsoil for Capping Systems Pilot Program Item 17. Short-Term Cool-Season Hydroseeding & Hydromulching for Capping System Pilot Program, Area 15, Section 1/9 (annual/perennial rye mix) Item 18. Short-Term Cool-Season Grass Seed Drilling for Capping System Pilot Program, Area 15, Section 1/9 (annual/perennial rye mix with hay mulch) Item 19. Land Imprinting and Short-Term Cool-Season Seeding for Capping System Pilot Program, Area 15, Section 1/9 Item 20. Warm-Season Grass Seed Drilling for Vegetation Test Plots, Area 3, Section 3/4 Item 21. Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting for Vegetation Test Plots, Area 3, Section 3/4 Item 22. Warm-Season Hydroseeding & Hydromulching, Areas 11, 12 & 14, Sections 3/4 and 218 (Warm-Season modified DOS seed mix) Item 23. Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover, Area 10A, Section 6(7


VEGETATION TRIALS - FRESH KILL LANDFILL - 8926 (3/12/90)


VEGETATION TRIALS - FRESH KILL LANDFILL - 8926 (3/12/90)


VEGETATION TRIALS - FRESH KILL LANDFILL - 8926 (3/12/90)


PLANTING INSTALLATION SPECIFICATIONS SPRING 1990


ITEM 16.0 - TOPSOIL FOR CAPPING SYSTEM pnOT PROGRAM FOR AREA 10, SECTION 6/7 D-16.0l

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing, amending if required, placing, and preparing material for seeding as shown on the Drawings and/or as directed by the Engineer. In general, topsoil will be placed in area of the landfill reserved for the Capping Systems Pilot Program. D-16.02

SUBMITTALS

D-16.02.l General: Make submittals in accordance with the provisions and procedures of Item 2.0. Render submittals and receive approval prior to delivery or installation. Submit certified reports at least three (3) weeks prior to delivery of materials to the site. D-16.02.2 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results.Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295). The following information and testing shall be submitted for the Engineers's review and approval: (a) (b) ( c) ( d) (e) ( f) ( g) (h) (i) (j )

(k) (I)

(m)

pH Specific Conductance Percent Organic Content Percent Sand Percent Silt Percent Clay Texture Fractions Available Phosphorus Available Potassium Available Magnesium Available Calcium Seed Content

D-16.02.3 Product Data: Submit product literature, written description or tear sheets giving name of product, manufacturer's name and compliance with specifications for all topsoil amendments. D-16.03

MATERIAL

D-16.03.1 Topsoil: The topsoil shall be a fertile, friable, natural loam, surface soil of uniform quality with a sandy loam texture and shall not contain subsoil materials. The topsoil shall be free of refuse, hard clods, woody vegetation, stiff clay, construction debris, boulders, stones larger than four (4)

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Topsoil for Capping Systems Pilot Program

D-16.0 - 1


inches in any dimension, materials or chemicals toxic to plants, and any other undesirable material. All topsoil shall be from off-site sources. On-site topsoil may not be used. D-16.03.2 Organic Content: The topsoil shall have a minimum organic content of not less than 5.00 percent by volume. The organic content shall be increased by adding humus in the form of partially or completely decomposed leaf mold or approved organic matter at a rate necessary to attain the minimum organic content specified. The organic content of soils shall be determined by the laboratory using the chromic acid titration method as described in the United States Department of Agricutlture's Circular #757. D-16.03.3 Graduation: The graduation of the topsoil shall be determined by the laboratory using the Bookcase Hydrometer Analysis conforming to the requirements of current ASTM Designation D 422. The graduation of the topsoil shall be within the following ranges: Mat~hlal

PartiQl~

Sand Silt Clay

(2.000mm to 0.050mm) (0.050mm to 0.005mm) (0.005mm and smaller)

Diam~t~r

Q~aDtit짜

(percent ovendry wt) 40% to 65% 25% to 40% 10% to 20%

except that when one half of the sand content is larger than 0.500mm, then the maximum sand content shall be 60 percent and the minimum clay content shall be 15 percent. The lower limits of silt and clay shall be flexible to the extent that soils with a minimum combined silt and clay content of 20 percent shall be satisfactory. However, if more than one half of the sand is larger than 0.500mm, then the minimum clay content shall be 25 percent. D-16.03.4 pH: The topsoil shall have a pH value within a range of 5.5 to 6.5, depending on the seed mix used. D-16.03.5 Specific Conductance: Soluble salt content (conductivity) for topsoil shall be less than 0.5mmhos/cm for a 1:2 soil:water ratio. D-16.04

EXECUTION

The contractor shall complete all grading within the area to be covered with topsoil in order to bring the surface of the subsoil to the required grades. Topsoil shall be evenly placed to a minimum thickness of six (6) inches or as directed by the Engineer. The spreading of topsoil shall be performed in such a manner that seeding can proceed without additional soil preparation or tillage. The grading for both the subsoil and

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Topsoil for Capping Systems pilot Program

D-16.0 - 2


topsoil shall be done with a blade dozer, grading across the slope. The configuration of the final grade to be reviewed and approved by the Engineer prior to beginning the work. Large irregularities in the surface resulting from topsoiling shall be corrected so as to prevent the formation of depressions where water can collect. Topsoil shall not be placed when the subgrade is frozen, excessively wet, extremely dry or in a condition otherwise detrimental to the proposed seeding. The thickness of the in-place topsoil will be checked after the completion of the work on a pattern and number of test holes established by the Engineer or his representative. The Contractor will be responsible for digging holes in the topsoil to allow for the measurements to be taken. After measurements have been made, the Contractor shall backfill the holes with topsoil. Placement of topsoil shall be performed only when it can be followed within 14 days by planting or seeding operations. After topsoiling and finish grading, no heavy equipment, trucks, etc. shall be permitted to travel on loamed areas. The Contractor shall, through mechanical raking, and hand grading with rakes and shovels, grade all areas around fences, pipes, and other structures in preparation for final seeding. D-16.04.1 Amending: The Contractor may amend natural topsoil with approved materials and by approved methods to meet the specifications for pH and organic matter content. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, for his review and approval the materials and procedures for amendment before any ammendment takes place. D-16.04.2 Mechanical Raking: The Contractor shall, as part topsoil spreading operation, mechanically rake and clean debris from the topsoil prior to seeding operations. The shall be performed with equipment commonly used for this which has been approved by the Engineer.

of the all work purpose

D-16.04.3 Disposal: The Contractor shall dispose of all undesirable materials and debris raked from the topsoil, in accordance with the Specific Provisions. D-16.04.4 The Contractor is responsible for maintaining erosion protection during and after the placement of the topsoil, as required in Division D-0.21 of the Specific Provisions. D-16.05

MEASUREMENT

D-16.05.1 Final Cover: Topsoil quantities in areas of final cover shall be measured to the nearest cubic yard in-place material, computed from payment lines shown on the contract drawings, except where revised payment lines have been approved by the Engineer.

