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# I N S TA R C H Instagrams Influence On Architectural Design, Media & Representation

Andrius Maguskinas 2019


# I N S TA R C H Instagrams Influence On Architectural Design, Media & Representation

Andrius Maguskinas

BA (Hons) Architecture 2019 To Be presented to The Department of Architecture and Landscape at The University Of Greenwich as part of the BA (Hons) Architecture Course.

Except where stated otherwise, this dissertation is based entirely on the authors own work.


INSTRUCTIONS This Dissertation Is Intended To Be Read On Instagram, This Book Is To Be Used Only As A Backup If Unable To Read On Instagram Below Are The Instructions On How To Access The Dissertation

Step 1 If you do not already have the Instagram app downloaded on your phone, go to either the Apple App store or Google Play store.

Step 2 Search for Instagram and download it.

Step 4 Tap the camera button on the left hand upper corner.

Step 5 Take a picture of the QR code on the left hand page. Centre it in the frame and pressing the shutter button.

If steps 5&6 do not work! Press the Explore tab button and search for “i_n_s_t_a_r_c_h” then tap on the account.

Step 7 You’re now on the account. Tap the list view Icon to better view the dissertation. Tap “more” under the descriptions to view the whole text.

Step 3 Log In to the app with your account. If you do not have an account, use the username: DissertationMarker and password: dissertation123

Step 6 Press “View Profile”

Step 8 Scroll, Like and Enjoy.


ABSTRACT This dissertation examines the ways in which the worlds fastest growing social media site with over 1 Billion users, Instagram, has had an effect on architecture. The dissertation will explore the impact of Instagram on architectural design by analysing different Instagrammable locations and identifying trends within them. The essay will look into influencer culture and how or why this has greatly shaped the built design world. The study will then further look at how Instagram has transformed the way architectural media is being consumed and distributed comparing traditional media to new social media. The paper will assess the new ways in which Instagram has allowed publications and firms to be more open with audiences and how Instantaneous the consumption and distribution of architectural media has become. The dissertation will explore the new fluid identities of the prosumer, along with the benefits and negatives this has created. Lastly this thesis will look at the way the representation of architecture has changed in the media due to the success of Instagram. The paper will look at how architectures representation has gone from exclusive and insular to inclusive and open to all.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to start by thanking Mark Garcia for being an extraordinary tutor. His guidance, advice and encouragement helped guide me through this dissertation. Without his support and dedication I would not have gotten to this final stage. I would then like to thank Laura Ilioniemi for taking her time to answer some questions I sent over to her via email. Along with this I would like to thank all the people who took part in the survey I did outside the Victoria Miro Gallery. I also would like to thank all my friends for being a great support system and making my years studying here at The University of Greenwich as amazing and wonderful as they have been. Lastly, I would like to give a massive thank you to my Mother, Father and Family, who have given me their unreserved love and support throughout my life.


CONTENTS Introduction - Page 1

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Chapter I - The Instagram Effect - Page 7 Why & How Instagram Is Effecting Architectural Design - Instagrams Growth - Page 8 - Aesthetics Of Instagram - Page 16 - Architectural Briefs - Page 32 - Rise Of The Pop Up Gallery - Page 38 - Is This New? - Page 48 -

Chapter II - Consumption & Distribution - Page 53 The Consumption & Distribution Of Architectural Media Due To Instagram -- The Audiences Of Architectural Media - Page 54 - How Public Face Of Architecture Is Constructed - Page 56 - Audience Power - Page 60 - Why We Share & Consume Architectural Media - Page 64 -

Chapter III - Instagram - Place of Publicity? - Page 69 Instagrams Impact On The Representation Of Architecture In Architectural Media -- Instagram Versus Traditional Media - Page 70 - Focus On The Built Object - Page 72 - Different Account Types Different Agendas - Page 78 -

Conclusion - Page 81 Reference List - Page 89 Image Reference List - Page 95 Bibliography - Page 105 W O R D C O U N T: 7 7 6 7


INTRODUCTION

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Instagram has become a global powerhouse in the social media world, and has amassed over 1 Billion users, whilst achieving this feat it has changed the architectural world and gone on to be worth over 100 Billion dollars. ( M c C o r m i c k , 2 0 1 8 ) “ I n s t a g r a m , F a c e b o o k , a n d Tw i t t e r a r e f o m e n t i n g t h e biggest revolution in architecture since the invention of steel, concrete, a n d t h e e l e v a t o r. I t i s a m e d i a r e v o l u t i o n . ” ( K u s h n e r, 2 0 1 5 ) . T h e r e a s o n f o r this dissertation is to explore and examine the ways in which Instagram has changed and effected the architectural world through three main points. The first point is the effect Instagram has had on architectural building and i n t e r i o r d e s i g n . To a c h i e v e t h i s t h e p a p e r w i l l e x a m i n e w h y I n s t a g r a m h a s gotten so powerful with the influence that it wields over architectural design and media, followed by identifying the current aesthetics of Instagrammable architectural and interior design and what exactly this is. The study will then explore the ways designing for Instagram is being adopted by interior d e s i g n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s a n d o t h e r s p a t i a l d e s i g n e r s a n d a r t i s t s a n d w h y. T h i s Dissertation will examine restaurants, hotels, and even art exhibitions and installations from around the world. Although art may not be architecture, there is a blurred line between art and architecture where artists start to d e s i g n s p a c e s , s u c h a s t h e ‘ I n f i n i t y R o o m s ’ , 2 0 1 8 , Ya y o i K u s a m a , L o n d o n , o r t h e M u s e u m O f I c e C r e a m , 2 0 1 8 , M a r y e l l i s B u n n , N e w Yo r k , a s p a c e that is not really a museum at all, but more of a walk through ‘set’ where people can go to have their own mini personal photoshoots and upload to Instagram. This academic paper will look into how the lines between consumers and producers of content have merged and in what ways this has led to businesses which were primarily the producers of content now fighting to get their content onto the social media feeds of large audience influencers for free press and exposure through ‘instagrammable’ design.

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Fig A: The Other Place AirBnB, An Instagrammable hotel Designed By Studio 10 Staircases come out of the walls making it hard to tell the difference between floor and ceiling. Space doesn’t feel as confusing as it looks in images

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The second point this dissertation will explore is the effects Instagram has had on architectural media such as, architectural magazines and websites, and the way it is consumed and distributed. The paper will look to the changes Instagram has had on the types of audiences that consume architectural media, how they have changed and why this is. It will then further study the power that these new audiences hold and the many new roles they take on. The reasons why people are consuming more social media, and the reasoning behind why people are sharing more social media is also explored. It will also examine the way traditional architectural media such as architectural magazines, which also have an online presence as well, have been forced to change with the Instagram revolution and the way this has changed the relationship between the audience and architectural media. The last chapter of this dissertation will explore how and why Instagram has effected the representation of architecture in the media. The text will compare websites like those of ArchDaily to their instagram accounts, and examine the differences and similarities between the posts. The paper will look to how Instagram has changed the way architecture is perceived by public figures within the industry and those outside the architectural world. The study will look at 5 main types of accounts. These are personal account of architects, the architects brand account, influencer accounts, institutional accounts, and finally regular user accounts which the average person has. With all these points taken into account this paper will research the impact Instagram has had on the architectural world and why the instagram phenomena is so powerful.

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Fig B: The Other Place AirBnB, An Instagrammable hotel Designed By Studio 10 The architects hid all practical elements like outlets and light switches behind small doors.

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CHAPTER I The Instagram Effect How & Why Is Instagram Effecting Architectural Design

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Instagrams Growth Instagram hit 1 Billion active users in June 2018, having only had 1 million users in December 2010, a month after launching and catapulting rapid growth in the social media market. (Constine, 2018). Since launch, Instagram has reshaped the world of media and marketing, and on its journey has led to social media domination as well as going on to be worth over 100 Billion dollars. (McCormick, 2018). As such, an important question is raised n a t u r a l l y : w h y & h o w i s I n s t a g r a m s o p o w e r f u l ? A n d s e c o n d l y, w h y i s t h i s affecting design?

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Fig 1: Instagram Users Graph

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First and foremost, Instagrams engagements are far higher than that of any rival social network, 4.1% of followers engage with posts that are posted to I n s t a g r a m , w h i l s t t h i s m a y s e e m l i k e a s m a l l n u m b e r, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f F a c e b o o k , i t s p a r e n t c o m p a n y, w h e r e o n l y 0 . 7 % o f f o l l o w e r s e n g a g e w i t h p o s t s a n d 0 . 3 % o n r i v a l , Tw i t t e r . ( E l l i o t t , 2 0 1 4 ) . F u r t h e r , Instagram boasts 15 times higher overall engagements than Facebook and 2 0 t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n Tw i t t e r . ( B e n d a l l , 2 0 1 8 ) . E n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o n t e n t i s important for both producers and influencers as it suggests to advertisers that the audience is active and their content is gaining reach.

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Fig 2: Instagram Engagements Graph

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S e c o n d l y, 7 0 % o f u s e r s f o l l o w a b u s i n e s s o n I n s t a g r a m , a l o n g w i t h t h i s , b u s i n e s s e s p r o d u c e a t h i r d o f I n s t a g r a m ’s m o s t - v i e w e d v i d e o s . ( H i t z a n d Blackburn, 2018). From a business or brand perspective, this is perfect as you can have a direct conversation with your customer knowing they are watching.

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Fig 3: Amount Of Instagram Users Who Follow A Business

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The final reason Instagram has gained such power is due to its size, it b o a s t s 5 0 0 m i l l i o n a c t i v e d a i l y u s e r s . ( G o t t e r, 2 0 1 8 ) . T h i s m e a n s h a l f o f t h e i r u s e r s a r e u s i n g t h e n e t w o r k d a i l y. F o r a d v e r t i s e r s a n d b u s i n e s s e s , t h a t i s 500 million people to advertise and sell to. However with this, arises a challenge, that challenge is to get noticed, and w i t h 5 0 0 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w a t c h i n g , g e t t i n g n o t i c e d g e t s m u c h t o u g h e r. A s s u c h , businesses had to find new ways to gain attention. On a network populated b y u s e r- g e n e r a t e d c o n t e n t , b u s i n e s s e s h a d t o f i n d w a y s t o g e t u s e r s t o p o s t their adverts without direct request, and as such, Instagrammable design was born. (Mackie, 2018).

