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Landscape and Habitat Management Guidelines DUKE FARMS, HILLSBOROUGH, NJ FALL 2008

VITETTA/ANDROPOGON/DUKE FARMS FOUNDATION


Andropogon Associates Ltd. would like to thank the staff of Duke Farms and their partners for their input and support with this project. Vitetta: Michael Holleman, Principal-in-Charge Ann Trowbridge, Senior Project Manager Andropogon: Carol Franklin, Principal-in-Charge Laura Hansplant, Associate Amy Reese, Project Manager Patty West, Landscape Designer Duke Farms Foundation: Tim Taylor, Executive Director Gene Huntington, Director, Natural Resources Thomas Almendinger, Team Leader, Ecological Stewardship Paul Smith, Director, Built Landscapes Brian Clough, Ecological Resource Specialist Professional Partners: Steven Handel, professor, and Christina Kaunzinger, Center for Urban Restoration Ecology, Rutgers University Troy Ettel, Director of Conservation for New Jersey Audubon Michael Van Clef, Ecological Solutions Peer Review: Leslie Sauer, founding partner (emeritus), Andropogon Associates

Wet meadow at Turreted Woodlands

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Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Goals Methods Context Regional Context Site Context Habitat Types Wildflower Meadows & Grasslands Savanna Open Woodland Forest Wetlands Specific Landscapes Great Meadow Hay Barn Meadow Coach Barn & Orchid Range Meadow Turreted Woodlands Implementation Strategies Vegetation Removals Establishment Guidelines by Habitat Type Management and Monitoring Strategies Next Steps Appendix Plant Spacing Diagrams Plant Community Species List Native Plant Nurseries

Wet meadow at Turreted Woodlands

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Executive Summary This report presents landscape and habitat management guidelines for the environmental stewardship and enhancement of the “Interpretive Landscapes”: important landscape spaces that will be seen by visitors in key areas of the property, when the main circulation system shown in the Master Plan is implemented. These landscape spaces – the Great Meadow, the Orchid Range and Coach Barn Meadow, the Hay Barn Meadow, and the Woodlands along Dukes Parkway West from the turreted gates at Route 206 to the South Gate – will showcase the stewardship of native plant communities, including butterfly meadows, warm season grasslands, oak woodlands, wet sedge and fern meadows, and flowering woodland edges. These areas along with the rest of the property provide critical habitat for endangered species and serve as an important resting place for migratory birds. The property also contains critical grassland habitat, a rarity in this heavily-developed state. The design for these areas highlights the drama and beauty of native habitats from central New Jersey, within the cultural framework of the former estate of Buck and Doris Duke. The demonstration of environmental stewardship is fundamental to the design of these spaces. The meadows and woodlands of Duke Farms, as with most natural areas in the region, were once almost entirely forest and floodplain meadows. With the agricultural economy of the past three centuries, the landscape was greatly changed and reconfigured. The early 20th century development of a gentleman’s country estate brought further changes. With a new mission at Duke Farms, the lawns and horticultural features in much of the core property will be reinterpreted as a natural landscape that reflects the plant communities of the Central Piedmont Plains region (see map). While the woodlots, field boundaries, lakes, buildings, gardens and roads continue to be an important presence in the landscape, the re-establishment of healthy, ecologically functioning systems, and the ability to educate and inspire visitors on the process of stewardship are key aspects in the transformation of the site.

Orchid Range Meadow

The report focuses on four major aspects to improving both the health and the appearance of these landscapes: wildlife management of deer and geese; the removal of invasive exotics; the re-establishment of appropriate non-invasive native species in every layer of the landscape; and the monitoring and repair of the landscape. This process is structured to provide demonstration opportunities for a variety of stewardship concepts and techniques, from the ‘tried and true’ to emerging ideas at the forefront of restoration science. Duke Farms strives to become a testing ground for new ecological solutions, and become a place to go to for innovative practices as it responds to future issues. The five-year vision is to become a leader in stewardship for the best ecological demonstration in the region. The habitat re-establishment process at Duke Farms will be a long-term effort. This program is not a linear sequence, with well-defined beginning and end points, but rather an iterative process, in which stewardship efforts are monitored and assessed in order to compare their relative success and provide direction for subsequent efforts. It is important for Duke Farms to have a continuity of staff to oversee this process. They will bring a depth of experience, specific to this property, which is important to understanding and coordinating the changes made through stewardship. Immediate next steps include beginning strategic vegetation removals, confirming proposed plant community locations on-site based on specific soil conditions, and evaluating the need and timeline if permits are required for proposed stewardship initiatives in existing wetland areas. DUKE FARMS

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Duke Farms landscape and habitat management will be a demonstration of land stewardship for the Central Piedmont Plains Region for private landowners, public, wildlife professionals, conservation organizations, local government, other state and federal agencies

Central Piedmont Plains Region

Area of regional impact (entire Piedmont region)

The area of the Central Piedmont Plains Zone lies at the middle of New Jersey and includes areas of extensive farmed areas and grasslands, fragmented woodlands, tidal freshwater marshes, and housing developments. Forest patches totaling 260 square miles in the Central Piedmont Plains, range in size from half an acre to over 27 square miles, and are a highpriority habitat type in this landscape. Over 138 square miles of earlysuccession habitat grasslands, old fields, agriculture, with patch sizes ranging from half an acre to nearly 7 square miles, provide habitat for all of New Jersey’s endangered and threatened grassland birds. Most of these areas are agricultural lands. Approximately 32 square miles of emergent wetlands exist in the Central Piedmont Plains. Most of these areas are small pockets of scattered wetlands, but larger expanses exist along the Raritan River estuary. (NJ Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, 2008) The Central Piedmont Plains supports one federal endangered and one federal threatened species, 10 state endangered species, 17 state threatened species, 69 special concern and regional priority species, and seven additional harvested species of regional priority. (NJ Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, 2008) This region has a dedicated section in the Wildlife Action Plan (WAP) developed by the NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife. WAP is a plan for the future conservation of it state’s species that are in the greatest need of protecting. The plan is targeted at biologists, wildlife experts, municipal leaders, land stewards, non-profit organizations, educators, planners, researchers, and outdoor recreation enthusiasts. One of its goals is to encourage all land stewards to incorporate habitat management in their work and manage their lands to maintain or improve ecological integrity.

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Duke Farms landscape and habitat management will be a demonstration of land stewardship for the same audience. It will be a testing ground for tried and true landscape and wildlife management, and it will also be a place to test new solutions while new problems emerge.


Introduction

Goals To establish a diverse and sustainable representation of typical plant community types and habitats of the Central Piedmont Plains Region in New Jersey.

The purpose of the Landscape and Habitat Management Guidelines is to provide an analysis of existing conditions and recommendations for improvements to landscapes in the park portion of Duke Farms that have been identified as priority sites for stewardship by Duke Farms Foundation. These landscapes are important spaces along the main paths of the selfdirected access portion of the property, including the Farm Barn, Hay Barn, Orchid Range, Great Lawn and Old Foundation as well as areas bordering Duke Parkway West adjacent to the turreted gates and connecting to South Gate. Views from the main paths will draw visitors to these important “landscape rooms” and will be a significant aspect of a visitor’s experience. The remainder of the property -- the lakes, agricultural lands, historic buildings and surrounding landscapes -- are purposely omitted and are topics of other plans or reports by Duke Farms Foundation. The landscape regeneration emphasizes the drama and beauty inherent in the native landscape. In this context, the result of our stewardship should be more than environmentally appropriate; it should be visually interesting and informative. It should inspire others to replicate these improvements elsewhere in the region, particularly landscapes located in the Central Piedmont Plains. Our approach to landscape stewardship and regeneration places emphasis not only on key sustainability issues such as the use of native plants and the creation of habitats, but also on drama and beauty and the way spaces unfold for the visitor. The Landscape and Habitat Management Guidelines have been developed to provide Duke Farms with a multi-disciplinary, scientifically sound approach that integrate with the existing planning, protection and land management programs that already exist for Duke Farms. Andropogon Associates reviewed relevant existing reports and discussed certain management programs currently in place for the property with Foundation staff. This report aims to remain consistent with the goals of these reports and programs to the greatest extent possible. Programs discussed included a woodland regeneration and management program for Research Woods, a proposed grassland management program for the western hay fields, an invasive species management plan, a deer management program, and a proposal for supporting native pollinator species. This report includes landscape plans and GIS overlays of each of the five landscape areas chosen. Plans illustrate plant removals and the establishment of proposed plant communities. The text outlines both management strategies and what the primary demonstrations would be. Plant lists area provided for each proposed plant community. For the sake of understanding the difference between a woodland and a forest, the following definitions have been included. A woodland is a “relatively even-aged stands of trees with sparse understory.” A forest is multi-species, multi-aged, multi-layered.

Ecological Goals • Establish diverse, sustainable and healthy native plant communities relevant to the Central Piedmont Plains Region in New Jersey. • Integrate specific wildlife requirements for woodland edge, woodlands and meadow species within landscape stewardship initiatives. • Create a baseline inventory of existing plant species and wildlife, and monitor each before, during and after stewardship improvements. Aesthetic Goals • Reinforce the drama and inherent “character” of each landscape. • Demonstrate a visible, appropriate and dramatic “ecological aesthetic” with four seasons of interest, to show that native landscapes can be exceptionally beautiful.

Coach Barn Meadow

Demonstration Goals • Showcase the latest, best expertise in ecological stewardship and help Duke Farms interpret these techniques to the public and its partners. • Assist visitors in developing a deeper understanding of ecological processes. Many interpretive areas and outreach moments must be a part of this effort. • Demonstrate sustainable alternatives to traditional lawns and horticultural plants that can be replicated at homes, workplaces and public parks and reserves. • Collaborate with biologists, ecologists and landscape architects to create a replicable approach to stewardship for other sites in the Central Piedmont Plains Region. • Document process and spatial areas with digital imagery to show before and after results; capture critical images of process and significant events. Share results with public and partners. Methods This report is based on field observations and discussions with Duke Farms staff and some of its partner organizations, conducted during four site visits between April and May, 2008. During these visits, the study team walked through the landscape areas, identified desirable site features that could be highlighted as features within the landscape design, and discussed options for restoring and improving the native plant communities. Gene Huntington, Thomas Almendinger, Paul Smith and Brian Clough, of the Duke Farms Foundation; Steven Handel, Ph.D., Restoration Ecologist and Director of the Center for Urban Restoration Ecology at Rutgers University; Troy Ettel, Ph.D., Director of Conservation for New Jersey Audubon; and Michael Van Clef, Ph.D., of Ecological Solutions, all contributed ideas and technical support. Vitetta provided overall project management and reviewed and edited the project’s deliverables. Leslie Sauer, founder emeritus of Andropogon Associates, provided a peer review. DUKE FARMS

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Regional Context oad River R

Duke Farms, the estate of James Buchannan Duke was given to his daughter Doris Duke upon his death. Doris Duke cared for the property throughout her lifetime and upon her death she directed her trust to transform it over time into a haven for flora and fauna, education and research. Duke Farms is now one of the remaining major open spaces in central New Jersey. Along with the Sourland Mountains and Six Mile Run preserves, Duke Farms creates an ecologically important connecting corridor of open space that leads to eastern Pennsylvania within a highly urbanized region where open farmland is being rapidly converted to residential and commercial uses. Dukes

Parkwa

The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation has helped establish the Raritan Piedmont Wildlife Habitat Partnership (RPWHP), a diverse group of organizations, including Duke Farms Foundation. This group is dedicated to implementing the goals of the New Jersey State “Wildlife Action Plan” in the Central Piedmont Plains. RPWHP is particularly focused on reversing the loss of habitat and declining bird populations through the development of a “Grassland Conservation Plan.”

y East

River Raritan River Road

ay West

Dukes Parkw

6 Route 20

Roycefield Road

Central R oad

New Jersey is the most developed state in the coutnry. According to Dr. Richard Lathrop at Rutgers University “every year New Jersey adds nearly 17,000 acres of new development while losing more than 9,000 acres of farmland, 4,000 acres of forest and 2,000 acres of wetlands. Impervious surface is being created at the rate of 4,000 acres per year. If development continues at this rate and if New Jersey is successful at preserving a million acres of open space, the remaining available land will be developed within 40 years making New Jersey the first state in the nation to reach build-out.” Duke Farms is located in the Central Piedmont Plains area of central New Jersey; a transitional habitat zone between the hardwood forests of northern New Jersey and the oak-pine forests in the southern part of the state. The Central Piedmont Plains have all the problems typical of natural lands in the northeastern United States. Large, connected open space containing natural lands, such as Duke Farms, represent a critically important resource. This property, if well managed, can demonstrate to federal, state and local governments, large property owners and the general public ways to preserve and enhance a full range of plant communities of the central New Jersey piedmont, and the plants and animals dependent on them.

New Center Road

Central Landscape Interpretive Landscape Property Boundary 0

The Interpretive Landscape area (as indicated above) is the focus of this Landscape Management and Habitat Guidelines Report.

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2550’

N

Like many areas of the Eastern United States, fragmentation of ecosystems and loss of habitat is a central concern. Conservation priorities for the Central Piedmont Plains include preservation of three important habitat types: large continuous tracts of forest, grassland, and wetlands (NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife, 2008). The Duke Farms Master Plan (Vitetta, 2006) proposes a physical framework for the new mission “to be a model of environmental stewardship in the twenty-first century and inspire visitors to become informed stewards of the land” (Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, 2006). The Duke Farms Foundation is seeking not only to contribute to the stewardship of major areas of woodlands, grassland and wetlands, but also to the development of meadows and small stands of fragmented woodlands - the kinds of areas that are prevalent in this region or could be models to supplement or replace manicured lawns, which do not provide a significant service to the habitats of our region.


