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Engineering Design 2009-02

Responsible innovation now

DuPont now offers the industry’s broadest range of high performance renewablysourced engineering polymers. Read more on page 2


Responsible innovation now By Marsha Craig, Global Business Manager – Renewable Sourced Materials and Karin Weining, Global Marketing Director at DuPont Engineering Polymers Marsha Craig

On top of the recent economic downturn, we currently face unprecedented global business challenges. An overall increase in energy costs, a potential depletion of oil reserves or an increase in Karin Weining greenhouse gas emissions, are examples of those challenges for which it is essential that DuPont and its customers find new, more sustainable solutions to meet the reality of the new economy and to create new business opportunities for mutual growth. Under the banner of “Responsible innovation now”, DuPont recognizes the need to act with urgency in finding trusted solutions pushing the edge of creativity and innovation in material science by collaborating with our customer and our customer’s customer. Aligned with this motto, we have taken the performance of plastics to new frontiers, whilst seeking to reduce our own environmental footprint and those of our customers. In order to do this, DuPont is investing in the bio-based economy, focusing an important part of its research and development efforts on the market introduction of renewablysourced polymers. As a consequence of this investment, DuPont now offers the industry’s broadest range of high performance renewably-sourced engineering polymers – providing performance and functionality equivalent to, or better than, today’s fully petroleum-based materials, whilst reducing their environmental impact. Not only can these products help reduce dependence on fossil fuel but, in many instances, they also reduce the net production of greenhouse gases and energy consumption in the manufacturing process when compared to incumbent petroleum based products. With today's innovative technologies, all this can be achieved without compromising performance.

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DuPont™ Sorona® EP thermoplastic resins Renewably-sourced engineering polymers from DuPont represent a new class of thermoplastic polymers. Their renewable content is expressed as a percentage of their overall weight, with a declared target of at least 20 percent. DuPont™ Sorona® EP thermoplastic polymers contain at least 20% to 37% renewably sourced material, derived from corn with DuPont Tate & Lyle Susterra™ renewably sourced propanediol as a key intermediate. Sorona® EP exhibits performance and molding characteristics similar to high-performance PBT (polybutylene terephthalate). In addition to its good strength and stiffness, early tests indicate improved surface appearance, lower warpage and good dimensional stability, making it ideal for use in automotive parts and components, electrical and electronics systems, as well as industrial and consumer products. DuPont™ Hytrel® RS thermoplastic elastomers Containing 35% to 65% renewably sourced material, Hytrel® RS thermoplastic elastomers are made using renewably-sourced polyol derived from plant feedstocks. They provide the established performance characteristics of original Hytrel® resins – a unique combination of strength, toughness and flex life needed for demanding applications such as extruded hose and tubing for automotive and industrial applications; blow molded boots for constant-velocity joints; injection molded parts such as air bag doors and energy dampers.

The collar of the new Salomon ‘Ghost’ freerider alpine ski-boot constitutes one of the first commercial uses worldwide of Hytrel® RS thermoplastic elastomer

One of the first applications of Hytrel® RS was carried out by the winter sports goods manufacturer Salomon for its ‘Ghost’ freerider ski-boot. The material combines a range of key properties such as impact resistance at low temperatures, durability and flexibility, making the boots more comfortable to wear and helping transmit movement to the skis – all at an improved Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Future grades of Hytrel® RS include extrusion grades for cable jacketing and automotive hoses and injection moldable grades for office furniture and consumer goods, to name a few. DuPont™ Zytel® RS long chain nylons Polymers based on sebacic acid, extracted from castor-oil plants, completes the range of renewably-sourced engineering polymers available from DuPont. This group initially consists of two renewably-sourced long-chain nylons – Zytel® RS polyamide 1010, which is 98 percent renewably sourced, and Zytel® RS polyamide 610, which is more than 58 percent by weight renewably sourced. The use of long chain biomonomers leads to improved chemical