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Fig 4: Active Users

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What Are The Aesthetics Of Instagrammable Design? Since the rise of Instagrammable space, articles suggesting Instagrammable locations and spaces to visit have infiltrated the internet everywhere. Articles by Vogue, Time Out, The Evening Standard, SheerLuxe and Refiner y 29, are just a handful that suggest people the most “photogenic spots” and “influencer approved” locations across London to visit and get their own Insta worthy snaps. Analysing the locations posted to these websites, you get a very clear understanding of what Instagrammable design is; Coppers, Rose Golds, Industrial Settings, Brickwork, Neon Signs, Pop, Bright Block Colours, B o l d P a t t e r n s , K i t c h , P o s t M o d e r n , 6 0 s D i n n e r, C h e a p n e s s , E d i s o n B u l b s , P e n d a n t L a m p s , S i m p l i c i t y, F l o r a l s , M i r r o r s , Te x t u r e s , C o n t r a s t , R e p e t i t i o n , F a b r i c s , P a t t e r n s , T i l l e d F l o o r i n g , F a u x L u x u r y, 1 9 3 0 s , P a l m Tr e e s , L i g h t i n g Displays, Emerald Greens, Navy Blues, Pastels, and most importantly…

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Fig 5.1

Fig 5.2

Fig 5.5

Fig 5.6

Fig 5 .3

Fig 5.7 Fig 5.4

Fig 5: Articles Suggesting Instagrammable Locations To Visit

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... Millennial Pink.

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Fig 6.1

Fig 6.4

Fig 6.2

Fig 6.5

Fig 6.3

Fig 6: Articles About Millenial Pink

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Instagrammable Space Analysis I To n i g h t J o s e p h i n e 1. Pink Colours 2. Neon Lighting & Signs 3. Florals & Cheap Plastic Flowers 4. Cheap Foil Curtain 5. 60s Dinner Vibe 6. Mirrors & Repetition 7. Patterned Statement Flooring

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Fig 7: Interior Of Tonight Josephine

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Instagrammable Space Analysis II Sketch -

1. Pastel Pink Room 2. Retro Vintage Design 3. Statement Tiled Flooring 4 . N e o n To i l e t s 5. Futuristic Pods 6. Fish Eye Mirrors For Better Pictures

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Fig 8.1

Fig 8.2

Fig 8.3

Fig 8.4

Fig 8.6

Fig 8.5

Fig 8.7

Fig 8: Interior Of Sketch

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Instagrammable Space Analysis III Palm Vaults 1 . F l o r a l s , P a l m Tr e e s & B a n a n a L e a v e s 2. Pink Accents, Walls & Seating 3. Rustic Look 4. Exposed Brick

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Fig 9.1

Fig 9.2

Fig 9.3

Fig 9.4

Fig 9.5

Fig 9: Interior Of Palm Vaults

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Instagrammable Space Analysis IV The Grind - Clerkenwell 1. Pink Seating & Ceiling 2. Exposed Industrial Columns 3. Navy Blue Seating & Walls 4. Repetitive Pendant Lamps 5. Mirrors 6. Gold Accents

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Fig 10.1

Fig 10.2

Fig 10.3

Fig 10.4

Fig 10.5

Fig 10: Interior Of The Grind

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As a result, “In this digital age, the places we choose to visit, eat and stay at increasingly need to be Instagrammable. Design has become, if not all, then at least the starter and the dessert.� (Mackie, 2018). Whether it be the way the food is plated up, the interiors, or the architecture. Photogenic backdrops have become a must for customers. Due to Instagrams growth, the large financial rewards, and the great exposure t h a t I n s t a g r a m h a s a l l o w e d f o r, b u s i n e s s e s , b r a n d s & i n f l u e n c e r s a r e a l l trying to find ways to get noticed on Instagram. Therefore, the importance o f a e s t h e t i c i n b u s i n e s s g r e w. A s t h e c o n s u m e r b e c a m e t h e p r o d u c e r, t h e y a l s o b e c a m e a n a d v e r t i s e r. C o m p a n i e s w a n t e d t h e i r c o n t e n t o n t h e s o c i a l network, whether through their own channels, or secondary channels such as influencers or regular users posting their products. For a business, n o t h i n g i s b e t t e r t h a n f r e e p r e s s . ( K r a m e r, 2 0 1 8 ) . I n t h e i m a g e s t o t h e r i g h t , Instagram influencer @Nyane travels all the way to Amsterdam to have her o w n p s e u d o p h o t o s h o o t i n n e w l y o p e n e d r e s t a u r a n t M a M a K e l l y, w h e r e t h e interior has been clearly designed to draw in an Instagram crowd with its pink ribbed walls, statement carpets and fun fair inspired bar with neon lights and Edison bulbs.

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Fig 11: Nyane At MaMa Kelly

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Social media and Instagrammability are becoming a currency and users want in. Businesses provide influencers with a mise en scene which will garner their image exposure, which in turn will lead to better statistics, analytics and ad revenue on their account, and in return, influencers share the brand and product with their followers. As a result of this exchange between b u s i n e s s a n d u s e r, ( u s e r s t h a t d i s t r i b u t e m i l l i o n s o f i m a g e s , a n d h a r n e s s the power to popularise places and spread trends), Instagram users are now ultimately influencing the built environment, due to their desire for gaining I n s t a f a m e . ( M a t c h a r, 2 0 1 7 ) ( M a c k i e , 2 0 1 8 ) . Places like the SoHo loft owned by the advertising agency Village Marketing have been designed and created solely for the purpose of having influencers rent out the space so they can have photo shoots without needing to worry a b o u t c l u t t e r g e t t i n g i n t h e w a y. ( S c h w a b , 2 0 1 8 ) .

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Fig 12: Village Marketing Soho Loft

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Architectural Briefs As a result of this, architects are now being set briefs by clients that include requirements to have “Instagrammable spaces”. Architect Farshid Moussavi posted an image to her Instagram that showed an in-flight magazine, where hotels advertised not only their sea views and tourist hotspots but also the Instagrammable locations within the hotel. (Fairs, 2018). Moussavi further confirmed to Dezeen magazine that she is too being set briefs with Instagrammable requirements. Instagram has started to influence the world of design so heavily that now firms like Valé Architects have started to create whole design guides for their clients to use to be able to transform their buildings into far more Instagrammable spaces. (Comberg 2018). A d d i t i o n a l l y, f i r m s l i k e P a p e r W h i t e S t u d i o a n d H o m e S t u d i o s a r e n o w m a k i n g names for themselves in the interior design business, becoming renowned for producing Instagrammable interiors. Designing everything down to the custom sugar packets. (Martin, 2018). Founder of PaperWhite Studios Laureen Moyal also explains how businesses have always paid attention to how things will look on social media, however this has heightened over recent years, saying “[Instagram] is making the client really aware of the i m p o r t a n c e a n d t h e p o w e r o f d e s i g n , w h e t h e r i t ’s i n w a y f i n d i n g o r b r a n d i n g o r e x p e r i e n t i a l d e s i g n ” . ( M a t c h a r, 2 0 1 7 ) .

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Fig 13.1

Fig 13.2

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S p e a k i n g t o A r c h p a p e r, P h i l i p p e M a i d e n b e r g d i s c u s s e d h o w “ H o t e l o w n e r s want public spaces that are more alive and more comfortable than ever before; office owners want spaces that look like hotels.” This shift is due in p a r t t o s t a n d a r d s w i t h c o n s u m e r s r i s i n g h i g h e r a n d h i g h e r, a s t h e y s e e m o r e elaborate and luxurious content on Instagram, they to want to emulate that life and share it with their followers. (Martin 2018). We are now living in a postmodernist fairytale where experiences once reserved for the elite are now available to the masses thanks to Instagram blurring the lines between high and low culture (The Editorial Unit, 2018). Since we are living more and more of our lives through the lenses in our phones, businesses are now having to find ways to make us experience their brand through our mobile devices as concentration on the real world starts to diminish. But how long can this go on? Pictured to the right is the most Instagramable hotel in Hawaii with its bright wall murals, neon signs and tropical floral prints. (Howarth, 2018). Will the places we visit soon all start to look the same? According to Lange, “Designing from Instagram for Instagram seems like a snake eating its own tail. Everywhere looks like everywhere else and the eye grows tired of bananas or concrete tiles or mirror rooms.” (Mackie, 2 0 1 8 ) . H o w c a n w e e x p e c t d e s i g n t o g r o w, s h i f t o r c h a n g e w h e n w e a r e s e l f referencing and designing spaces inspired by the spaces we see and visit?

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Fig 14: Most Instagrammable Hotel In Hawaii

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Exploring life through the lens has meant that we are using our surroundings as backdrops to our own personal narratives and no-one has understood this better than Aria property group who have realised the influence that Instagram has, therefore they’ve heavily incorporated art into their projects. ( Va l é A r c h i t e c t s , 2 0 1 8 ) . F u r t h e r, t h e r e w a s a l a r g e r i s e i n m u s e u m s o p e n i n g s s i n c e 2 0 1 7 , h o w e v e r, a c c o r d i n g t o O l i v i a M a r t i n , t h e s e a r e m o r e “ p o p u p galleries,” and their only purpose is to provide vibrant backdrops and miseen-scènes for the public. (Martin, 2018).