Site Context

Coach Barn

The Master Plan has shown a self-directed access loop around the central core, which will allow visitors to experience and connect with the outdoors on a representative portion of this 2,740-acre site.

Rt. 206

Coach Barn Meadow

Jitney Loop

Arriving at the property, visitors will drive through the estate’s original turreted stone entry gates down Dukes’ Parkway West to a visitor’s center at the Farm Barn. The “Turreted Woodlands” flank the entry drive, and are the visitors’ first introduction to the the natural landscape of the property.

Orchid Range Meadow

Old Foundataion

Arrival at the Farm Barn sets up the journey for the remainder of the property. The Farm Barn is considered the threshold of the experience. It is the place where visitors leave their cars and enter the central core, either by jitney (a non-hydro carbon vehicle) or by a short connecting path to the South Gate.

Orchid Range

Great Meadow

Hay Barn Meadow

The loop wraps around a series of landscapes including meadows, lakes and woodlands. The jitney makes stops at the main landmarks including the Hay Barn, the Orchid Range and the Old Foundation. At these stops, visitors can spend time and participate in the landscape in greater depth.

Hay Barn

Turreted Woodlands

Rt. 206

South Gate

st ay We Parkw ’s e k u D

Farm Barn

Since the property was once open to the public as a park by Buck Duke, original paths, bridges, follies still exist throughout the landscape. A subset of mown paths at each of these features allows visitors to explore the landscape further.

Interpretive Landscapes (addressed in report) Jitney loop Jitney stop 0

480’ N

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Plant Community Types There are a wide variety of plant community types within the interstitial landscapes, from very open fields to closed woodlands. Many of these plant communities are presently degraded by invasive exotic plant species. The following recommendations identify and provide guidelines for transforming these areas into desirable plant communities, appropriate to their specific habitat. Plant communities have been chosen based on existing indigenous plants found at each site.

Open Woodland A park-like woodland with widely spaced trees (50-80% crown cover). Sunlight penetrating between the trees supports a ground layer of low shrubs, woodland wildflowers, ferns and shade-tolerant grasses. OW1: Upland Oak Woodland (mixed oaks) OW2: Lowland Oak Woodland (swamp white and pin oak)

Meadow

Plant communities below are listed along a gradient from open, young landscapes (meadows) to mature landscapes (woodlands and forests). For the purposes of this report, “woodland” is used to describe woods with an open canopy, and forest is used to describe woods with a closed canopy. Meadows Open fields where the vegetation is predominantly herbaceous - native grasses, wildflowers and ferns. G1: Grassland – native warm season bunch grasses on drier upland meadows, with a small component of native wildflowers. Native annual wildflowers will provide quick cover and color during the first three years.

OW3a: Upland Hedgerow (various expressions; varying size trees/shrubs) OW3b: Lowland Hedgerow (various expressions; varying size trees/shrubs) OWE: Open Edge (a mix of small flowering trees and grasses, ferns and woodland wildflowers) Forest A closed-canopy forest, (approx. 80% canopy cover). When mature, these forests are multi-layered, with trees of many ages and a variety of species. F1: Dry Upland – (Oak/Hickory)

G2a : Wildflower Meadow – a mix of native wildflowers and warm season grasses. Native annual wildflowers will provide quick cover and color during the first three years.

F1b: Dry Upland – (Pine) F2: Rich Mesic – (Beech/Maple/Black Gum)

G2b: Butterfly Meadow - native wildflowers that support pollinating insects, with a small component of warm season grasses. These areas will be installed as plugs. Savanna

G2c: Fern Display -- native ferns that tolerate moist soils. These areas will be installed as plugs. G2d: Gentian & Wetland Plant Display -- predominantly flowering herbaceous that tolerate moist to wet soils. These area will be installed as plugs. G3: Grassland - A mix of cool season grasses and warm season grasses. This grassland is a transitional type and will be gradually phased out. Savanna A grassland punctuated by scattered small groves of trees

F3: Bottomland – (Oak/Hickory/Ash/Maple) Wetlands Areas with seasonally wet to permanently saturated soils W1: Sedge meadow - poorly drained wet depressions with standing water for much of the year (sedges and rushes) W2: Wet meadow – seasonally wet areas (a mix of wetland grasses and wildflowers) W3: Vernal Pools/Ephemeral Ponds - temporary, shady, seasonal pools in open woodlands and forest gaps (grasses, ferns, and woodland wild flowers) W4: Wetland Edges and Swales – seasonally wet areas predominated by shrubs.

S1: Upland Groves (mixed oaks) S2: Lowland Groves (sycamore, swamp white and pin oak) Forest with an edge of Flowering Dogwoods. This natural pattern will be enhanced through plantings at Duke Farms

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Management Strategies Great Meadow

47

1. 2. 3.

20 5 OW1

4. OWE

36 5. 6.

G2b G3

G2b

OW3

G2b

47

S1

24

G1

Limit of Management Area

G1

G2b

Add meadow below existing trees. Plant Sassafras and Nyssa to replace invasive trees. Manage for sunny open woodland. Take 1/3 of logs to lake for habitat, leaving 2/3 of downed logs. Plant Dogwoods or Redbud to replace Japanese Maples. Semi-shade wildflower (woodland) opening. Plant new canopy trees. Add flowering understory trees to woodland edge.

Internal Area Boundary

22 6

G3 OW3

G2b

2 1

Meadows G1 - Warm Season Grassland G2b - Butterfly Meadow G3 - Cool Season Grassland

W2

OW1 OWE

Savanna S1 - Upland Grove S2 - Lowland Grove

G1

W4 G2b

S2 G2b

Open Woodland OW1 - Upland Oak Woodland OW3 - Hedgerow OWE - Edge

G3

Forest F2 - Rich Mesic Wetland W2 - Wet Meadow W4 - Wet edges & Swales

W2

W4 F2

W4 S2

G3

0

180’ N

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SPECIFIC LANDSCAPES Great Meadow AN OVERVIEW The Great Meadow (formerly the Great Lawn) is the southern view-shed from the terrace of the Old Foundation. This terrace provides a panoramic overlook of this large sweeping open space. The Great Meadow will be a rich tapestry of different meadow types: warm season (native) grasses, coolseason (mainly non-native) grasses, wet wildflower meadow, savanna, and woodland edges. Each of these areas represents opportunities to showcase different native plants that will attract a variety of wildlife. Some zones will favor certain grassland birds and neo-tropical migrating birds, others butterflies and pollinating insects, and still others small mammals and herptiles that feed and live in both the meadow and bordering woodlands. The Great Meadow

Meadow Planting that features native wildflowers

Design Vision: The Great Meadow will display alternating swaths of contrasting colors and textures, with four-season interest. Because it is important to have the appearance of a fully established meadow for visitors by 2010, large swaths of existing grasses may be left in place. The existing grasses will provide color and structure during the first 3-5 years, when the adjacent newly planted warm season grassland will be maturing. The addition of native annuals in the seeded areas will provide additional color. The result will be wide painterly swaths of alternating green, reds and yellows in the first growing seasons, with more subtle sweeps of russet and tan in the winter months. As the new grassland areas mature, the textural contrasts between the meadow zones will become more prominent, with drifts of bright floral color in the wildflower meadow areas. The terraces just below the overlook at the Old Foundation will be left in lawn, to be used for informal gatherings or outdoor classrooms. This grass area is framed by the existing double allée of red cedar. This allée will be shaped and pruned as part of the capital budget. An under planting of low growing native wildflowers will complement the allée. Primary Demonstration: The Great Meadow will feature a diversity of meadow habitats, supporting a diversity of wildlife.

The existing grasses in the Great Meadow are predominantly cool-season (mainly non-native) grasses. This zone is a contrast to the warm season grassland. In contrast to the clump-forming pattern of warm-season grass species, most cool-season grasses typically have a dense, spreading growth pattern. There is less available interstitial space within the grass for wildflowers and ground-nesting birds. As a result, meadows dominated by cool-season grasses tend to be less botanically and biologically diverse (USDA NRCS 2004). In the winter, cool-season grasses tend to mat down more than the stiffer, upright, warm-season grasses and are less attractive. Cool-season grasses do green up in late winter, providing brighter color to the early spring landscape; they also remain green longer in the fall. The early spring growth also has forage value for wildlife at a time of year when the warm-season grasses are still dormant (USDA NRCS 2004). The cool-season grassland zone is envisioned as a temporary condition, which can be replaced over time with warm-season species (see the Implementation section). The butterfly meadow ‘swaths’ are filled with perennial wildflowers to provide nectar for butterflies and other native pollinating insects. Occasional logs and standing wood will be strategically placed to encourage beetles, grubs and insects and the woodpeckers who feed on them. This zone is designed and managed for dramatic flowering throughout the growing season. The woodland and forest edges are planted with native fruit-bearing understory trees and shrubs such as dogwood and viburnum. The fruit of these plants are typically rich in fats and a high-value food for birds. (In contrast, non-native shrubs like honeysuckle have fruits high in sugar, which represent a tasty but less nutritious food source). East-facing woodland edges, in particular, provide spring food sources for returning neo-tropical migrant birds, since the rising sun warms these places more quickly in the morning (Stiles, E. W. 1980). A rich woodland edge on either side of the meadow will flower in waves throughout the spring. Summer is the season that will showcase the meadow grasses and wildflowers, and autumn will display the fall colors of the edge, and later the trees of the framing woodlands. Bluebirds and kestrels in particular will benefit from the addition of nesting boxes.

Dry, warm season grassland supports foraging and nesting habitat for meadow birds such as eastern bluebirds, indigo buntings, and American kestrels. The native warm season grasses hold their winter colors until late in the spring, and provide bright reds and pink colors in the fall. The grassland habitat in this zone is ‘new’ and will showcase brightly flowering native annuals for the first couple years while the young native grasses are establishing themselves; subsequent years will provide bands of native grasses in this zone.

Meadow planting that features warm season grasses

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outdoor educational venue; casual & flexible education space (mowed coolseason grasses)

Beech in decline

Existing Conditions Field Notes Poet’s Path

Great Meadow

Upland buffer higher, drier

Limit of Management Area

cultural heritage viewshed

Wet Area

path entrance very open sunny wildflower mix

exist ing r idge

Existing Trees Stream

open sunny woodland with woody edge shrubs fill-in gaps; prune existing cedars sparse stands of existing Andropogon throughout meadow

wet

Flat woodland

Area Boundary

views

Bio-diverse wet wildflower meadow

Sugar Maple

Views Big Pin Oaks

plant spring flowering small trees and blackberries at wood’s edge.

s view Shady, lower, wetter area with Ash, Sugar Maple, Red Oak, Pin Oak, Swamp White Oak

repair & mask fire hydrant

Plant new Oak

add vernal pools

Nice Honey Locust

Open, flat woodland with woody edge shrubs Oak grove Woodland edge enhance to attract butterfies and Neo-tropical birds (warblers ect.)

wet

shady, protected (existing moss)

views

Big Tulip Poplars

dying Tilia

European Beech

small ephemeral stream intermittant stream

Cattails

N

0

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Removals Great Meadow

7

23

1. 2.

8 3.

20 5 21

6

18

24

14

4. 5.

1 4

18

8 3 2

6.

19

7.

7

22 8. 9.

15

10.

9

11. 12. 13.

16 10

12

14. 15.

17 13

11 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Limit of Management Area Specific Tree Removal Removal Area Phased Removal Area

Remove Hemlock and Red Cedar. Keep Oak (prune minor dangling branches.) Remove shrubs and Douglas Fir. Keep Oak and consider removing Honey Locust. Remove tree-box vegetation and replant with new island. Remove River Birch. Leave Flowering Dogwood (possibly transplant later.) Remove Tree of Heaven grove. Remove invasive and exotic ground and shrub layer including; Garlic Mustard, Celandine and Barberry. Remove Norway Maples. Leave Yellow Buckeye, Golden Rod, berrybearing shrubs, Hay-scented Fern. Remove Japanese Maples and Tree of Heaven. Replace with Dogwoods or Redbud. Remove Tree of Heaven, Barberry, and invasive ground layer. Remove Shrub understory. Spot removal of Multi-flora Rose. Remove invasive shrubs and ground layer. Remove Ailanthus. Girdle Norway Maples and Ginkgo. Remove Norway Spruce. Remove exotics. Remove Littleleaf Linden. Sunny open woodland with wet understory. Remove invasives. Remove all Tree of Heaven and Norway Maple. Remove Ginkgo allĂŠe: inconsistent with ecological message and foreshortens view to Hay Barn meadow. Remove giant Pin Oak in severe decline. Remove tree-box plantings. Removed invasive trees from edge, including Tree of Heaven and Norway Maple. Remove and replace with native species. (see Management Strategies) Remove Rose, Celandine. Remove Ranunculus and Stilt Grass. Remove Tree of Heaven Remove Norway Maples

Internal Area Boundary 0

180’ N

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Management Strategies Haybarn Meadow 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

3

W3

S1

7.