Engineering Design 2009-02


The first commercial use of Zytel® RS polyamide 610 in Europe was for the hand-grip, tip, cover and fastener of the ’Exel NW ECO Trainer’ Nordic walking stick from EB Sports GmbH, Germany

and hydrolysis resistance, particularly when exposed to polar hydrocarbons, compared to polyamide 6 and Zytel® RS polyamide 610 resin debuted on DENSO Corporation’s new automotive radiator end tank, marking the first use of DuPont renewably sourced plastic in mechanical components exposed to the hot chemically aggressive underhood environment

polyamide 66. Moreover, when exposed to other aggressive media such as hot water or calcium chloride, the polyamide 610 GF grades show good to very good resistance compared to PA 66 GF 30. Both polyamide 610 and polyamide 1010 demonstrate good heat aging resistance which can be further enhanced with the relevant stabilizers. Unreinforced and high viscosity Zytel® RS LC3060 polyamide 610 and Zytel® RS LC 1000 polyamide 1010 are already available for extruded applications such as flexible hose lines. Modification with fillers and reinforcing materials improves the mechanical properties of Zytel® RS long chain nylons still further, facilitating their adop-

tion in structural components. In the automotive construction sector, first applications are in those areas demanding high chemical resistance – such as water circulation – or those where good dimensional stability is equired. One of the first commercial examples of this trend is the radiator end tank developed by DENSO Corporation, which exhibits increased resistance to calcium chloride and good hot water resistance. The grade of Zytel® RS polyamide used contains 33% glass fibers, yet still includes 40 percent renewably-sourced content by weight. Through DuPont innovation, we are now able to derive the key building blocks for these three product families of renewably-sourced resins — creating a much smaller environmental footprint than their petroleum-based predecessors with no compromise in performance. DuPont renewably-sourced materials are an idea whose time has come.

This issue in brief Page 4

Page 8 Distinctive bezels in cost-effective Crastin®

Improved conveyor chain performance

Headlamp bezels for the Audi A4 are based on DuPont’s “Design-Materials-Processing” solution.

New research to extend the range of application for polymer conveyor chains.

Page 6

Page 10 DuPont polymers aid mobility Stretching the limits of durability

Over three-quarters of the plastics used within a lightweight and compact lever-drive accessory for manual wheelchairs are sourced from DuPont.

A celebration of 25 years of Hytrel® in CVJ (constant-velocity joint) boot applications.

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Page 11 News 1. The first commercial, injection-molded use of renewably-sourced Zytel® RS polyamide in Europe. 2. Prototype wall plugs made of Zytel® RS.

Engineering Design 2009-02

Delrin® helps provide a dose of fresh air Delrin® is used in the gearbox mechanism of an automatic air freshener from Sara Lee.

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Distinctive headlamp bezels in cost-effective Crastin® By Michal Siler, Segment Manager for Automotive Lighting, DuPont Engineering Polymers Automotive headlamps – a significant opportunity to add personality to vehicle styling – can now be manufactured more cost-effectively through the “Design-Materials-Processing” solution offered by DuPont. The first tier supplier of exterior automotive lighting – Automotive Lighting of Reutlingen (Germany)– has turned to this single-source solution from DuPont for the development of the headlamp bezels of the new-look Audi A4.

The headlamp is one of the most important design features of any car, with the bezel – the trim ring located between the reflectors and the housing of the headlamp – playing a prominent and highly visible role in its styling. As a consequence, aesthetics and a perfect surface quality, in addition to the more practical requirements of high temperature resistance, ease of metallization, resistance to climatic effects and moisture, dimensional stability and processability, have become key features of this injection-molded part. Whereas the manufacturers of headlamp bezels may have traditionally relied on high-heat resistant polycarbonate or standard PBT, many are now turning to DuPont for a tailored solution that combines the exceptional properties of DuPont™ Crastin® PBT with innovative manufacturing techniques, design and development for more stylish and cost-effective results. One such company is Automotive Lighting, a global leader in exterior automotive lighting founded in 1999 as a joint venture between Magneti Marelli and Robert Bosch GmbH. When specifying the material for the bezels of the headlamps (both xenon and halogen) of the new-look Audi A4 and Audi TT, Automotive Lighting chose Crastin® over a range of potentially competitive materials. “The DuPont material provides much higher temperature resistance compared to

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standard polycarbonate, involves significantly lower cost compared to high heat resistant polycarbonate and offers much higher temperature resistance (up to 170 °C) with less outgassing compared to competitive PBT materials,” states Alexander Müller, development team leader at Automotive Lighting Reutlingen GmbH. Because Crastin® bezel grades are optimized to provide very high stability and very low thermal degradation during the moulding process, Automotive Lighting was able to achieve very low reject rates during production. Moreover, DuPont technical specialists in Germany were on hand to define the optimum part design, tooling and machinery to meet all technical requirements, achieve the lowest possible part cost and maximize productivity. “During testing and production start-up for the Audi A4 bezels, Crastin® clearly showed by far the highest productivity compared to other PBT materials available, largely thanks

