Page 1

M.S.A UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

GRADUATION PROJECT REPORT MUSEUM

SUPERVIED BY:

Dr.OMAR FAWZY Dr.SAMEH AL-FEKI Dr.BEDOUR AHMAD

PRESENTED BY: ANDREW SHAHIR MAHMOUD TAREK MIRHAN SARHAN MOHAMED AHMED NADA MATAR NADA RIZK NAIERA YEHIA YOMNA AHMED BAHGAT

091411 091599 092717 091815 090133 091763 094831 090297


Introduction History Theories Sustainability

Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 2


Literature Review ‘The struggle (for museums) has to do with the hegemony over the interpretation of one’s own experience, and how to give institutional form for that hegemony. If I saw any mission as the appropriate mission of newer missions, evolving museums, museums associated with specific heritage within the American story, I would say its finding the courage “to be”. And that “to be” is open-ended, because the “to be” is an evolving understanding of self and culture and its dynamic relationship. That’s our real work. Other institutions can respond to us in a more concrete way, whether willingly or not, when we are more clearly ourselves.’- Barry Gaither, director of the museum of the national center of African American artists, in a discussion in museum news.

This brief statement gives us a glimpse of the vast world of the museum territory, its evolution, consideration; how it is thought of and constructed. With the numerous valuable objects that were hand crafted and constructed throughout the start of history, there were people bound to be incised to have them as their own private collection, as those collections were what tells the history of mankind. Whether it was golden bracelets or rare paintings, those people paid enormous sums of money to enjoy the exquisite art work all through the Greek and roman times up till now. When the storages were no longer big enough to withhold the goods in the 17th centuries rich men storage areas, these items were donated in their name to be displayed in an entity that was to be referred as the museum. This paper will explore the different stages and eras that the museums underwent, the process of thinking and the reasons behind certain stages; how the museum changed from being a mere area to

display the artifacts in glass containers in a massive building much like a storage building into a series of consecutive spaces that is intended to convey to the visitor a certain experience to best view the displayed object and gain the knowledge of its history in the most original way possible.

3


Mission statement of the project Museums became one of the sought after buildings in most of the major cities to exist in them. The reasons behind it varies from the need to document the past in an interesting and educational way, for example like the natural history museum in Britain, or wanting to represent a cultural revolution, industrial or otherwise, or simply wanting to have a place where kids are to learn things and interact with their surrounding as well as having a good time, like the science museum that exists in the UK. Museums came along way from being simply a mere temple for the dead, much like a mausoleum where you peer into glass cases filled with artifacts from ancient times and distant places, but rather now the museums has a new purpose; to experience life and learn from them. Museums are not the same as exhibitions, which are temporary settings of public display, museums are a permanent, non profit organization which is built for the public entertainment and the service development of the community. Museums are institutions that help enlighten those who visit it for purposes of researches, study, education or mere entertainment of the whole experience. What should a mission statement reflect •The role of the museum institution should be well defined and should be seen in the strategies set by the institutions leaders. •Considerations to the site of the museum so that it will not reflect negatively to its environment. •The relevance of the museum to the society it is implemented in. Museums objectives should inspire and convey passion and communicate the essence of why the museum exists, it is determined through the following points: Mission •Highlight the means to implement a difference in society. •Who are the targeted people and how to attract them. •Planning ahead for future extensions or future use and future generation. Vision •Including the impacts of the future without decreasing the effect of the mission of the museum. •Making the museum the means where the society benefiting from it terms of education, entertainment and research purposes.

Things to consider when writing a museum statement to a museum project: Public and societies needs. In what way will the museum be an asset to the community it is built in. The displayed items are a benefit to the society in terms of how the museum reflects on the society from a touristic point of view. The applications presented in the museum provides services new to the society.