W2 OW1

S1

Add Deschamsia. Add more Shagbark Hickory, Dogwoods, Sassafras, ferns, wild flower ephemerals. Add more Shagbark Hickory, Dogwoods and Sassafras. Add more Halesia. Confirm decision to open savanna to connect meadows when invasives are removed. Add native grasses below trees. Manage for wooded buffer on mudflats. Show wetness gradient: add Spicebush, Winterberry, Swamp Azalea, Steeple bush, Clethra, Highbush Blueberry, and herbaceous wetland vegetation at lake edge; add Sumac and Red Cedar at upland edge. Keep Fir/Spruce groves. Consider replacing Chinese wisteria with American wisteria.

1 W3

W2

Limit of Management Area

HAY BARN

OW2

Internal Area Boundary

OW1

S1

4

W4

Meadows G1 - Warm Season Grassland G2a - Wildflower Meadow

7 2

OW2

G1

Savanna S1 - Upland Grove S2 - Lowland Grove

W3 G1

Open Woodland OW1 - Upland Oak Woodland OW2 - Lowland Oak Woodland

10’ mowing strip

G2a OW2

W4 S2

S1

G2a

G2a

Wetland W2 - Wet Meadow W3 - Vernal Pools W4 - Wet edges & Swales W5- Wooded Lake Shore: to be coordinated with Native Lakeshore Restoration projects

5 S1

S2

S1

*

S2

6

* Area extends past management boundary but is an important component within this landscape

W5

*

W5 W5

N

0

180’

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SPECIFIC LANDSCAPES Hay Barn Meadow AN OVERVIEW Design Vision: In this landscape, the restoration and enhancement of the existing groves and woodlands creates a landscape of sweeping grass punctuated by groves of scattered mature trees. The removal of invasive tree species will significantly open up the existing woods, allowing a view from the Hay Barn Meadow to the Great Meadow and Old Foundation. The proposed meadow seeding for the Hay Barn Meadow incorporates alternating swaths of upland grasses and wildflowers, and will provide bold contrasts of color and texture within this savanna-like landscape.

Warm-Season Meadow-Concept Image

Primary Demonstration: The Hay Barn Meadow will showcase a gradient from grassland to open oak woodland. Research shows that early pre-colonial landscapes on the east coast, from Southern New England extending as far south as Central New Jersey, were partially managed by fire (Niering 1998). This created a landscape that contained a mix of mature forest, grasslands, and open, park-like woodlands (“oak openings”). Meadows and grasslands on the east coast are traditionally considered to be transitional plant communities which eventually succeeded to forest, however it has been argued that meadows, savannas and “oak openings” may have been a more significant part of the original landscape than formerly realized. The Hay Barn Meadow reveals this landscape gradient -- from open meadow to savanna-type groves and then to open oak woodland. Selected dead tree trunks will be left standing to create habitat for woodpeckers. These trees should be both pruned for sculptural character and specifically interpreted for visitors through signage.

Savanna Grove- Concept Image

Open Woodland- Concept Image

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Research Woods

Existing Conditions Field Notes

Pollinator Meadow

Hay Barn Meadow

Trees removed to make connection to pollinator meadow to wet meadow

Limit of Management Area Wet Area Existing Trees Swale

Wet Meadow

Views Area Boundary Kentucky Coffee Tree Grove

Woodpecker Island

Connection

leave fallen tree

New Meadow

Pin Oak flowering Dogwoods beautiful Shagbark Hickory

old railroad

wet area

Spring Beauties

Ash grove

drainage ditch Phase 1: remove priority invasive species

sheltered meadow small patch of sensitive fern

Phase 2: Replant / reclassify space

area of material yard / stockpile

possible tiles under drain

open wet meadow

magnificient Red Oaks

add tertiary trail

vernal pool

HAY BARN

Wildflowers under large open canopy trees

Fern Gully views

swale Red Maples

White Pines; Halesia

views

SPRING 2008 New Meadow Establishment

Magnolias Sunny open woodland with wet understory

Picturesque Red Maple.

opportunity for bird blind at mud flats

make statement at this edge. add Ironwood, Hophornbeam, Witch-hazel

Beech grove

Weeping European Beeches

swale Maple Knoll s view

Habitat buffer zone for nesting birds

0

180’ N

DUKE FARMS 18 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON


Removals Hay Barn Meadow ORCHID RANGE

1. 2.

Limit of Management Area Specific Tree Removal Removal Area

3. 4. 5. 6.

Internal Area Boundary

1 20

7.

8.

11

9. 10.

12

11. 12.

10 30

21

2

13. 14. 15.

3 10

16

7

14

29

13

HAY BARN

4

5

28

6

16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

15

22.

17

19

18 8

22

13

25

9

26

23.

24.

27 24

25. 26.

23 27. 28. 29.

0

180’

30.

Remove tee-box plantings Remove Horse Chestnut, Magnolias, Apple, River Birch and invasives. Leave large Oak, Red Maple, Ash and Hawthorns. Leave existing Pennsylvania Sedge. Remove smaller Oak Remove Birch Remove Maple Remove Evergreens, White Birch and invasives below to create open views Remove Norway Maple, Tree of Heaven, Horse Chestnuts, Apple trees, and invasive shrubs including; Barberry, Ribies lacimatus and Ramnus. Keep existing Red bud, Spring beauty, cool season grasses, Oak seedlings, Pin Oak, solidage, and native sedges. Remove Paulownia, Ailantus, Katsura. Leave Magnolias Phase out Blue Spruce/ Fir Grove eventually Wet meadow area has invasive Moneywort. Possible tile under drain. Remove hemlocks Girdle undesirable trees and leave selected snags for habitat; include interpretive signage. Remove smaller dying Silver Maples, Ginkos. Remove cedar/ all juniper at edges Keep European Beech and Monitor Remove Spruces, Norway Maples and Crab Apples. Keep Oaks and Shagbark Hickory Remove Norway Spruce, Arbor Vitae, Junipers. Keep dying Hemlocks as snags, White Pines and Dogwoods. Remove English Elm Remove shrubs. Keep European Beech. Keep large dying Oak as snag. Remove dying Red Maple Remove Japanese Lilac Remove Norway Maples and English Elms, Celandine and midden pile. Remove English Elm in understory, Norway Maple and English Elm in canopy. Promote Cercis seedlings. Keep 2 large Sugar Maples and large Pin Oaks. Control invasives at water side of road including; Norway Maple and European Alder. Keep Fir/ Spruce groves. Remove Spruce and Fir, English Elm, diseased American Elm, Norway Maple. Leave Plane tree, Kentucky Coffee tree, Magnolias, Dogwood Remove Norway Maples, English Elm, and Japanese Lilac Trees Remove small European Beaches, Ginkgo and other small scattered trees Remove English Elm and Ginkgo on Y island at road fork (see Management Strategies) Remove all non-native trees; Miscanthus, Barberry,Cutleaf Blackberry Remove CanadiaThistle N

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Management Strategies 1

Coach Barn & Orchid Range Meadow

G3

S1

1.

S1

2. W1

*

Provide naturalistic conifer screening for parking. Add large trees in parking island. Plant more flowering understory trees. Possibly interplant new Oaks.

OW2

Limit of Management Area Internal Area Boundary

OW1

View Corridor Meadows G1 - Warm Season Grassland G2b - Butterfly Meadow G2b+ Fern Display G2b++ Butterfly Meadow Display G3 - Cool Season Grassland

S1

G1

S1

S2+

G3

OW1

Savanna S1 - Upland Grove S1+ Sassafras Grove Display S2 - Lowland Grove S2+ Lady Slipper & Trillium Display

2

Open Woodland OW1 - Upland Oak Woodland OW2 - Lowland Oak Woodland

S2

Wetland W1 - Sedge Meadow W2 - Wet Meadow W2+ Gentian Display

S1

W2

S1

W2+

W2

* Area extends past management boundary but is an important component within this landscape

W1 S1+ G1

G2b++

G2b G2b+

G2b

G3

G3 G2b

0

225’ N

DUKE FARMS 20 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON


SPECIFIC LANDSCAPES

View to Coach Barn

Coach Barn Meadow AN OVERVIEW

Orchid Range Meadow AN OVERVIEW

Design Vision: This meadow area connects to three important adjacent areas: the Coach Barn, the Orchid Range meadow, and two remnant Oak Woodlands. The Coach Barn Meadow will become a successional grassland with scattered oak groves that, over time, connect the two existing oak woodlands. The oak groves as they mature may be expanded into the surrounding meadow so that the current distinct transition between woods and meadow becomes softer and more gradual. The view between the Orchid Range conservatories and the Coach Barn is an important one and all management, both vegetation removals and new planting, will respect this visual corridor.

Design Vision: The Orchid Range Meadow is a high profile landscape and is the main landscape for the conservatories. This meadow will have alternating bands of contrasting colors and textures, four-season interest, and the sense of an established landscape despite the seeding at designated areas. Large swaths of the existing cool-season grasses may be temporarily left in place, to provide color and structure during the first 3-5 years. After the newly planted warm season grasses have matured, the other cool-season grass areas can be replanted with warm-season grasses. (see the Implementation section).

Primary Demonstration: The Coach Barn Meadow showcases grassland succession. Through a combination of planting and vegetation management, the gradual development grassland into a open oak woodland will be made visible in various stages.

The wet portions of the meadow support different plant communities, and will contrast with the colors and texture of the upland grassland. Wet areas will be enhanced by disconnecting the existing tile drain to emphasize the differences between the wet and dry portions of the current meadow. Additional enhancement areas are part of the capital improvements. These areas will showcase special wildflowers, such as native orchids. Most of these wildflowers need specific growing conditions and the exact species and placement of these enhancement areas will need to be adjusted on-site. A general guide to the proposed plant themes and anticipated species are noted on the accompanying maps. Primary Demonstration: The plant communities in this meadow showcase wet habitats, from the seasonally wet to the permanently saturated. Along this moisture gradient, plant communities may change dramatically. At the Orchid Range Meadow, upland native woodland wildflowers, ferns, sedges, wetland wildflowers, and orchids (soils permitting) are featured.

Oak woodland adjacent to the Coach Barn Meadow- Some non-native plants such as Maiden Grass are visible in the foreground

Orchid Range Meadow

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Existing Conditions Field Notes

Add paddock fence to edge of Coach House parking lot.

Coach Barn & Orchid Range Meadow White Oak Woods will be open and Savanna-like. White Oak, Shagbark Hickory, Swamp White Oak (big), Platanus (minor), Spring Beauty, Hackberry, Black Gum.

realign section of fence to follow road

Limit of Management Area

Backup generator Keep

Wet Area Existing Trees

wet area

Stream

Lean-to Structure Miscanthus on one side of stream

Area Boundary

Pond Pool Stream Leave three White Flowering Crab Apples

Cast iron fountain headwater to the stream

helipad

Large Sycamores

Remnant patch of 100+-year-old large canopy trees White Oak, Black Gum, Hackberry, Shagbark Hickory, Sycamores

Drain pit in woods.

Oak Patch: Possibly interplant new Oaks. Arrowwood viburnums (planted)

Large Pin Oak

Potential for wet area with road removal

wet area

Oaks

Large White Pine Bottlebrush Buckeye below mixed Oaks Red Bud (planted) Keep big Hawthorn

Three very nice Shagbark Hickories with very large Oaks just beyond. Drain inlets at road connects to drain line from Orchid Range, which flows to drain pit in woods. If broken, will create a very wet area.

Woodland Grove at corner. Many Ash seedlings, Violets, Cuckoo Flowers.

Make wet meadow wetter. Opportunity for different plants such as tickseed and Lobelia.

FALL 2008 New Meadow Establishment

Ornamental trees on either side of the Orchid Range

Keep Mature Ash

0

225’ N

DUKE FARMS 22 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON


Removals

3

Coach Barn & Orchid Range Meadow

1 4

1.

11

2.

5

Control Stilt Grass in Oakwoods

3. 4.

2 5.

6 30

Cast iron fountain

7

6. 7.

32

8

10

Pool

8.

31 Leaning Oak

9. 10.

9

23

11. 12.

12 16 13 29

13.

18 14. 15.

14 17

16. 17.

15

28 27

20

Large Sugar Maple

25

24 Limit of Management Area

26 Mature Ash

21

Specific Tree Removal Removal Area

22

Phased Removal Area Internal Area Boundary 0

225’ N

Possibly remove Red Cedar screen when storage is relocated. Remove evergreen shrubs. Remove Norway Maple. Remove wood platform and roof. Remove Juniper and non-native viburnums Leave White Pine and Spruce Grove. Remove adjacent Norway Maples. Remove Norway Maple and Horse Chestnut from Oak Grove. Remove Norway Maple and Horse Chestnut from Oak Grove. Remove non-native grass. Remove most of grove: London Plane, Horse Chestnut, Norway Maple. Replace with native Sycamore grove? Keep leaning Oak, and Sycamore. Remove Norway Maples so that woodland edge moves back to Oaks. Oak woods will be open and savanna-like. Consider removing Apple. Remove Juniper shrubs, lean-to structure and possibly Oak to create view. Remove smaller Spruces in front of Coach House. Keep largest Spruce. Remove Norway Maple and Horse Chestnut. Keep Silver Maple. Keep Sycamore and plant more. Keep Ash, Flowering Pink Dogwoods, and Hawthorn. Remove Norway Maple and Horse Chestnut. Remove Black Locust. Remove Norway Maple group. Keep Sycamore and native maples. Remove Azalea ring. Remove Norway Spruces, Horse Chestnut, Privet, and Norway Maple. Keep White Pine, Oaks and Dogwood. Remove Azaleas below and Russian/Autumn Olives.