Contact Automotive Lighting Reutlingen GmbH Tübinger Str. 123 72762 Reutlingen/Germany Phone +49 7121 35-6000 Fax +49 7121 35-6065 info@al-lighting.com www.al-lighting.com

Engineering Design 2009-02


to the quality of the material and the excellence of the local technical support,” confirms Alexander Müller. “Overall we were delighted with the cost-effective performance of the material in what is a demanding and highlyvisible application. The quality and appearance of the bezels in the headlamp unit we developed for the A4 was also greatly appreciated by Audi.” As well as being optimized for flow and stability in a high-temperature environment, Crastin® bezel grades are designed to provide a top

New E&E friendly grades of Zytel® HTN Three new “Electrical/Electronics Friendly (EF)” grades of DuPont™ Zytel® HTN PPA have been formulated to avoid the ingredients that can cause corrosion of fine copper magnet wire or sensitive electrical contacts in parts serving in the hot, humid and/or wet environments of many automotive and industrial applications. Compared to the standard Zytel® HTN grades, the EF resins provide an enhanced retention of volume resistivity with moisture exposure. Tested in DuPont Technical Centers, the EF grades passed CTI testing under the most severe conditions. When compared with other PPAs, Zytel® HTN51G35EF offers the highest retention of properties with long-term exposure to moisture, chemicals and elevated temperatures, compared with other PPAs. Zytel® HTN52G35EF provides enhanced flow, for parts with

Engineering Design 2009-02

quality and class A surface straight from the mold, without hazing or other defects. Although not pertinent to the bezel developed by Automotive Lighting for the Audi A4, Crastin® grades can be used for direct metallization, providing designers with more flexibility and freedom whilst reducing both overall costs and manufacturing costs. DuPont is working on further performance

enhancements for its range of Crastin® grades for bezels, including even higher temperature resistance and part stability, as well as the use of renewably-sourced materials in the same application.

HTN51G35EF

HTN52G35EF

HTN54G35EF

Chemical resistance

Higher flow for thin-wall parts

Thermal cycle resistance

High temperature resistance Retention of properties with moisture exposure

Water controlled mold temperature

Enhanced impact performance Water controlled mold temperature

DuPont™ Zytel® HTN “EF” products are available for the three series of glass-reinforced resins: HTN51G, HTN52G and HTN54G offering a potential solution in hot, moist environments where reduced corrosion and improved retention of electrical properties is required. thin wall sections, such as connectors. Zytel® HTN54G35EF offers enhanced impact resistance and excels in thermal cycling performance, an advantage for encapsulation applications. Both HTN52G35EF and HTN54G35EF also offer processors the benefit of using water for mold temperature control. All three resins contain 35 percent glass fiber reinforcement.

Potential automotive applications include encapsulated sensors for monitoring wheel speed, air or hydraulic pressure and transmission functions, and high-voltage cable connectors for electric and hybrid vehicles. Other potential uses include electrical components where retention of electrical properties with moisture exposure is needed.

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Stretching the limits of durability By Eric Randa, DuPont Automotive Chassis Segment Manager

As DuPont™ Hytrel® thermoplastic elastomer in CVJ (constant-velocity joint) boot applications turns 25 years old, it notes as accomplishments more than one billion boots in service without material failure.

CVJ boots are the flexible seals that protect the rotating shaft of a vehicle from stones and dust, and provide a barrier to axle greases. With an emphasis on the term ‘constant’, this component faces an average of 150,000 miles of continuous flexing, pelting and thermal cycling during the course of its lifetime. Back in the late 70s, when automotive manufacturers first turned to frontwheel drive vehicles to meet fuel economy standards, the boots were typically made of rubber, despite their limitations in terms of flex fatigue and joint grease resistance. The subsequent introduction of thermoplastic elastomers, such as Hytrel® from DuPont, represented a huge step change in material performance for this vital component – durability was more than doubled so manufacturers could worry less about service life; consumers no longer had to worry about boot replacement as a maintenance activity; and

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engineers could now design smaller, more compact, less costly boots. Indeed, the original CVJ boot for General Motors-Saginaw Steering, molded by ABC Group Inc. of Canada, has been nominated for a Society of Plastics Engineers Hall of Fame award, granted annually to applications that have been in continuous use for 10 years or more, and that have made a significant and lasting contribution to the application of plastics in automobiles. Today, vehicles include between four to nine inboard and outboard CVJ boots, prop shaft boots and rear wheel drive boots, and the vast majority are made with Hytrel® or other thermoplastic elastomers. DuPont™ Vamac® Ultra ethylene acrylic elastomer is often selected for hot side inboard CVJ boots for its combination of the cost effectiveness, broad temperature range, grease resistance and puncture-resistant toughness.