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Fig 15: Artists Impression Of Hope Street Tower By Aria Property Group

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Rise Of The Pop Up T h e M u s e u m o f I c e C r e a m ( M O I C ) , A p o p u p t h a t s t a r t e d i n N e w Yo r k a n d h a s since travelled through different cities including Washington, Los Angeles, and Miami, selling out months worth of $38 tickets in 30 minutes, And The C o l o u r F a c t o r y, j u s t d o w n t h e r o a d f r o m t h e M i a m i b r a n c h o f t h e M O I C , a r e examples of these interactive pop-ups that have been designed with one sole purpose, and that is Instagrammable space. H o w e v e r, t h e c r e a t o r s o f t h e s e s p a c e s i n s i s t t h a t w a s n ’ t t h e m a i n g o a l . J o r d a n F e r n e y, C o l o u r F a c t o r y f o u n d e r s e t o u t t h a t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e w a s t o produce spaces that were about experience, This is evidenced with them allowing visitors to scan QR codes to have their pictures taken and emailed to them instantly so they wouldn’t need to walk around with their heads buried in their phones and with the installations themselves being very interactive, many requiring user engagement such as running through a room full of ribbons or being given predetermined dance moves to do based on results from a prior quiz done on the wall. (Howarth, 2018). Nonetheless, Ferney didn’t dismiss Instagrams influence on her architectural design, admitting that when it came to things like lighting, she chose a whiter light that made pictures look better whereas maybe a warm light w o u l d ’ v e h e l p e d f o r a b e t t e r i n p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e . ( P a r d e s , 2 0 1 7 ) ( W i e n e r, 2017).

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Fig 16.1

Fig 16.2

Fig 16.3

Fig 16.6

Fig 16.4

Fig 16.5

Fig 16.7

Fig 16: The Museum OF Ice Cream

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All these experiences are able to be photographed and shared online, h o w e v e r, n o n e c a n b e e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e i m a g e w i t h o u t v i s i t i n g . S o maybe these museums do have a purpose, and that is to enact joy in its visitors. Whilst normal galleries are there to educate, these new theme park hybrid museums are there to produce a sense of euphoria for the visitor where they can park their struggles at the door and experience a millennial t h e m e p a r k . ( P a r d e s , 2 0 1 7 ) ( W i e n e r, 2 0 1 7 ) . The idea of this new theme park gallery hybrid comes from Museum of Ice Cream founder Maryellis Bunn who sees herself part Willy Wonka, part Walt D i s n e y. S h e i s u n d e r f i r m b e l i e f t h a t “ s o c i a l ” i s n ’ t t h e m a i n d r i v e r o f M O I C . In her words, the MOIC gives “everyone a canvas and it is their opportunity to make it what they will” (Simon, 2018) (Wired, 2017). H o w e v e r, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t a k e t h i s c o m m e n t w i t h although there is no doubt that these experiences were the designers of these spaces, it is hard not to notice and commercialist undertones to all of these

a grain of salt. And an important goal for the heavily capitalist exhibitions.

Just looking at the administration fee of $38 is a start. Then uncovering t h a t M O I C h a d 3 0 c o r p o r a t e s p o n s o r s ; D o v e , F o x , D y l a n s C a n d y B a r, Ti n d e r a r e j u s t a f e w, m a k e s y o u r e t h i n k t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s p a c e . W h a t d o a n y o f these brands have to do with art? Are they really about experience, or are t h e y a b o u t g e t t i n g u s e r s t o e n t e r, t a k e p i c t u r e s , s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and entice their followers to continue the cycle? The existence of this brand sponsorship at all changes the meaning of these spaces and the reason they exist. (Pardes, 2017).

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Fig 17: The Colour Factory

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Another example of Instagrammable Art was the Walala X Play exhibition held a t t h e N o w G a l l e r y. A n a l y s i n g t h e i m a g e s p o s t e d t o I n s t a g r a m , i t ’s p o s s i b l e to identify that the space has been distinctly designed for Instagram through the way the users interacted with it, by using the space as a backdrop for their selfies. The walls and floor had both been turned into the artwork since no “real” artwork was needed as people simply needed a good looking background to pose in front of. 1/4 images posted were of the space, The other 3/4 were either selfies or amateur photoshoots proving that users only went the gallery to use it as a backdrop. As a result of this, museums are becoming more social media friendly a n d s t a r t i n g t o a l l o w a n d e n c o u r a g e p h o t o g r a p h y. T h e R e n w i c k G a l l e r y i n Washington D.C even put up signs which said “photography encouraged. #NoSpectators” in 2015. (VOX, 2018). Due to museums hosting these selfief r i e n d l y s h o w s , t h e y b e c o m e b l o c k b u s t e r s , t h e R e n w i c k ’s p r e v i o u s y e a r l y attendance was exceeded in just 6 weeks after the opening of the selfief r i e n d l y e x h i b i t i o n “ W o n d e r ” . ( S c h w a b , 2 0 1 6 ) T h e Ya y o i K u s a m a e x h i b i t i o n at the Hirshhorn Museum increased its membership by 6566%. (Halperin, 2016).

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Fig 18: Screenshots Of Posts From Walala X Play London

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T h e Ya y o i K u s a m a E x h i b i t i o n a t t h e V i c t o r i a M i r o G a l l e r y u n d e r s t o o d t h i s phenomenon and took it to the next level, allowing visitors only 1 minute in t h e r o o m . W h e n c a r r y i n g o u t a s u r v e y, a l l 1 7 p e o p l e s u r v e y e d t o o k p i c t u r e s at the exhibition. Out of all the people who went, 88.2% went with the main goal to take pictures, and 94.1% planned to upload their image to a social n e t w o r k . 7 0 . 6 % o f t h o s e u p l o a d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o I n s t a g r a m . H o w e v e r, w h a t happens if we stop looking life through the lens?

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Fig 19: Survey Results

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P r o d u c i n g t w o w a l k s t h r o u g h t h e g a l l e r y, p r o d u c e d t w o d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . One walk was about admiring the artwork with the eyes, the second was solely about taking pictures of all the artwork and getting the best pictures of them. Looking at the plans, you can see how differently the routes look when not trying to view everything through a lens, the route is more fluid with greater time spent admiring the artwork, you return to the artwork moving back and forth from piece to piece. Once you capture the image, there is no sense of needing to look at the original as there is thought that i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e v i s i t t h e i m a g e a t a n y t i m e . H o w e v e r, w h e n n o t t a k i n g p i c t u r e s . T h e m o m e n t f e e l s f i n i t e . O b s e r v a t i o n s l a s t l o n g e r, t h e m i n d k n o w s this is the only chance to see the piece. (VOX, 2018).

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Is This New? H o w e v e r, i s t h i s a n e w t r e n d ? O r i s c o m p a n i e s g r a p p l i n g f o r c o n s u m e r a t t e n t i o n an old phenomenon with a new purpose? Looking at Googie architecture o f t h e 7 0 ’s A l e x a n d r a L a n g e d i s c u s s e s h o w t h i s i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n - g r a b b i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t o d a y. W h i l s t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e ’ 7 0 s w a s i n d e e d d e s i g n e d t o g r a b a t t e n t i o n , i t w a s o f d r i v e r s a n d p a s s e r s - b y, t o d a y, t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e a t t e m p t s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h o s e n o t i n the area. In the ’70s, the goal of the architecture was to encourage users to e n t e r a n d s p e n d , h o w e v e r, i n t h i s s o c i a l m e d i a a g e , t h e g o a l i s t o e n c o u r a g e u s e r s t o t r a v e l , e n t e r, s p e n d , a n d s h a r e . A s s u c h , c o m p a n i e s n o w h a v e to ensure they produce experiences and spaces that are worth sharing. (Mackie, 2018).

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Fig 21.1

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Fig 21: Googie Architecture

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C u r r e n t l y, g a l l e r i e s a r e s p l i t i n t o d i f f e r e n t t h e m e d r o o m s w h i c h p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t i m m e r s i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r u s e r s t o p o s t a n d s h a r e , h o w e v e r, t h i s comes from a rather traditional format. In the 1960s, artists started to produce installation art. No longer was art restricted to the walls, but the r o o m a n d s p a c e b e c a m e t h e a r t . I n s t a l l a t i o n s b y a r t i s t s l i k e Ya y o i K u s a m a , J a m e s Tu r r e l , a n d R a c h e l W h i t e r e a d a l l p r o d u c e d i n s t a l l a t i o n a r t w h e r e the viewer was a part of it. This made for museum experiences that were inherently photographable. (VOX, 2018). “ F u r t h e r m o r e i f “ m a d e - f o r- I n s t a g r a m ” e x h i b i t s s u g g e s t s o m e t h i n g a b o u t o u r selfie-dominated culture, it didn’t start in places like the Museum of Ice Cream. It started on the internet and then spilled out everywhere else—in nature, in restaurants, even in the contemporary art world.” For example, The Rain Room wasn’t designed for social media, but its raving success online demonstrated a hunger for these types of exhibits. (Pardes, 2017).

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Fig 22: Traditional Gallery VS Instagram Gallery

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CHAPTER II

Consumption & Distribution The Consumption & Distribution Of Architectural Media Due To Instagram

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The Audiences Of Architectural Media Since the rise of the “starchitect”, and then further Instagram, architecture has started to design “from the image, for the image”. This very postmodern approach to architecture has led to architecture that is now less and less about the experience, and more about “spectacle space”. Experience has come secondary to global proliferation and consumption of the image. Social media, in particular Instagram has amplified this with architectural images being churned out every second. Unlike with traditional forms of media such as the architectural magazine where the architectural image is produced m o n t h l y o r b i a n n u a l l y. T h e g r o w t h o f d i g i t a l m e d i a h a s m e a n t t h e a u d i e n c e of architecture has grown and shifted. Whilst once the audience of an architecture was those who interacted and engaged with it, (and some may say this is the best way to engage with architecture) (Brisbin & Thiessen 2 0 1 8 ) , s i n c e t h e r i s e o f p h o t o g r a p h y, d i g i t a l m e d i a a n d I n s t a g r a m , i t h a s turned to anyone interested in architecture, and even those not interested at all. This is due to the algorithms that Instagram uses to curate content users see, as such, if you view a post that is related to architecture, Instagram will start suggesting other posts related to architecture. Therefore, those interested in the topics suggested follow these accounts and end up living in an echo chamber of similar opinions. The problem with this is that we end up not being exposed to other architectural theory and design opinions. The algorithms are in place to increase engagement, and you’re much more likely to engage with content if it reflects your opinions than if it differs to them. ( H u , 2 0 1 6 ) ( B r a d l e y, 2 0 1 6 ) . F u r t h e r “ s o c i a l m e d i a m e a n s t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i s b o t h i n s t a n t a n e o u s a n d f r e e d f r o m g e o g r a p h y, ” s a y s K u s h n e r. “ I t h a s t r a n s c e n d e d t h e h i s t o r i c l i m i t s o f t i m e a n d s p a c e . ” ( K u s h n e r, 2 0 1 5 ) . No longer are audiences limited to the architecture they can experience based on their geography or status. 4 Billion people have access to the internet, with 3.1 Billion on social media, and many of these from developing countries. (Mcdonald, 2018).

