Architecture 2018 Year 2
C O N ST RU C TIN G A LTER NAT I V ES Course Outline and Studio Guidance
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Architecture 2018 Year 2 | CONST R U CT I NG A LT ER NAT I VE S
Welcome 4 Staff Team 5 Thematic Focus 6 Cornerstone Lectures and Discussions
Reading 10 Communication and Media 12 Technology and Tectonic Investigation
Humanities 16 Studio 18
Project 1: Material Mutations
Project 2: Mediating the Social Field
Project 3: Appearances and Essences
Analytical Fields and Trips
Timetable 44 [UPDATE]
Welcome In Year 1 you were introduced to focused observation through the medium of drawing; to spatial organisation of modest-scale buildings; and to the material, tectonic and formal vocabularies of architectural design. You will have gained insight into how architecture is indebted to logics of structure, material and space, along with developing important attitudes to physical contexts within which it might be situated. You will have learned invaluable skills and developed sensitivities in graphical and verbal communication. [Check with Carol] This year, you will begin to explore how architecture is indebted not only to its own logics and those of its site, but to a multiplicity of processes far beyond itself and its locality - processes both tangible and intangible, to which it is continually indexed. This will involve buiding an understanding of how it is situated in, and continually informed by, history and theory; how it can speculate on and influence a future which we do not yet know; and in particular, how it is part of a critical discourse on our civilisation. You will learn how design and construction can instantiate ideas originating in associated areas such as philosophy, sociology, literature, art and film; how technological processes and techniques can be formative in design but also how design can act as a medium through which technology can be propelled forward into a new future. You will delve deeper into the idea of contexts, gaining understanding of the layers of interconnected physical, cultural, social and temporal issues they can consist of. You will develop an understanding of the design process as something which opens up questions about the world as well as providing answers to its problems. Through continual questioning of architectureâ€™s definition of, and engagement in ,what it means to be â€˜publicâ€™, you will be able to expose and confront paradoxes, inequalities, prejudices and other issues which affect our world. In this way you will begin to synthesise your many findings into propositions which can articulate rigorous arguments with meaningful efficacy. You will discover how design is always an iterative process and you will begin to appreciate drawing and modelling as both representative and generative pursuits. You will continue to accumulate and hone skills in drawing, model making, workshop and digital software, but now with a particular focus on 3d modelling and the use of sophisticated digital workshop tools. You will learn to confidently communicate your work graphically, verbally and textually. Lastly, peer leaning, knowledge-sharing, discussion, debate and self-reflection are as important in your education as tutor-led learning. In architecture, we are privileged to be able to consider our working environment as an essential component in our creative output. The studio is a laboratory for exploration and should always be approached as a collective experience. We hope you will continue to immerse yourselves in the studio, embrace its culture and allow yourselves to be engaged and stimulated by architectural investigation and discovery. Welcome to Year 2. We wish you a fruitful and enjoyable year.
Andy Stoane, Year 2 Leader.
Andy Stoane. Year Leader. Andy has reciprocated architectural teaching, practice and research over a thirty year career. He has held positions in many UK universities and directs his own practice and research studio in Edinburgh. He joined University of Dundee in 2017 Studio Tutor Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Studio Tutor Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi
Studio Tutor Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi
Studio Tutor Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Studio Tutor Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Jim Robertson Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Joe Thurrott Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Richie White Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi Lorens Holm Catoriam intrite rurehen inatiam silin dice egitatis non sendelu satilibus, C. Scipiorbes obunum ta essolum publicIt, oditae nis eatem. Ignihilitas sinulle ssequatur aceperi
Thematic Focus Constructing Alternatives Year 2 builds on the excellent intellectual foundation of your first year of study, but also represents an exciting transition into new pedagogical territory. Architectural design is marked by a combination of acquired tangible knowledge and the intangible ability to assemble such knowledge into a purposful synthesis of material, space and form But perhaps most challenging and perplexing of all is the necessity to do so with crirtical insight into the world within which you are operating. Such critical insight will help you to imagine , in the words of K.Michael Hays opposite, Alternatives. It is this non-conciliatory view of architecture as an alternate present - as something ‘critical’ which provides the core of Year 2’s focus. This view is celebrated through the structuring of the year around key themes which are devised to prompt you to think critically. What is the architecture you are learning to assemble actualy attempting to do? How is it situated intellectually within a broader canon of work? What do you hope to make better? What is your Alternative? This questionning around the efficacy of architecture is something we hope you will continue for the rest of your career. Three projects will operate over two semesters. Each semester will have a particular thematic focus - a focus which brings into play an instrumental piece of theoretical text for each project. You will be expected to demonstrate understanding and engagement with these texts through your projects. Semester 1
Thematic Focus: Theoretical Texts:
Multiplicity Project 1, Material Mutations: Semper, Style / Hartoonian, Crisis of the Object Project 2, Mediating the Social Field: Colomina, Privacy and Publicity.
The first semester explores the position of a singular piece of architecture, first within a landscape of repetition of iteself, before then questionning how the resulting collective might connect to the public realm within which it becomes situated. This will be done through detailed tectonic investigation, particularly in relation to the envelope. In this project the public realm will be the student campus, allowing you to analyse collective attributes from a position of familiarity. Semester 2
Thematic Focus: Theoretical Texts:
Political Economy Project 3, A Space of Public Appearance: Arendt, The Human Condition.