DuPont currently offers a portfolio of Hytrel® products to balance performance and cost, serving as the benchmark for grease resistance, high temperature durability, low temperature flexibility and historically proven performance. Compared with rubber, Hytrel® invites thinner design for better packaging in tight spaces and vastly improves performance and durability for greater service life. Compared with co-polyesters, Hytrel® delivers the optimal combination of flexibility and stiffness, protecting against expensive repairs. With several new, lower-cost grades for improved processing planned for the next year, as well as future enhancements in terms of even greater temperature and abrasion resistance and better flex fatigue, Hytrel® looks set to continue to deliver trouble-free performance for the next quarter of a century and beyond. www.automotive.dupont.com

Engineering Design 2009-02


Green Nordic Walking The first commercial, injectionmolded use of renewablysourced DuPont™ Zytel® RS polyamide in Europe is for the hand grip, tip, cap and interlocking elements of the new ‘Exel NW ECO Trainer’ Nordic Walking stick from EXEL Sports Brands (ESB), Stephanskirchen, Germany. The unreinforced polyamide 610 is produced using sebacic acid made from castor oil plants. The renewablysourced content of unreinforced Zytel® RS is 58 percent by weight. This was a crucial factor in the sports equipment manufacturer’s decision to not only base its production in Europe, but to also launch its own competence model made in the material. “All the components are solventand toxin-free. Thus, we are able to guarantee that our customers receive environmentally-friendly products offering the best performance accord-

ing to European quality standards,” commented Richard Holzner, product manager at ESB for the Exel walking sticks, on the company’s reasons for choosing Zytel® RS. Beyond its very good surface finish, the long chain polyamide 610 offers excellent chemical resistance, low moisture absorption and temperature resistance between –40 °C and 50 °C. The parts were designed and

manufactured by Metall und Plastikwaren Putz GmbH (MPP) of Abtenau in Austria. “The processability of unreinforced Zytel® RS is similar to that of polyamide 66. The material is also easy to color,” reports Georg Putz, managing director of MPP. “The only differences were an approximately 40 °C lower melt temperature and minor variations in shrinkage behavior.”

Prototype wall plugs made of Zytel® RS The fischer group of companies of Waldachtal, Germany – world-renowned for their wall fixing systems – recently presented an ‘organic’ version of the fischer UX Universal Plug UX which is made of renewably-sourced DuPont™ Zytel® RS nylon. Initially available in

prototype form to gauge market acceptance, fischer first introduced its ‘organic’ wall plug to a wider public at the Fakuma trade show in Friedrichshafen (Germany) during October. The grade of Zytel® RS used in the new wall plug has a renewably-sourced The fischer UX made of renewable materials also holds in every wall Photo: © fischerwerke, Waldachtal

Engineering Design 2009-02

content by weight of 58 percent. “Extensive tests and long-term trials have shown that the fischer UX made of this new material has the same values as the tried-and-tested product made of conventional nylon”, says Rainer Fischer, head of synthetics development at fischer. In continuous tests, the ‘organic’ plug has consistently shown the same retaining values as the conventional UX Universal Plug. Investigations involving the performance at high temperatures also show the same temperature resistance for both plugs. The fischer UX Universal Plug made of conventional nylon has been established in the market for many years, giving users the feeling of reliability and safety. With every turn of the screw, the plug tightens more and more – until it is safely expanded inside the drill hole or knotted inside the cavity. A true all-rounder, the plug gets a perfect grip in any wall, whether in plasterboard, solid bricks, perforated bricks or concrete.