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Fig 23.1

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Fig 23: Starchitects

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How The Public Face Of Architecture Is Constructed The way the public face of architecture is constructed has shifted too. No longer is it structured through a “gatekeeper� such as a curator or magazine editor like with traditional forms of media, now anyone can help manipulate the perception of architecture by posting to Instagram. Where once writers, photographers and critics were important to a publication, now the producer becomes all those things, along with other audience members also interjecting into the narrative. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018). The audience for architecture magazines was a very narrow one. Usually academics, those interested in architecture and those well versed in architectural language. H o w e v e r, d u e t o t h e i n f o r m a l n a t u r e o f I n s t a g r a m , w h i c h i s f r e e f r o m a c a d e m i c jargon, it has allowed the audience of architectural media today to expand. (Hakanoglu, 2018). As technology has grown, how we interact with architecture has changed, I n s t a g r a m h a s a l l o w e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o o c c u r. C o m m e n t i n g , l i k i n g , f o l l o w i n g , a l l f o r m s o f c r i t i q u e , a n d w i t h t h e m a s s e s . ( K u s h n e r, 2 0 1 5 ) . N o l o n g e r i s architecture an insular profession. However due to Instagrams monetised b u s i n e s s m o d e l , w h e r e i t t u r n s d a t a a n d c l i c k s i n t o m o n e y, a u t h o r i t y becomes crowd-sourced rather than established. This can lead to populism, h o w e v e r, m a n y o n l i n e a u d i e n c e s a r e f a r m o r e a c t i v e a n d a w a r e t h a n t h e passive audiences of traditional media, as such many make a judgement to the credentials of the accounts they follow based on the content and the followings. Also, Instagram has a verified badge that it places next to official accounts that request it, a feature that allows users to know that the account is legitimate and credible. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018).

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Fig 24: Instagram Features

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W i t h t r a d i t i o n a l m a g a z i n e s , c o n t e n t i s c u r a t e d b y a n e d i t o r, w i t h I n s t a g r a m , content is curated in two ways, either a) self-curated, or b) through algorithms. With the rise of Instagram, information has gotten immersive with the instant upload times of digital media, we can now be directly part of the story and watch as it unfolds in real time. With traditional media, the architectural review was the main form of experiencing architecture which you would have to wait months to receive, with Instagram you are able to have pictures, videos, descriptions, and short timeframe “stories� that last n o l o n g e r t h a n 1 0 s e c o n d s i m m e d i a t e l y. I n s t a g r a m h a s l e d t o t h e r i s e o f self-publishing where the gatekeeper is no longer a curator or platform, now the relationship between architect/author and audience is mediated only by t e c h n o l o g y. ( B r i s b i n & T h i e s s e n 2 0 1 8 ) . And as technology gets faster and more powerful, people will use Instagram to account and record all manners of life more and more, as a result the a m o u n t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l m e d i a w e c o n s u m e a n d s h a r e w i l l g r o w. P h o t o g r a p h s u s e d t o b e u s e d f o r m e m o r y, n o w t h e y a r e u s e d f o r s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r s . This is due to communication taking a far more dominant role in the digital era versus the mechanical era. (Budge, 2017).Firms like Laney LA, Inc use instagram stories to distribute short videos of office design meetings and s i t e v i d e o s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y, T h i s s o r t o f i m m e d i a t e a n d b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s view simply isn’t possible with traditional media. (Abdallah, 2018).

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Fig 25: Architects Journal Article On Bjarke Ingles

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Audience Power Digital media and Instagram have led to the rise of the active audience m e m b e r, n o l o n g e r a r e a u d i e n c e s p a s s i v e , t h e y n o w h a v e p o w e r, a v o i c e , and can influence change. One wrong post and followers of an account start dropping. Audiences no longer vote with their wallets, they now vote with engagement and likes. And the “like” is a gold mine to content producers on Instagram. F u r t h e r, a u d i e n c e m e m b e r s a r e n o w a l s o b e c o m i n g p r o d u c e r s t o o , t h e y can post their own content on Instagram, they can be the critic in the comments section or posts, and they can be the curator of content on their own feeds. Digital media and Instagram has started to produce “fluid identities […} audiences and publics, consumers and producers, voyeurs and citizens instead of audiences or publics, consumers or producers, voyeurs or citizens.” With Instagram, the user becomes not just the consumer of c o n t e n t , b u t a l s o t h e p r o d u c e r, t h e “ p r o s u m e r ” . ( B r i s b i n & T h i e s s e n 2 0 1 8 ) . The main problem with this sort of pseudo-critic is that “The web has become a cacophony of unregulated, personalized, often anonymous and generally worthless opinion in which everyone is talking simultaneously but nobody is listening to anyone else. Rather than a democratic utopia of creative amateurs, this self-broadcasting Internet revolution is actually leading to mass ignorance and to a pervasive culture of digital narcissism” (Keen, 2008). A s e v i d e n t w i t h t h e c o m m e n t s o n F o s t e r & P a r t n e r s p o s t a b o u t T h e Tu l i p , m a n y p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o l e a v e c o m m e n t s a n d b e c r i t i c s . H o w e v e r, m a n y comments are either negative (which could be in part due to there not being a dislike button so people feel the need to express disdain), but also many o f t h e c o m m e n t s a r e u n s c h o l a r l y, v u l g a r, a n d s i m p l e . S o a l t h o u g h I n s t a g r a m is able to blend identities, the need for “real” critics within architecture still remains, and those, for the most part, are published in traditional m a g a z i n e s . ( K u s h n e r, 2 0 1 5 ) .

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Fig 26: Comments On Fosters & Partners Post

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Why We Share & Consume Architectural Media H o w e v e r, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o q u e s t i o n w h y e v e r y o n e i s s o k e e n o n d i s t r i b u t i n g their daily lives and interests on Instagram like this? The first reason is that e v e r y o n e h a s t u r n e d t o s e l f - b r a n d i n g , a t e r m f i r s t c o i n e d b y To m P e t e r . H e argued, “Everybody has the power to be their own brand, and that a persons j o b i s t o b e t h e i r o w n m a r k e t e r. ” T h e m a i n p r o b l e m w i t h s e l f - b r a n d i n g i s t h a t i t i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y. I t t r i e s t o b o t h b e a u t h e n t i c a n d y e t a t t h e s a m e t i m e business targeted. (Liu and Suh, 2017). This is not too dissimilar to the architectural accounts of practices which aim to show an “organic” behind the scenes view of architecture, free from marketing narratives, however in reality these themselves are extensions of marketing strategies. (Iloniemi, 2013). According to Jia Jia Fei,a digital director at the Jewish Museum in Manhattan, when something is posted online, the value of that content increases due t o t h e “ l i k e ” e c o n o m y. T h e r e f o r e , t h e m o r e t h e u s e r s s h a r e a n d d i s t r i b u t e , the greater the value of that content. The question is “Why do we share?” In the pre-digital photography era, the message was “this is what I am seeing,” h o w e v e r n o w t h e m e s s a g e i s “ I w a s t h e r e . I c a m e , I s a w, I s e l f i e d . ” B u t w h y ? R e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n t h a t e v e r y l i k e , c o m m e n t , f o l l o w, t r i g g e r s a d o s e o f serotonin (the chemical which makes you happy) in our brains. Therefore, the more you share, the happier you will be, and as such, more addicted. ( Te d X Ta l k s , 2 0 1 6 ) . L a s t l y, a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y, t h e r e i s a n e w p r o f o u n d o b s e s s i o n w i t h c e l e b r i t y culture, where everyone wants to get a quick shot at fame. According to W i l l S e l f “ I t i s a s t r a n g e f u l f i l m e n t o f Wa r h o l ’s “ i n t h e f u t u r e e v e r y o n e w i l l be famous for 15 minutes.” (English National Opera, 2011).As a result, everyone is sharing their lives interests and work on Instagram, hoping to become the next starchitect.

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The “Like” Economy

Content Shared

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On the other hand, you must also look at why users are consuming, Applying t h e u s e s a n d g r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y. T h e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t p e o p l e a r e a c t i v e i n media for their own needs. There are 4 different categories as to why people use social media, and those are; Diversion, Personal Relation, Personal Identity and Surveillance. In the case of Instagram, personal identity was more a reason than personal relation as more people go to Instagram to s e l f p r o m o t e . F u r t h e r, a c c o r d i n g t o P a v i c i a S h e l d o n a n d K a t h e r i n e B r y a n t s experiment, they concluded 4 motives for the use of Social media. The most important being Surveillance/Knowledge about others, knowledge about their favourite architects, architectural photographers, lecturers, designers, clients and brands. The second most important motive was documentation, and due to documentation being a very visual process, p e o p l e a n d p h o t o g r a p h e r s d e f a u l t t o I n s t a g r a m . Yo u d o n ’ t n e e d t o l o o k f a r t o s e e h o w m a n y a r c h i t e c t u r a l p h o t o g r a p h y, a r c h i v e , d a t a b a s e a n d r e g r a m accounts there are on Instagram that showcase other peoples work such as CritDay or Little Black Box. These accounts often garner more likes than the original posts however they provide great exposure to up and coming students. (Sheldon & Bryant 2016). As a result, Instagram has allowed f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e s t u d e n t s t o s t a r t c r e a t i n g a n a m e f o r t h e m s e l v e s s o o n e r, a l l o w i n g f o r n e t w o r k i n g t o o c c u r, a n d t h e i r n a m e t o b e p u t o u t t h e r e . N o longer do you have to be a famous architect to have your work be published.