18. 19. 20. Remove Cedars, Austrian Pine, Privet, Norway Maples, and Ornamental Magnolia. Keep large White Pine, young Oaks and Ashes. Possibly keep three large Norway Spruces at opposite end. 21. Remove Privet and Norway Maple and small trees. Keep mature Ash. 22. Remove non-native ornamental trees. 23. Remove small clump of Norway Spruces that block the view between the Orchid Range and the Coach House. 24. Remove Ginkgo and dying Dogwood. Possibly remove Lilacs and Magnolia. Keep Ash & Tulip poplar 25. Remove Austrian Pine. 26. Remove Japanese tree lilacs, Privet, Norway Maple and adjacent Magnolias. Keep large Sugar Maple. 27. Remove Norway Spruce. 28. Remove Norway Maples. Keep big Hawthorn. 29. Oak patch: Phased removal of non-native trees. Remove Lesser Celandine on ground. 30. Remove Pagoda Tree. 31. Remove Azaleas 32. Remove Miscanthus and Barberry along stream

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Rt. 206

Management Strategies

Limit of Management Area Fence

Turreted Woodlands & Landscape Shoulders of Duke Parkway West

Meadows G2a - Wildflower Meadow G2b - Butterfly Meadow Savanna S1 - Upland Grove S2 - Lowland Grove

1. 2.

Forest F1 - Upland Oak Woodland F1b - Dry Upland F2 - Rich Mesic F3 - Bottomland

F2

15

3. 4. 5.

F3 F1b

Woodland OW3 - Hedgerow

12

Wetland W1- Sedge Meadow W2 - Wet Meadow

8. 9.

F1b

16

S2

* Area extends past management boundary but is an important component within this landscape

20

10. G2b G2b

S1

F3

13.

W2

F1b

11

14. 15.

7

20 OW3

F1

W1

16. 17. 18.

13

6 G2a W2

4

F2

8

17

S1 18

3

9

12

F1

19

F1b

11. 12.

F1

10

W2

21

6. 7.

F2

19. 20.

14

F1b

21.

5

F3

2

F3

1

0

180’ N

DUKE FARMS 24 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Proposed Hickory Grove. Keep American Basswood, Red Maple, Oak, Hickory and Hemlock. Add more Dogwood along road corridor Replant hedgerow species Keep Spruce, Hemlocks and NY ferns. Allow Spruce to decline and replace with White Pine to create a conifer savanna grove. Restore grove on Knoll Existing natives: New York Iron Weed, N. Leaf Mountain Mint, Carex, Rough Leafed Goldenrod Keep Pin Oak & Red Maple on knoll. Turreted woods - South Side. Manage for Sycamore savanna. Leave any Basswood, Sycamores, Shagbark Hickory, Walnut, and Hemlock. Plant large caliper Sycamores and Tulip Poplars. Fill in gaps with native large caliper trees. Existing Ash, Hickory and Oak seedlings in ground cover. Leave Sycamores Evergreen knolls consists of Hemlock on south side, White Pine on the north and Norway Spruce on both sides. Add additional native flowering trees, such as Redbud. Very nice wet meadow. Standing water in early spring keeps out invasion of Stilt Grass. Consists of sedge sp., Soft Rush, Sensitive Fern, many wildflowers, Dogbane, Goldenrod, Ragwort, Milkweed. Manage for Ash grove. Mixed conifers. Keep White Pines, Hemlock and Norway Spruce. Manage for sycamore savanna. Transition Norway Spruce to White Pines Manage for a Walnut meadow. Change mowing pattern. Encourage native warm season grasses. Keep Pin oak Spruce and White Pine grove. Keep Hemlock & Ash seedlings. Lake shore (upland from top of bank). Leave Pin Oaks and Sugar Maples. Add native Wisteria or Lonicera vine to arbor (not shown). Frame view to lake with White Pine.


SPECIFIC LANDSCAPES Turreted Woodlands AN OVERVIEW

Gates at intersection of Route 206 and Duke’s Parkway West

View to Farm Barn Meadow from Duke’s Parkway West

Design Vision: The “Turreted Woodlands” frame the entrance drive along Duke Parkway West, between the gates at Route 206 and the main parking at the Farm Barn. The entrance sequence should be dramatic and varied. These woodlands are the first natural landscapes that visitors to Duke Farms will see as they arrive at the property. The unfolding of the landscape creates the drama of the arrival experience. Following a dark, enclosed wooded entry at the turreted gates, the road opens up along its southern edge, presenting alternating views deep into the wildflower meadows to the south, the wet meadows along the stream valley, and the lakeshore to the north. Groves of evergreen trees on the little hills frame these open areas. Approaching the South Gate, the entrance to the Farm Barn is bracketed by woodlands on either side of the entry road. Primary Demonstration: While there are no interpretive trails contemplated at this time, the phased transition of the turreted woodlands from a Norway maple dominated canopy to a native oak-hickory-sycamore woodland canopy is an interesting story, both to the restoration specialist and to the layman facing similar problems.

Duke’s Parkway West

Sycamores at Turreted Woodlands

Historic images of the gates

Brook just beyond deer fencing

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Rt. 20

De er Fe nc in g

De er Fe nc in g

Existing Conditions Field Notes

Floodplain extent based off Rowland Silt Loam soil map

Turreted Woodlands & Landscape Shoulders of Duke’s Parkway West

Mixed Conifers

Mixed Conifers

Evergreen Knolls

utility lines and electric box are in visual conflict with the stone gates

Wet Pollinator Meadow Illegal Turn

North Turreted Woodlands Pin Oak

Swamp White Oak

Mixed Connifers

Limit of Management Area Wet Area

ay West

Duke Parkw

iew lv tia ten Po

iew lv tia n te Po

Existing Trees Stream

South Turreted Woodlands

Views

Spruce & White Pine Grove

South Gate House w vie ial nt te Po

Ramps Overlook Clearing

Lake Shore

ADA connection to South Gate

Fountain & possible secondary trail head

Black Walnut

Well House

Large Maple

Large Walnut

European Beech

Area Boundary Sycamore & dead Ash

Large Oak

Sycamore

Wet Meadow

Sycamore & Horse Chestnut

Wet Area

Connection Sycamore

Floodplain Swale

Healthy Wet Meadow

Knoll View

Mud Lake

Possible m eadow co nnection

Knoll

Hedgerows

Spruce

Skunk Cabbage

Gentle Knoll

Start of wetlands at existing gap

Spruce Knoll

Concrete Pad Transformers Septic Mound

Proposed Pollinator Meadow Stream

Scattered White Pines & Hemlocks Drainage ditch

Large Elm

Ephemeral Stream & Stream Corridor Accessible Pedestrian connection to park core

DUKE FARMS 26 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Phragmites

0

180’ N


Rt. 206

Rt. 206

De er Fe nc in g

De er Fe nc in g

Removals Turreted Woodlands & Landscape Shoulders of Duke Parkway West 1. 2. 3. 4.

18 5. 6.

15 19 20

21

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

ay West Duke Parkw

15 4 11 25

13. 14. 15.

10

22

14

23

South Gate House

26

16. 17.

4

27

7

28

29

13

12

5 Fountain & possible secondary trail head

Well House

9

18.

17

19. 20.

6

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

2

Limit of Management Area 1

Specific Tree Removal

26. 27. 28.

Removal Area Phased Removal Area Internal Area Boundary

29.

0

180’ N

Eliminate septic mound. Remove Five-Leaf Aralia, Norway Maple, European Alder and Barberry along stream corridor. (see Management Strategies) Remove European Alder grove along stream. Spot treat seedlings (leave for 4 years as seed source for Raritan?) Remove Norway Maple & American Basswood to create view to meadow. Remove Norway Maples, Horse Chestnuts, Barberry, Garlic Mustard, Blue Mint. Phased removal of Spruce. Restore grove on Knoll, remove Ailanthus. (see Management Strategies) Remove invasives from hedgerow. Remove invasives; Jet Bead, Garlic Mustard, dying and damaged Spruce. Remove Japanese Maple, Rhamus and Garlic Mustard Turreted woods - South Side. Remove Norway Maples via successional girdling, Barberry, Celandine, Indian Strawberry, Five-Leafed Aralia and Garlic Mustard. Spray to remove invasive plants. Phased removal of mature Norway Maples. Manage invasive seedlings. Remove Horse Chestnuts Remove Hollies. Keep ephemerals behind knoll including: Spring Beauties, Jack in the Pulpit, Basswood seedlings, Ferns and Rushes. (see Management Strategies) Remove invasives including Ailanthus, Barberry, Canary Grass, Japanese Honeysuckle. Leave evergreens, Hickories and Ash at center, Jack in the Pulpit, NY Fern. Remove Norway maples. Phase as necessary to preserve woodland structure. Remove invasive tree species. Remove Norway maples. Phase as necessary to preserve woodland structure. Keep Swamp White Oak. Remove Multiflora Rose and European Alders in wet meadow Transition Norway Spruce to White Pines. Remove Ailantus and Aralia (see Management Strategies) Remove Norway Maples, English Elms, Black locust, Japanese Honeysuckle and Garlic Mustard. Remove invasives. Remove Grove of Japanese maples, Ginkgo and some Norway Maple South Gate: remove Japanese tree lilacs, Miscanthus, and Barberry. Remove Ginkgo, Norway Maple and Celandine. Leave Silver Maples different stages, Oak seedlings, Basswood, Large patch of Ramps (wild leeks). Lake shore (upland from top of bank): Remove Miscanthus, Chinese Wisteria, Zelcovas and Hollies. Just past arbor: Remove Norway Maple grove and open to highlight views to lake from Farm Barn and main parking. Remove Phragmites.

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Fence (Future)

section of gated road

Fence (Future)

•

Dukes Parkway West

Managed Woodland Edge

Paved Roadway

ld

ld

ou

ou

Sh

Sh

M

ow

n

n ow M

Woodland

er

Hedgerow er

Meadow

Above: proposed design for Dukes Parkway West, showing mown shoulders, boundary fences, and enhancements for adjacent plant communities. The woodland edges are to be planted with additional flowering understory trees, such as redbud and dogwood, for dramatic spring bloom. The hedgerows are to be managed to provide views to the distant fields. The fences are intended to provide a neat edge treatment and minimize vehicle turn-arounds which currently damage the roadway shoulders. Installation of the fences within the road right of way needs to be reviewed with the Town and may need to be deferred until the status of the road is resolved.

Illustration of intended road shoulder, fence and field relationship.

DUKE FARMS 28 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON


Implementation Strategies The establishment and management of a native plant community, such as a meadow, is inherently an iterative process, in which stewardship efforts are monitored and assessed in order to compare their relative success and provide direction for subsequent efforts. In this context, plant community stewardship is an adaptive process, rather than a one-time removal and replanting task. The monitoring, documentation, and comparison of alternative planting and management techniques throughout the stewardship process will be essential for validating the success of the meadows at Duke Farms. The ongoing results will be of great interest to other land stewards, both public and private, and should be made available either on a website, or through another appropriate publication or venue. The Great Meadow, and other interpretive landscapes, are well set up for comparative studies because, first, the design incorporates a variety of meadow types (new warm season grassland, transitional cool to warm season grassland, wildflower meadows, and so on) and secondly, because the spaces are starting from the same beginning point (cool season lawn). Documentation and monitoring should begin before removal of the existing vegetation, and be repeated at each step of the implementation and management process. A comparison of successful stewardship techniques should evaluate the following: • Shift to warm-season grassland from cool-season grassland; • Presence / absence of specific ‘specialist’ (habitat-specific) plant species in response to different stewardship techniques; • Frequency of recurring invasive plant species; • Soil changes (pH, permeability, horizon development, food web, carbon storage, deep root penetration, etc) in response to different management techniques in both meadow and woodland areas • Soil changes in response to different amendments applied during implementation process • Presence/absence of (non-native) earthworms in response to different management techniques • Financial documentation – unit costs for both implementation and maintenance. What’s the best return for the monetary investment? Vegetation Removals: It is critical to both the ecological health and the beauty of the landscape to remove invasive exotic plant species in all layers of the landscape. Ornamental trees and shrubs that are contextually inappropriate, such as the shrub junipers at the woodland edges, should also be removed or relocated. Vegetation removals need to be coordinated with the Invasive Plant Management Plan.

Presence of invasive species in a deciduous woodland

Woodland after removal of invasive species

Priority removals should focus on plant species that are the most aggressive spreaders or on emerging pests that are not yet well established on the property. Other non-native plants which are not actively spreading may be removed over time. These species should be monitored to determine whether they are reproducing in adjacent natural areas.

In the case of non-invasive ornamental trees which have commercial value, Duke Farms may wish to consider the following options: • Sale to a tree service as large-caliper transplants, to fund ongoing restoration efforts; • Donation to regional gardens as a tax break; • Transplant to appropriate garden areas elsewhere on the property.

In some cases, removal of all non-native trees will completely transform a plant community from woodland to an open meadow. Where wooded areas are desirable as a permanent part of the landscape, it may be appropriate to leave a large portion of the mature non-native trees intact, initially facilitating a transition to native canopy trees over time. This approach is particularly appropriate to specific areas of the Turreted Woodlands. It is more fully detailed in the establishment guidelines for woodland habitats. The removal of invasive trees will produce large quantities of wood. This wood should be considered a resource for the site rather than a waste product for disposal. Options within the stewardship program include: producing charcoal for experimental use as a soil amendment; leaving selected downed logs and standing snags as habitat enhancement; placing wood chips as an informal path surface; and the reuse of logs or lumber for the construction of boardwalks over wet sections of trail. Other possible uses include firewood and outdoor furniture construction (either produced inhouse or by regional timber-reclamation companies).