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Improved polymer conveyor chain performance By Karsten Faust, DuPont Engineering Polymers, Germany

Lightweight polymer conveyor chains are increasingly replacing those made of metal because they require lower drive power and, with the correct material pairing, they can operate quietly, lubricantfree and with little maintenance over long service periods. DuPont, iwis antriebssysteme GmbH & Co. KG (Munich, Germany) and the Technical University of Chemnitz (Germany) are collaborating on design and material enhancements to further extend their performance and range of application. Chains made of highly chemical-resistant polymer provide a range of significant advantages over their metal counterparts. They are up to 40 percent lighter than comparable metal chains and therefore permit resource-saving operation. Injection molding of the individual parts enables many functions to be integrated in a single processing step, making assembly costs correspondingly low. A reduction in noise emissions of up to 80% compared to metal chains is a further benefit. Conveying systems using polymer conveyor chains deliver these benefits to a range of industrial sectors. They are most commonly used in the food, beverage and packaging industries, where lubricant-free operation and minimal abrasion are persuasive arguments.

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Figure 1. The new pull element design (right) reduces the amount of mechanical stress compared to a standard design (left) Complex requirements beyond standard solutions Current designs for polymer chains are, however, reaching their mechanical and tribological limits in light of the increasingly complex demands made on them, including higher tensile forces, speeds and operating temperatures as well as larger distances between the axles. Limiting factors include insufficient stiffness and strength and the fact that thermoplastics can creep (irreversibly stretch in the direction of load) when exposed to high static and constant loads. In order to be able to use polymer chains in more complex applications, joint development work by iwis antriebssysteme, DuPont and the conveying technology department at TU Chemnitz is focusing on the development of three-dimensionally flexible polymer chains with significantly improved mechanical properties and comparable or better sliding properties.

lugs of the pull elements are oriented in the direction of load and, in addition, the wall thickness has been adjusted to correspond with the locally effective mechanical force, thereby reducing material usage. A cardan joint, formed by the bolt and pin, is retained and strengthened. Propulsion occurs on both sides through the bolts, ensuring an even transmission of power and enabling reverse operation. Load simulations using finite element analysis show that in the newlydesigned pull elements – with the same tensile force – considerably lower effective stress occurs than in the standard chain geometry (red and orange sections in Figure 1). As a result, the new chains require less material for the same nominal load. Alternatively, higher tensile loads can be transmitted for the same material usage. Tests on injection molded prototypes have confirmed functionality as well as the desired increase in strength and stiffness.

An individual design approach In the course of this work, a new chain geometry has been jointly developed and registered for patent protection, in which the pull elements of the chain are alternately arranged as inner and outer links, and the carrier plates are designed as separate elements. The

Promising results with long-fiber compounds On the material side, there are two, parallel objectives: to increase load-bearing capacity and optimize the tribological system properties. The former is achieved in principle by using fiber-reinforced polymers, which provide

Engineering Design 2009-02


Static tensile test, conveyor chain, 3 links (L=100.5 mm) 9.000

long glass fiber-reinforced polymers

8.000 7.000 Stiffness

increased strength and stiffness. Sliding behavior is adjusted mainly through the use of modifiers. These include sliding additives such as PTFE (e.g. DuPont™ Teflon®) or silicone, which are used to reduce the coefficient of friction between the chain and guide rail. The real challenge is to improve all properties at the same time. As an initial piece of research, standard chain links made of polyoxymethylene (POM, DuPont™ Delrin® 511P), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT, DuPont™ Crastin® 600LF (low friction)) and a long glass fiber-reinforced semi-aromatic polyamide (DuPont™ Zytel® HTN LG50 HSL) were injection molded using the same trial tool. The results of tensile testing showed clear improvements in load-bearing capacity (Figure 2). A significant factor in the dimensioning and reliable operation of conveying systems is the behavior of mate-

Tensile force (N)

6.000 5.000

current status

4.000 3.000 2.000

Strength

1.000 0

0

2

4

6 Deformation (%)

under dynamic loads. By using such polymers, the permissible conveyor performance may either be significantly raised or the lifetime of the chain extended considerably when compared to today’s standard polymers. Good tribological behavior expected Comprehensive testing is currently being conducted at the TU Chemnitz in order to optimize the tribological system formed by the chain and guide rail.