The second semester expands the analytical field into the city. It will build on semester 1’s understanding of architecture as a collective experience, questionning the responsibilities we have as architects to consider the far-reaching implications of our interventions into an existing public landscape. This analysis involves the understanding of architecture as part of a process of Political Economy - the city as the field of political life (the Polis) and its organisation and management as something we are inescapably involved in (Oikonomos). Political Economy can thus be understood simply as the relationship betwen the individual and society. Semseters 1&2 are tightly bound together by the study of ‘tectonics’, successful yields of both thematic investigations relying on your ability to instantiate them through your ever-increasing skills in tectonic thinking ... Constructing Alternatives. Conference. These themes resonate with the subject of an international conference, ‘Architecture and Collective Life’, due to be hosted in the Matthew Building in November 2019. We hope this year will provide you with an excellent intellectual foundation from which you can build your capacity to engage in the discourse of this important event, to enjoy its sessions and we hope to contribute to it.
Year 2 Architecture
“...THE CONSTANT IMAGINATION, SEARCH FOR, AND CONSTRUCTION OF ALTERNATIVES.” K.Michael Hays, from an interview with Perspecta 21 Editors.
Cornerstone Lectures and Discussions Taking place every Friday, these sessions are used for lectures, year meetings, discussions and debates. They are devised to demistify and clarify the thematic and theoretical foundations of the year, in doing so increasing the depth, intellectual rigour and critical engagement of your design work. Your work must demonstate an embedded understanding of the issues discussed.
Semester 1 Lecture 1: Criticality provides an overview of the semester and discusses the importance of critical thinking in architectural design. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 2: Inspiration is for Amateurs discusses architectural design methodology, particularly iterative working and drawing / modelling as a generative process. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 3:Superficiality discusses the importance of effective communication. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 4: What Does Tectonic Mean? examines the etymology of the word, its varied use and relevance within historical techno-cultural paradigms of architectural design. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 5: Media discusses the role of media in promoting architectural manifestos, the ability of architectural design to mediate societal conditions, and finally the role of architecture as a form of media itself. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 6: Appearances and Essences complements project 2 and examines the prevailing question of dialogue between structure and skin in architectural design. Drawing on Gottfried Semper’s nineteenth century writings on ‘revealing and concealing’, the ability of the tectonic articulation of the envelope to affect the public realm will be examined through case studies. [Andy Stoane] Other sessions will be announced through the semester. Semester 2 Lecture 7: Political Economy discusses how architecture is bound to the relationship between the individual and society and the built environment’s efficacy in the social ‘management’ of the city. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 8: Typical! discusses the meaning and interpretation of the words typology and morphology, and the use of typological and morphologicakl thinking in design. Specific analysis of theatre types and their morphological ramifications will be made. [Andy Stoane] Lecture 9: Precedent and Case Study [Lorens Holm] Lecture 10: Fun Palace [Ana Bonet Miro] Lecture 11: Navigating Scales illustrates a range of plans with varying scalar attributes, examining their graphical technique and the importance of editing in graphical
Year 2 Architecture
“...EVALUATES THE BUILT WORLD AND ITS RELATIONSHIPS TO THE SOCIETY IT SERVES. [IT] OFTEN HAS AN EXPRESSED POLITICAL OR ETHICAL ORIENTATION AND INTENDS TO STIMULATE CHANGE” Nesbitt, Kate, Theorising a New Agenda for Architecture : An Anthology of Architectural Theory, 1965-1995, 1996
Reading and Theory Lineage In Year 2, design is considered as a process of intellect, scholarly endeavour, continual experimentation and shared enquiry. Instinct of course plays a part, however, instincts must be developed and sharpened through rigorous research, investigation and iterative testing of ideas. To this end, reading, and the ability to assimilate knowledge acquired from it, is considered symbiotic with all other methods employed in the design process. Reading relevant texts will help you establish rigour in critical thinking, improve your research skills and will allow you to develop rich narratives for your projects which you can then test tectonically. All of this will of course also help you communicate your work with maximum effectiveness. Several key texts have been extracted from a lineage of theory selected to support the themes of the year as outlined on page 6. This lineage spans nearly one hundred and fifty years and involves the thinking and writing of both architectural and non-architectural theorists. There are no fixed threads connecting the various texts, however their interconnectivity is certainly evident and you should aim to untangle this, map it out, and situate your projects within it.