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Topsoil for Capping Systems Pilot Program

D-16.0 - 3


The measurement to determine the thickness of the Topsoil will be made perpendicular to the slope and shall be the distance from the surface of the Cover Fill material to the finish grade of the Topsoil. No other measurement will be made to determine the thickness. A deficiency of 1/2 inch will be permitted in the thickness at any particular measurement. However, the arithmetical average of the sum of measurements made over an acre of Topsoiled area will not be less than the thickness specified herein. Measurements will be made by the Engineer or his representative and the Contractor will be responsible for providing the necessary labor and equipment required. 0-16.05.2 Special Project: The quantity of Topsoil for special landscape projects shall be measured by truck volume delivered to the site and determined as water volume of the truck-bed capacity, if the load is full. 0-16.06

PAYMENT

The bid price for work under this section shall constitute full compensation for furnishing, amending, hauling, placing, raking, and preparing Topsoil for final seeding in accordance with this specification or as directed by the Engineer. No additional payment will be made for losses due to settlement, compaction erosion or any other cause. The bid price shall include all labor, equipment, material, and work incidental thereto, and necessary to provide for measurement of the Topsoil during construction. PAYMENT WILL BE MADE UNDER: Bid Item No.

Description

Pay Unit

16.1 16.2

TOPSOIL BY PAY LINES TOPSOIL TRUCK VOLUME

Cubic Yard

END OF ITEM 0-16.0

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Topsoil for Capping Systems Pilot Program

0-16.0 - 4


ITEM ]7,0 SHORT TERM COOL SEASON HYDROSEEDING & HypROMULCHING FOR CAPPING SYSTEM PILOT PROGRAM. AREA IS. SECTION 1/9 D-17,01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and incorporating all materials as specified into a Hydroseed and Hydromulch mix applied in two steps to the areas as designated on the drawings, All work shall be in strict accordance with these specifications and/or as directed by the Engineer, D-17,02

SUBMITTALS

D-17,02,1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material, D-17,02,2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein, D-17,02,3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results, Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P,O, Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) , D-17,03

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

All packaged materials shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages showing weight, analysis, and name of manufacturer, kept dry, and not opened until needed for use, Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used, D-17,04

MATERIAL

D-17,04,1 Grass Seed Mix: Grass Seed Mix shall be as follows: Seed

Proportion by Weight

Perennial Rye (Lolillm perenne)

60%

Annual Rye (Lolillm mllltiflorum)

40%

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Short-Term Hydroseeding

Mixture Application Rate 200 lbs,/acre

D-17,0 - 1


D-17.04.2 Grass Seed Types: Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne): Use only straight perennial rye seed. Do not include any varieties. Annual Rye (Lolium mllitifiorum): Use only straight annual rye seed. Do not include any varieties. D-17.04.3 Soil Amendments as per Soil Test Recommendations: Lime: Natural dolomitic limestone containing not less than 85% of total carbonates with a minimum of 30% magnesium carbonates, ground so that not less than 90% passes a 10-mesh sieve and not less than 50% passes a 100-mesh sieve. Commercial Fertilizer: Complete fertilizer of neutral character, with some elements derived from organic sources and containing the following percentages of available plant nutrients: August, September, and October Grass Seeding: 500 pounds of 5-l0-10/acre or 250 pounds of 10-10-10/acre. February, March, April, May, June, July, or November Grass Seeding: 2-1-1 ratio containing 35% or more total nitrogen than water insoluble nitrogen. Typical rates would be 500 pounds of either 10-6-4 or 10-5-5/acre or 250 pounds 16-8-8/ acre, or as approved by Engineer. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil immediately before seeding. D-17.04.3 Mulch: Conwed Virgin Wood Fibre Mulch. Cellulose fibre mulch shall consist of elongated virgin wood fibres. Mulch shall be dyed green with a non-toxic vegetable dye. D-17.04.4 Tackifier: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder. D-17.04.5 Lime: Pro lime liquid. D-17.04.6 Starter Fertilizer: 19-26-5 Starter Fertilizer. 200 pounds per acre. D-17.04.7 Hydroseeder/mulcher: 3,000 gallon Hydroseeder/mulcher with two paddle agitators, and one cutter agitator for complete shreeding of mulch capable of maintaining a homogeneous slurry. Recirculating type surry agitation is not acceptable as this type of agitation reduces seed viability. The hydroseeder/mulcher shall have a minimum of two different nozzles for application of mix. One nozzle for wide angle application and one for long distance spraying. The Hydroseeder/mulcher shall be mounted on a rubber tired vehicle and shall be manned by a qualifier operator.

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D-17.0 - 2


0-17.04.6 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. 0-17.05

EXECUTION

0-17.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. Do not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. 0-17.05.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to hydroseeding to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review. Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil amendments as reviewed by the Engineer. 0-17.05.3 Seedbed Preparation: All areas to be seeded if left for more than 7 days shall be loosened and made friable by scarifying to a depth of 3 inches, or as reviewed with Engineer. Soil amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results. Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein. 0-17.05.4 Soil Amendments: Amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results. Amendments shall be worked into the top three inches of the topsoil. Incorporation of amendments during scarification is acceptable. 0-17.05.5 Time for Hydroseeding: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer the times for Hydroseeding are as follows: Spring season Fall season

1 April to 1 June 15 August to 15 October

0-17.05.6 General Hydroseeding Procedures: Seed and fertilizer in the quantities required shall be combined with water and wood fiber mulch and kept under constant agitation and broadcast hydraulically to areas designated. 0-17.05.8 Hydroseeding: Apply seed, starter fertilizer, dye and lime at the prescribed rate with 200 pounds per acre of mulch to the prepared area The prescribed rate for soil amendment application shall be according to the soil test results.

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D-22.05.7 Tracking: Immediately after hydroseeding but before hydromulching seeded area shall be tracked with one pass of a track mounted dozer or loader or approved equal. Tracking shall be up and down the slope and not across the slope. D-17.05.9 Hydromulching: Apply hydromulch in a second operation at the rate of 1500 lbs.per acre or as deemed necessary by the Contractor to meet below requirements. Hydromulch shall be applied to achieve solid green coating, thick enough to withstand erosion and heavy rains. Should gullies or bare spots occur within the first three months after application, or before substantial germination, the eroded areas shall be regraded, reseeded and re-hydromulched. The Engineer shall be the sole judge of required repairs and adequacy of hydromulch application. D-17.06

ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING/HYDROMUI,CHING WORK

Final acceptance of the work will be made when in the opinion of the Engineer at least 75% of the seeded areas within a given work section have become established. Until such time as final acceptance is made, the Contractor shall be responsible for all repairs and reseeding including any watering required to obtain the necessary results. During the course of the Contract and until such time as areas are finally accepted, the Contractor shall be responsible any and all damages which may occur to completed areas. This section is in lieu of Article 24 "Maintenance and Guarantee" and shall apply to Hydroseeding only. D-17.08 MEASURMENT FOR PAYMENT: Payment for hydroseeding shall be made at a unit price per square yard and shall include the cost of all labor, materials and equipment, including all materials and incidental expenses as specified under this item, in accodance with the plans and specifications and directions of the Engineer. Payment: Shall be made at the price bid, per bid sheet item *

No.

*Payment shall be made in two (2) installments. The first payment installment to the Contractor shall be for forty-nine (49) percent of the total Hydroseed Area times the unit price bid, measured in place. The second installment (remaining fiftyone (51) percent shall be paid at final acceptance as defined in that Section of Item #17 entitled "ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING WORK" . END OF ITEM D-17.0

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ITEM 18.0 SHORT TERM COOL SEASON GRASS SEED DRILLING SEEpING FOR CAPPING SYSTEM PII.OT PROGRAM FOR AREA 15, SECTION J/9 0-18.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and installing seed, fertilizer, mulch, mulch binder and initial watering in accordance with the Contract Plans and Specifications, and/or as directed by the Engineer. 0-18.02

SUBMITTALS

0-18.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. 0-18.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. 0-18.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . 0-18.03

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

Fertilizer, lime, and seed shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages, kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. 0-18.04

MATERIAL

0-18.04.1 Mulch: The material for mulch shall be hay.or hay, mixed with clover or other acceptable native or forage grasses, wellcured to less than 20% moisture, by weight. 0-18.04.2 Mulch Stabilizer: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder blended with gelling or hardening agents. Terra-tack, as manufactured by Grass Growers Company, or equivalent. 0-18.04.3 Soil Amendments as per Soil Test Recommendations: Lime: Natural dolomitic limestone containing not less than 85% of total carbonates with a minimum of 30% magnesium carbonates, ground so that not less than 90% passes a 10-mesh sieve and not less than 50% passes a 100-mesh sieve.