Species of primary concern include: Norway Maple, Tree of Heaven, English Elm, Japanese Maple, Amur Cork Tree, European Alder, Barberry, Multiflora Rose, Burning Bush, European Buckthorn, Japanese Honeysuckle (shrub and vine), Horse Chestnut, spreading ornamental Junipers, Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia), and Garlic Mustard. These species, and others, are discussed more fully in the 2007 Invasive Plant Management Plan. Inappropriate horticultural species include: Ginkgo, Big-leaf Linden, Princess Tree, Japanese Tree Lilac, Cut-Leaf Blackberry (Rubus laciniatus), Periwinkle, English Ivy, Chinese Juniper. Non-native species that may remain where contextually appropriate include: Magnolias, Norway Spruce, European Turkey Oak, Katsura, Crabapple(ornamental varieties), and Flowering Cherries (ornamental varieties).

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Establishment Guidelines by habitat type The recommendations focus on the initial establishment of regional native plant communities in appropriate habitats. These are general guidelines which include ideas from the Duke Farms staff, professional partners, and also from Society of Ecological Restoration, Natural Lands Trust, and the Duke Farms Foundation reports. The establishment and restoration of natural areas is complex. The guidelines below are intended as a starting point, which should be adapted and updated as initial monitoring data are obtained from the first phases of implementation. Where the recommended strategies vary between sources, see the individual references for more detailed information. Key considerations for the establishment processes include: • Generalist vs. specialist species: Most commercially available seed mixes are comprised of tried-and-true generalist species. The inclusion of some more specialist (habitat-specific) species would add regional relevance, help give the Duke Farms stewardship an ‘edge’, and heighten the interest / educational value for other land stewards. The challenge is to select species appropriately in order to broaden the range of plant species without selecting species whose growing requirement cannot be met on site. The Plant Sustainability Index ratings (see Management and Monitoring section) can help with this selection. These specialist species could be either included in the original seed mix or over-seeded in a subsequent phase.

Seed sources: Consider using local field-collected seed as a replacement or supplement to seed obtained from large commercial suppliers. This will enable Duke Farms to plant a wider range of species than is available commercially, and will help conserve genetic diversity and local phenotypes.

Vegetation removal methods: Necessary removals may be accomplished through burning, herbicide applications, cutting (felling) or cultivation. Methods that most closely approximate historic natural processes are generally preferred, however the most appropriate method will depend on availability of permits, cost and staffing constraints, and the particular species being removed. Some land stewards are interested in organic methods, so some demonstrations of non-chemical options will be of interest to others in the region.

Soil amendments: Soil development is closely tied to plant community succession. The intentional manipulation of soils can foster native plant growth. Duke Farms might consider evaluating the benefits of different soil amendments, which is a present hot topic in the field of restoration. Soil modification can achieve several benefits, including carbon sequestration, improved soil texture, pH and nutrient uptake, improved plant growth, and suppression of invasive exotics (both plants and animals). Some recent experiments have explored charcoal; pelletized sulphur; cover crops; and mycorrhizal fungi inoculants. DUKE FARMS

30 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Weed control: Weed control may be accomplished through mowing, manual removal, herbicides, or a combination. The most appropriate method will depend, in part, on the extent of weed control needed and the particular species of concern. Chemical controls are the most effective option for some aggressive species, however not all land owners have access to herbicides, especially post-emergent products such as Plateau. A comparison of methods (chemical vs. organic) may be a helpful demonstration.

Warm-Season Grassland (G1, G2a) Warm-season grassland swaths will be newly established following the removal of the existing cool-season grasses. Overseeding with native annuals in the first 2-5 years will provide showy color and quick cover, while the perennial grass species are maturing. It is extremely unlikely that these plants will persist once a native perennial meadow is established. First Year (2008): Site Preparation • Remove woody exotics (trees & shrubs) • Remove existing herbaceous vegetation and control perennial weeds: • Best Option: Burn (if possible) in late fall or early spring (2009); • Second Option: Apply herbicide to remove herbaceous and shrubby vegetation; wait approx. three weeks & reapply herbicide. Repeat as needed. Herbicides are recommended for late summer and early fall. A combination of glyphosate and a broad-leaf herbicide may be necessary for best control of some aggressive weeds. Finally, mow or cultivate lightly in the fall to remove remaining vegetation • Least-preferred option: Till lightly (2 inch max depth) to kill existing vegetation; re-disc every three weeks throughout summer as new weed seeds germinate • Apply soil amendments (if desired). Consider inoculants to restore appropriate soil biota. Planting • If previously cultivated, roll the bare soil areas to compact soil before drill seeding. Rake seed in and roll the soil following seeding to ensure good seed to soil contact. • Unless burning in spring of 2009, seed winter nurse crop of oats or annual rye (optional) • Unless burning in spring of 2009, seed specific areas with wildflowers in late summer or early fall (G2 areas only). Use herbicide-resistant wildflower varieties. • Mulch newly seeded areas with straw.

Second Year (2009) • If used, mow nurse crop • Drill seed warm season grasses in April. • Mulch newly seeded areas with straw. • Consider mulching and crimping ‘seed hay’ as an alternate establishment method for warm-season grasses. Use a mowing crop from existing grasslands on site or in the local area. • Water spring seeded areas in early morning during first 6-8 weeks. Short Term Management • Apply post-emergent herbicide (“Plateau”) • Overseed with native annuals in spring. Follow supplier’s recommendations regarding pretreatment of seed and necessary wait time following herbicide application. • In June through mid-July, mow to 6-8 inches to control weeds – avoid cutting flowering stalks off annuals if possible, but mowing the first year is more important than flowering success. Do not let weeds grow taller than 12 inches. • Spot herbicide and/or manual removal for any problem weeds and/or woody resprouts [summer – fall] • Overseed G2 areas with wildflowers in late summer to early fall. • Overseed with native annuals in the late fall (for 2010 bloom) Third Year (2010) • Mow in early spring (March). Do not burn during this second spring. • Mow again in early-mid June to 12 inches high, to control broadleaf weeds before they set seed. Fourth – Sixth Years (2011-2013) • Burn annually or bi-annually to control weeds and woody shrubs. Burn different meadow areas in different seasons to create species variety. • Second Option: Mow one to two times per year: early July and/or March. July mowing can be effective at promoting warm-season grass growth and suppressing weed reproduction. Do not mow between April 1 and late June, since this will damage nests of grassland birds and may limit flowering.


Butterfly Meadow (G2b) Site Preparation • Remove woody exotics (trees & shrubs) • Remove existing herbaceous vegetation and control perennial weeds: • Best Option: Burn (if possible) in late fall 2008 or early spring 2009; • Second Option: Apply herbicide to remove herbaceous and shrubby vegetation; wait approx. three weeks & reapply herbicide. Repeat as needed. Herbicides are recommended for late summer and early fall. Finally, mow or cultivate lightly in the fall to remove remaining vegetation • Least-preferred option: Till lightly (2 inch max depth) to kill existing vegetation; re-disc every three weeks throughout summer as new weed seeds germinate • Apply soil amendments (if desired). Consider inoculants to restore appropriate soil biota. Planting • Roll the bare soil area • Plant herbaceous plugs Short Term Management • Spot herbicide and/or manual removal for any woody resprouts during the summer through the fall • Overseed with native annuals in late fall (for 2010 bloom)

Mixed Cool Season + Warm Season Grassland (G3) The cool season grassland zone will be developed from the pasture-grass species that already grow in the Great Meadow. The reduced mowing schedule will allow some warm season grasses to develop within this habitat; the gradual transition from cool-season to warm-season grass species is the goal of these zones. Site Preparation • Remove woody exotics (trees & shrubs). Confirm absence of any problematic exotic species, such as mugwort, which would be difficult to eradicate without extensive use of chemicals. Short Term Management • Stop existing mowing. Mow one to two times per year: early July and/or March. • Spot herbicide and/or manual removal for any woody resprouts [summer – fall] • Evaluate this plant community after 3-5 years, for successful establishment of indigenous grasses and wildflowers, and presence/ absence of weed species. The separate mowing management strategy may be continued, or management may be integrated with the Great Meadow as a whole, or the area may be re-planted, as appropriate.

Savanna (S1, S2) Site Preparation • Remove invasive canopy tree species such as Norway Maple and Ailanthus, and ornamental trees which are out of context. Techniques can include felling and girdling. With the exception of a few selected trunks, which may be left for habitat enhancement, the majority of the standing dead trees resulting from this effort should be removed. • Remove other invasive species, including shrubs and herbaceous plants. Barberry and other shrubs may be pulled manually, and the stumps treated with herbicide. Lesser Celandine, Garlic Mustard, Miscanthus, and other weeds may be either sprayed or manually removed. Either treatment should be done when the native wildflowers such as Spring Beauty and Virginia Bluebells are dormant. Planting • Plant young canopy tree species (caliper or whip sizes) to promote canopy regeneration (optional). Many of the savanna groves have themes; see notes on the Management Strategies plans. • Plant or seed, ferns, and woodland grasses and wildflowers to restore woodland ground layer (optional). This may be most effective in higher-visibility areas, or where fast control of weed reestablishment is desirable, or where spontaneous regeneration of herbaceous species from the seedbank or root stocks is inadequate. Seeding will need to be done using a broadcast method. Short Term Management • Control weed regeneration with manual removal or spot applications of herbicide. • Consider burn management as a long-term tool for weed control and for maintenance of the open savanna plant community. As an alternative, small grove areas may be mown using a flail-type mower.

Open Woodland (OW1, OW2, OW3, OWE) This category includes woodland with two origins. The first are remnant oak woods – woods with widely spaced, mature oaks, and a relatively open canopy. These are located near the Coach Barn. The second are “newly opened” woods, that will be created by removing invasive trees (primarily Norway Maple) from existing woodlots, leaving a more open woodland with widely spaced mature native trees. Site Preparation • Remove invasive canopy tree species such as Norway Maple. Techniques can include felling and girdling. • Remove other invasive species, including shrubs and herbaceous plants. Barberry and other shrubs may be pulled manually, and the stumps treated with herbicide. Lesser Celandine, Garlic Mustard, Miscanthus, and other weeds may be either sprayed or manually removed. Either treatment should be done when the native wildflowers such as Spring Beauty and Virginia Bluebells are dormant. Planting • Plant young canopy tree species (whips or liner sizes) to promote canopy regeneration (optional). • Plant flowering understory trees for visual effect along woodland edges. • Plant shrubs, fern plugs, and seed woodland grasses and wildflowers to restore woodland ground layer. This may be most effective in higher-visibility areas, or where fast control of weed reestablishment is desirable, or where there is little spontaneous regeneration of herbaceous species from the existing seedbank or root stocks. • Consider `Interseeding’ (SER 1997) as a method for introducing additional indigenous species within a plant community already containing desirable native species. Interseeding involves mowing and/or burning to set back existing vegetation, followed by broadcast seeding. Short Term Management • Control weeds with manual removal or spot applications of herbicide. • Consider burn management as a long-term tool for weed control and for maintenance of the open woodland structure. Small areas may also be mown annually for control of invasive species, using a flailtype mower.

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Hedgerows (OW3a, OW3b) Along selected portions of Duke Parkway West, hedgerows can be enhanced as part of the roadside aesthetic and as a replacement for existing Norway Maple groves. The hedgerows should not be so dense as to block views to the meadows beyond. Open views to the distant landscape by removing the shrub layer and cutting occasional gaps in the hedgerow.

Woodland (F1-F3) Norway Maple, and other invasive tree species, are an undesirable as a permanent part of the woodland plant community. This tree spreads aggressively, displacing not only other indigenous tree species, but also the native woodland wildflowers and shrubs that would normally be an integral part of the woodland.

Site Preparation • Spot remove invasive plants from the existing meadow area • Mow existing vegetation to 6 inches, to facilitate planting. Planting • Plant young canopy tree species and flowering understory trees (mix of caliper or whip sizes), at close spacings, to enhance the hedgerow. • Plant fern plugs, and seed grasses and wildflowers to establish the ground layer. Seeding will need to be broadcast rather than drilled in these sensitive areas. Short Term Management • Control weed regeneration with manual removal or spot applications of herbicide.

In some places Norway Maple is so prevalent that the removal will need to be phased in order to preserve the physical structure of the woodland. This is particularly true of the Turreted Woods along Duke Parkway West.

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Wetlands – herbaceous plantings (W1, W2, W3, W5) and woody plantings (W4, W5) Permits will be needed from the State before beginning vegetation removals or planting within wetland areas. Otherwise, planting can proceed in a similar fashion to the equivalent upland habitat, as described above. Where surface water flow is present, weed removal and seeding should focus on techniques that minimize soil disturbance and minimize potential water quality impacts. These may include:

• Site Preparation • Remove non-native canopy trees over time, by girdling or felling. This selection of individual trees for removal should mimic the natural gap-dynamics of a woodland, by creating limited openings within the overall woodland canopy. Removals should focus on the most prolific spreaders (Norway Maple, English Elm) over less aggressive non-native species (Horse Chestnut). This is consistent with the current restoration program for Research Woods. Planting • Plant small caliper size native trees to accelerate the natural development of young native saplings to replace former canopy trees (optional). Alternatively, existing native tree seedlings, where they occur, may be allowed to naturally fill in the canopy gaps; this will take more time. The advantage of replanting will be to speed up this natural process and to more quickly restore the multilayered appearance of a healthy woods. Individual seedlings and saplings may need deer protection since some parts of the Interstitial Landscapes lie outside the existing deer fence. • Interplant native ferns and wildflowers (optional). This may be advantageous where natural regeneration of the ground layer is slow, where species diversity is lacking, or where an immediate visual impact is desirable – e.g. along roadway edges and near paths. Planting may be done by broadcast seeding or by selective plugging in drifts. Short Term Management • Control the re-sprouting and re-establishment of non-native tree seedlings through annual monitoring and removal.