Gottfried Semper in his nineteenth treatise on style, discusses the relationship between what he considers the “core-form” and the “art-form” of a building by invoking the idea of the ‘mask’. Here, he draws on centuries of metaphor relating to the theatrical mask and its ability to conceal, reveal and change identities. Notably, sociologist Erving Goffman in his seminal book ‘The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life’ uses the mask, and theatrical metaphor generally, to illuminate the complex identities we invent and roles we play in social situations. “Choose you self-presentations carefully, for what starts out as a mask may become your face.”X For Semper, the building’s masks constitute a means of controlling dialogue between the core-form and the art-form, what he describes as “appearances” and “essences”. The building’s envelope is the mediator in this dialogue, in the way that it controls the constant and complex interplay between outside and inside and between what we experience as form and what we experience once immersed. “...the highset form of art is not that which liberates itself from the primative use of decorative masks, but rather that which perfects this use by masking even the mechanisms of masking.” X
Gevork Hartoonian, in his book ‘Crisis of the Object’, builds on Semper’s thesis, reflecting on it
from a contemporary perspective and suggesting that our current age of ‘spectacle’ has brought a “loss of homology” between material, making and form. Prioritisation of surface, Hartoonian says, has led to objectified buildings within which we don’t participate. “if ‘purpose’ is reduced merely to representing values extraneous to those emanating from construction, then the line between atectonic and tectonic is blurred and architecture is relegated to the realm of the scenographic.” X
Hannah Arendt introduces us to the realm of political theory. In her 1958?? book ‘The Human
Condition’, she considers how we have lost our ability to be public. With this in mind, we will be questionning architecture’s place in the formation of the public realm and in what it means to be public. We will be seeking new forms of publicness through propositions devised to instantiate the Arendtian term “a space of public appearance”. “To live together in the world means essentially that a world of things is between those who have it in common, as a table is located between those who sit around it.” X
Year 2 Architecture
“IT IS PROBABLY NO MERE HISTORICAL ACCIDENT THAT THE WORD PERSON, IN ITS FIRST MEANING, IS A MASK. IT IS RATHER A RECOGNITION OF THE FACT THAT EVERYONE IS ALWAYS AND EVERYWHERE, MORE OR LESS CONSCIOUSLY, PLAYING A ROLE. … IT IS IN THESE ROLES THAT WE KNOW EACH OTHER; IT IS IN THESE ROLES THAT WE KNOW OURSELVES.” Robert Ezra Park (1950) 13
Reading List Goffman, Erving (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Doubleday. * Hartoonian, Gevork. (2006). Crisis of the Object: The Architecture of Theatricality. Routledge. * Semper, Gottfried (2006). Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts: Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Publications. * Colomina, Beatriz. (1996). Privacy and Publicity: Modern Architecture as Mass Media. MIT Press. ** Arendt, Hannah (1958). The Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. Matthews, Stanley (2007). From Agit Pop to Free Space: The Architecture of Cedric Price, Blackdog Publishing. 2x housing xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx diagrams graphics data art cartographic grounds detail theatres and congress
* Key theoretical text, semester 1. ** Key theoretical text, semester 2.
Year 2 Architecture
“...IS NOT AN ISOLATED OR AUTONOMOUS MEDIUM, IT IS ACTIVELY ENGAGED BY THE SOCIAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND VISUAL CULTURE WHICH IS OUTSIDE THE DISCIPLINE AND WHICH ENCOMPASSES IT ...IT IS BASED ON A PREMISE THAT ARCHITECTURE IS INEVITABLY INVOLVED WITH QUESTIONS MORE DIFFICULT THAN THOSE OF FORM OR STYLE.” Carol Burns and Robert Taylor, Editors, from Perspecta 21, 1984
Communication and Media In her book ‘Privacy and Publicity’, Beatriz Colomina describes architecture as “a system of representation in the same way we think of drawings, photograophs, models, film or television” She tells us this is “not only because architecture is made available to us through these media, but because the built object is itself a system of representation.” Put another way, architecture is a means of representing our world (a form of media through which our civilisation’s achievements, past and present, are communicated to us), while all the time being reliant on modes of representation and media for its own creation. From this definition, the understanding of ‘architecture as representation’ has been discussed in previous pages. Now we turn our attention to architecture’s use of representational media in its own process of coming to fruition. Communication and representation of a project through various media are the only means by which your projects can be both interpreted by others and continually reflected upon by yourselves. In this way, drawings, models and other experiments are both representational and generative in the design process. Only through engagement in this process - through continual representation, self-reflection and re-representation - can a project develop. There are no shortcuts! It is therefore essential that you keep up to date with, and fluent in, software, physical modelling techniques and graphic design practice. A series of workshops and competitive events have been devised to asist you with this. Semester 1
Digital Communication Skils [Richie White] [????????????????????????????????] Making an Argument 1 / X-Factor Day [Andy Stoane and Others] A day of competitive pitches, devised to hone your skills in verbal and graphical communication. You will present a piece of work in a fixed period of time with limited visual resources and will be assessed by a panel of judges. Through a process of shortlisting and further distillation of presentations, a final winner will be selected.
Digital Communication Skills [Richie White] [????????????????????????????????] Making an Argument 2 / X-Factor Day [Andy Stoane and Others] As semester 1.