4


Introduction

History Theories Sustainability

Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 5


Museum definition Museums are a way of interpreting a society culture and history

Museum concept The concept of museums has been around since the Ancient Egyptian era, but through out these past few centuries the concept has developed into the modern museums out the need to preserve valuable historical items. Attempts to establish a museum since the ancient Egyptian era till the seventeenth century

How the museum institutions started? From cave paintings to internet

Geoffrey Lewis Lewis’ text is slightly adapted. The pictures are added. The museum institutions came to being as a result of people’s natural desire to preserve and to collect all that is valuable and/or considered rare goods. Whether it was collected for their own private amusement or for the soul purpose of having those goods taken care of for future generations, they were collected and stored at homes by those who can afforded them. When the collections became more than the rich peoples stores could occupy, they started donating them to the government, which they built for it a building accessible for the public to admire the historical collections through the 17 century.

Museums history timeline 1-Ancient Egyptian 2-: 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE 3-Greco-Roman civilization (In the middle age) 600 BCE 4-300 BCE 5-500 CE

6-Circa 560 7-Renaissance Italy 1400 8-Circa 1510 – 1539 9-1683The Ashmolean 10- 18th century 11-first half of 19th century: 12- 1850-1950 13- 1950 to the present

6


Museums history timeline Ancient Egyptian

Before Christ First: The ancient Egyptian era For the sake of keeping, preserving and displaying gift It was during that era the first building was built for the sole purpose of preserving and displaying gifts bestowed to Egyptian royalties by others from different countries. It was more of a storage area than an actual building. It was constructed for the kings and queens private amusement, not open for public display. This was apparent in the regions of : •Tal-ElAmarna during the 1600 BC by Amenhotob the 4th. •Thebes during the 1300 BC by Ramses II. •Alexandria during the 290 BC by Soter I the Ptolemy king. •D

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE Alexandrian museum

Second: 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The Abu Salbikh Tablet Lost in the Iraq War (Circa 2,500 BCE)

Renaissance Italy 1400

Intended to teach proper piety, Second: 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE inculcate virtue and preserve community standing.

1510 – 1539

Much like what museums nowadays are trying to establish with sending a message and educate their visitors, that concept existed all the way since the 8000-1000 BC time era. That concept of teaching through items or pieces of literature was apparent in the Abu Salabikh Tablet found at Abu Salabikh, near the site of ancient Nippur in Central Babylonia . That text is one of the earliest surviving literary works. This was the common method of literature used in the Ancient Near East to teach proper piety, preserve community standing and inculcate virtue .

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 7

Abu Salbikh Tablet

1950 present


Third: (In the middle age) 600 BCE Ancient Egyptian

Collection institution With the prosperity of the buildings of temples during that era and their worshiping of their Gods, the temples acted as a place for offering as a means of prayer. With the display of goods at the foots of the Gods, it was the first application of a museum in means of it being open to the public and open to the displaying of good for people to admire and show the prosperity of the lands.

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE

The abbey of st. Mau rice in Valais, Switzerland.

300 BCE

500 CE

The Abbey of Monza, Italy

Fourth : 300 BCE The Royal Library of Alexandria: The Largest Collection of Recorded Information in the Ancient World (Circa 300 BCE) The largest collection papyrus rolls of recorded information in the ancient Second: world 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE Based at the time when Alexandria was considered the beacon of all intellectual scholars. Alexandria library , containing the largest collection of recorded information in the ancient world, it was open for all those seeking knowledge. It was another form of a museum, in term of it also being open to the public and displayed its contained knowledge, presented on papyrus rolls. This is an example of a replica of an educational museum nowadays applied in ancient times. Traditionally the Alexandrian Library is thought to have been based upon the library of Aristotle. By tradition it is also believed, without concrete evidence, that the much of the collection of rolls was acquired by order of Ptolemy III, who supposedly required all visitors to Alexandria to surrender rolls in their possession. These writings were then copied by official scribes, the originals were put into the Library, and the copies were delivered to the previous owners.

The middle age

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

Students and scholars in the imagined library.