• • •

Weed removal through a combination of mowing, manual pulling and spot application of appropriate herbicides. No-till drill seeding, for establishment of herbaceous species Plug planting, for establishment of herbaceous species Live stakes, for establishment of shrub species


Management and Monitoring Strategies The management of native plant communities is an evolving body of knowledge. There is no ‘one correct method’ for maintaining meadows and woodlands; rather, there is a range of possible techniques, any one of which may offer advantages (or not) in a given situation. By comparing a variety of stewardship techniques in a controlled setting, Duke Farms has an opportunity to foster a better understanding of which techniques give the best results for different settings or different types of plants. This would be a significant contribution to regional land stewardship work. A diversity of meadow types (plant communities), together with a range of management approaches, will create a landscape that is varied in texture, height, and seasonal color. This variety will give greater visual interest within the meadow. The ‘swaths’ of contrasting meadow communities may shift and change over time – this organic process is natural and does not need to be discouraged, as long as the meadow is developing in a healthy manner (see below) and interpretive opportunities continue to be available. As discussed at the beginning of this section, monitoring efforts should track the following metrics when comparing the success of various management alternatives: • Indicators of Plant Community Health: warm season vs cool season grasses, frequency of specialist species, recurrence of invasive species, Plant Sustainability Index, Plant Community Health Monitoring Protocol • Indicators of Soil Health: pH, permeability, horizon development, food web, carbon storage, deep root penetration, etc • Effect of Disturbance Patterns: burning, mowing, and (perhaps) grazing • Financial documentation – unit costs for both implementation and maintenance For comparison, baseline information on existing plant communities (including cool-season lawns) should be obtained before beginning new stewardship efforts.

Indicators of Plant Community Health: Warm Season Grasses: As previously discussed, warm season grasses are a key component of native meadows and grassland communities, and provide superior wildlife benefits for forage and cover when compared to cool-season grasses. Specialist Species: By virtue of its permanence and in-house expertise, DFF also has the opportunity to go ‘beyond the typical’ in its choices of plant species and stewardship methods. “Specialist” species are plants that are faithful to specific, generally high quality, habitats, and are generally not found in

degraded environments. The eventual presence of specialist species in the meadow and woodland areas is an indicator of quality in the plant community.

keeping with the overall ranking of the site. As the ranking of a site improves, increasingly specialist (higher ranked) species may be added to the plant community.

Invasive Species: The rate of recurrence of invasive plant species, in relation to differing methods of control, would be a useful record both for in-house staff and other land stewards in the region. In addition, the absence of non-native earthworms is an indicator of health in native woodland communities. Recent studies suggest that non-native earthworms alter nutrient cycling and other soil characteristics, to the detriment of native plants. The control of earthworms as a component of woodland management is a relatively new area of investigation.

Plant Community Health Monitoring Protocol: Duke Farms is also implementing an additional monitoring protocol, proposed by Michael VanClef of Ecological Solutions, for use in reviewing invasive species management for the property. This method is based on the frequency of vegetation classes, or “response factors” within a plant community. These vegetation classes are listed as the relative frequency of native vs. non-native grasses, herbs, woody species, woody species within the deer browse zone, canopy cover, and “sentinel” seedlings. This method measures the change in frequency of these vegetation classes relative to desirable thresholds, which represent healthy parameters. For example, a healthy plant community may contain some invasive woody species, but the frequency of these species overall should ideally remain below a given level. Similarly, the structure of a healthy woodlot may be assumed to contain percentages (frequencies) of canopy closure, native herbs, native woody species, etc.

Plant Sustainability Index (PSI): The Plant Sustainability Index (PSI) method is recommended for the Interpretive Landscape areas. The PSI ranking represents a cumulative assessment of specialist, generalist and invasive species within a plant community. Each plant community should be evaluated separately. The Plant Sustainability Index is recommended as a tool to monitor the progress of vegetation restoration strategies in selected portions of the Interstitial Landscapes. The PSI is a quantitative method for assessing the integrity (or quality) of natural plant communities. It does this by rating the plant species found in the study site on a scale from very adaptable (1) to highly habitat specific (10). The site’s plant list, with ratings, is used to generate an overall index number for the site. A high index number indicates a landscape that is highly specific to the conditions at that site, i.e. a high quality natural plant community with little outside disturbance or degradation. A low index number reflects a natural area with many species that could be found across a wide range of habitats (i.e. a lower quality landscape and a number of invasive exotics). The PSI represents a method that is both quantified and regionally accepted, so that the results from one site may be compared to results from other sites in the region. This gives land managers a tool for comparing the efficacy of land management strategies with other land owners, for their mutual benefit. This method is also easy and quick and does not require specific sampling plots or transects; it does, however, need to be implemented by people with experience in plant identification.

The advantage of this method is that it does not rely on precise plant species identification. It does require some rigor and consistency of monitoring with fixed sample plots and transects. Monitoring of these sample plots has been made more efficient through GPS technology.

Indicators of Soil Health: Monitoring changes in soil characteristics, in parallel with plant community development, would be a useful supplement to comparing the efficacy of alternative management programs (burning, mowing etc). It would be helpful to better understand how soil qualities such as pH, permeability, horizon development, development of mycorrhizal fungi, carbon storage, and deep root penetration are correlated with successful native plant re-establishment in meadows and woodlands.

The PSI may also be used as a reference for appropriate plant selection, in that the relative tolerance of plant species to disturbance or varied site conditions may be matched to the appropriate site. Plants that require highly specific site conditions and complex plant communities are not likely to survive well in degraded, generalist sites; the goal in restoration planting at Duke Farms would be to select plants whose individual rankings are in DUKE FARMS

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Disturbance Patterns: Open landscapes such as meadows, savanna, and open woodland require periodic ‘disturbance’ if they are to persist. Without managed disturbance such as fire, or mowing, or grazing, these early successional plant communities will gradually change and evolve. Management is also important for suppressing invasive exotics. Fire: Natural fire is one of the shaping forces for New Jersey native habitats, and can efficiently suppress weeds and undesirable woody species. Prescribed burns are a highly effective management tool for maintaining indigenous plant communities such as grasslands, savannas, and oak woodlands. It can also be less labor and energy-intensive than mowing. The specific effects of fire on individual plant species varies with the timing of the burn and its intensity. A diversity of burn frequencies (typically 2-4 years) will produce different results and create an interesting and varied landscape. Any prescribed burn requires a permit and should be done under the direction of experienced personnel. Duke Farms has received a burn permit for the Great Meadow. A detailed burn plan will need to be developed for this area; follow up monitoring of specific responses within the plant community is essential for the evaluation and adaptive use of this tool for the Great Meadow and other grasslands at Duke Farms. It should be noted that while burning generally promotes fire-adapted native species over woody shrubs and non-natives plants, some invasive species, such as Stilt Grass and White Clover, are also promoted by burning. These fire-adapted non-native species, where present, should be removed by other means before conducting a controlled burn. Mowing: Mowing is a useful management alternative where fire is not possible. By removing the above-ground stems and shoots, mowing can suppress weeds and undesirable woody species within a meadow. Unlike fire, mowing does not directly kill the root systems of shrubs, so more frequent repetition and/ or spot chemical treatments are necessary to remove colonizing shrubs. Once meadows are established, they are typically mowed on an annual basis. Mowing may be done at the following times: • early July, to promote warm-season grass growth • March • late October / November • In general, do not mow between April 1 and late June, since this will damage nests of grassland birds and may limit flowering. Regular mowing from March through June (then stop for remaining summer) may be evaluated as a temporary measure for promoting warmseason grass development within an existing lawn of cool-season grasses. DUKE FARMS 34 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Duke Farms should experiment with many different mowing regimes and monitor the results. The time of mowing influences species composition. Meadows can be managed for many wildflower and grass compositions. The hay from mowing has several potential uses. These alternatives are all currently being tested by farmers in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania. The use is tied to time of mowing. • Mulch for mushroom growers (late winter harvest) • Feed for horses and cows (supplement to conventional hay) • Biofuel production • Seed hay (fall harvest) Grazing: Grazing is a little discussed method of maintaining open plant communities such as meadows, savannas and open woodlands. Researchers have speculated that grazing may have played an important role in suppressing woody growth in remnant grasslands. The specific effects of grazing depend on which herbivore is doing the browsing - different animals prefer eating different plant species - and on the distribution and intensity of the grazing. This technique would require more research into probable benefits and appropriate grasses. It is a time-consuming method and requires someone to care for the animals and sophisticated programs to ensure animals are rotated from area to area at appropriate times. It would also require discretely fencing open areas into management units. Deer Management: The existing deer fence that encloses 640 acres or 1 square mile of the parkland is critical and must be maintained. This fence prevents the heavy over-browse of seedling trees, shrubs and the ground layer that formerly prevented the renewal of native plant communities. In the Turreted Woods, which are unfenced, DFF manages deer population with annual culls. These culls have reduced the number of deer, and could be viewed as a second demonstration where different methods will produce different but equally meaningful results. Extraordinary results are already seen inside fenced areas of Duke Farms where there has been a remarkable return of wildflowers and many tree seedlings. It would be difficult to recommend to others a stewardship or restoration program that did not include a deer management component.

Fire Management


Next Steps Moving forward to be ready for the spring 2010 opening of the property requires that the Foundation make certain decisions regarding the recommendations of this report by the end of fall 2008.

COACH BARN

The most critical issues that the Foundation would need to resolve are: 1. Duke Farms has obtained a permit for burn management within the Great Meadow. Preparatory work should be completed by November 2008 for the scheduled burn on November 12, 2008. This includes a decision by DFF to break the existing tile drains, to regrade selected areas of the meadow for contouring, and to confirm areas within the meadow that will act as firebreaks. 2. At Orchid Range Meadow, the interruption of existing tile drains must be completed over by 2008, to allow us to observe the changes in the landscape prior to seeding and planting in late fall, or the spring of 2009. 3. Langan Engineering must comment on any permitting issues related to the proposed landscape changes, such as changes to the tile drains, or the removal of plants in existing wetlands areas.

Coach Barn Meadow

The remaining issues are planning steps to be undertaken by the Duke Farms Research Team: 6. Prioritize vegetation removals, and confirm the timeline shown in the Phasing diagram. Coordinate with available labor. 7. Prioritize planting, and confirm the timeline shown in the Phasing diagram. Coordinate with available labor. 8. Confirm availability of plant material with local nurseries. Arrange for contract growing and/or on-site propagation as appropriate. 9. Visually record and document the physical process and changes of the landscape.

Fall 2008 Implementation Spring 2009 Implementation Summer 2009 or later Implementation

Orchid Range Meadow *

OLD FOUNDATION

* High Profile Spaces: Prioritize efforts ORCHID RANGE

Great Meadow * Hay Barn Meadow *

The following issues are collaborative next steps where Andropogon would assist the Foundation in implementing the recommendations of this study: 4. The Foundation’s staff with Andropogon’s assistance would delineate the boundaries of the proposed plant communities on-site in relation to growing conditions such as soil drainage, texture, and pH, as a guide to proposed plant removals, seeding, and planning for the burn management. 5. Prioritize sites with notable remnant plant communities in the interpretive landscape areas should be confirmed and mapped for future reference, protection and stewardship.

Implementation begun Spring/Summer 2008

’S DUKE

ST

AY WE

PARKW

Turreted Woodlands

FARM BARN

Phasing diagram for interpretive landscapes: Priority is given to the meadow areas, since these plant communities have highest visibility, the most restrictive seasonal planting windows and a lengthy maturation time. Secondary priority is given to the enhancement of the adjacent woodland edges. Stewardship efforts in the interior woodland areas are important but have less critical visibility and a more flexible timeline for the proposed spring 2010 opening. Vegetation removals need to scheduled for times when the spring ephemeral wildflowers are dormant.

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Appendix The plants listed here are all native species. Specialist species are indicated in italics. Species composition should vary with the amount of moisture, shade and exposure for each designated area. Percentages of plants will vary by availability, typically not exceeding 1-5% of one type. Plants that are underlined indicate dominant species and should have a larger percentage in a planting mix. Non-native plants are not recommended.

G1: Grassland seeded, 80% grasses + 20% forbs Grasses: acidic sites Schizachyrium scoparium Little Blue Stem Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge Eragrostis spectabilis Purple Love Grass Danthonia spicata Poverty Grass

Planting diagrams are included as a planting guide for the plant community types. These diagrams represent a typical, generic, condition to be used for determining overall quantities and as a model for planting. The actual placement of plants in the field will be adapted to the specifics of the site.

Grasses: neutral sites (alternate) Bouteloua curtipendula Andropogon gerardii Sorghastrum nutans

Side Oats Grama Big Bluestem Indian Grass

Wildflower Meadows & Grasslands For diversity, educational value, and aesthetics, we recommend that not all meadows be seeded with the same mix. The ‘swath’ concept creates some of this diversity, however the mixes could also vary between major landscapes.