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0-18.0 - 1


Commercial Fertilizer: Complete fertilizer of neutral character, with some elements derived from organic sources and containing the following percentages of available plant nutrients: August, September, and October Grass Seeding: 5-10-10/acre or 250 pounds of 10-10-10/acre.

500 pounds of

February, March, April, May, June, July, or November Grass Seeding: 2-1-1 ratio containing 35% or more total nitrogen than water insoluble nitrogen. Typical rates would be 500 pounds of either 10-6-4 or 10-5-5/acre or 250 pounds 16-8-8/ acre, or as approved by Engineer. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil immediately before seeding. D-18.04.4 Seed Requirements: Seed shall be clean and fresh and delivered to the site in the original, unopened containers showing net weight, composition of mix, date of germination tests, supplier's name, and guarantee of analysis. Seed shall conform to applicable state and federal regulations and to test provisions of Association of Official Seed Analysts. D-18.04.5 Grass Seed Mix: Grass Seed Mix shall be as follows: Seed

Proportion by Weight

Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne)

60%

Annual Rye (Lolium multiflorum)

40%

Mixture Application Rate 200 Ibs./acre

D-18.04.6 Grass Seed Types: Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne): Use only straight perennial rye seed, Do not include any varieties. Annual Rye (Lolium multiflorum): Use only straight annual rye seed, Do not include any varieties. D-18.04.7 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. D-18.05

EXECIITI速

D-18.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of

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D-18.0 - 2


the work. Do not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. D-18.05.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to seeding to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review.Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil ammendments as reviewed by the Engineer. D-18.05.3 Seedbed Preparation: All areas for more than 7 days shall be loosened York raking to a depth of 3 inches, or Engineer. Lime and fertilizer shall be the seedbed as recommended by the soil

to be seeded if left and made friable by as reviewed with incorporated into test results.

Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein. Smooth the topsoil only enough to insure uniform seeding by mechanical seeder. Free topsoil of stones larger than 1-1/2 inches in size and remove trash, debris, twigs, root mat, and other matter detrimental to grass development. Rake to establish the final grades and elevations. Final grading methods must be reviewed and approved by the Engineer prior to doing the work. D-18.05.4 Liming and Fertilizer: Add lime and fertilizer to the topsoil in uniform distribution as follows:

Lime Fertilizer (as cited in Material)

4,300 pounds/acre 250 pounds/acre

Adjust above quantities to correspond with soil test results and recommendation for grass establishment performed by the testing laboratory and as directed by the Engineer to determine amounts of lime and fertilizer (tests to be done by Contractor at no additional charge) .Obtain a minimum of 6 tests for the site. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil no more tha seven (7) days prior to seeding. Lime is to be mechanically applied. D-18.05.5 Grass Seeding: Seeding shall be done within 7 days of all liming and fertilizing, weather permitting. Areas to be seeded shall be reviewed by Engineer prior to seeding. The Engineer shall review seeding dates selected before any work is performed. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the times for seeding are as follows:

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Short-Term Drilled Seeding

D-18.0 - 3


Spring season Fall season

1 April to 1 June 15 August to 15 October

Do not seed if soil is excessively dry or saturated. Seed during favorable weather conditions. As approved by the Engineer prepare topsoil by scarifying to, loosening soil surface to a minimum two-inch depth, and remove stones and debris larger than 1-1/2 inches in any dimension. D-18.05.6 Sowing: Sowing shall be by the following method: Mechanical Power Drawn Seeder (Brillion Or approved equal) Combination grass planter and land packer or pulverizer. Seed to be planted not deeper than 1/4". Seeding operation shall be kept as close as possible to the contours and not up and down slopes. After seeding, compact with landroller, such as a cultipacker. With proper equipment, sowing seed and cultipacking in one operation is satisfactory. 0-18.05.7 Mulching: Mulch shall be placed immediately after seeding. Seeded areas shall be mulched to a uniform depth of 11/2 inches or at the rate of 2 tons/acre. Mulch may be mechanically spread or spread by hand. D-18.05.8 Mulch Binding: Mulch binder shall be applied immediately after placement of mulch. Binding shall be done by the application of liquid mulch binder or approved equal. Application shall be heavier at the edges where the wind may catch the mulch and in drainage ways. The remaining areas shall receive a uniform application. The mixing and application rates shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or as directed by the Engineer. All mulch shall be left in place and allowed to disintergrate, except that excessive amounts of hay shall be removed. D-18.05.9 Initial Watering: Water newly seeded areas immediately upon installation and keep moistened until grass becomes well established. In the event of insufficient rainfall, soak newly seeded areas every 4 to 6 days, or as required to sustain new seedlings during the germination period. Do not allow rills and furrows to form as a result of watering. 0-18.05.10

Inspection and Test

Seed: The Engineer shall be furnished with duplicate signed copies of a statement from the vendor certifying that each container of seed delivered is fully labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act and is at least equal to the requirements

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Short-Term Drilled Seeding

D-18.0 - 4


for seed in the MATERIAL paragraph of these with all copies of invoices for the seed. Each load of seed shall be subject to sampling and testing at the discretion of the Engineer. Sampling and testing will be in accordance with the latest Rules and Regulations nder the Federal Seed Act. Maintenance: The Contractor shall maintain the seeded areas from the date of installation for a period of six (6) weeks or to the date of substantial completion, whichever is later. Mowing will not be required. The Contractor shall reseed at his own expense any area which fails to show a uniform stand of grass.Maintenance shall include replacement of any portions of the seeded areas which are Or become unsatisfactory, in the opinion of the Engineer. D.18.06 MEASUREMENT The area of seeding shall be measured for payment to the nearest tenth of an acre. The area shall be determined on basis at the payment limits indicated on the Contract Drawings, unless otherwise modified by the Engineer. D .18.07 PAYMENT The contract price per acre shall be as indicated on the Bid Schedule of Prices for ITEM -- Seeding. The contract price shall constitute full compensation for all labor, material, equipment, testing, material and work incidental thereto, necessary to complete this item in accordance with the plans, specifications, and the directions of the Engineer. END OF ITEM D-18.0

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D-18.0 - 5


ITEM 19.0 - LAND IMPRINTING AND SHORT-TERM COOI,-SEASON SEEDING FOR CAPPING SYSTEM PILOT PROGRAM FOR AREA 15. SECTION 1/9 D-19.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and installing land imprinting, seed, fertilizer, mulch, mulch binder and initial watering in accordance with the Contract Plans and Specifications, and/or as directed by the Engineer. D-19.02

SUBMITTALS

D-19.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. D-19.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. D-19.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . D-19.03

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

Fertilizer, lime, and seed shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages, kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. D-19.04

MATERIAL

0-19.04.1 Mulch: The material for mulch shall be hay.or hay, mixed with clover or other acceptable native or forage grasses, wellcured to less than 20% moisture, by weight. D-19.04.2 Mulch Stabilizer: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder blended with gelling or hardening agents. Terra-tack, as manufactured by Grass Growers Company, Or equivalent. 0-19.04.3 Soil Amendments as per Soil Test Recommendations: Lime: Natural dolomitic limestone containing not less than 85% of total carbonates with a minimum of 30% magnesium carbonates, ground so that not less than 90% passes a 10-mesh sieve and not less than 50% passes a 100-mesh sieve.

