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Week  8  

Key  Terms   Window   Sash   –   a   frame   that   holds   the   panes  of  a  window  in  the  frame.   Deflection  –  the  process  of  deflecting   Moment   of   Inertia   –   the   sum   of   the   product  that  relates  to  the  torque  of  the   structure.   Door   Furniture   –   the   lock,   handle   and   other  object  related  to  the  door.   Stress   –   the   pressure   or   tension   of   the   force.   Shear   force   –   when   one   part   a   body   applies   a   force   in   one   direction   and   another   body   applies   a   force   in   the   opposite   direction.   This   is   known   as   compression  force.   Openings:  Doors  &  Windows   Doors   Doors   can   be   part   of   the   theatre   of   entering.   Doorframes   can   be   timer,   steel,   aluminium.  These  can  be  security  doors,   flush  doors  or  more  traditional  doors.     Aluminium   doors   are   popular   in   office   and   commercial   buildings.   Ly   screen   can   be   added   to   sliding   doors   to   prevent   insects   from   entering   and   allow   a   cool   breeze.   Steels  are  good  for  impact  interaction.  

Windows   Windows  need  to  be  thought  about  how   they  are  going  to  be  clean.   Windows   can   be   presented   in   many   structures.  

      Door  Frame  and  Terminology   Window  Frames  and  terminology            


Formers   Silica         Curtain   walls   -­‐   windows   or   exterior   wall  system?   They   are   a   hybrid   system,   which   are   window   and   walling   system.   City   walls   normally   use   this   system.   It   carries   its   own   load   and   transfers   it   back   to   the   concrete.   You   need   to   make   sure   the   loads   are   carried   around   the   window   rather  than  through  the  window.     Glass   Components   Formers   are   the   basic   ingredients   used   to   produce   glass.   Any   chemical   compound   that   can   be   melted   and   cooled  into  a  glass  is  a  former.   Fluxes  help  formers  to  melt  at  lower  and   more  practical  temperatures.   Stabilisers   combine   with   formers   and   fluxes   to   keep   the   finished   glass   from   dissolving   or   crumbling.   This   has   a   longer  life  and  is  more  stable.  

Fluxes   Soda  Ash   Potash   Lithium   Carbonate  

Stabilizers   Limestone   Alumina   Magnesia  

  History   • I  Century  BC  –  Blown  Glass   • XI-­‐XIII   centuries   –   Sheet   glass   –   sliced  from  blown  glass   • XVII   century   –   Lead   crystal   –Lead   oxide  added  to  make  glass  easier   to  cut   • XVII   century   –   Plate   Glass   –   improved  optical  qualities     • 1910   –   Lamination   –   Celluloid   layer   inserted   between   two   sheets  of  glass   • 1959  –  Float  glass  –  molten  glass   is   poured   over   a   bath   of   molten   tin   Properties   Hardness  –  High.  Can  be  scratched  with   a  metallic  object.   Fragility  –  High.  Differs  depending  on   the  type  of  glass  (tempered  glass  is  not   as  brittle  as  float  glass)  

Ductility  –  very  low   Flexibility/  Plasticity    -­‐  very  high   flexibility  and  plasticity  when  molten/   low  to  very  low  when  cooled   Porosity/  Permeability  –  Non  porous/   waterproof   Density  –  Medium  –  High.  Approx.  2.7x   more  dense  than  than  water  (more   dense  than  concrete)   Conductivity  –  Transmit  heat  and  light   but  not  electricity.  Sometimes  used  as   insulators  in  electrical  system.   Durability/Life  Span  –  Typically   durable  –  chemical,  rust  and  not   resistant.   Reusability/Recyclability  –  Very  high   Sustainability  and  Carbon  Footprint  –   typically  high  embodied  energy  and   carbon  footprint  but  ease  of   recycling/reuse  makes  it  a  popular   sustainable  product.   Cost  –  generally  expensive  to  produce   and  transport.   Types  &  Manufacture   Two  main  types  of  glass  can  be   distinguished:  

• •

Flat  glass  –  (typically  sheets  of   clear  or  tinted  float,  laminated,   tempered,  wired  etc.)   Shaped  glass  –(curved,  blocks,   channels,  tubes,  fibres)   Float  glass  is  not  the  most   common  glass  production   process  in  the  world.    

Types   1. Clear  Float  glass  (annealed  glass)   The   simplest   and   cheapest   glass   producer   available   in   the   market.   No   further   treatment   beyond   the   float   fabrication.   Ideal   in   low   risk/low   cost/small   size   glazing   scenarios.   Breaks   into   very   sharp  and  dangerous  shards.   2. Laminated  Glass   A   tough   plastic   interlayer   (PVB)   is   bonded   together   between   two   glass  

panes   (as   in   a   sandwich).   This   improves   the   security   and   safety   of   the  glass  product,  as  even  though  the   glass   can   still   crack,   the   sharp   fragments   tend   to   adhere   to   the   plastic  rather  than  falling  apart.   3. Tempered  Glass  (toughened  glass)   Produce  by  heating  annealed  glass  to   approx.  650  degrees,  at  which  point  it   begins   to   soften.   The   surfaces   of   this   heated   glass   are   then   cooled   (quenched)   rapidly   creating   a   state   of   high   compression   in   the   outer   surfaces  of  the  glass.   As   a   result   the   bonding   strength   is   increased  by  a  factor  of  4-­‐5  times  that   of   annealed   glass   and   makes   it   break   (shatter)   into   small,   pellet   shaped   pieces   rather   than   sharp   shards,   improving  the  safety  of  the  product.   Ideal   to   use   in   highly   exposed   situations   (balustrades,   partitions,   facades)   or   when   the   sizes   required   are  particularly  large.     Other  Types  and  Products   Tinted   glass   –   useful  in  sun-­‐exposed   situations   o   reduce   visible   light   transfer  

Wired   glass   –   similar   concept   to   laminated   glass   0   a   steel   wire   mesh   is   used   instead   of   a   plastic   film.   Traditionally   accepted   as   a   low-­‐cost   fire  glass   Patterned  glass  –  made  with  a  rolled   glass   process   –typically   used   when   privacy  and  light  are  required.   Curved   glass   –   this   type   of   glass   is   produced   in   moulds   that   are   created   to   meet   the   specific   design   requirements  –expensive   Photovoltaic   glass   –   with  integrated   solar  cells   Glass   channels   –used   in   façade   systems   Slumped  and  formed  glass  –  used  as   design  features     Glass   fibre   –   hair  like  strands  –  used   in  telecommunications.     Double  and  Triple  Glazing   When   we   work   inside   the   building,   we   want   it   to   act   as   a   third   skin.   We   want   it   moderate   the   inside   temperature.   This   would   help   the   building  from  losing  heat  and  gaining   heat.   In   summer,   a   building   need   to   be   shaded   effectively   because   the  

double   glazing   is   not   so   useful   in   preventing   heat   transmission,   it’s   better  at  losing  ambient  heat  loss.  The   low-­‐e   double-­‐glazing   absorbs   the   radiant  emission.     Activity  


Week 8 compressed