Year 2 Architecture
“OUR AGE OF ANXIETY IS, IN GREAT PART, THE RESULT OF TRYING TO DO TODAY’S JOB WITH YESTERDAY’S TOOLS...” Marshall McLuhan
Technology and Tectonic Investigation Technology teaching in Year 2 aims to deepen your understanding of the importance of tectonic investigation in architectural design, and to help you further develop your skills in detailed resolution. In semester 1 you will complete a technology module, ‘Envelope and Environment’. While separately asessed as a discreet module, its work will be fully integrated into the studio work, building on a scheme produced in the first part of the semester (by yourself or one of your studio group). The work should demonstrate an understanding of detailed technical resolution consistent with the design ambitions of the project. In semester 1 you will attend a series of sequential half day workshops devised to assist you in your understanding of materials and their associated forms, states and application techniques. In semester 2 your technology assessment is fully integrated into your design project. Lectures in semester 2 are devised to assist you in the specific technical demands of your design project and your continued understanding of how architectural technologies, processes and techniques at the scale of detail can resonate with ideas articulated at the scale of architecture, the city and beyond.
Semester 1 Material Workshops [Jim Robertson / Andy Stoane] Workshop 1: Concrete Workshop 2: Plywood Workshop 3: Glass Workshop 4: Plastic Workshop 5: Sheet metal
Semester 2 Lectures [Jim Robertson] Auditoria ?????????????? Large Spans ?????????????? Acoustics ?????????????? Heating, Ventilation and Lighting ??????????????
Other ‘cornerstone’ lectures running through both semesters (see page 8) aim to assist you in synthesising and situating your tectonic thinking within a theoretical landscape, helping you to reinforce a thorough and intellectually rigorous design argument. To this end, it is expected that such fully synthesised thinking will be generative in your design work and that it will be able to be evidenced throughout your presentations. This year, the workshop and MakeLab will form an essential part of your design process. Inductions will be provided and attendance is essential. The creative use of the workshop and the experimentation with multiple modes of media will always be encouraged.
Year 2 Architecture
“IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN AMONG ART’S MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS TO GENERATE A DEMAND FOR WHOSE FULL SATISFACTION THE TIME HAS NOT COME. THE HISTORY OF EVERY ART FORM HAS CRITICAL PERIODS IN WHICH THAT FORM STRIVES FOR EFFECTS THAT ARE ABLE TO FIND EXPRESSION WITHOUT EFFORT ONLY WHEN TECHNOLOGY HAS REACHED A NEW LEVEL – THAT IS TO SAY, IN A NEW ART FORM” Walter Benjamin The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
Humanities Us doles nonsequi aut volorro ea sus, as eos reicatecti voloreiunt occus rehende liquatios que evenihiciis a venda nemquas mod quibearibus isque vid que sinvel magnatisciet voluptas doluptinvel magnihilit, coraturem est que sunt. Volorrunt adi si ventio que del inulparum re comnis autem rem ipit audis quaepudia ditat ipsapicia natempo rectotaectem nus mi, cus elit, expernatum impore dita
Year 2 Architecture
Studio is your core activity and the centre of your academic life. The other components of the course, although discreet, are devised to support your studio projects and should be seen as symbiotic in the path toward outputs which are critical, intellectually rigorous, skillfuly orchestrated and effectively communicated. Each semester, you will be allocated a studio group which will be led by one of the studio tutors. Studio tutors will be responsible for tutorials and design advice throughout the progress of your projects. Weekly tutorials wil normally take place in the studio on Mondays. The group will operate as a team, undertaking collective and individual work but always sharing knowledge and supporting one another intellectually. Please note that the studios will be re-organised for semester 2.
Year 2 Architecture
3 Tutor xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
4 Tutor xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Studio Project 1 Material Mutations Module Material and Form Credits 20 Timetable Weeks 1 to 5 Overview Material Mutations will simultaneously build understanding of the importance of two essential components in architectural design: Investigation into material qualities, processes and techniques, and iterative design and generative modelling. It sets out a six stage methodology which requires an initial design for a single spatial cell to continually respond to reflection on its own performance logics as well as external factors introduced at each stage. Each stage will demand re-articulation of the proposition with increasing resolution and precision. The entire priocess, across all stages, should be recorded photographically and continually curated into a sequential narrative.
Year 2 Architecture
“INSPIRATION IS FOR AMATEURS - THE REST OF US JUST SHOW UP AND GET TO WORK.” Chuck Close
Stage 1 Material Each studio group will be allocated one of the following materials: 1. Glass 2. Plastic 3. Plywood 4 Concrete and resin 5. Sheet metal You should start by making tectonic experiments using a range of techniques appropriate to the material. The crucial questions will be ‘ what can the material do’? and ‘what opportunities are latent within it’? Your tutors will then work with you on selecting a technique for you to focus on. Examples would be casting, bonding, interlocking, casting, folding ... The first experiments will simply explore potentials for structure and space formation without programmatic specificity. Submission: End of week 2 [Present a minumum of 5 models with an A2 landscape panel illustrating photos of the models and clearly explaining the yield of the experiments].
Stage 2 Response to Programme Using the familiar progrmme of student accommodation and the material opportunities you have discovered from stage 1, using a combination of scalar drawing and rapid modelling techniques you will iterate through as many steps as possible to continually refine a proposition for a single generic accommodation cell. You should be considering how the inherent qulaities and techniques of the material can accommodate the formal, spatial and organisational logics necessary for the cell. Remember though, they will inevitably change as you progress. Submission: End of week 4 [Present a minimum of five models with an A2 landscape panel illustarating photos of the models and a clear explanation of what each iteration is testing. Also include a 1:50 plan and section of the final iteration].