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950

"Scholars Using the Great Library of Alexandria, unknown artist,

8

1950 present


Ancient Egyptian

After Christ fifth: 500 CE The Earliest Manuscript of the New Testament in Christian Palestinian Aramaic (Circa 550) the closest surviving witness to the words of Jesus Christ The documentation of important information or messages to be present for future generations continued after the birth of Jesus Christ. It was used to convey the message of God in the documentation of the New Page from te Testament the Codex. As it was Codex intended to be a message to all mankind, the old document was displayed to all the masses of public to be exposed to its message, positioned in a place for all to see. This shows that when people want something to be exposed to a The Good Mithric number of people, they exhibit the Claimed as Christ as Sol Sheppard mid 3rd items much like they way we Invictus Century exhibit things in museums today.

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

Sixth: The Scriptorium and Library at the Vivarium (Circa 560) to bring Greek learning to Latin readers

1510 – 1539

Wanting to expose the Greek culture to the Latin community, Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, A Roman Senator, retired and formed a school and monastery at his estate at Squillace in the far south of Italy, where he collected and copied the Greek documents into the Latin language and positioned them so that the documents could be accessible to all those who seek knowledge. The monastery was acting as a library and a museum at its time.

1683 (The Ashmolean)

Library at the Vivarium

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 An image from Codex Amiantinus

9

1950 present


Ancient Egyptian

seventh: Renaissance Italy 1400 Royal collections

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE

From 1400 to 1700 AC, Royal families and nobility showed great interest in collections. This period was famous for its art work and collections of antiques for the private amusement of the nobilities and royals, much like the Ancient Egyptian era, but rather than being stocked in storages, it was displayed all around their houses and only displayed to their counterparts in station. This was apparent all through the 1400 till the 1700 A.C. That sudden interest in collecting valuable items were revived due to the following factors: •Rediscovery of Greek and Roman civilization. •The fragmentation of Christianity. •The secularization of education. •The new approaches to new discovers in science and art. •The general emergence of aristocratic. People who contributed in the collection of those item which are now exhibited in museums are: • Charles I, who reigned from 1625 to 1649, assembled one of the greatest collections of paintings ever seen in Europe. •Fernando Colón; 15 August? 1488 1539) the second son of Christopher Columbus, returned from the New World, and collected one of the largest private libraries of the sixteenth century.

The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

The Royal Collection

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

English Renaissance by Royal Doulton

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

Classical collecting Later on many of these palaces were turned into museums Here are some examples of museums of this period: Cesarini museum, in Italy Farnese museum, in Italy

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 10

1950 present


Ancient Egyptian

Renaissance Italy 1400 Charles I, who reigned from 1625 to 1649, assembled one of the greatest collections of paintings ever seen in Europe. He brought Italian artists to England, he was presented with paintings as gifts, and he bought extensively, most notably the best of the magnificent Gonzaga collection of Mantua. His collection was sold after his execution, but his son Charles II (reigned 1660-85) reclaimed many paintings and also made new purchases. Charles II also collected Italian Renaissance drawings, a taste followed a century later by George III (reigned 1760-1820), who assembled a fine collection of Baroque drawings for his library.

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

Portrait of a lady with a lapdog Lorenzo Costa) Probably acquired by Charles II

The first great collections

500 CE

560 CE

eighth: Collecting Books and Prints in the Early Sixteenth Century (Circa 1510 – 1539) Ferdinand Columbus, (Italian: Fernando Colombo, Spanish: Fernando Colón; 15 August? 1488 - 1539) the second son of Christopher Columbus, returned from the New World, and collected one of the largest private libraries of the sixteenth century. This library, La Bibliotheca Colombina, included about 15,000 volumes, of which about 7000 survive today, including 1194 books printed before 1501. Ferdinand Columbus's library, which also includes a number of volumes from the personal library of Christopher Columbus, is preserved in the Cathedral of the City of Seville in Andalucia. Among the volumes in La Bibliotheca Colombina is the manuscript catalogue of Ferdinand's print collection. According to Mark McDonald, editor of this manuscript catalogue listing 3200 sheets (including 390 prints by Albrecht Dürer), no print collection from the fifteenth or sixteenth century Printmaking and Print Collecting has survived, and the manuscript catalogue of in the Renaissance Columbus' print collection is the only record of such a print collection that has survived. The catalogue is notable for its organizational scheme. McDonald (editor) The Print Collection of Ferndinand Columbus 1488-1539: A Renaissance Collector in Seville (2004).