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Land Imprinting and Seeding

0-19.0 - 1


Commercial Fertilizer: Complete fertilizer of neutral character, with some elements derived from organic SOurces and containing the following percentages of available plant nutrients: August, September, and October Grass Seeding: 5-10-10/acre or 250 pounds of 10-10-10/acre.

500 pounds of

February, March, April, May, June, July, or November Grass Seeding: 2-1-1 ratio containing 35% or more total nitrogen than water insoluble nitrogen. Typical rates would be 500 pounds of either 10-6-4 or 10-5-5/acre or 250 pounds 16-8-8/ acre, or as approved by Engineer. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil immediately before seeding. 0-19.04.4 Seed Requirements: Seed shall be clean and fresh and delivered to the site in the original, unopened containers showing net weight, composition of mix, date of germination tests, supplier's name, and guarantee of analysis. Seed shall conform to applicable state and federal regulations and to test provisions of Association of Official Seed Analysts. 0-19.04.5 Grass Seed Mix:Grass Seed Mix shall be as follows: Seed

Proportion by Weight

Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne) Annual Rye (Lolium multifl orum)

Mixture Application Rate 200 lbs. /acre

40%

0-19.04.6 Grass Seed Types: Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne): Use only straight perennial rye seed, Do not include any varieties. Annual Rye (Lolium multiflorum): Use only straight annual rye seed, Do not include any varieties. D-19.04.7 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. 0-19.05

EXECUTION

0-19.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. 00 not proceed with work until unsatisfactory

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Land Imprinting and Seeding

0-19.0 - 2


conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. D-19.05.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to seeding to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review. Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil ammendments as reviewed by the Engineer. D-19.05.3 Seedbed Preparation: All areas to be seeded if left for more than 7 days shall be loosened and made friable by scarifying to a depth of 3 inches, or as reviewed with Engineer.Soil amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results. Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein. Smooth the topsoil only enough to insure uniform seeding by mechanical seeder. Free topsoil of stones larger than 1-1/2 inches in size and remove trash, debris, twigs, root mat, and other matter detrimental to grass development. Rake to establish the final grades and elevations. Final grading methods must be reviewed and approved by the Engineer prior to doing the work. D-19.05.4 Time for Land Imprinting and Seeding: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer the times for land imprinting and seeding are as follows: Spring season Fall season

1 March to 15 May 15 August to 31 October

D-19.05.5 Liming and Fertilizer: Add lime and fertilizer to the topsoil in uniform distribution as follows: Lime Fertilizer (as cited in Material)

4,300 pounds/acre 250 pounds/acre

Adjust above quantities to correspond with soil test results and recommendation for grass establishment performed by the testing laboratory and as directed by the Engineer to determine amounts of lime and fertilizer (tests to be done by Contractor at no additional charge) .Obtain a minimum of 6 tests for the site. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil no more tha seven (7) days prior to seeding. Lime is to be mechanically applied.

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Land Imprinting and Seeding

D-19.0 - 3


D-19.05.6 Land Imprinting and Grass Seeding: Land imprinting and seeding shall be done within 7 days of all liming and fertilizing, weather permitting. Areas to be imprinted and seeded shall be reviewed by Engineer prior to beginning any work. The Engineer shall review imprinting seeding dates selected before any work is performed. Do not imprint and seed if soil is excessively dry or saturated. Soil should be dry enough so that it does not stick to imprinting teeth. Imprint and seed during favorable weather conditions. As approved by the Engineer. D-19.05.7 Land Imprinting: Land impriting shall be by the following method: Mechanical Power Drawn Dixon Land Imprinter as manufactured by Laird Welding & Manufacturing Works; P.O. Box 1053, Merced, California 95341 (209-722-4145) or approved equal. Imprinter is to be water filled to provide suffcient weight to produce a minimum of ten pounds per square inch to a maximum of twenty pounds per square inch. imprinter pressure on soil surface. Imprint depth shall be two inches. Imprinter shall have three ripping shanks mounted on imprinter tow frame and spaced two feet on center. Ripping depth shall be four inches. Land Imprinter shall be operated by forty horsepower motorized crawler or approved equal operating up and down the slope by qualified operator. D-19.05.8 Sowing: Seed sowing shall be by seeder attached to and provided with the Dixon Land Imprinter or approved equal. Seed is to be planted not deeper than 1/4 inch and parallel to land imprinter impressions. Seed shall be planted at half the depth of the imprinter impression on sides of impression. D-19.05.9 Mulching: Mulch shall be placed immediately after imprinting and seeding. Imprinted and seeded areas shall be mulched to a uniform depth of 1-1/2 inches or at the rate of 2 tons/acre. Mulch may be mechanically spread or spread by hand. The area to be mulched shall be one half of the imprinted and seeded area or as directed by the Engineer. Mulching shall be hand spread no mulching eguipment shall track over imprinted area.

D-19.05.10 Mulch Binding: Mulch binder shall be applied immediately after placement of mulch. Binding shall be done by the application of liquid mulch binder or approved equal. Application shall be heavier at the edges where the wind may catch the mulch and in drainage ways. The remaining areas shall receive a uniform application. The mixing and application rates shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or as directed by the Engineer.

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Land Imprinting and Seeding

D-19.0 - 4


All mulch shall be left in place and allowed to disintergrate, except that excessive amounts of hay shall be removed. 0-19.05.11 Additional Areas to be Land Imprinted: Additional areas to Imprinted as reviewed by the Engineer shall be Land Imprinted only, ripping and seeding of theses areas shall not be done. The additional areas to be Imprinted shall be reviewed by the Engineer prior to beginning any Imprinting operation. 0-19.05.12 Initial Watering: Water newly imprinted and seeded areas immediately upon installation and keep moistened until grass becomes well established. In the event of insufficient rainfall, soak newly seeded areas every 4 to 6 days, or as required to sustain new seedlings during the germination period. 00 not allow rills and furrows to form as a result of watering. 0-19.06

Inspection and Test

Seed: The Engineer shall be furnished with duplicate signed copies of a statement from the vendor certifying that each container of seed delivered is fully labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act and is at least equal to the requirements for seed in the MATERIAL paragraph of these with all copies of invoices for the seed. Each load of seed shall be subject to sampling and testing at the discretion of the Engineer. Sampling and testing will be in accordance with the latest Rules and Regulations nder the Federal Seed Act. Maintenance: The Contractor shall maintain the seeded areas from the date of installation for a period of six (6) weeks or to the date of substantial completion, whichever is later. Mowing will not be required. The Contractor shall reseed at his own expense any area which fails to show a uniform stand of grass. Maintenance shall include replacement of any portions of the seeded areas which are or become unsatisfactory, in the opinion of the Engineer. 0.19.07 MEASUREMENT The area of seeding shall be measured for payment to the nearest tenth of an acre. The area shall be determined on basis at the payment limits indicated on the Contract Drawings, unless otherwise modified by the Engineer.