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Fig 27: Examples Of Showcase/Database/Aggregator Accounts

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The third was Coolness, with users wanting to amass many likes and followers, and as such, that is how influencer culture came to be, though this isn’t that prevalent in the architectural media world, it still prevails, with many accounts still aiming to produce content that will get them followers a n d l i k e s . A n d f i n a l l y t h e f o u r t h w a s C r e a t i v i t y, m a n y u s e r s f o l l o w a c c o u n t s like those of architectural universities to gain ideas for their own projects. (Sheldon & Bryant 2016). Many architects have already said they use Instagram as a mood board for their projects and suggest people should look to Instagram for inspiration. For example, Alexandra Lange, an architecture critic, uses Instagram as an archival tool, and claims that “Architects need to start thinking of social m e d i a a s t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f h i s t o r y. � ( L a n g e , 2 0 1 4 ) . O t h e r a c c o u n t s u s e t h e platform to seek out new talent, creating an entirely digital architectural community that is accessible to all. (Abdallah, 2018). Adrian Phiffer looks to these online archives as a way to project the future of where architecture is heading, and with his own work he likes to subdivide his work into themes, past & present so that his feed can have a sense of c o n t i n u i t y. ( P a v a k , 2 0 1 6 ) .

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Fig 28.1

Fig 28.2

Fig 28.1: Adrian Phiffer Instagram Feed Fig 28.2: Alexandra Lange Instagram Feed

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CHAPTER III

Instagram - Place of Publicity? Instagrams Impact On The Representation Of Architecture In Architectural Media.

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I n s t a g r a m V e r s u s Tr a d i t i o n a l M e d i a When architects present ideas to the public, they are often populated with people, However with traditional media, these people disappear and architecture is then represented as being polished, clean and sterile. The use of long exposure times often ensures that people are removed from the image, architects like Le Corbusier often airbrushed their images to show the “purity of the architectural form”. (Lange, 2014). As visible in the images to the right, not a single one contains people. But with the fast paced nature o f I n s t a g r a m , y o u d o n ’ t h a v e t h i s l u x u r y. T h e m o s t y o u c a n d o i s s n a p , f i l t e r, crop, post. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018). As a result, architecture is now being represented far more organically with the finished product no longer being held as an accumulation of what architecture is, with firms documenting construction processes and sharing images of the buildings being used on I n s t a g r a m . H o w e v e r, i t m u s t b e s t a t e d t h a t j u s t b e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i s f a s t , d o e s n ’ t m e a n t h e c o n t e n t t a k e n i s o f l o w q u a l i t y. W i t h the development of technology and processing on our phones, the content uploaded to instagram is of just as high a quality as that in traditional media. (Abdallah, 2018). The only difference is that it is of a more relaxed nature.

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Fig 29: Notre Dame Du Haut Chapel, Le Corbusier, 1955

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Focus On The Built Object Reviewing the article of Bjarke Ingles Groups’ Unzipped Pavilion, on A r c h D a i l y ’s w e b s i t e y o u n o t i c e t h a t t h e i m a g e s c h o s e n f o r t h e r e c e n t 2 0 1 8 review contain no people in the images, this reinforces the traditional medias ideology of an insular architectural environment where the built product is t h e m a i n f o c u s . ( B r i s b i n & T h i e s s e n 2 0 1 8 ) . H o w e v e r, o n B I G ’s w e b s i t e , some images do contain people, it is worth noting though that these are press material images shot on launch night by BIG that were sent out to many publications, to add, in the images where there are people, there is a noticeable attempt by the photographer to try to crop them out in certain frames. Further the website also has many high quality shots that simply wouldn’t be attainable with a phone such as overhead drone shots and aerial views. This again reinforces the ideology that architecture is merely about b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t i s a l l t h a t m a t t e r s . H o w e v e r, c e r t a i n firms like OMA Architects have realised the craving users have for this more organic content and as a result, alongside the traditional photography of their architecture on their website, they have photographs of their buildings by t h e b u i l d i n g s u s e r s f r o m I n s t a g r a m . ( P h i f f e r, 2 0 1 8 ) . A s a r e s u l t o f I n s t a g r a m , architectural media is now representing the relationship between user and building in their media rather than just the building as an artistic object or sculpture in its surroundings.

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Fig 30: Unzipped Pavilion on ArchDaily’s Website

Fig 31: Unzipped Pavilion On Bjarke Ingles Group Website

Fig 32: Fondazione Prada On OMA’s Website

Fig 33: OMA Showcasing Users Instagram Posts

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O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h e n l o o k i n g a t i m a g e s o f t h e p a v i l i o n o n A r c h D a i l y ’s Instagram, it is seen in action, there are crowds, people on bikes, and people engaging with the pavilion. It is seen in its natural element. The Instagram for BIG itself, was contrasted, to both their own website, and the websites and Instagrams of the other parties. Most photos on B I G ’s I n s t a g r a m p a g e w e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p h o t o s , s h o w i n g t h e p a v i l i o n i n d e v e l o p m e n t f o r To r o n t o , w i t h o n e p o s t t h a t c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l i m a g e s showing the private viewing of the finished pavilion. The only editorial style p h o t o p o s t e d o n B I G ’s I n s t a g r a m w a s a p o s t e r o f t h e p a v i l i o n t h a n k i n g To r o n t o f o r h o s t i n g t h e m , a n d s t a t i n g t h e c l o s i n g d a t e w i t h a c a p t i o n t h a t boasted the attendance of the pavilion and urging people to go see it. This reinforces the fact that Instagram has shifted the representation from a clean finished image to one that is more organic and truthful to the whole architectural design and construction process. (Iloniemi, 2018). F u r t h e r, w h e n l o o k i n g a t t h e i m a g e s o f t h e p a v i l i o n o n B j a r k e I n g l e s p e r s o n a l Instagram page, there is a mix of many different types of posts, he has posts that are regular images of the pavilion, renders, posts celebrating its construction process, development pictures, press material, celebratory pictures of the launch night, and even uses his own work as a backdrop for h i s s e l f i e . H o w e v e r, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t B j a r k e I n g l e s h a s a c c e s s t o all this content from his firm, which your average architectural photographer would not. As such he has the privilege of being able to post images such as renders and aerial shots which your average user wouldn’t have access to.

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Fig 34: Unzipped Pavilion On ArchDaily’s Instagram

Fig 35: Unzipped Pavilion On BIG’s Instagram

Fig 36: Unzipped Pavilion On Bjarke Ingles Instagram

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F u r t h e r m o r e , Tr a d i t i o n a l m e d i a o f t e n f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l object, though the issue with this is that it reinforces the idea that to be an architect you must make buildings. Whilst this is true to an extent. Architects do so much more than this. They produce exhibitions, go to lectures, explore art. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018). They have a life outside of architecture. A great example of this is if you compare Bjarke Ingles Personal Instagram to the Bjarke Ingle Group (BIG) Instagram. Ingles personal account has over 518k followers, more than doubling his firms follower count. Now that is partially due to the fact that Bjarke first posted in 2012 before regularly resuming to post in 2013, accumulating 3818 posts in those 6 years. Whilst interestingly enough, BIG didn’t start using instagram till 2017, accumulating 203k followers and posting a mere 190 posts. However the reason that Bjarkes personal account has sustained more followers is because people use Instagram for relationships and connection. People want to see trips their icons take, the celebrations they part take in and their personal life. After all, Ingles posts pictures of his girlfriend, photos of him and friends and places he visits. It is these posts that have allowed him to make a personal connection with his fans. It has produced p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n c e l e b r i t y. A n d i t i s I n s t a g r a m t h a t h a s a l l o w e d u s to see this side. (Abdallah, 2018). The representation has shifted from architects being solely interested in architecture to architects having many interests, with many not related to architecture or the arts at all and that t h a t i s o k a y. F u r t h e r, w e a r e s t a r t i n g t o s e e a p r i v a t e s i d e t o a r c h i t e c t u r e a l o n g w i t h the more personal side. The side previously only reserved for those in the profession, the behind the scenes. While the built environment is still largely photographed on instagram, and there are still the stereotypical architectural photographs and images, due to the informal and relaxed nature of instagram, you get content that is unbound from the promotional and marketing narratives. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018).

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Fig 37: Bjarke Ingles Personal Instagram

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Different Accounts Different Agendas The images don’t need to sell and therefore the content produced can show a far more real side to architectural practice, although not always the case d e p e n d i n g o n t h e t y p e o f a c c o u n t . A c c o u n t s l i k e a r c h d a i l y, a l t h o u g h n o t influencer accounts, are still run by companies that are run for monetary gains, and as such have had to find ways to monetise their images, as such, some posts posted by ArchDaily are sponsored posts. However accounts like BIG post images of renders, construction processes, or even design meeting notes. We see opinion, likes, dislikes, politics and social issues. It has given firms a liberating way to portray their identities through imagery and associations. A mood board for who they are or how they would like to be perceived. A place for architects to be themselves and extend their studio culture. (Iloniemi, 2018). Instagram has allowed architects to produce their own digital personalities, and with this has allowed to unravel the “starchitect”. No longer are they treated like extensions of press releases or marketing stratergies, and make no doubt, they are still a marketing strategy allowing audiences to make connections to with their brand. The successful accounts don’t treat them as such. (Business of Architecture, 2018). These moments of personality allow future clients to make more decisions a b o u t t h e a r c h i t e c t t h e y w a n t t o w o r k w i t h t h a n s i m p l y l i k i n g o n e s s t y l e . Yo u know you will probably have a much better collaborative process with your architect if you share the same common interest than if you simply like their work. (Brisbin & Thiessen 2018). L a s t l y, a r c h i t e c t u r e i s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d a s b e i n g a c a d e m i c a n d e s o t e r i c due to the high skilled academic language used within traditional media magazines. Whilst this is true, you do not need to be an academic to merely enjoy architecture. Due to the relaxed nature of Instagram and captions limit, image descriptions need to be kept short, simple, and free of academic jargon or overly formal language. As a result, Architecture is now being represented as a far more open and accessible profession compared to before. (Pavak 2016).