Stage 3 Response to Multiplication Now you must turn you attention to the multiplication of the cell to form a community. The community must contain ten cells over at least two floors and must contain spaces for use by everyone. Remember, this is not simply a case of putting ten cells together. The act of multiplication will raise questions of access (horizonal and vertical), relationship between private and public spaces, privacy (visual and acoustic), natural lighting and overshadowing. You must allow the original cell to adapt in response to these new contraints. Submission: End of week 4 [Present a minimum of five models with an A2 landscape panel illustrating photos of the models and a clear explanation of the multiplication strategy, the challenges raised and how they have been handled].
Stage 4 Response to the Social Field Next, you will be allocated a site on campus. The first step in this stage is to carry out a detailed analysis of the area around this site in your groups. For this, it is suggested that you split into sub-groups and spread the following tasks: - Physical context, which will involve a detailed measured survey of all physical elements around the site and accurate digital drawings for reproduction at 1:100. - Programme, typology and morphology, which will involve recording the uses of buildings and spaces and classifying them into architectural and morphological types. - Social interactions, which will involve monitoring, grading and representing different types of social patterns and social behaviour. - Temporality, which will involve monitoring and representing how the area changes over time, both in cyclical patterns (daily, weekly, seasonly etc) and in linera patterns (continuous processes). Although working in sub-groups, the knowledge and methodologies should be fully shared and the data gathered made available to everyone. With the help of your tutor, you will then seek correlations across this analytical spectrum and discuss ways of representing them graphically. This will be taken forward to the next stage, Data Art. Submission: End of week 5 [Present four A2 landscape panels illustrating your groupâ€™s analysis].
Stage 5 Data Art This stage requires you to distil a piece of data-driven graphical art from your stage 4 work. It is important to realise that this work is not a representation of any physical qualities of your completed proposition. It is an abstracted infographic, designed to make visual the activity, sociability and temporality of your area of the campus. It might also illuminate the correlations between these phenomena and the existing architecture as well as alluding to how you may wish to mediate or alter the situation with your proposition. An example of this kind of work from an architecture student is illustrated opposite (top). Below, the ‘data visualisations’ of Herwig Scherabon, Ben Fry and Stephanie Posavec also provide useful graphical and methodological references for this task. URLs https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/ It should be noted, however, that the data being represented in their work is very different to the data that can be extrapolated from our own field of study. However, they do serve as good examples of how graphics can be used to illuminate patterns, trends and changes within complex non-visual fields. In Herwig Scherabon’s Income Inequality in Los Angeles and Chicago xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx In Atlas of Gentrification, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx In Media Lab Activity, 2001, Ben Fry depicts activity detected on a security camera as “part of a set of experiments to create complex and sophisticated information graphics very rapidly (under four hours)”. In Stephanie Posavec’s project Writing Without Words, a novel is visualised using a graphical language derived from quantifiable hand-gathered data on the structure of the novel and its sentances. The methos allows comparison in a visual medium of the writing styles of various books and authors. The subsequent project, (En)tangled Word Bank, analyses Darwin’s The Origin of the Species. “Within the diagram, chapters are divided into sub-chapters as in Darwin’s original text, and these sub-chapters are divided into paragraph ‘leaves’. The small wedge shaped ‘leaflets’ represent sentances. Each sentance is coloured according to whether the sentance will survive to the next edition (blue) or whether it will be deleted and not within the next edition (orange).” Submission: End of week 6 [Present your Infographic on one A2 landscape panel].
Herwig Scherabon , Income Inequality in Los Angeles and Chicago https://scherabon. com/ Right: Stephanie Posavec xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Stage 6 Curation and Reflection Assemble A2 panels into a 5 metre line ...
Submission: End of week X  Review XXXX
Studio Project 2 Mediating the Social Field Module Envelope and Environment Credits 20 Timetable Weeks 6 to 12
Overview Mediating the Social Field will build on stages 1 to 6 of Material Mutations. Using your own or a colleague’s proposition, you are now required to focus on detailed articulation of the building envelope and associated structure. You will demonstrate how your tectonic thinking enables mediation of spatial conditions either side of the threshold - ie the external environment and the internal environment. This is bringing into play Semper’s thesis on Appearances and Essences (see p10). To achieve this, you will first have to understand the structural principles of your building. Working with the workshop tutors and your studio tutors, you should consolidate and clarify how the building’s structual principals will operate. While this will likely involve some reconsideration, addition and subtraction from your point of departure from project 1, it is important to stress that this is NOT new, ‘applied’ thinking. It is NOT a question of ‘deciding’ on an appropriate structural solution. The solution should be latent in your project 1 work and should be brought into sharp focus through detailed investigation and further mutation of what Semper calls the ‘core-form’ - the essential structure which the layers of envelope can begin to reveal and conceal. Exercise 1 The first task is therefore to produce further iterations of your growing collection of models. However, this time the models will begin to reveal more layers of construction with a view to understanding the details of how the proposition might be constructed. The models, however, do not have to contain layers of envelope that are not structural.