Forbs: Asclepias tuberosa Aster laevis Echinacea purpurea Eupatorium hyssopifolium Laitris spicata Solidaga rigida Solidago speciosa

Butterfly Milkweed Smooth Blue Aster Purple Coneflower Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort Blazing Star Stiff Goldenrod Showy Goldenrod

Forbs: accent mix Coreopsis lanceolata Rudbeckia fulgida Rudbeckia hirta

Lanceleaf Coreopsis Orange Coneflower Black Eyed Susan

The design for the meadows envisions painterly ‘mini swaths’ of color within the overall meadow type, as opposed to an even distribution of species and color across the meadow (see photo). Therefore, the wildflower (forb) seeding for the meadows includes both a basic forb mix, to be seeded throughout the planting area, and a separate ‘accent mix’ for artistic splashes of intense color. The species in the accent mix should be prolific and showy blooming plants that stand out within the overall meadow; Duke Farms staff may add to the species suggested here based on their local observations and experience. Similarly, the native annuals in the G1 planting have been divided into two contrasting groups, to be seeded in adjacent swaths.

meadow image showing interwoven swaths of color within the overall planting

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Native Annuals: (temporary, short, showy; as available) seed at 10-15 lb per acre group 1: Coreopsis tinctoria Plains Coreopsis Gaillardia pulchella Blanket Flower group 2: Chamaecrista fasciculata Partridge Pea

G2a : Wildflower Meadow seeded, 50% grasses + 50% forbs Grasses: Schizachrium scoparium Little Blue Stem Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge Eragrostis spectabilis Purple Love Grass Forbs: Asclepias syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Asclepias verticillata Aster ericoides Aster laevis Echinacea purpurea Eupatorium hyssopifolium Laitris spicata Solidaga rigida Solidago speciosa

Common Milkweed Butterflyweed Whorled Milkweed White Heath Aster Smooth Blue Aster Purple Coneflower Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort Blazing Star Stiff Goldenrod Showy Goldenrod

Forbs: accent mix Coreopsis lanceolata Heliopsis helianthoides Rudbeckia hirta

Lanceleaf Coreopsis Ox Eye Sunflower Black Eyed Susan

Native annuals: (temporary, short, showy; as available) seed at 10-15 lb per acre Phlox drummondii Red Phlox


Savanna

G2b: Butterfly Meadow plugs, 20% grasses + 80% forbs Grasses: (15” o.c.) Bouteloua curtipendula Side Oats Grama Schizachyrium scoparium Little Blue Stem Panicum virgatum Switch Grass Forbs: dry sites (15” o.c.) Asclepias syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Aster laevis Eupatorium hyssopifolium Heliopsis helianthoides Liatris spicata Lupinus perennis Pycnanthemum virginianum Rudbeckia hirta Solidaga rigida Solidago graminifolia Solidago tenuifolia Verbena stricta Forbs: moist-wet sites (15” o.c.) Apocynum cannabinum Aster novae-angliae Chelone glabra Desmondium canadense Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Geranium maculatum Lobelia siphilitica Monarda fistulosa Monarda media Penstemon digitalis Verbena hastata

G2c: Fern Display, plugs/pots (18” o.c.) Thelypteris noveboracensis Osmunda regalis Thelypteris palustris

S1: Upland Grove Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 3” caliper) Acer rubrum Red Maple Carya ovalis Pignut Hickory Carya ovata Red Hickory Fraxinus americana White Ash Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar Pinus strobus Eastern White Pine Platanus occidentalis American Sycamore Quercus alba White Oak Quercus velutina Black Oak Sassafras albidum Sassafras

Common Milkweed Butterfly Milkweed Smooth Blue Aster Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort Ox Eye Sunflower Blazing Star Wild Blue Lupine Virginia Mountainmint Black Eyed Susan Stiff Goldenrod Flat-topped Goldenrod Slender Fragrant Goldenrod Hoary Vervain

Dogbane New England Aster Turtlehead Showy Tick Trefoil Boneset Joe Pye Weed Spotted Geranium Great Blue Lobelia Wild Bergamot Purple Bergamot Tall White Beard Tongue Blue Vervain

New York Fern Royal Fern Marsh Fern

G2d: Gentian & Wetland Plant Display, pots (18” o.c.) Gentian sp. various species Calopogon sp Grass Pink Platanthera sp. Fringed Orchids Spiranthes sp. Fragrant Ladies’ Tresses Pogonia sp. Rose Pogonia Sarracenia sp. North American Pitcher Plant

Grasses & Forbs, seeded Schizachyrium scoparium Andropogon virginicus Deschampsia flexuosa Solidago graminifolia Solidago caesia Eupatorium hyssopifolium

Little Blue Stem Broomsedge Common Hair Grass Flat-topped Goldenrod Blue-stemmed Goldenrod Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort

Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge Pteridium aquilinum Bracken Fern

G2e: Spring Ephemeral & Herbaceous Display, pots (18” o.c.) Claytonia virginica Spring Beauty Cypripedium sp. Lady Slipper Orchid 30% Dryopteris sp. Wood Fern Erythronium americanum Trout Lily Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple Trillium grandiflorum White Trillium Sanguinara canadensis Bloodroot Viola sp. various Violet species G3: Mixed cool/warm season grasses on drier uplands This represents a temporary condition. It is expected that warm-season grasses will increasingly predominate over time. The warm-season grass species and wildflowers will be a result of ‘volunteers’ that self-establish in response to reduced mowing. Based on observations from portions of the Duke Farms property, these species will likely include Schizachyrium scoparium (Little Blue Stem), Solidago sp. (Goldenrod), and Cardamone pertensis. DUKE FARMS

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S2: Lowland Groves Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 3” caliper) Quercus palustris Pin Oak Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak Platanus occidentalis American Sycamore Grasses & Forbs, seeded Solidago flexicaulis Eupatorium perfoliatum

Phlox sp. Polygonatum biflorum Polygonatum pubescens Trientalis borealis Uvularia sessilfolia

OW2: Lowland Open Woodland Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 3” caliper) Amelanchier canadensis Canada serviceberry Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory Celtis occidentalis Hackberry Cornus alterniflora Alternateleaf Dogwood Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood Fraxinus nigra Black Ash Halesia Silverbell Nyssa sylvatica Blackgum Platanus occidentalis American sycamore Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak Quercus palustris Pin Oak

Zig Zag Goldenrod Boneset

Grasses and Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern Osmunda regalis Royal Fern Open Woodland OW1: Upland Open Woodland Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 3” caliper) Acer saccharum Sugar Maple Amelanchier canadensis Serviceberry Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory Cornus alterniflora Alternate-Leaf Dogwood Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood Diospyros virginiana Common Persimmon Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak Quercus rubra Northern Red Oak Quercus velutina Black Oak Sassafras albidum Sassafras Tilia americana American Basswood Shrub, 5 gal, 4-8’ o.c. Ceanothus americanus Hamamelis virginiana Lindera benzoin Vaccinium angustifolium Viburnum acerifolium

New Jersey Tea Witch-Hazel Spicebush Lowbush Blueberry Mapleleaf Viburnum

Grasses & Forbs, seeded Eurybia divaricata Solidago caesia Solidago flexicaulis Symphyotrichum cordifolium

White Wood Aster Wreath Goldenrod Zigzag Goldenrod Common Blue Wood Aster

DUKE FARMS 38 VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Phlox Smooth Solomon’s Seal Hairy Solomon’s Seal Starflower Bellflower

Grasses & Ferns, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge Cinna arundinacea Sweet Wood Reed Pteridium aquilinium Western Brackenfern Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Actaea pachypoda Actaea rubra Claytonia virginica Cimicifuga racemosa Dicentra canadensis Dicentra cucullaria Erythronium americanum Geranium carolinianum Geranium maculatum Hepatica nobilis Hypoxis hirsuta Mitchella repens Mitella diphylla Oxalis violacea

White Baneberry Red Baneberry Spring Beauty Black Cohosh Squirrel Corn Dutchman’s Breeches Dogtooth Violet Carolina Geranium Spotted Geranium Hepatica Common Goldstar Partridgeberry Twoleaf Miterwort Violet Woodsorrel

Shrubs, 3-5 gal, 4-8’ o.c. Cephalanthus occidentalis Clethera alnifolia Cornus ammomum Cornus sericea Ilex verticillata Itea virginica Lindera benzoin Rosa palustris Rubus flagellaris Rubus odoratus Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides Viburnum lentago

Buttonbush Sweet Pepperbush Silky Dogwood Red-Osier Dogwood Winterberry Holly Virginia Sweetspire Spicebush Swamp Rose Northern Dewberry Purple Flowering Raspberry Witherod Viburnum Nannyberry

Grasses & Forbs, seeded Actea rubra Agrimonia gryposepela Agrimonia parviflora Amsonia tabernaemontana Anemone canadensis Arisaema dracontium Arisaema triphyllum Asarum canadense Asclepias rubra Bidens frondosa

Red Baneberry Tall Hairy Agrimony Harvestlice Bluestar Canada Anemone Green Dragon Jack-in-the-Pulpit Canadian Wildginger Red Milkweed Devil’s Beggartick


Blephilia hirsuta Boehmeria cylindrica Boltonia asteroides Caltha palustris Cardamine bulbosa Cardamine concatenata Caulophyllum thalictroides Chelone glabra Cimicifuga racemosa Desmodium canadense Erythronium albidum Erythronium americanum Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium serotinum Filipendula rubra Galium obtusum Gaultheria procumbens Gentiana andrewsii Gentiana clausa Gentianopsis crinita Helianthus giganteus Hydrophyllum canadense Hydrophyllum virginianum Hypericum mutilum Impatiens capensis Impatiens pallida Laportea canadensis Lilium canadense Linum striatum Lobelia puberula Lycopus americanus Lysmachia ciliata Maianthemum stellatum Melanthium virginicum Mertensia virginica Mimulus alata Monarda clinopodia Monarda didyma Monarda media Osmorhiza claytonii Osmorhiza longistylis Packera aurea Panax trifolius Penstemon digitalis Phlox maculata Phlox paniculata Platanthera clavellata Platanthera lacera

Hairy Pagoda Plant Smallspike False Nettle White Doll’s Daisy Yellow Marsh Marigold Bulbous Bittercress Cutleaf Toothwort Blue Cohosh White Turtlehead Black Cohosh Showy Ticktrefoil White Fawnlily Yellow Trout-Lily Common Boneset Late Flowering Thoroughwort Queen-of-the-Prairie Bluntleaf Bedstraw Eastern Teaberry Closed Bottle Gentian Bottle Gentian Greater Fringed Gentian Giant Sunflower Eastern Waterleaf Virginia Waterleaf Dwarf St. Johnswort Jewelweed Pale Touch-me-not Canadian woodnettle Canada lily Ridged Yellow Flax Downy Lobelia American Water Horehound Fringed Loosestrife Starry False Lily of the Valley Virginia Bunchflower Virginia Bluebells Monkeyflower White Bergamot Scarlet Beebalm Purple Bergamot Clayton’s Sweetroot Longstyle Sweetroot Golden Ragwort Dwarf Ginseng Beardtoungue Wild Sweetwilliam Fall Phlox Small Green Wood Orchid Green Fringed Orchid

Platanhera psycodes Polygala nutallii Polygala sanguinea Polygonatum pubescens Pycnanthemum virginianum Pyrola americana Rudbeckia triloba Scutellaria integrifolia Scutellaria laterifolia Senna hebecarpa Silphium perfoliatum Sisyrinchium mucronatum Solidago flexicaulis Stellaria longifolia Symphyotrichum lanceolatum Thalictrum dioicum Thalictrum pubescens Thalictrum thalictroides Trillium cernuum Trillium erectum Uvularia perfoliata Veratrum viride Vernonia noveboracensis Veronicastrum virginicum Viola canadensis Viola sororia

Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid Nutall’s Milkwort Purple Milkwort Hairy Solomon’s Seal Virginia Mountainmint American Wintergreen Browneyed Susan Helmet Flower Blue Skullcap American Senna Cup Plant Needletip Blue-Eyed Grass Zigzag Goldenrod Longleaf Starwort White Panicle Aster Early Meadow-Rue King of the Meadow Tall Meadow Rue Whip-Poor-Will Flower Red Trillium Perfoliate Bellwort Green False Hellebore New York Ironweed Culver’s Root Canada White Violet Dooryard Violet

Grasses and Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Carex lurida Sallow Sedge Carex stricta Tussock Sedge Carex crinita Fringed Sedge Carex grayi Gray’s Sedge Carex lupulina Hop Sedge Cinna arundinacea Sweet Woodreed Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hairgrass Elymus histrix Bottlebrush Grass Elymus riparius Riverbank Wildrye Juncus marginatus Grassleaf Rush Leersia virginica Whitegrass Ferns, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Dryopteris celsa Dryopteris cristata Matteuccia struthiopteris Onoclea sensibilis Osmunda cinnamonea Osmunda regalis Thelypteris palustris

Woodwardia areolata Woodwardia virginica

Netted Chain Fern Virginia Chain Fern

OWE: Open Woodland Edge Flowering Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 1” caliper) Cercis canadensis Redbud Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood Magnolia virginiana Sweetbay Magnolia Ostrya virginiana Hop-hornbeam Shrubs, 5 gal, 4-6’ o.c. Rhus glabra Rhus aromatica Rubus allegheniensis Ribes americanum Ribes rotundifolium