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Fig 38: Paid Partnership Posts On ArchDaily

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CONCLUSION

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Instagram has affected the architectural industry with its phenomenal growth in audience coverage and exposure around the world. The rapid expansion of Instagram has meant architectural design has been severely impacted due to the new trend of Instagrammable design, the way in which architectural media is distributed and consumed h a s t r a n s f o r m e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e s s h i f t i n g , a n d f i n a l l y, the representation of architecture in the media has undergone an e v o l u t i o n . H o w e v e r, t h i s p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e i s n ’ t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d with all social media users, It is mostly concentrated on first world, (rich Asia, EU, and US), urban and 16-30 audience who are the main consumers of this fast-moving media and commercial, interior based, retail, leisure and entertainment based design. It has placed emphasis on form over function and has prioritised inclusivity and accessibility over technological significance and innovation. Therefore c u r r e n t l y, I n s t a g r a m m a b l e d e s i g n i s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a n a e s t h e t i c i s t a n d f o r m a l i s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n s e e k i n g i c o n i c i t y.

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Photogenic backdrops have become a must for consumers with many influencers travelling many miles and even abroad to visit an Instagrammable location. Millennial pink, pastels, neons, and florals are all a massive trend. As such, businesses have started to provide spaces that look like this with many starting to look similar in styles s u c h a s T h e G r i n d a n d To n i g h t J o s e p h i n e . T h e s e b u s i n e s s e s p r o v i d e the influencer with a backdrop and then those influencers or users share the brand with their followers. As a result of all this, architects are now being set Instagrammable briefs like Farshid Moussavi who has be asked by clients to produce projects that incorporate Instagram elements in the design such as mural walls or spaces that fit into a square frame “vignette” in hopes that people will share the space with their followers on social media. Other businesses have started to design homes like the SoHo Loft that are being rented out and used only as spaces for photo shoots. Hotels and restaurants aren’t the only ones being affected. Art galleries have had to adjust to the new Instagram craze with Instagrammable exhibitions like the Museum Of Ice Cream. Once where you weren’t allowed to take pictures in museums, photography is encouraged. Exhibitions are being designed with content that has a sole purpose to be shared on Instagram.

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Furthermore, with Instagram, the audiences of architecture have changed as a result of algorithms and curated feeds. Whilst this may be a benefit for users who want to see more content they’re interested in, it can result in many users living in an echo chamber of similar opinions and images being circulated. Now architecture is accessible to anyone without geographic constraints, you are able to view architecture through Instagram without the need to travel to the location. Instagram has removed the need for publications to have editors, photographers, critics. All of these have been merged i n t o a s i n g u l a r f l u i d i d e n t i t y. T h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s i s t h a t i t h a s l e d to “mass arrogance and digital narcissism.� With expert opinion and research getting lost in the noise of voices which leads to a reduction in the quality of the content. In addition, Instagram has allowed for stories to unfold in realtime as audience members watch. People are now obsessed with their lives and want to document as much of it as possible. Influencer accounts document the locations and spaces they visit, and architectural accounts document work from students and architects. Due to serotonin levels rising with every positive feedback, the more they share, the more likes they get, the happier they are and in some cases the more money they make. Other architects are using Instagram as a form of archiving and to predict the future, separating feeds into past and present work making sure t h e y h a v e a s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y.

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L a s t l y, a r c h i t e c t u r e i s n o l o n g e r b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d a s a n i n s u l a r cold sterile profession thanks to Instagram. The relaxed nature and informal language have allowed for architecture to be more inclusive, however at the same time also more superficial. With traditional media people used to disappear from architectural media as institutions would airbrush people out of the image to show the final form. But due to the fast-paced nature of the medium, they are making a comeback. Architects are now documenting the process of design and construction on their accounts which further represents this new openness to the architectural world and the new ideology that the finished product is no longer the be all end all of architecture. Global s t a r- A r c h i t e c t s l i k e B j a r k e I n g e l s a r e s h a r i n g m o r e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l lives on Instagram with pictures of them taking part in activities that interest them outside of architecture, and as a result, this is removing the stigma that to be an architect your only focus can be the built environment. As a result, it is starting to produce personality rather than celebrity by making the connection and relationship between producer and audience closer and unravelling the starchitect persona. Images posted for architectural media on Instagram in most instances do not need to sell, and as a result, posts produced can be far more personal, allowing for a greater connection between architects and prospective clients or fans.

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At the current time, Instagram seems to be affecting interior architectures and design more so than it is whole buildings and exteriors. Looking to the future, Instagram has the potential to start influencing the design of whole buildings, or even towns & cities which it has not yet currently done. Instagram has the potential to p r o d u c e a w o r l d w h e r e p e o p l e ’s l i v e s a r e d e p e n d e n t o n l i k e s a n d followers. Certain building environments and styles could contain higher likability scores over others, and the ones with a higher score produce better engagement and likes with followers. Psychology could change to such an extent that going anywhere not instagrammable could make people want to disassociate themselves from anyone seen going somewhere with a low likability score. Firms could start to use Instagram in real time to see what users and audiences prefer from their designs, such as live consultations using features such as polls on Instagram stories. This could even go further with practices altering building designs during the construction process in response to the feedback it is receiving online. There is no doubt that Instagram is changing architecture, Is this a f a d o r h e r e t o s t a y, w e s h a l l s e e , h o w e v e r, t h e r e a l q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s , how many likes will it take to make history?

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REFERENCE LIST References For Information Cited or Quoted Within This Dissertation

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Journals & Articles: Budge, K. (2017) Objects in Focus: Museum Visitors and Instagram, Curator: The Museum Journal, 60(1), pp. 67-85. Liu, R. and Suh, A. (2017) Self-Branding on Social Media: An Analysis of Style Bloggers on Instagram, Procedia Computer Science, 124, pp. 12-20. Sheldon, P. and Bryant, K. (2016) Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age, Computers in Human Behavior, 58, pp. 89-97.

Books: Brisbin, C. and Thiessen, M. (2018) The Routledge companion to criticality in art, architecture, and design, Taylor and Francis, pp. 396-413.

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Howarth, D. (2018) BHDM uses neon colours at Shoreline Waikiki to create “the most instagrammable hotel in Hawaii”, Dezeen, [online] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2018/07/28/bhdm-shoreline-waikiki-instagrammable-hotel-hawaii/?li_source=LI&li_medium=bottom_block_1 (Accessed 10 October 2018). Hitz, L. and Blackburn, B. (2018) THE STATE OF SOCIAL MARKETING, Get.simplymeasured.com, [online] Available at: https://get.simplymeasured.com/rs/135-YGJ-288/images/SM_StateOfSocial-2017.pdf (Accessed 14 November 2018). Hu, E. (2016) The Reason Your Feed Became An Echo Chamber — And What To Do About It, NPR.org, [online] Available at: https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/07/24/486941582/the-reason-your-feed-became-anecho-chamber-and-what-to-do-about-it (Accessed 4 January 2019). Iloniemi, L. (2013) Architecture Marketing: At What Cost?, ArchDaily, [online] Available at: https://www.archdaily. com/457977/architecture-marketing-at-what-cost (Accessed 16 November 2018). Iloniemi, L. (2018) - Personal Communication By Author Over Email Keen, A. (2008) Confessions of an Internet iconoclast, Andrew Keen, [online] Available at: http://www.ajkeen.com/blog/2008/11/04/confessions (Accessed 7 January 2019). Kramer, J. (2018) Instagram’s Influence on Restaurants Isn’t Slowing Down, Food & Wine, [online] Available at: https://www.foodandwine.com/news/instagram-restaurants (Accessed 21 November 2018). Kushner, M. (2015) A New Golden Age of Architecture – Inside Architizer – Medium, Medium, [online] Available at: https://medium.com/architizer/a-new-golden-age-of-architecture-825fb7ed652c (Accessed 10 October 2018). Lange, A. (2014) Opinion: Alexandra Lange on how architects should use social media, Dezeen, [online] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2014/01/07/opinion-alexandra-lange-on-how-architects-should-use-social-media/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Mackie, B. (2018) Is Instagram changing the way we design the world?, the Guardian, [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/jul/12/ready-for-your-selfie-why-public-spaces-are-beinginsta-designed (Accessed 21 November 2018). Matchar, E. (2017) How Instagram Is Changing the Way We Design Cultural Spaces, Smithsonian, [online] Available at: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/how-instagram-changing-way-we-design-cultural-spaces-180967071/ (Accessed 21 November 2018).


Martin, O. (2018) How are image-sharing apps affecting architecture and design?, Archpaper.com, [online] Available at: https://archpaper.com/2018/03/practice-publicly-sharing-images-architectural-impact/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Mcdonald, N. (2018) Digital in 2018: World’s internet users pass the 4 billion mark - We Are Social USA, We Are Social USA, [online] Available at: https://wearesocial.com/us/blog/2018/01/global-digital-report-2018 (Accessed 8 January 2019). McCormick, E. (2018) Instagram Is Estimated to Be Worth More than $100 Billion, Bloomberg.com, [online] Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-25/value-of-facebook-s-instagram-estimated-to-top-100-billion (Accessed 8 January 2019). Pardes, A. (2017) The Rise of the Made-for-Instagram Museum, WIRED, [online] Available at: https://www.wired.com/story/selfie-factories-instagram-museum/ (Accessed 21 December 2018) Pavak, E. (2016) On Instagram, Archives and Architecture – Canadian Art, Canadian Art, [online] Available at: https://canadianart.ca/features/instagram-archives-architecture/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Phiffer, A. (2018) Why Instagram Should Be a Part of Every Architect’s Design Process, ArchDaily, [online] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/871238/why-instagram-should-be-a-part-of-every-architects-design-process (Accessed 10 October 2018). Schwab, K. (2018) Inside a penthouse designed just for Instagram influencers, Fast Company, [online] Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90246638/inside-the-penthouse-designed-just-for-social-media-influencers (Accessed 20 December 2018). Schwab, K. (2018) This M.C. Escher-inspired hotel is Instagram gold, Fast Company, [online] Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90277100/this-m-c-escher-inspired-hotel-is-instagram-gold (Accessed 8 January 2019). The Editorial Unit (2018) The blurry line that separates high and low culture, The Upcoming, [online] Available at: https://www.theupcoming.co.uk/2018/10/23/the-blurry-line-that-separates-high-and-low-culture/ (Accessed 20 December 2018). Wiener, A. (2017) The Millennial Walt Disney Wants to Turn Empty Stores Into Instagram Playgrounds, Intelligencer, [online] Available at: http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/10/museum-of-ice-cream-maryellis-bunn.html (Accessed 19 December 2018). Simon, N. (2018) The Queen of Ice Cream | Venice magazine, Venicemagftl.com, [online] Available at: https://venicemagftl.com/the-queen-of-ice-scream/ (Accessed 19 December 2018).