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Land Imprinting and Seeding

0-19.0 - 5


D.19.08 PAYMENT The contract price per acre shall be as indicated on the Bid Schedule of Prices for ITEM -- Seeding. The contract price shall cinstitute full compensation for all labor, material, equipment, testing, material and work incidental thereto, necessary to complete this item in accordance with the plans, specifications, and the directions of the Engineer. END OF ITEM D-19.0

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D-19.0 - 6


ITEM 20.0 - WARM-SEASON GRASS SEED DRILLING FOR VEGETATION TEST PLOTS, AREA 3, SECTION 3/4 D-20.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and installing seed, soil amendments, and initial watering in accordance with the Contract Plans and Specifications, and/or as directed by the Engineer. D-20.02

SUBMITTALS

D-20.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. D-20.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. D-20.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . D-20.03

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

Soil amendments and seed shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages, kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. D-20.04

MATERIAL

D-20.04.1 Mulch: The material for mulch shall be hay.or hay, mixed with clover or other acceptable native or forage grasses, wellcured to less than 20% moisture, by weight. D-20.04.2 Mulch Stabilizer: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder blended with gelling or hardening agents. Terra-tack, as manufactured by Grass Growers Company, or equivalent. D-20.04.3 Seed Requirements: Seed shall be clean and fresh and delivered to the site in the original, unopened containers showing net weight, composition of mix, date of germination tests, supplier's name, and guarantee of analysis. Seed shall conform to applicable state and federal regulations and to test provisions of Association of Official Seed Analysts.

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Warm-Season Grasses Drilled Seeding

D-20.0 - 1


0-20.04.4 Grass Seed Mix: There are three grass seed mixes as follows: Seed

percent min. purity

percent mim. germination

pure live per acre

Grass Seed Mix #1: Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)

45

70

12

Big Bluestem (Andropogon virginicus)

50

75

12

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

95

80

15

Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)

60

75

4

Sand Lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes)

70

75

2

45

70

12

Grass Seed Mix #2: Little Bluestem (Andropogon scopari.,s)

Sheep Fescue* 85 160 96 (Festllca ovina) *Sheep Fescue is to be seeded seperately. See Section 0-20.05.6. Grass Seed Mix #3: Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)

45

12

70

0-20.04.5 Grass Seed Types: Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius) 'Camper'

varieties 'Aldous' or

Big Bluestem (Andropogon virginicus): variety 'Niagara' Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum): variety 'Blackwell' Indiangrass

3/13/90

(Sorghastrum nutans): variety 'Cheyenne'

Warm-Season Grasses Drilled Seeding

0-20.0 - 2


Sand Lovegrass 'Bend'

(Eragrostis trichodes)

Sheep Fescue (Festuca ovina)

varieties 'NE-27' or

no varieties

D-20.04.6 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a SOurce on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. 0-20.05

EXECUTION

D-20.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. Do not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. D-20.05.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to seeding to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review. Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil amendments as reviewed by the Engineer. D-20.05.3 Seedbed Preparation: All areas to be seeded if left for more than 7 days shall be loosened and made friable by scarifying to a depth of 3 inChes, or as reviewed with Engineer. Soil amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results during scarification. Lime and fertilizer shall be worked into the top three inches of the soil. Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein. Smooth the topsoil only enough to insure uniform seeding by mechanical seeder. Free topsoil of stones larger than 1-1/2 inches in size and remove trash, debris, twigs, root mat, and other matter detrimental to grass development. Rake to establish the final grades and elevations. Final grading methods must be reviewed and approved by the Engineer prior to doing the work. D-20.05.4 Grass Seeding: Seeding shall be done within 7 days of all liming and fertilizing, weather permitting. Areas to be seeded shall be reviewed by Engineer prior to seeding.

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Warm-Season Grasses Drilled Seeding

D-20.0 - 3


The Engineer shall review seeding dates selected before any work is performed. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, seeding dates shall be as follows: Spring season Fall season

1 May to 1 July 1 November to 1 December (with winter rye)

Do not seed if soil is excessively dry or saturated. Seed during favorable weather conditions. As approved by the Engineer prepare topsoil by York raking, loosening soil surface to a minimum two-inch depth, and remove stones and debris larger than 1-1/2 inches in any dimension. D-20.05.5 Sowing: Sowing shall be by the following method for all grass and grass mixes except sheep fescue: Mechanical Power Drawn Seeder (specially adapted Brillion type by Carlos Montoya, Box 590, Vineyard Haven, MA, 02568 (1-508-693-6747) or approved equal): Combination grass planter and land packer or pulverizer. Seed to be planted not deeper than 1/4". Seeding operation shall be kept as close as possible to the contours and not up and down slopes. After seeding, compact with landroller, such as a cultipacker. With proper equipment, sowing seed and cultipacking in one operation is satisfactory. Sheep fescue in seed mix #2 shall be broadcast seeded by a Hooper Type Cyclone seeder. Either power drawn or push type. The seed shall be uniformily distributed by sowing half the seed in one application and the remainder in a second application. D-20.05.6 Initial Watering: Water newly seeded areas immediately upon installation and keep moistened until grass becomes well established. In the event of insufficient rainfall, soak newly seeded areas every 4 to 6 days, or as required to sustain new seedlings during the germination period. Do not allow rills and furrows to form as a result of watering. D-20.06 MEASUREMENT The area of seeding shall be measured for payment to the nearest tenth of an acre. The area shall be determined on basis at the payment limits indicated on the Contract Drawings, unless otherwise modified by the Engineer. D-20.07 PAYMENT The contract price per acre shall be as indicated on the Bid Schedule of Prices for ITEM -- Seeding.

3/13/90

Warm-Season Grasses Drilled Seeding

D-20.0 - 4


The contract price shall constitute full compensation for all labor, material, equipment, testing, material and work incidental thereto, necessary to complete this item in accordance with the plans, specifications, and the directions of the Engineer. END OF ITEM D-20.0

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Warm-Season Grasses Drilled Seeding

D-20.0 - 5


ITEM 2].0 - WARM-SEASON GRASS PLUG PLANTING FOR VEGETATION TEST PWTS. AREA 3. SECTION 3/4 D-21.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and installing warm season grass plugs,fertilizer, lime, and initial watering in accordance with the Contract Plans and Specifications, and/or as directed by the Engineer. D-21.02

SUBMITTAL

D-21.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. D-21.02.2 Certification: Submit certificates of inspection as required by governmental authorities. Submit manufacturer's or vendor's certified analysis for soil amendments and fertilizer materials. Submit other data substantiating that materials comply with specified requirements. D-21.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. D-21.02.3 Planting Schedule: Submit proposed planting schedule, indicating dates for installation of grass plugs during normal seasons for such work in area of site. Correlate with specified maintenance periods to provide maintenance from date of substantial completion. Once accepted, revise dates only as approved in writing, after documentation of reasons for delays. D-21.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Tetsting Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State UniverSity of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . D-21. 04

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

D-21.04.1 All precautions customary in good trade practice shall be taken in preparing plants for moving. Workmanship that fails to meet the highest standards will be rejected. D-21.04.1 Plants shall be packed, transported, and handled with utmost care to insure adequate protection against injury. Keep all plants fully tarped and covered during transport. Any plants delivered to the site which were not previously inspected and approved by the Engineer shall be delivered with tags giving the names of the plants and the names of the growers.