Examples of large scale tectonic models:
Year 2 Architecture
“ARCHITECTURE IS NOT SIMPLY A PLATFORM THAT ACCOMMODATES THE VIEWING SUBJECT. IT IS A VIEWING MECHANISM THAT PRODUCES THE SUBJECT.” Beatriz Colomina Privacy and Publicity: Modern Architecture as Mass Media
Exercise 2 Next, you will translate your structural model into a detailed tectonic axonometric or isometric. To this you should begin to add further layers of envelope. The scale of this drawing should be selected to carefully suit the amount of information you can reasonably show relative to the size and scope of the project. However, it must be sufficiently sized to show the layers of construction. It must avoid generic, single layer or highly edited-down floor, wall, roof and envelope articulation. The final scale should be discussed and agreed with your tutor(s). The drawing should be cut-away or exploded as appropriate to show construction information. Drawings must be annotated and must clearly identify any details to be elaborated at a larger scale. Some examples are illustrated opposite.
Exercise 3 Once you have a good understanding of the overall structure of the building and its various layers, you will turn your attention to the most Semperian part of the project. For Semper, tectonic is defined as something where ‘core-form’ and ‘art-form’ are related in “a structural-symbolic rather than in a structural-technical sense”.X The organisation of the tectonic components of a building are part of a complex and continual interplay between various dialectics: public and private, outside and inside, free and institutional... Such interplay invariably stimulates and affects relationships between the individual and the collective. In this sense, architecture is a stage for Goffman’s dramaturgical performance (p10) - its thresholds are the curtains. As Semper puts it ‘Appearances and Essences’ - the ACT of Revealing and Concealing. You are particularly interested in how this act is controlled by the envelope(s). Interesting here is Gevork Hartoonian’s contemporary view of Semper’s thesis. He tells us that the “perceived spatial envelope is, literally, a fabrication: it is a falsehood”. X In other words, we can construct an ‘appearance’ of a building, but that appearance is always related to its ‘essence’. The envelope mediates the experience of both and how they inter-relate. For this stage you will therfore produce a drawing which demonstrates understanding of these ideas. It will be a perspectival section demonstrating how your tectonic thinking resonates with spatial thinking in all contiguous territories, and beyond. In other words, how does the envelope of the building ‘mediate’ the social field around it. For this stage you must draw carefully on your work from project 1, stage 4.
Exercise 4 The final exercise is the calculation and curation of a comparative diagrammatic matrix of cost ??????
Submissions??? This project will involve detailed siting of your propositions and a detailed understanding of both its external and internal territories. It will also require a detailed response to climate, orientation and cost. It must demonstrate use of analytical work from ‘Response to Social Field’ and ‘Data Art’ to inform the tectonic response. Big structural model??? Structural axonometric / isometric demonstrating an understanding of the structural principles of your project. Bow Wow esque perspectival section demonstrating how tectonic thinking resonates with spatial thinking in all contiguous territories, and beyond ... Minimum two conditions - a common space and a private space?? Cost Matrix??? [Timetable???]
Studio Project 3 A Space of Public Appearance Module Typology and Tectonics Credits 40 Timetable Weeks x to xx
Overview In semester 1 you investigated what is involved in the multiplication of a singular spatial entity - an autonomous cell for one person. You hopefully discovered that, with multiplication comes an added dimension of plurality, and that such plurality has a very direct correlation with what we are calling the social field. You then examined the nature of that correlation in detail through the tectonic consideration of the envelope - how it reveals and conceals what lies either side of it. In Semperean terms, ‘Appearances and Essences’. The question of such plurality in the public realm is something that continually preoccupied our third theorist, Hannah Arendt. In her book ‘The Human Condition’, Arendt questions the loss the the world. In this she is referring to elimination of ‘the public sphere of action and speech’ in favor of the ‘private world of introspection and the private pursuit of economic interests’.[Q] Effectively, she suggests we are losing our ability to be public. And to be public Arendt tells us, is to be political. According to Arendt, the public sphere, and consequently citizenship, are contracted to two distinct but interrelated dimensions, ‘the space of appearance’ and ‘the common world’. Both these dimensions are spatial - they involve an understanding of the city, and consequently its architecture, as a field of pluralistic action. Etymologising the word ‘political’ takes us to the Greek Polis - the city state - the city and the pluralistic action of people inseperably bound together. It is this bond which Arendt considers to be broken. For her, the loss has come about from the constant expansion of market economy and the ever increasing accumulation of capital - ‘production and consumption’ and ‘acquisition and exchange’ - the conditions of modernity which are changing our publicness, and by extension, changing our architecture. [NEEDS TIGHTENING UP] Nowhere is this more prevalent than in contemporary London - particularly in ‘The City’, where ‘production and consumption’ and ‘acquisition and exchange’ are embedded in its very fabric and accumulation of capital is at its most exponential. Project 3 will therefore locate in The City, seeking potential within a landscape of finance and architectural commodity spectacle to reclaim ‘the common world’. The yield of all your investigations and discoveries will be played out through making a detailed proposition for A Space of Public Appearance. To do this, we will focus on the the anomoly of a residential estate within The City - the renowned Golden