Chain pull element– Chain pull element

Pull element – Pin Figure 3. Critical points in the new chain design from a tribological perspective

Engineering Design 2009-02

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10

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Figure 2. Using optimized thermoplastics to improve the load-bearing capacity of pull elements (results of initial trials without process optimization)

Bolt – Pin

rial under variable (pulsating) long-term stress. In order to measure this socalled creep strength, the pulsating tensile force acting on the chain during its continuous circulation is simulated on test equipment. The results confirm that the benefits of the long fiber-reinforced material are essentially retained, even

POM (Standard) PBT (Standard) PPA-LGF50

Critical areas in this case are the points of contact between the pull elements themselves, the pull element and pin, and the pull element and bolt (Figure 3). Working in close cooperation with the material developers from DuPont, the TU Chemnitz is investigating a number of other polymers (besides the above-

mentioned long fiber-reinforced polymer), in which numerous reinforcing agents and additives are being tested. The aim of this work is to find the best combination of polymer, reinforcement and additive to achieve the greatest improvement in properties currently possible, with particular reference to the sliding behavior and load-bearing capacity of the conveyor chains. There are two reasons why long fiber-reinforced polymers are expected to continue delivering good results. Firstly, the number of potentially abrasive fiber ends is many times lower than for the same content by weight of short fibers. Secondly, long glass fibers are more likely to align themselves parallel to the surface during processing than short fibers. This surface alignment of the long fibers significantly helps reduce the number of fiber ends protruding from the surface. Practical implementation only a matter of time The results of trials to date confirm that design and material enhancements can significantly improve the strength and stiffness of polymer conveyor chains. Once the current process of optimizing the injection molding tool for the newly developed chain geometry is concluded, the already clearly visible benefits of long glass fiber-reinforced polymers are expected to be even more pronounced.

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DuPont polymers aid mobility By Ian Wands, DuPont Engineering Polymers, UK

Winner of the UK’s prestigious Independent Living Design Awards in 2008, NuDrive is the world’s first lightweight and compact lever-drive accessory for manual wheelchairs that is available to the public. Almost 80% of the plastics used within the product are sourced from DuPont. NuDrive, from the UK company Pure Global Ltd., is an innovative new leverdrive propulsion accessory for manual wheelchairs, aimed at reducing the force needed to self-propel a wheelchair by up to 40%. Instead of gripping the wheels by hand, wheelchair users simply push levers to go forwards, backwards, maneuver or brake. The device attaches in seconds to almost any wheelchair with 24-inch spoke wheels and dramatically improves the ability to travel up slopes or along difficult terrain by substantially increasing the torque available. Whilst simple in concept, the challenging task of making it work was presented to the design consultancy Lon-

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don Associates (www.LA-design.co.uk), of Berkhamsted, England, which has a long and successful history of working with medical and technological products. Key to the design project was the consultancy’s selection of materials based on the criteria of high structural loads, light weight, ergonomics and cost. “To a certain extent we had to go back to first principles, selecting materials based on our experience of load bearing, coupled with analysis, then prototyping and refining the selection in discussion with the polymer supplier. There were also standard wheelchair tests to comply with,” says LA Design engineer Andrew Malloy. Whilst the main structural levers and adapters are aluminum, much use has been made of polymers – 80% of which were sourced from DuPont – for the internal components and also for the combined hand/control grip. Glassreinforced DuPont™ Zytel® nylon and DuPont™ Delrin® acetal resin were chosen for various cams, pinions and latches within the device, whilst DuPont™ Hytrel® thermoplastic elastomer was used in two-shot molding areas such as the adapter connector which makes contact with the wheel rim. Here, PC/ABS was used for stiffness as the base component, with Hytrel® providing a resilient cushion integrally joined to the rigid molding. “One interesting design challenge

concerned a change of material from aluminum to glass-reinforced Zytel® for the adapter yoke following a cost benefit review,” recalls Malloy. “An aluminum component needed to be machined following casting, whereas as an injection molded part needed no after-operations and was considerably lighter and cheaper.” Beyond the high performance of its engineering polymers, DuPont’s global reach and local technical support were contributory factors to the success of the design project. “We chose to work with DuPont because they responded and were very helpful,” concludes Malloy. NuDrive is available directly from Pure Global at www.nu-drive.com or through a range of accredited dealers in the UK. The product is currently sold overseas through distributors in Australia, Estonia, France and South Africa.

Contact Pure Global Ltd, 3-5 Rickmansworth Road, Watford, Hertfordshire, WD18 0GX, United Kingdom Tel. +44 8450 542930 info@nu-drive.com www.nu-drive.com

Engineering Design 2009-02


Delrin® helps provide a dose of fresh air By Elisenda Falco, DuPont Engineering Polymers, Spain

The new Ambi Pur Renov’Air from Sara Lee Household and Bodycare is the first automatic air freshener with an alternating two-step cycle that continuously renews the air in the home. A gear box mechanism within the unit, the components of which are all molded from DuPont™ Delrin® acetal resin, is used to control the smooth, regular diffusion of the fragrance.