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Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting

D-21.0 - 1


D-21.04.3 Each shipment shall be certified by state and federal authorities to be free from disease and infestation. Any inspection certificates required by law to this effect shall accompany each shipment invoice or order of stock on arrival and shall be filed with the Engineer. D-21.04.4 All materials shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages showing weight, analysis, and name of manufacturer. kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. D-21.04.5 Do not remove container grown stock from containers until planting time. D-21.04.6 During plant installation or other excavation: When conditions detrimental to plant growth are encountered, such as rubble fill, adverse drainage conditions, or obstructions, notify Engineer and cease work in this area immediately. Resume work upon approval of Engineer. D-21.05

MATERIAL

D-21.04.1 Plant Nomenclature: Plant names shall agree with the nomenclature of "Standardized Plant Names" as adopted by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature, 1942 edition. D-21.05.2 Plant Inspection: No plant material shall be planted by the Contractor until inspected and approved by the Engineer at the site of the work. The Engineer shall be the sole judge of the quality and acceptability of the plant materials. All rejected material shall be immediately removed from the site and replaced with acceptable material at no additional cost. D-21.05.3 Grass Plugs Types: Warm Season Grass Plugs shall be as follows: Type

Size

Condition

Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)

1 yr.old

1" container

Big Bluestem (Andropogon virginicus)

1 yr. old

1" container

Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum)

1 yr. old

1" container

Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)

1 yr. old

1" container

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Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting

D-21.0 - 2


D-21.05.4 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. D-21.06

EXECUTION

D-21.06.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. Do not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. D-21.06.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to planting to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review. Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil ammendments as reviewed by the Engineer. D-21.06.3 Soil Amendments as per Soil Test Results: Liming and Fertilizer: Add lime and fertilizer to the topsoil in uniform distribution as follows: Lime Fertilizer (as cited in Material)

4,300 pounds/acre 250 pounds/acre

Adjust above quantities to correspond with soil test results and recommendation for grass plug establishment performed by the testing laboratory and as directed by the Engineer to determine amounts of lime and fertilizer (tests to be done by Contractor at no additional charge) .Obtain a minimum of 6 samples for the site. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil no more tha seven (7) days prior to planting. Lime is to be mechanically applied. D-21.06.3 Time of Planting: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the planting season for grass plugs is as follows: Spring season

1 March to 15 May

D-21.06.3 Installation: Grass plugs shall be planted in staggered rows, on 12-inch centers, the rows shall run perpendicular (across) to the slope. Plant plug so that top of root ball is below soil surface and no roots are exposed. Firm soil around plant to remove any air pockets.

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Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting

D-21.0 - 3


D-21.06.4 Initial Watering: Water newly planted areas immediately upon installation and keep moistened until grass plugs becomes well established. In the event of insufficient rainfall, soak newly planted areas every 4 to 6 days, or as required to sustain new plugs during the period of establishment. Do not allow rills and furrows to form as a result of watering. D-21.06.S Maintenance and Guarantee: The Contractor shall maintain and guarantee all new planted areas until one year after the completion and the acceptance of the work. The Contractor shall submit, for approval, a plan of horticultural operations for this period. D-21.07

MEASUREMENT

D-21. 08

PAYMENT

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Warm-Season Grass Plug Planting

D-21.0 - 4


ITEM 22.Q - WARM-SEASON HYDROSEEDING & HYDROMULCHING AREAS 11, 12 & 14. SECTIONS 3/4 AND 2/8 D-22.Q1

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and incorporating all materials as specified into a Hydroseed and Hydromulch mix applied in two steps to the areas as designated on the drawings. All work shall be in strict accordance with these specifications and/or as directed by the Engineer. D-22.02

SUBMITTALS

D-22.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. D-22.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. D-22.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . D-22.03

DELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

All packaged materials shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages showing weight, analysis, and name of manufacturer. kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. D-22.04

MATERIAL

D-22.04.1 Grass Seed Mix: Grass Seed Mix shall be as follows: Seed

percent min. purity

percent min. germination

pure live per acre

Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)

45

70

12

Big Bluestem (Andropogon virginicns)

50

75

12

Switchgrass

95

80

15

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Warm-Season Grasses Hydroseeding

D-22.0 - 1


(Panicum virgatum) Indiangrass (SQrghast rum nutans)

60

75

4

Sand LQvegrass (Eragrostis trichodes)

70

75

2

Winter Rye (Secale cereale) (Fall seaSQn Qnly.)

97

85

200

D-22 .04.2 Grass Seed Types: Little Bluestem (AndropogQn scoparius) 'Camper'

varieties 'Aldous' Qr

Big Bluestem (AndrQPogon virginicus): variety 'Niagara' Switchgrass

(Panicum virgatum): variety 'Blackwell'

Indiangrass (SQrghastrum nutans): variety 'Cheyenne' Sand Lovegrass 'Bend' Winter Rye

(Eragrostis trichodes): varieties 'NE-27' or

(Secale cereale)

no varieties

D-22.04.3 Soil Amendments as per Soil Test Recommendations: Lime: Natural dolomitic limestone containing not less than 85% of total carbonates with a minimum of 30% magnesium carbonates, ground so that not less than 90% passes a 10-mesh sieve and not less than 50% passes a 100-mesh sieve. Commercial Fertilizer: Complete fertilizer of neutral character, with some elements derived from organic sources and containing the following percentages of available plant nutrients: August, September, and October Grass Seeding: 500 pounds of 5-10-10/acre or 250 pounds of 10-10-10/acre. February, March, April, May, June, July, or November Grass Seeding: 2-1-1 ratio containing 35% or more total nitrogen than water insoluble nitrogen. Typical rates would be 500 pounds of either 10-6-4 or 10-5-5/acre or 250 pounds 16-8-8/ acre, Or as approved by Engineer. All fertilizer to be broadcasted and raked into the top 3 inches of soil immediately before seeding.

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Warm-Season Grasses Hydroseeding

D-22.0 - 2


D-22.04.4 Mulch: Conwed Virgin Wood Fibre Mulch. Cellulose fibre mulch shall consist of elongated virgin wood fibres. Mulch shall be dyed green with a non-toxic vegetable dye. D-22.04.5 Tackifier: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder. D-22.04.6 Lime: Pro lime liquid. D-22.04.7 Starter Fertilizer: 19-26-5 Starter Fertilizer. 200 pounds per acre. D-22.04.S Hydroseeder/mulcher: 3,000 gallon Hydroseeder/mulcher with two paddle agitators, and one cutter agitator for complete shreeding of mulch capable of maintaining a homogeneous slurry. Recirculating type surry agitation is not acceptable as this type of agitation reduces seed viability. The hydroseeder/mulcher shall have a minimum of two different nozzles for application of mix. One nozzle for wide angle application and one for long distance spraying. The Hydroseeder/mulcher shall be mounted on a rubber tired vehicle and shall be manned by a qualifier operator. D-22.04.9 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. D-22.05

EXECUTION

D-22.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. Do not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. D-22.05.2 Soil Tests: A soil test shall be made prior to hydroseeding to determine: Mechanical analysis, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus levels; soluable salts, pH, and organic matter. The time that soil samples are taken for the tests shall be approved by the Engineer.Submit test results to the Engineer for review. Soil test recommendations will determine additional soil amendments as reviewed by the Engineer. D-22.05.3 Seedbed Preparation: All areas to be seeded if left for more than 7 days shall be loosened and made friable by scarifying to a depth of 3 inches, or as reviewed with Engineer. Soil amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results. Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein.