Lane Estate. We will address public interfaces on its edge, questionning the place of different occupants in the public realm, their interactions, and the avoidance of socio-spatial seclusions.X Our ambition will be to devise truly public buildings. A Space of Public Appearance? What is such a space?; What can it be used for?; What are the public interactions that take place in and around it? Here there are fundamental questions of both ‘agency’ and ‘criticality’. Referring to the thematic cornerstones outlined on page 6, we will be examining the role of architecture and architects in defining a programme for a site, alongside the ongoing relationship between architecture and the society of which it forms part. You will be expected to put together a proposition for a which not only demonstrates your capability to resolve a modest scale building spacially, tectonically and formally, but which further demonstrates a clear attitude toward existing contexts, publicness and future social possibilities. Drawing on your work from semester 1, you will do this by conducting thorough analysis of first typology (stage 1: Typical!), then the various physical and social attributes of site area (stage 2: The Social Field), before eventually developing strategies and detailed propositions (stage 3: The Dramaturgical Social Field)
Year 2 Architecture
“WHAT MAKES MASS SOCIETY SO DIFFICULT TO BEAR IS NOT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE INVOLVED, OR AT LEAST NOT PRIMARILY, BUT THE FACT THAT THE WORLD BETWEEN THEM HAS LOST ITS POWER TO GATHER THEM TOGETHER, TO RELATE AND TO SEPARATE THEM.” Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition
Programme Louis Kahn said it is the duty of the architect to “not just take the program of the institution but [to] try to develop something which the institution itself can realize is valid”. Here you have an opportunity to embrace this - expanding your enquiry into the broader analytical consideration of what the site needs. This ambiguity does not mean a laissez-faire attitude toward space. Quite the opposite, it will involve extremely well defined and reasoned programmatic ideas which have emerged from rigorous theoretical, typological and local analysis. The only prequesite conditions are that the space must contain an auditorium, it must be public and it must serve as a clear summation of a year’s intellectual enquiry.
Type How can one understand the atypical by means of studying type? You will not find a facsimile of this bulding type. Its ambiguity means you must study type with a view toward adaptation. The first exercise is devised to make you consider how you can draw on type as a set of ideas - as a kind of rule-set of thematic and conceptual principles which can guide you in the design process and allow you to position what you are trying to achieve within a broader canon of work.
Stage 1 Typical! Several case studies are listed below, each with their own qualities of unique programmatic and tectonic thinking. In the main, the auditoria in these buildings are on a far larger scale than you will be working with. However, they have been selected to make you consider how auditoria might relate to broader theatrical landscapes, both internal and external. They also range hugely in scale. The larger scale examples should not be any more onerous than the smaller ones, the task being to simply establish a set of organisational principles which can be represented through simple diagrammatic drawings. You will work in pairs. Selgas xxxxxxxx’s Youth Factory, Cedric Price’s Fun Palace of 1961, Rex, Dallas Theatre Selgas xxx, Barbican xxxx, National Theatre, Gateshead Sage, MORE??????
Your task is twofold: 1. Analysis First, pull apart each case study project and analyse its anatomy. Ask yourself the following questions: Is the building really public? Why have the spaces (including exterior spaces) been assembled in their particular way? What is the organisational strategy in the the relationship between enclosed and open spaces and private and public spaces What social structures and rituals are played out in these spaces. What are their temporal cycles? What part does/do the building envelope(s) play in this?
Above: Architectural case study analyses. Below: Comparative matrix. Bernard Tschumi, Strategies of Disjunction. Parc de la Villette, 1984.
2. Taxonomy Then, within your studio groups, consider how you might make a comparitive classification of types a taxonomy. Each studio group will then curate their findings into an A5 bound taxonomoligical book entitled: [OR POSTER?] University of Dundee, Year 2 Architecture The Dramaturgical Public: An Analysis of Threshold in Theatrical Buildings. [Names] The book should contain a double page spread on each of the buildings, including an explanation of the analysis, followed by a double page spread illustrating a comparitive matrix. Submission: End of week X . Stage 2 The Social Field In your semester 1 projects, you will have hopefully become aware of the importance of addressing the surrounding collective realm in developing residential propositions. Now, we reverse the situation. You will be required to implant propositions for a public building into an existing, established residentail community. There must be a reciprocal understanding between a new implanted building and the territory within which it is implanted. The new implant both provides activity and stimulates its locality, but equally, it is stimulated and informed by it. You will be expected to research in detail the history, social ambition and the architecture of these residential communities; to fully understand abd map out its existing balance between public and private territories; and to begin to formulate ideas about what the community might need. Residential communities can be delicately balanced. Here, you have a unique opportunity to involve new particants in this balance. While this increase and diversity in participation can be positive and beneficial, it can also be disruptive. You are therfore asked to carefully consider how different populations will interact with the programme and with each other? What are the temporal and cyclical structures of the programme? How does the programme connect with existing public and private facilities?