FIGURE REFERENCES References For The Images Used In This Dissertation

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Fig A & Fig B: The Other Place AirBnB Designed By Studio 10 Inspired By M.C. Escher Chao Zang 2018 https://www.designboom.com/architecture/studio-10-other-place-mc-escher-hotel-interior-china-11-30-2018/ Accessed 8th January 2018 Fig 1: Instagram Users Graph Own Graph Fig 2: Instagram Engagements Graph Graph By Author Background: Sketch Restaurant Martyn White 2016 https://martynwhitedesigns.com/blogs/interiors/sketch-london-the-design-icon Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 3: Amount Of Instagram Users Who Follow A Business Pie Chart By Author Background: Franks Rooftop Bar - Peckham @annarosejay 2016 https://www.instagram.com/p/BIGQ4y3jp4f/?utm_source=ig_embed Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 4: Active Users Text By Author Background: Palms on acid Local Preacher 2016 https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/441704675938812789/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 5: Articles Suggesting Instagrammable Locations To Visit Screenshots Of Articles By Author Fig 5.1: Cohen,S. (2018). The most Instagrammable places in London, [Online] Available at: https://www.timeout.com/london/things-to-do/the-most-instagrammable-places-in-london Accessed On 20th December Fig 5.2: SheerLuxe. (2018). The Most Instagrammable Places In London, [Online] Available at: https://sheerluxe.com/2018/07/17/most-instagrammable-places-london Accessed On 20th December Fig 5.3: Vogue. (NA). The Most Instagrammable Places In London, [Online] Available at: https://www.vogue.com/slideshow/the-most-instagrammable-places-in-london-pretty-cities Accessed On 20th December


Fig 5.4: Abrahams.L. (2018) The most Instagrammable restaurants in London, [Online] Available at: https://www.standard.co.uk/go/london/restaurants/londons-16-most-instagrammable-restau rants-a3658486.html Accessed On 20th December Fig 5.5: CultureWhisper. (2018). Instagrammable Locations: London, [Online] Available at: https://www.culturewhisper.com/r/things_to_do/londons_most_instagrammable_locations/9154 Accessed On 20th December Fig.5.6: Wong.V. (2018). The Most Instagrammable Places In London, [Online] Available at: https://www.refinery29.com/en-gb/most-instagrammable-places-london Accessed On 20th December Fig.5.7: Nicolao.C. (2018). These are the most Instagrammable places in the whole of the UK, [Online] Available at: https://www.glamourmagazine.co.uk/gallery/most-instagrammable-places-uk Accessed On 20th December Fig.6: Articles About Millenial Pink Screenshots Of Articles By Author Fig.6.1: White.A. (2018). What Is Millennial Pink and Why Won’t It Go Away?, [Online] Available at: https://www.shutterstock.com/blog/what-is-millennial-pink Accessed On 20th December Fig.6.2: Notes.P. (2017). ‘Millennial pink’ is the colour of now – but what exactly is it?, [Online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/shortcuts/2017/mar/22/millennial-pink-is-the-colour-of-now-butwhat-exactly-is-it Accessed On 20th December Fig.6.3: Hoare.J. (2018). Ever wondered what the hell millennial pink is? Allow us to explain…, [Online] Available at: https://www.glamourmagazine.co.uk/article/millennial-pink Accessed On 20th December Fig.6.4: Thorpe. J. (2017). Why Are We So Obsessed With Millennial Pink? There’s A Scientific Explanation For Everything, [Online] Available at: https://www.bustle.com/p/why-are-we-so-obsessed-with-millennial-pink-theres-a-scientific-explanation-foreverything-2991711 Accessed On 20th December Fig.6.5: Murray.G. (2018). Why millennial pink was no accident, [Online] Available at: https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/colors-ana-cuba-refinery-29/index.html Accessed On 20th December


Fig.7: Interiors Of Tonight Josephine DesignMyNight 2018 https://www.designmynight.com/london/bars/waterloo/tonight-josephine-waterloo/pretty-in-pink Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 8: Interior Of Sketch Fig 8.1, Fig 8.2, Fig 8.4, Fig 8.5 & Fig 8.6: Cocktail Saturdays 2016 https://www.cocktailsaturdays.com/blog/2016/3/31/sketch-london Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 8.3: Martyn White 2016 https://martynwhitedesigns.com/blogs/interiors/sketch-london-the-design-icon Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 8.7: Ed Reeve 2018 https://secretldn.com/sketch-beautiful-mayfair-restaurant/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 9: Interior Of Palm Vaults Fig 9.1, Fig 9.2 & Fig 9.3: Secret London https://secretldn.com/palm-vaults-groovy-hackney-cafe/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 9.4 Google https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwie24y6N3fAhVFWBoKHWKWBc0QjRx6BAgBEAU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.qnola.co.uk%2Fqnola-life%2Fnew-stockist-palm-vaults&psig=AOvVaw3ddWpGt24tmg8eMOoKeYeN&ust=1547010019477547 Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 9.5: TheVoiceOfLondon http://thevoiceoflondon.co.uk/top-10-most-instagram-able-restaurants-in-london/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 10: Fig 10.1, Fig 10.2 & Fig 10.5 Headbox 2018 https://www.headbox.com/spaces/6468-book-restaurant-clerkenwell-grind-london#lg=1&slide=0 Accessed 20th December 2018


Fig 10.3 & Fig 10.4: Nikki Weedon 2018 http://www.nikkiweedon.com/blog/clerkenwell-grind-london-uk-biasol Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 11: Nyane At MaMa Kelly Nyane 2018 https://www.instagram.com/nyane/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 12: Village Marketing Soho Loft Seth Caplan 2018 https://www.fastcompany.com/90246638/inside-the-penthouse-designed-just-for-social-media-influencers Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 13.1 Farshid Moussavi 2018 https://www.instagram.com/p/Bjk8eteARup/?taken-by=farshidmoussavi Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 13.2 ValĂŠ Architects 2018 https://valearc.com/instagram-design-guide Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 14: Fig 14: Most Instagrammable Hotel In Hawaii Dezeen 2018 https://www.dezeen.com/2018/07/28/bhdm-shoreline-waikiki-instagrammable-hotel-hawaii/?li_source=LI&li_medum=bottom_block_1 Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 15: Artists Impression Of Hope Street Tower By Aria Property Group Brisbane Development 2017 https://brisbanedevelopment.com/aria-unveils-incredible-waterfall-inspired-tower-for-south-brisbane/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig.16: The Museum OF Ice Cream Fig 16.1, Fig 16.6 & Fig 16.7 Jake Stangel 2017 http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/10/museum-of-ice-cream-maryellis-bunn.html Accessed 20th December 2018


Fig 16.2 & Fig 16.4 Katie Gibbs 2018 https://venicemagftl.com/the-queen-of-ice-scream/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 16.3 Katie Gibbs 2017 https://www.wired.com/story/selfie-factories-instagram-museum/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 16.5 GlobalTrenderMagazine 2018 http://globetrendermagazine.com/2018/02/06/museum-of-ice-cream-miami/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 17: The Colour Factory Dezeen 2018 https://www.dezeen.com/2018/08/17/the-color-factory-exhibition-soho-new-york-city-artworks-instagram/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 19: Survey Results Graph & Background By Author Fig 20: Victoria Miro Floor Plans By Author Fig 21: Googie Architecture Fig 21.1, Fig 21.2 & Fig 21.3 archDaily 2011 https://www.archdaily.com/148641/googie-architecture-futurism-through-modernism Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 21.4 skyscrapercity 2013 http://www.you-are-here.com/modern/farmers.jpg Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 21.5 Modtraveler 2017 http://modtraveler.net/city/las-vegas_84/listing/googie-buildings/ Accessed 20th December 2018


Fig 21.6 Timeline 2017 https://timeline.com/googie-architecture-6fc603b79413 Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 22: Traditional Gallery VS Instagram Gallery Screenshots from Video By Author Vox, 2018, How “Instagram traps� are changing art museums, [Online Video], https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=64&v=Qx_r-dP22Ps , Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23: Starchitects Fig 23.1: The Economist 2017 https://www.1843magazine.com/design/i-wish-id-done-that/renzo-piano-on-the-maison-de-verre Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23.2: Goggle 20?? https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiBsvmcgfAWOyoUKHezBDEsQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rosewoodsaopaulo.com. br%2Fteam%2F&psig=AOVaw1mrGG_6aZ339DZOO2trTYS&ust=1546961814765142 Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23.3: Big City Forum 2011 http://bigcityforum.blogspot.com/2011/08/youve-certainly-catapulted-into-elite.html Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23.4: Architecsure 2017 https://architecsure.wordpress.com/2017/08/30/1160/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23.5: Mary McCartney 2016 https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/architect-zaha-hadid-dies Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 23.6: artevitae 2018 https://artevitae.it/a-daniel-libeskind-portrait/ Accessed 20th December 2018