3/13/90

Warm-Season Grasses Hydroseeding

D-22.0 - 3


D-22.05.4 Soil Amendments: Amendments shall be incorporated into the seedbed as recommended by the soil test results. Amendments shall be worked into the top three inches of the topsoil. Incorporation of amendments during scarification is acceptable. D-22.05.5 Time for Hydroseeding: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer the times for Hydroseeding are as follows: Spring season 1 May to 1 July Fall season* 1 November to 15 December *Fall season Hydroseed mix shall contain winter rye at 200 pounds per acre. D-22.05.6 General Hydroseeding Procedures: Seed and fertilizer in the quantities required shall be combined with water and kept under constant agitation and broadcast hydraulically to areas designated. D-22.05.7 Hydroseeding: Apply seed, dye and starter fertilizer at the prescribed rate to the prepared area. Direct spray onto the prepared area at approximately a 30 degree angle to ensure proper homogenization of the slurry and topsoil. D-22.05.8 Tracking: Immediately after hydroseeding but before hydromulching seeded area shall be tracked with one pass of a track mounted dozer or loader Or approved equal. Tracking shall be up and down the slope and not across the slope. D-22.05.9 Hydromulching: Apply hydromulch in a second operation at the rate of 1500 Ibs.per acre or as deemed necessary by the Contractor to meet below requirements. Hydromulch shall be applied to achieve solid green coating, thick enough to withstand erosion and heavy rains. Should gullies or bare spots occur within the first three months after application, or before substantial germination, the eroded areas shall be regraded, reseeded and re-hydromulched. The Engineer shall be the sole judge of required repairs and adequacy of hydromulch application. D-22.06

ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING/HYDROMULCHING WORK

Final acceptance of the work will be made when in the opinion of the Engineer at least 75% of the seeded areas within a given work section have become established. Until such time as final acceptance is made, the Contractor shall be responsible for all repairs and reseeding including any watering required to obtain the necessary results. During the course of the Contract and until such time as areas are finally accepted, the Contractor shall be responsible any and all damages which may occur to completed areas. This section

3/13/90

Warm-Season Grasses Hydroseeding

D-22.0 - 4


is in lieu of Article 24 "Maintenance and Guarantee" and shall apply to Hydroseeding only. D-22.07 MEASURMENT FOR PAYMENT: Payment for hydroseeding shall be made at a unit price per square yard and shall include the cost of all labor, materials and equipment, including all materials and incidental expenses as specified under this item, in accodance with the plansand specifications and directions of the Engineer. Payment: Shall be made at the price bid, perbid sheet item *

No.

*Payment shall be made in two (2) installments. The first payment installment to the Contractor shall be for forty-nine (49) percent of the total Hydroseed Area times the unit price bid, measured in place. The second installment (remaining fiftyone (51) percent shall be paid at final acceptance as defined in that Section of Item #17 entitled "ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING WORK". END OF ITEM D-22.0

3/13/90

Warm-Season Grasses Hydroseeding

D-22.0 - 5


ITEM 23.0 - WILDFLOWER HYDROSEEDING ON INTERIM COVER AREA lOA, SECTION 6/7 D-23.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and incorporating all materials as specified into a Hydroseed and Hydromulch mix applied in two steps to the areas as designated on the drawings. All work shall be in strict accordance with these specifications and/or as directed by the Engineer. D-23.02

SUBMITTALS

D-23.02.1 List of Materials: Submit a complete materials list of items proposed to be provided under this section for review by the Engineer before the purchase or use of any such material. 0-23.02.2 Method of Work: Submit a list of proposed methods of execution of work under this section for review by the Engineer when proposed methods are different from, or supplementary to, those specified herein. 0-23.02.3 Soil Test Results: Submit soil test results. Soil tests shall be performed by the Soil Testing Laboratory; New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Cook College; Rutgers The State University of New Jersey; P.O. Box 231; New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201-932-9295) . 0-23.03

OELIVERY AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS

All packaged materials shall be delivered and stored in original unopened packages showing weight, analysis, and name of manufacturer. kept dry, and not opened until needed for use. Damaged or faulty packages shall not be used. D-23.04

MATERIAL

D-23.04.1 Wildflower Seed Mix: Wildflower Seed Mix shall be a combination of grass and wildflowers as follows: Seed type

Mixture application rate

Grass Seed: Sheep Fescue (Festuca ovina)

50 lbs./acre

wildflower Mix: Fiachra's Embankment Mixture (see below for composition)

3/13/90

10 lbs./acre

Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover

0-23.0 - 1


Wildflower Mix: The Wildflower seed mix shall be Fiachra's Embankment Mixture. Available from Fiachra Corporation, P.O. Box 580-A, Villanova, PA, 19085, (1-215-527-5533) Type

Name

Color

Fiachra' Embankment Mixture Queen Anne's Lace (Oauclls carota)

Perennial

White

Chicory (Cichorium intybus)

Perennial

Blue

Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)

Perennial

Yellow

0-23.04.2 Organic Matter: Shall be obtained from local sources, be fully decomposed organic leaf matter, with no identifiable fibers or plant parts, free of substances injurious to plant growth, clean, and dry. Acceptable organic matter includes: Fully decomposed leaf compost as supplied by Beng Ooi, Organic Recycling Inc., 381 C Kings Highway, Valley Cottage, NY, 10989, (1-914-268-0322) or approved equal. 0-23.04.3 Mulch: Conwed Virgin Wood Fibre Mulch. Cellulose fibre mulch shall consist of elongated virgin wood fibres. Mulch shall be dyed green with a non-toxic vegatable dye. 0-23.04.4 Tackifier: Cellulose or non-asphaltic emulsion, natural vegetable gum binder. 0-23.04.5 Fertilizer: Granular 0-36-0 'Popcorn Sulfer' Starter Fertilizer at the rate of 200 pounds per acre. 0-23.04.6 Hydroseeder/mulcher: 3,000 gallon Hydroseeder/mulcher with two paddle agitators, and one cutter agitator for complete shreeding of mulch capable of maintaining a homogeneous slurry. Recirculating type surry agitation is not acceptable as this type of agitation reduces seed viability. The hydroseeder/mulcher shall have a minimum of two different nozzles for application of mix. One nozzle for wide angle application and one for long distance spraying. The Hydroseeder/mulcher shall be mounted on a rubber tired vehicle and shall be manned by a qualifier operator. 0-23.04.7 Water: Hoses and other watering equipment required to transport water from a source on the site to the planting work shall be included as part of the work of this section. 0-23.05

EXECUTION

0-23.05.1 Inspection: Examine the areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and notify Engineer in writing of

3/13/90

Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover

0-23.0 - 2


conditions detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work. 00 not proceed with work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner, as approved by the Engineer. 0-23.05.2 Ground Preparation: All areas to be seeded if left for more than 7 days shall be loosened and made friable by scarification to a depth of 3 inches, or as reviewed with Engineer. A rough soil surface resulting from cross raking with a York rake, back blading or dragging (after clearing and grubbing) is preferable to a smooth raked condition Verify that grades meet requirements for tolerances, materials, and compaction as shown on drawings and as specified herein. 0-23.05.3 Soil Amendment: Organic matter shall be spread on soil to a depth of 2 inches and disced into top three inches of soil. Incorporation of organic matter during scarification is acceptable. 0-23.05.4 Time for Hydroseeding: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer the times for Hydroseeding are as follows: Spring season Fall season: Perennials and grass Annuals