Our sites are in and around two historically significant housing estates in London: Golden Lane in The City (Chamberlin, Powell and Bon, 1952-57) and the Barbican Estate by the same architects (197X-XX). Your studio group will be allocated one of two sites identified due to their potentials to engage relevant contigouos territories. Both estates are much written about and you can rely on published material as a base for most of your drawings of built context. The information must of course be brought to an appropriate scale and re-drawn. You should, however, where possible and without causing annoyance to residents or estate management, measure the area of the site within which your proposition will be centred (see opposite). Both estates are also listed and useful information can be found on the following council websites: https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/services/environment-and-planning/planning/heritage-and-design/listedbuildings/Pages/Golden-Lane-Listed-Building-Management-Guidelines.aspx https://www.westminster.gov.uk/conservation-area-audits [ADD TEXT ON SITE, SOCIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS]
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Propositional Fields Within the finance towers and commodity spectacle of The City, there are a few notable anomolies. We are working across two of those - two adjacent residential estates, each unique in its own way and each somewhat self-contained. They can of course be considered as separate entities. However, more interesting is the consideration of them together - and particularly when not only their contiguous boundaries are disolved, but their connections with the rest of the surrounding city are considered. In this way, we can begin to consider the area as what might be considered a social condenser. You should investigate the meaning of the term social condenser. As a start, it is described by Michał Murawski & Jane Rendell as follows: “The idea of the social condenser proposed deploying architecture as a way to forge radical new kinds of human collectivities: collectivities of co-habitation, of co-production, of intellectual work; as well as collectivities of affect, beauty, empathy and passion. Suffused with vivid connotations pertaining to electricity, radiation and magnetism, the social condenser is a concept with an extraordinary, totalising reach. In its very formulation, it encompasses society’s economic and material infrastructure, the humdrum minutiae of everyday life as well as the unruly domains of the transcendental and fantastical. Crucially, it also encompasses the entire domain of architectural endeavour: from dwelling and work to public space and everything in between.” Michał Murawski & Jane Rendell (2017) The social condenser: a century of revolution through architecture, 1917–2017, The Journal of Architecture, 22:3, 369-371, DOI: 10.1080/13602365.2017.1326680 Within the multiplicity of programmes within our social field, we have identified two specific areas as propositional fields for operation.These sites are nuanced according to their contigious activities: Site 1: Theatre and Concert. Site 2: Fashion and Education. The amost likely building plots are given, but ypou shpould feel free to discuss with your tutors transgressing these boundaries to accord with the specific interests you develop after careful analysis. The sites should be considered as an oppostunity to exploit the area’s socially condensive capacity, drawing on the adjacent programmes and considering infrastructural and programmatic connectivities through and around the sites. In this way they can act as key linchpins in bringing the area together socially. You should analyse the physical and social connectivity of the site and how your interventions might engage this. Working with others on this is encouraged. [EXPAND]
FASHION / EDUCATION SITE THEATRE SITE
Stage 3 The Dramaturgical Social Field [EXPLANATION OF DRAMATURGY] [RESPONSE TO THEORY - ARENDT + GOFFMAN, HARTOONIAN ETC DRAMATURGY?] ESSENTIAL PROGRAMMATIC BRIEF OTHER PROGRAMMATIC IDEAS YOU MAY WANT TO CONSIDER
Opposite: Three theatrical projects by Selgas Cano Auditorium in Cartagena, Merida Factory Youth Movement Plasencia Auditorium and Congress Centre
Analytical Fields and Trips Throughout the year you will study three cities, Dundee, Edinburgh and London. You will be invited to visit Edinburgh and London on field trips.Connected by a coastline, important road and rail infrastructures and a shared relationship with water, these cities cross the scalar spectrum of urban environments. It is expected that you will immerse yourselves in these environments, what they share and how they differ. What are the different qualities of urban life brought about by their different scales, densities, morphologies and typologies. You will be asked to make a presentation of this comparitive study.
Dundee [stats], your home city, will be the site for Studio Project 1. The university campus will be your analytical field for a study into environmental, spatial and interpersonal qulaities and temporalities It will play host to your proposition for a student accommodation building.
Edinburgh [stats] xxxxxxxx Humanities In the first week of semester 1, as part of the humanities module you will visit Edinburgh. You will study and carry out a measured survey of one of the cityâ€™s great urban spaces - the Grassmarket. You will hopefully not only develop skills in measured survey work and drawing, but will critically examine its urban qualities and will draw on the experience as you consider the relationship between architecture and the social field in your design project work.
London [stats] xxxxxxxxxx Semester 2. Estates. Barbican Lakeside meeting point. Barbican tour. South Bank Complex tour
Year 2 Architecture
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THINK AND THINK SOME MORE. FROM TIME TO TIME, HUMANS ARE ENDOWED WITH THE CAPABILITY TO DISCOVER JUST A LITTLE MORE REGARDING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THEIR ROLE IN THE COSMIC SCENARIO. YOU TOO MIGHT CATCH ONE OF THESE COSMIC FISH. R. Buckminster Fuller 57
Fore, prae condacionsid me intus et norum patussid castrit. C. Gra quemquo probse mo et vis et facerionsum ad alabemquam, que omnitatiam cri pos lintemod conoveris, nonsuastam horsus ne consulium intre consiliemum acem, stilici pere noverortuame audam incerit, vera re notebem adhuctea Si inumenit, Ti. Rissum intil virmissi pubit inatod imactu ius crei sedeo, niriorus sciistem P. Benihinterum patuus; nos bonsuliam in dem aperoptea et plisque telus, quem