The Ambi Pur Renov’Air renews the air at home in two stages: the first neutralizes the bad odors already present in the house, the second infuses the cleaned air with a natural and fresh fragrance. Diffusion of the sprays is controlled by a batterypowered timer and gearbox mechanism consisting of a pinion, two spur gears and a hammer – all molded from Delrin® 500 P, a medium viscosity acetal homopolymer from DuPont. The intermediate housing of the air freshener is made of the same material. Because Delrin® can be precision molded to close tolerances, the gears run freely, quietly and consistently ensuring the precise timing and

strength of the fragrance dispersion. The natural lubricity of Delrin® minimizes friction and the potential for any squeaks emanating from the device, whilst the material’s moisture resistance, heat resistance and thermal stability ensure the unit performs reliably for the duration of its lifetime, even in hot, humid conditions. Noise was further reduced to target levels of below 40 decibels by the use of an involute gear design, which enables their constant movement and thus minimizes the torque and speed variations which produce vibration and noise in gears. “Key to the success of this consumer product was its smooth and reliable operation at the desired intervals,” comments Cédric Morhain, material science center supervisor at Zobele España, responsible for designing and molding the air freshener components in cooperation with Sara Lee. “We identified polyacetal as the reference polymer for gears, and Delrin® as the reference name for polyacetal.”

Contact Zobele España, S.A., Argenters 8, Edif. 3. Parc Tecnològic del Vallès, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. Tel. +34 93 5942400 info@zobele.com www.zobele.com

Engineering Design 2009-02

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EUROPE/MIDDLE EAST/ AFRICA Belgique / België Du Pont de Nemours (Belgium) Antoon Spinoystraat 6 B-2800 Mechelen Tel. +32 15 44 14 11 Fax +32 15 44 14 09 Bulgaria Serviced by Biesterfeld Interowa GmbH & Co. KG. See under Österreich. Ceská Republika a Slovenská Republika Du Pont CZ s.r.o. Pekarska 14/628 CZ-155 00 Praha 5 – Jinonice Tel. +420 257 41 41 11 Fax +420 257 41 41 50 51 Danmark Du Pont Danmark ApS Skjøtevej 26 P.O. Box 3000 DK-2770 Kastrup Tel. +45 32 47 98 00 Fax +45 32 47 98 05 Deutschland DuPont de Nemours (Deutschland) GmbH Hugenottenallee 173-175 D-63263 Neu-Isenburg Tel. +49 6102 18-4400 Fax +49 6102 18-4410 Egypt Du Pont Products S.A. Bldg no. 6, Land #7, Block 1 New Maadi ET-Cairo Tel. +202 754 65 80 Fax +202 516 87 81

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Portugal Biesterfeld Iberica S.L. Rua das Matas P-4445-135 Alfena Tel. +351 229 698 760 Fax +351 229 698 769

España Du Pont Ibérica S.L. Edificio L’Illa Avda. Diagonal 561 E-08029 Barcelona Tel. +34 93 227 60 00 Fax +34 93 227 62 00 France Du Pont de Nemours (France) SAS Défense Plaza 23/25 rue Delarivière Lefoullon Défense 9 92 064 Le Défense Cedex Tel. +33 1 41 97 44 00 Fax +33 1 47 53 09 67

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Hellas Biesterfeld Hellas Intralink S.A. Trading Establishment 149, AG. Triados Menidi Acharnes GR-13671 Athens Tel. +30 210 24 02 900 Fax +30 210 24 02 141

Schweiz / Suisse / Svizzera Biesterfeld Plastic Suisse GmbH Dufourstrasse 21 Postfach 14695 CH-4010 Basel Tel. +41 61 201 31 50 Fax +41 61 201 31 69 Slovenija Serviced by Biesterfeld Interowa GmbH & Co. KG. See under Österreich.