1 April to 15 June 1 September to 15 October after the first frost (1 November to 15 Oecember)

0-23.05.5 General Hydroseeding Procedures: Follow accepted hydroseeding/hydromulching techniques. Seed and fertilizer in the quantities required shall be combined with water and green vegatable dye and kept under constant agitation and broadcast hydraulically to areas designated. D-23.05.6 Hydroseeding: Apply seed, starter fertilizer and green vegatable dye at the prescribed rate to the prepared area. Direct spray onto the prepared area at approximately a 30 degree angle to ensure proper homogenization of the slurry and topsoil. Whenever unit is shut down for more than five minutes, throttling up to 75% will be necessary to resuspend any slurry which may have settled out. D-23.05.7 Hydromulching: Apply hydromulch and dye in a second operation at the rate of 1500 lbs.per acre or as deemed necessary by the Contractor to meet below requirements. Hydromulch shall be applied to achieve solid green coating, thick enough to withstand erosion and heavy rains. Should gullies Or bare spots occur within the first three months after application, or before substantial germination, the eroded areas shall be regraded, reseeded and re-hydromulched. The Engineer

3/13/90

Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover

D-23.0 - 3


shall be the sole judge of required repairs and adequacy of hydromulch application. D-23.06

ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING/HYDROMULCHING WORK

Final acceptance of the work will be made when in the opinion of the Engineer at least 75% of the seeded areas within a given work section have become established. Until such time as final acceptance is made, the Contractor shall be responsible for all repairs and reseeding including any watering required to obtain the necessary results. During the course of the Contract and until such time as areas are finally accepted, the Contractor shall be responsible any and all damages which may occur to completed areas. This section is in lieu of Article 24 "Maintenance and Guarantee" and shall apply to Hydroseeding only. D-23.07 MEASURMENT FOR PAYMENT: Payment for hydroseeding shall be made at a unit price per square yard and shall include the cost of all labor, materials and equipment, including all materials and incidental expenses as specified under this item, in accodance with the plansand specifications and directions of the Engineer. Payment: Shall be made at the price bid, perbid sheet item No. * *Payment shall be made in two (2) installments. The first payment installment to the Contractor shall be for forty-nine (49) percent of the total Hydroseed Area times the unit price bid, measured in place. The second installment (remaining fiftyone (51) percent shall be paid at final acceptance as defined in that Section of Item #17 entitled "ACCEPTANCE OF HYDROSEEDING JIKL!lli:" . END OF ITEM D-23.0

3/13/90

Wildflower Hydroseeding on Interim Cover

0-23.0 - 4


-

· ... -

SEED MIXTURE{2)

-

I es For Pl anting • Junc(3)

I th Ille: 55

ss Pea

,.)

Coo 1- Sea s, 'r Gra. 1,111 Apri 1 th rough t1 ay and !>t ptel

t

.i

Ilarm- Season & Cool-Season 11 i x May Planting Only

f or Plan t ing through Oc tober(3)

I iolix C with "' u r s~ cr op (S;' eep

fe srue). Lit t le Bl ues t em

I I ,

BrOCfflSedge

Sheep

F es c:~

M~ x

A wi th

Le g ume~:

Creep ing Red rescue Hard Fescue Pere~nia t Rycg rass Kent utky Blue grass ladino Clove r Large (gcomemb:-ane

SlIIall*

hydraul ie)

Small ( solt hydraul ie)

Mix B with LC9~ S:

M ')',

P.edtop Tnll Fescue

C (PBH t ... re ) :

Orcnilrd3r;:I::;S Ta ll FcsC' lJc

Per ennial Ryegrass Kr.ntud:y Sluegrass

Red

FCSCLJe

Timothy

RBbbit s foot C(over

Bi 9 fHucstef:'l

Ii 'x 0 wi tt',

Redtop t

8rOOllt3009c

U6t i ve lCJtllX; S: Redtop

Switehgrass I ndiangrass

htt Fcs<.uv

Orcherdgrass

Part ridge PeD

Il

Tirnotf\y

Large (glXlrnerobr ane hydrau l ie) Smatt

Sma 11 *

Sma 11 *

Sma 1 1*

(s oi t hydraul ic) i

I

Small

Small

I

I

I

large ( gecoleft'brane hydr ilut i c) SU13l1 (so l L hydraul ic) la rge (geOfl1f!fl1br.n n ~

~ydraul;c)

Sma l l (sol t hydraul ie)

Small

Ll3rge (geOl11eiOOrane hydr{!ul ic ) <' .... ,,1.

large (gccrncrrbrane hydr{]ul ic) Smoll

I

Small

Sma 11

Small *

I

( s oil hydrauli c )

large(ge«ll':'lllbrllne oydraul i c) Small (soH hydraul ie)

I

I Small

Small

Small* I

Large (geomembrane

hydraulic) c ... _,

t

J

Sma 11

Small

Small


Field Trials and Current Program

~\-i\\tll â&#x20AC;˘ . ~


JUL FINAL COVER -Cool Season Grasses wi all recommended establishment techniques Cool Season Grasses & Legume

Warm Season Grasses wi all recommended establishment techniques Warm Season Grasses & Legume Warm Season Grasses (dormant seeding with winter rye) Warm Season Grass Plugs

Trees & Shrubs (balled & burlapped) Trees & Shrubs (bare root) â&#x20AC;˘ Dormant only - under evaluation


FRESH KILL LANDFILL STATEN ISLAND NEW YORK - VEGETATION INSTALLATION CALENDAR _ 1/23/91

INTERIM COVER -Perennial & Annual Rye Tri~Plex

Perennial Ryes

Cool Season Grass &

Wildflowers FINAL COVER Cool Season Grasses Cool Season Grasses & Wildflowers (broadcast) Cool Season Grasses & Wildflowers (hydroseed) Cool Season Grasses & Legume & Wildflowers Warm Season Grasses Warm Season Grasses & Wildflowers Warm Season Grasses &

legume Warm Season Grasses (dormant seeding with winter rye) Warm Season Grass Plugs

Trees & Shrubs - B&B Trees & Shrubs - BR Bioengineering *

Dormant only - under evaluation


COVER VEGETATION PROGRAM Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island NY

Submitted as section 3.4 of the NYSDEC Consent Order requirement report Appendix A3: Draft Final Cover Design

February 1991



COVER VEGETATION PROGRAM Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island NY

Submitted as section 3.4 of the NYSDEC Consent Order requirement report Appendix A3: Draft Final Cover Design

February 1991


COVER VEGETATION PROGRAM Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island NY

Submitted as section 3.4 of the NYSDEC Consent Order requirement report Appendix A3: Draft Final Cover Design

February 1991


COVER VEGETATION PROGRAM Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island NY

Submitted as section 3.4 of the NYSDEC Consent Order requirement report Appendix A3: Draft Final Cover Design

February 1991


Andropogon Associates, Ltd. Ecolosical

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374 SIIIfYS Lalle

& Design

Philadelphia PA 19 128

COVER VEGETATION PROGRAM Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island NY )

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Fax: (215) 483-7520

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Architects, Lalld"ape Architects & Plallll ers (215) 487-0700

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Andropogon Associates) Ltd. Et路(lf!l.~i(' 1 1 PI,lIlI/ill,1!

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f:: DI'SI,I!II Philllddphi{/ P.4 19128

COVER VEGETATIO N PROGRAM Fresh Kill s Landfill, Stat en Island NY

Submitted as section 3.4 of the \iYSDEC Consent Order requiremen t report Append ix A3: Draft Final Cover Design

Fe bruary 1991

336 draft overview fresh kills landfill  
336 draft overview fresh kills landfill