Smooth Sumac Fragrant Sumac Allegheny Blackberry American Black Currant Appalachian Gooseberry

Grasses and Forbs, seeded Bouteloua curtipendula Schizachyrium scoparium Aquilegia canadensis Allium cernuum

Side-oats gramma Little Blue Stem Wild Columbine Nodding Onion

Grasses and Forbs, plugged in high visibility areas only (18” o.c.) Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge Dryopteris marginalis Evergreen Wood Fern

Log Fern Crested Wood Fern Ostrich Fern Sensitive Fern Cinnamon Fern Royal Fern Marsh Fern DUKE FARMS

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OW3a: Upland Hedgerow Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 1” caliper) Cercis canadensis Redbud Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood Fraxinus americana White Ash Prunus serotina Black Cherry Sassafras albidum Sassafras Rhus typhina Staghorn Sumac Shrubs, 3-5 gal Rhus aromatica Rosa carolina

Fragrant Sumac Pasture Rose

Grasses and Forbs, seeded Andropogon virginicus Aster cordifolius Aster divaricatus Solidago caesia

Broomsedge Blue Wood Aster White Wood Aster Blue-stemmed Goldenrod

OW3b: Lowland Hedgerow Acer rubrum Betula nigra Carya ovata Celtis occidentalis Chionanthus virginicus Fraxinus americana Platanus occidentalis Quercus bicolor Quercus palustris

Red Maple River Birch Shagbark Hickory Hackberry Fringetree White Ash American Sycamore Swamp White Oak Pin Oak

Shrubs, 5 gal Lindera benzoin

Wool-grass

Grasses and Forbs, plugged in high visibility areas only (18” o.c.) Thelyptris palustris Marsh Fern Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern Osmunda regalis Royal Fern

DUKE FARMS VITETTA /ANDROPOGON

Blue-stemmed Goldenrod Common Blue Wood Aster Culver’s Root

Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge Carex communis Fibrousroot Sedge

Forest F1: Upland Dry Trees, b&b/containers (mix of varying sizes - whips or liner sizes to 3” caliper) Acer saccharum sugar Maple Carya alba Mockernut Hickory Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory Carya glabra Pignut Hickory Carya ovalis Red Hickory Carya ovata shagbark hickory Cercis canadensis Redbud Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak Quercus rubra Red Oak Quercus velutina Black Oak

Spicebush

Grasses and Forbs, seeded Scirpus cyperinus

40

Solidago caesia Symphyotrichum cordifolium Veronicastrum virginicum

Shrubs, 5 gal Cornus alterniflora Corylus cornuta Hamamaelis virginiana Lindera benzoin

Alternateleaf Dogwood Beaked Hazelnut Witch Hazel Spicebush

Grasses and Forbs, seeded Andropogon virginicus Aquilegia canadensis Deschampsia flexuosa Eurybia divaricata Hypoxis hirsuta Schizachyrium scoparium Solidago graminifolia

Broomsedge Red columbine Common Hair Grass White Wood Aster Common Goldstar Little Blue Stem Flat-topped Goldenrod

F2: Rich Mesic Acer rubrum Amelanchier canadenesis Betula lenta Cornus alterniflora Cornus florida Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Fraxinus americana Liriodendron tulipifera Nyssa sylvatica Ostrya virginiana Quercus rubra Tilia americana Shrubs, 5 gal Corylus americana Hamamelis virginiana Lindera benzoin Viburnum acerifolium

Red Maple Serviceberry Sweet Birch Alternate-Leaf Dogwood Flowering Dogwood Common Persimmon American Beech White Ash Tuilip Poplar Black Gum Hop-Hornbeam Red Oak American Basswood

American Hazelnut Witchhazel Spicebush Maple-leaved Viburnum

Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Dryopteris goldiana Goldie’s Woodfern Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern Podophyllum peltatum May Apple Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern Grasses and Forbs, seeded Aralia racemosa Actaea pachypoda Actaea rubra Allium tricoccum Arisaema triphyllum Asarum canadense Cardamine concatenata Cardamine diphylla Caulophyllum thalictroides Cimicifuga racemosa

Spikenard White Baneberry Red Baneberry Wild Leek Jack-in-the-Pulpit Wild Ginger Cutleaf Toothwort Crinkleroot Blue Cohosh Black Cohosh


Circea lutetiana Claytonia virginica Dicentra canadensis Dicentra cucullaria Erythronium americanum Galearis spectabilis Geranium maculatum Hepatica nobilis Hydrophyllum virginianum Isotria medeoloides Isotria verticillata Osmorhiza claytonii Osmorhiza longistylis Panax quinquefolius Phlox spp. Podophyllum peltatum Polygonatum biflorum Sanguinaria canadensis Smilacinia racemosa Solidago caesia Solidago flexicaulis Trillium spp. Uvularia perfoliata Uvularia sessilfolia Viola spp. F3: Bottomland Acer rubrum Betula nigra Carya cordiformis Carya glabra Carya ovata Carya tomentosa Celtis occidentalis Diospyros virginiana Fraxinus americana Platanus occidentalis Ptelea trifoliata Quercus bicolor Quercus palustris Shrubs, 5 gal Cephalanthus occidentalis Clethra alnifolia Cornus amomum Cornus racemosa Lindera benzoin

Enchanter’s Nightshade Spring Beauty Squirrel Corn Dutchman’s Breeches Trout-Lily Showy Orchid Wild Geranium Hepatica Eastern Waterleaf Small Whorled Pogonia Large Whorled Pogonia Clayton’s Sweetroot Longstyle Sweetroot American Ginseng Phlox Mayapple Solomon’s Seal Bloodroot False Solomon’s Seal Wreath Goldenrod Zigzag Goldenrod Trillium Perfoliate Bellwort Merrybells Violets

Red Maple River Birch Bitternut Hickory Pignut Hickory Shagbark Hickory Mockernut Hickory Common Hackberry Persimmon White Ash American Sycamore Hoptree Swamp White Oak Pin Oak

Buttonbush Sweet Pepperbush Silky Dogwood Gray Dogwood Spicebush

Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Dryopteris goldiana Goldie’s woodfern Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern Grasses and Forbs, seeded Aralia racemosa Actaea pachypoda Actaea rubra Allium tricoccum Arisaema triphyllum Asarum canadense Cardamine concatenata Cardamine diphylla Caulophyllum thalictroides Cimicifuga racemosa Circea lutetiana Claytonia virginica Dicentra canadensis Dicentra cucullaria

Spikenard White Baneberry Red Baneberry Wild Leek Jack-in-the-Pulpit Wild Ginger Cutleaf Toothwort Crinkleroot Blue Cohosh Black Cohosh Enchanter’s Nightshade Spring Beauty Squirrel Corn Dutchman’s Breeches

Erythronium americanum Galearis spectabilis Geranium maculatum Hepatica nobilis Hydrophyllum virginianum Isotria medeoloides Isotria verticillata Osmorhiza claytonii Osmorhiza longistylis Panax quinquefolius Phlox spp. Podophyllum peltatum Polygonatum biflorum Sanguinaria canadensis Smilacinia racemosa Solidago caesia Solidago flexicaulis Trillium spp. Uvularia perfoliata Uvularia sessilfolia Viola spp.

Trout-Lily Showy Orchid Wild Geranium Hepatica Eastern Waterleaf Small Whorled Pogonia Large Whorled Pogonia Clayton’s Sweetroot Longstyle Sweetroot American Ginseng Phlox Mayapple Solomon’s Seal Bloodroot False Solomon’s Seal Wreath Goldenrod Zigzag Goldenrod Trillium Perfoliate Bellwort Merrybells Violets

Wetlands W1: Sedge meadow Asclepias incarnata Carex stricta Carex lurida Carex canescens Carex stipata Carex tribuloides Calamagrostis canadensis Cyperus spp. Eupatorium perfoliatum Helianthus grosseserratus Juncus effusus Leersia oryzoides Panicum rigidulum Poa palustris Polygonum sagittatum Solidago gigantea Scirpus cyperinus Thalictrum pubescens

DUKE FARMS

swamp milkweed Tussock sedge Sallow Sedge Silvery Sedge Awlfruit Sedge Blunt Broom Sedge Bluejoint flatsedge boneset sawtooth sunflower Soft Rush Rice Cut Grass redtop panic grass fowl bluegrass arrowleaf tearthumb giant goldenrod Wool Grass Tall Meadow Rue

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W2: Wet meadow herbaceous with scattered shrubs Shrubs, 5 gal, 4-6’ o.c. Spiraea alba White Meadowsweet Spirea tomontosa Steeple Bush Cornus amomum Silky Dogwood Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush blueberry Viburnum dentatum Arrowwood Viburnum Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Andropogon glomeratus Bushy Blue Stem Asclepia incarnata Swamp Milkweed Calamagrostis canadensis Canada Bluejoint Carex lurida Sallow Sedge Carex stricta Tussock Sedge Chelone glabra Turtlehead Eupatorium fistulosum Joe Pye Weed Euthamia graminifolia common flat-topped goldenrod Helenium atumanale Common Sneezeweed Iris versicolor Blue Flag Iris Juncus effusus Soft Rush Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower Ludwigia alternifolia Seedbox Lysimachia hybrida Yellow Lowland Loosetrife Mimulus ringens Allegheny Monkey-Flower Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern Panicum dichotomiflorum Fall Panicgrass Panicum virgatum Switch Grass Pycnanthemum tenufolium Narrowleaved Mountain Mint Scirpus cyperinus Wool Grass Solidago patula Rough-Leaved Goldenrod Stachys tenufolia Smooth Hedgenettle Symphyotrichum nov.-angliae New England aster Symphyotrichum novi-belgii New York aster Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern Verbena hastata Blue Vervain Vernonia noveboracensis New York Iron Weed W3: Vernal Pools/Ephemeral Ponds Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs Scirpus cyperinus Juncus effusus Leersia oryzoides Osmunda cinnamomea Osmunda regalis Onoclea sensibilis Thelypteris palustris

Wool Grass Soft Rush Rice Cut Grass Cinnamon Fern Royal Fern Sensitive Fern Marsh Fern

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W4: Wetland Edges and Swales Shrubs, 5 gal, 4-6’ o.c. Amelanchier Canadensis Cephalanthus occidentalis Cornus amomum Ilex verticillata Spirea tomontosa Vaccinium corymbosum Viburnum dentatum Alnus serrulata Cornus ammomum Cornus racemosa Ilex verticillata Itea virginica Spiraea alba Spiraea tomentosa Vaccinium corymbosum

Shadbush Buttonbush Silky Dogwood Winterberry Steeple Bush Highbush Blueberry Arrowwood hazel alder silky dogwood gray dogwood winterberry Virginia sweetspire white meadowsweet steeplebush highbush blueberry

Grasses & Forbs, pots/plugs (18” o.c.) Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern Osmunda regalis Royal Fern Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern Juncus effusus Soft Rush


References

Plant Sources

Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. 2008. website. www.dukefarms.org

Following is a partial list of nurseries or organizations that specialize in native plants. No endorsement is intended.

Ettel, Troy. 2005 Raritan Piedmont Wildlife Habitat Partnership Grassland Conservation Plan. New Jersey Audubon Society. VanClef, Michael. 2007. Duke Farms Invasive Plant Management Plan. Ecological Solutions: draft report prepared for the Duke Farms Foundation. Forup, Mikael L. and Handel, Steven N. 2007. Current Status and Management Guidelines for the 9-Acre Hardwood Forest Section of Research Woods. Rutgers University, Center for Urban Restoration Ecology: report prepared for the Duke Farms Foundation. Handel, Steven N. and Forup, Mikael L., 2007. Meadow Creation and Management Workplan. Rugers University, Center for Urban Restoration Ecology: report prepared for Duke Farms Foundation. Natural Lands Trust, 2007. Meadows in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Website publication: www.natlands.org New Jersey Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2008. New Jersey Wildlife Action Plan. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Trenton, NJ.

American Native Plants <www.americannativeplants.net> Appalachian Nurseries <www.appnursery.com> Bowmans Hill Wildflowers <www.bhwp.org> Croshaw Nursery <www.croshawnursery.com> Environmental Concern <www.wetland.org> Gro-wild <www.growildinc.com> Meadowood Native Nursery <www.meadowoodnursery.com> Moon Nurseries <www.moonnurseries.com> Musser Forests, Inc. <www.musserforests.com> Native Trees <www.nativetrees.net> Natural Landscapes Nursery <www.naturallandscapesnursery.com> North Creek Nurseries <www.northcreeknurseries.com> Octoraro Native Plant Nursery <www.octoraro.com> Pinelands Nursery <www.pinelandsnursery.com> Redbud Native Plant Nursery <www.redbudnativeplantnursery.com> Sylva Native Nursery <www.sylvanative.com>

Niering, William A. 1998. Forces that shaped the forests of the northeastern United States. Northeastern Naturalist. Society of Ecological Restoration, 1997. The Tallgrass Restoration Handbook for Prairies, Savannas, and Woodlands. Packard, Stephen and Mutel, Cornelia, eds. Island Press: Washington DC. Stiles, E. W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in birddisseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. American Naturalist 116: 670-688 USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service 2004. Comparing WarmSeason and Cool-Season Grasses for Erosion Control, Water Quality, and Wildlife Habitat. Conservation Practice Fact Sheet. USDA, NRCS, Maryland.

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266 duke farms management guidelines  
266 duke farms management guidelines