Suomi / Finland Du Pont Suomi Oy PO Box 54 (Keilaranta 12) FIN-02150 Espoo Italia Tel. +358 207 890 500 DuPont de Nemours Italiana S.r.L. Fax +358 207 890 501 Centro Direzionale “Villa Fiorita” Via Piero Gobetti, 2/A Sverige I-20063 Cernusco s/N (MI) Serviced by Tel. +39 02 92629.1 Du Pont Danmark ApS. (switchboard) See under Danmark. Fax +39 02 36049379

plastics.dupont.com

Brasil DuPont do Brasil S.A. Al. Itapecuru, 506 Alphaville 06454-080 Barueri-Sao Paulo Tel. +55 11 4166 8299 Fax +55 11 4166 8513

Crastin® pbt

Tynex®

thermoplastic polyester resin

nylon monofilament

Delrin®

Vespel®

acetal resin

parts and shapes

Hytrel®

Zytel®

thermoplastic polyester elastomer

nylon resin

Minlon®

Zytel® htn

mineral reinforced nylon resin

high performance polyamide

Rynite® pet

Zenite® lcp

thermoplastic polyester resin

liquid crystal polymer

Thermx® pct

DuPont™ etpv

high performance polyester

thermoplastic rubber that resists oil & heat

ASIA-PACIFIC Ukraine Du Pont de Nemours International S.A. Representative Office Business center "Podil Plaza" 30a, Spaska Street Kyiv 04070 Tel. +380 44 4952670 Fax +380 44 4952671

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Requests for further information from countries not listed above should be sent to:

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Du Pont de Nemours International S.A. 2, chemin du Pavillon CH-1218 Le Grand-Saconnex/Geneva Japan Tel. +41 22 717 51 11 DuPont Kabushiki Kaisha Fax +41 22 717 52 00 Sanno Park Tower, 11-1 Nagata-cho 2-chome Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6111 NORTH AMERICA Japan Tel. +81 3 5521 8500 USA Fax +81 3 5521 2595 DuPont Engineering Polymers Barley Mill Plaza, Building 26 Korea P.O. Box 800026 DuPont (Korea) Inc. Wilmington, Delaware 19880 3-5th Floor, Asia Tower Tel. +1 302 992 4592 #726, Yeoksam-dong, Fax +1 302 992 6713 Kangnam-Ku Seoul 135-719 DuPont Automotive Tel. +82 2 2222 5200 950 Stephenson Highway Fax +82 2 2222 5470 P.O. Box 7013 Troy, Michigan 48007-7013 Singapore Tel. +1 248 583 8000 Du Pont Company (Singapore) Pte Ltd Canada 1 HarbourFront Place #11-01 E.I. du Pont Canada Company HarbourFront Tower One Box 2200 Singapore 098633 Streetsville Tel. +65 6586 3688 Mississauga, Ontario Fax +65 6272 7494 L5M 2H3 Tel. +1 905 821 5953 Taiwan Fax +1 905 821 5057 DuPont Taiwan Limited 13th Floor, Hung Kuo Building Mexico 167 Tun Hwa North Road DuPont S.A. de C.V. Taipei 105 Homero 206 Tel. +886 2 2719 1999 Col. Chapultepec Morales Fax +886 2 2719 0852 11570 Mexico D.F. Tel. +525 722 1248 Thailand Fax +525 722 1454 Du Pont (Thailand) Limited 6-7th Floor, M. Thai Tower All Seasons Place SOUTH AMERICA 87 Wireless Road Lumpini, Phatumwan Argentina Bangkok 10330 Du Pont Argentina S.A. Tel. +66 2 659 4000 Avda. Mitre y Calle 5 Fax +66 2 659 4001 (1884) Berazategui-Bs.As. Tel. +54 11 4239 3868 Fax +54 11 4239 3817

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The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont™, The miracles of science™, and Crastin®, Delrin®, DuPont™ ETPV, Hytrel®, Minlon®, Rynite®,Thermx®, Tynex®, Vespel®, Zytel®, Zenite® are registered trademarks or trademarks of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates.

Publisher:

DuPont Engineering Polymers 2, ch. du Pavillon CH-1218 Le Grand-Saconnex Geneva Switzerland Tel.: +41 22 717 51 11 Fax: +41 22 580 22 35

Contact:

Birgit Radlinger birgit.radlinger@dupont.com

Editor:

Andrew Wilkins PR andrew.wilkins@btconnect.com

Layout:

Konsens PR GmbH & Co. KG mail@konsens.de

Engineering Design is published in English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish by Du Pont de Nemours International S.A. P.O.Box 50, CH-1218 Le Grand-Saconnex Geneva,Switzerland. The information set forth herein is furnished free of charge and is based on technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. It is intended for use by persons having technical skill at their own discretion and risk. DuPont makes no warranties, express or implied, and assumes no liability in connection with any use of this information. © 2009 E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company K22017


DuPont Engineering Design (2009/2)