Fig 24: Instagram Features IUX 2018 https://www.interactiveux.com/blog/2018/08/28/new-instagram-features-that-helps-to-grow-your-business/#prettyPhoto Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 26: Comments On Fosters & Partners Post Foster & Partners (Screenshots By Author) 2018 https://www.instagram.com/p/BqW9Bdfll6q/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 27: Examples Of Showcase/Database/Aggregator Accounts Screenshots By Author 2018 Fig 28.1: Adrian Phiffer Instagram Feed Screenshots by author 2018 https://www.instagram.com/officeofadrianphiffer/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 28.2: Alexandra Lange Instagram Feed Screenshots By Author 2018 https://www.instagram.com/langealexandra/ Accessed 20th December 2018 Fig 29: Notre Dame Du Haut Chapel, Le Corbusier, 1955 Ezra Stoller 1955 http://ezrastoller.com/portfolio/notre-dame-ronchamp Accessed 4th January 2019 Fig 30: Unzipped Pavilion on ArchDaily’s Website Derek Shapton 2018 https://www.archdaily.com/902262/bigs-relocated-serpentine-pavilion-opens-as-unzipped-in-toronto Accessed 4th January 2019 Fig 31: Unzipped Pavilion On Bjarke Ingles Group Website Bjarke Ingles Group 2016 https://big.dk/#projects-serp Accessed 4th January 2019 Fig 32: Fondazione Prada On OMA’s Website OMA 2018 http://oma.eu/projects/fondazione-prada Accessed 4th January 2019


Fig 33: OMA Showcasing Users Instagram Posts OMA - Screenshots By Author 2018 http://oma.eu/projects/fondazione-prada Accessed 4th January 2019 Fig 34: Unzipped Pavilion On ArchDaily’s Instagram ArchDaily 2018 https://www.instagram.com/archdaily/ Accessed 4th January 2019 Fig 35: Unzipped Pavilion On BIG’s Instagram BIG 2018 https://www.instagram.com/big_builds/ Accessed 4th January 2018 Fig 36: Unzipped Pavilion On Bjarke Ingles Instagram Bjarke Ingle 2018 https://www.instagram.com/bjarkeingels/ Accessed 4th January 2018 Fig 38: Paid Partnership Posts On ArchDaily Laurian Ghinitoiu 2018 https://www.instagram.com/archdaily/ Accessed 4th January 2018


BIBLIOGRAPHY Other Texts, Books, Journals, And Articles Researched For This Dissertation

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Websites: Baer, D. (2014) The Psychology Behind Why Instagram Is So Addictive, Business Insider, [online] Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/psychology-of-why-instagram-is-addictive-2014-11 (Accessed 10 October 2018). Calcano, V. (2018) Why Social Media is Important for Architecture Firms, Sealevelmedia.com, [online] Available at: https://www.sealevelmedia.com/marketing-for-architecture-firms-blog/marketing-professional-services/ why-social-media-is-important-to-inbound-marketing-for-architects (Accessed 10 October 2018). Centre, B. (2018) How social media is changing the way we perceive architecture, Buildingcentre.co.uk, [online] Available at: https://www.buildingcentre.co.uk/news/how-social-media-is-changing-the-way-we-perceive-architecture (Accessed 10 October 2018). Fry, E. (2018) Why Instagram is a vital tool for interior designers, The Independent, [online] Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/design/instagram-interior-designers-tool-why-inspiration-marketing-influencers-followers-a8288641.html (Accessed 21 November 2018). Harvey-Jenner, C. (2017) The weird thing that happens to your brain when you get a like on social media, Cosmopolitan, [online] Available at: https://www.cosmopolitan.com/uk/reports/a9931660/psychology-social-media-likes-mental-health-issues/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Heathcote, E. (2017) Age of the ‘starchitect’ | Financial Times, Ft.com, [online] Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/d064d57c-df01-11e6-86ac-f253db7791c6 (Accessed 10 October 2018). MacMillan, A. (2017) http://time.com, Time, [online] Available at: http://time.com/4793331/instagram-social-media-mental-health/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). McNeill, R. (2015) The psychology of Instagram and the shifting sexuality of a new generation, The Plaid Zebra, [online] Available at: https://theplaidzebra.com/the-psychology-of-instagram-and-the-shifting-sexuality-of-a-new-generation/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Morris, A. (2017) Stefan Sagmeister offers up his Instagram account as a design clinic, Dezeen, [online] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2017/09/27/stefan-sagmeister-instagram-design-clinic-graphics/ (Accessed 10 October 2018). Schwab, K. (2016) Art for Instagram’s Sake, The Atlantic, [online] Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/02/instagram-art-wonder-renwick-rain-room/463173/ (Accessed 6 December 2018).


Slessor, C. (2017) “Brutalism is back – but its fetishisation comes at a cost” | Blog | Royal Academy of Arts, Royalacademy.org.uk, [online] Available at: https://www.royalacademy.org.uk/article/opinion-architecture-brutalism-and-the-future-of-housing (Accessed 10 October 2018). Sponsor (2018) Social Media vs. Architectural Discourse 2.0: The SCI-Arc Conversation Continues, Archinect, [online] Available at: https://archinect.com/news/article/150048233/social-media-vs-architectural-discourse-2-0-the-sci-arc-conversation-continues (Accessed 10 October 2018). Stewart, M. (n.d.) Why Social Media For Architects Is So Powerful - Architect Marketing Institute, Architect Marketing Institute, [online] Available at: https://archmarketing.org/social-media-for-architects/ (Accessed 10 October 2018).

Journals & Articles Alexander, L. (2015) Mass-Participation Architecture: Social Media and The Decentralisation of Architectural Agency as a Commercial Imperative, Masters, University of Plymouth. Bianco, L. (2018) Social Media: Third-Person Perceptions Of Architecture, Urbanism. Arhitectură. Construcţii, 9(3), pp. 265 - 272. Borges-Rey, E. (2015) News Images on Instagram, Digital Journalism, 3(4), pp. 571-593. Budge, K. and Burness, A. (2017) Museum objects and Instagram: agency and communication in digital engagement, Continuum, 32(2), pp. 137-150. Chan, T. (2010) Rethinking Space + Place: Negotiating a social realm between mobile technology and architecture, Masters, Ryerson University. Fatanti, M. and Suyadnya, I. (2015) Beyond User Gaze: How Instagram Creates Tourism Destination Brand?, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, pp. 1089-1095. Friedman, A. (2017) American Glamour 2.0: architecture, spectacle, and social media, Consumption Markets & Culture, 20(6), pp. 575-584. Halpern, M. and Humphreys, L. (2014) Iphoneography as an emergent art world, New Media & Society, 18(1), pp. 62-81. Hochman, N. and Manovich, L. (2013) Zooming into an Instagram City: Reading the local through social media, First Monday, 18(7). Ibrahim, Y. (2015) Instagramming life: banal imaging and the poetics of the everyday, Journal of Media Practice, 16(1), pp. 42-54. Jackson, C. and Luchner, A. (2018) Self-presentation mediates the relationship between Self-criticism and emotional response to Instagram feedback, Personality and Individual Differences, 133, pp. 1-6.


Klainbaum, D. (2006) PLACE AND DIGITAL MEDIA, Masters, Georgia Institute of Technology. Lorimer, A. (2016) Mass-participation Architecture: Social Media and the Decentralisation of Architectural Agency as a Commercial Imperative, Masters, University of Plymouth. MacDowall, L. and de Souza, P. (2017) ‘I’d Double Tap That!!’: street art, graffiti, and Instagram research, Media, Culture & Society, 40(1), pp. 3-22. Motamed, B. and Mahmoudi Farahani, L. (2018) THE EVALUATIVE IMAGE OF THE CITY THROUGH THE LENS OF SOCIAL MEDIA: CASE STUDY OF MELBOURNE CBD, JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM, 42(1), pp. 24-33. Mukhina, K., Rakitin, S. and Visheratin, A. (2017) Detection of tourists attraction points using Instagram profiles, Procedia Computer Science, 108, pp. 2378-2382. Thömmes, K. and Hübner, R. (2018) Instagram Likes for Architectural Photos Can Be Predicted by Quantitative Balance Measures and Curvature, Frontiers in Psychology, 9. Tomohiro Sugeta, T. (2016) Instagram as Collective Portrait of City Exploring Marseille on Instagram, Masters, Bartlett, UCL.

Books: Burgin, V. (1996) In/Different Spaces, University of California Press. Dunne, A. and Raby, F. (2013) Speculative Everything, [Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar], MIT Press. Eagleton, T. (1990) The ideology of the aesthetic, Malden [etc.], Blackwell Publishing. Garcia, M. (2010) The diagrams of architecture, Chichester, Wiley. Hill, J. (2003) Actions of architecture, New York, NY, Routledge. Jameson, F. (1991) The Jamesonian unconscious, Durham, Duke University Press Levinson, J. (2005) The Oxford handbook of aesthetics, New York, Oxford University Press. LISTER, M. (1995) THE PHOTOGRAPHIC image in digital culture, London, Routledge. Lyas, C. (1997) Aesthetics, London [etc.], UCL Press.


Moussavi, F. (2009) The function of form, Barcelona, Actar. Nesbitt, K. (1996) Theorizing a new agenda for architecture, New York, Princenton Architectural Press. Nicholson-Smith, D. (1991) The Production of Space, Malden, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Postrel, V. (2004) The substance of style, London, Harper Perennial. Rancière, J., Rockhill, G. and Žižek, S. (2004) The politics of aesthetics, London, Continuum. Squiers, C. (1991) The Critical image, London, Lawrence & Wishart. Carrigan, M. (2016) Social media for academics, London, Sage. Couldry, N. (2012) Media, society, world : social theory and digital media practice, Cambridge, Polity. Luhmann, N. (2007) The reality of the mass media, Cambridge, Polity Press. Schroeder, R. (2018) Social Theory after the Internet, London, UCLPress. Wroot, J. and Willis, A. (2017) Cult media : re-packaged, re-released and restored, Cham, Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan.


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