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 11

1950 present


Toward the modern museum From private collection to public exhibition During the17th century, the private collectors started to show an interest in the study and advancement of knowledge and history. Seeing that by showing their private collection could help in those fields, they started to donate those items to the appropriate institutions, instead of just passing them by from generation to generation in their families.

Eighth : The first public museums 1683 (The Ashmolean) As previously mentioned in the point above, some of the private collectors were more keen on passing on the knowledge of the antiques and their history rather than passing them on as simple decorative items. On that notion, the first ever building built to fulfill this idea was the Ashmolean Museum, containing the collections of Elias Ashmole which he gifted to the University of Oxford. The Ashmolean Museum was constructed by the Oxford University, since it’s the place for those seeking knowledge at the time and accessible to the public, making it the ultimate location for Elias’s goal.

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) and the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

first half of 19th century

The first building in Europe constructed specifically as a public museum. Style: Victorian Ionic facade, Classical revival Construction System : Masonry, cut stone Notes : The Ashmolean presented a windowless Greek wall to Beaumont Street. Relief came only from pilasters

18th century

Ashmolean Museum : By Rick Mather Architects

1850-1950 12

1950 present


Tenth: Museums during the 18th century The 18th century saw the flowering of the Enlightenment and the encyclopedic spirit, as well as a growing taste for the exotic. These influences, encouraged by increasing world exploration, by trade centered on northwestern Europe, and by developing industrialization, are evident in the opening of two of Europe's outstanding museums, the British Museum, in London, in 1759 and the Louvre, in Paris, in 1793.

British museum With the industrial booming and flourishing of assets in Europe, the construction and opening of two important museums – the British museum in London (1759) and the Louver in Paris (1793)- was a conformation of that fact. Built by the aid of governmental funding, as the government accepted its responsibility to preserve and maintain the collections handed to them by the private collectors who wished to share their historical items with the public for the sake of education and general knowledge as well as the simple act of admiring the objects on display. The British museum was hosting three main collections at the time; the collections collected by Sir Robert Cotton, Robert Harley-1st earl of Oxfordand Sir Hans Sloane. The Cotton and Harley collections were composed mainly of manuscripts, while the Sloane collection, included his specimens of natural history from Jamaica and classical, ethnographic, numismatic, and art material.

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century Style: Victorian Ionic facade, Classical revival Construction System : masonry, cut stone Notes : Includes one of the world's great library rooms. Glazed roof over restored courtyard by Norman Foster.

1850-1950 13

1950 present


Museums during the 18th century

Ancient Egyptian

Museums in Rome •The extensive collections of the Vatican also saw considerable reorganization during the 18th century. With the Capitoline Museum opening to the public in 1734, and the Palazzo dei Conservatori converted to a picture gallery in 1749. •The Pio-Clementino Museum, now part of the museum complex in Vatican City, opened in 1772 to house an extensive collection of antiquities. The Neoclassical architecture of this building set a standard that was emulated in a number of European countries for half a century. that was emulated in a number of European countries for half a century.

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

The spread of the European model •Before the end of the 18th century the phenomenon of museum institutions had spread to other parts of the world. • In the United States ,during the year of 1773, the Charleston Library Society of South Carolina announced its intention of forming a museum. Its purpose was to promote the better understanding of agriculture and herbal medicine in the area. •Another early institution, the Peale Museum, was opened in 1786 in Philadelphia by the painter Charles Wilson Peale. The collections rapidly outgrew the space available in his home and were displayed for a time at Independence Hall. These were the first museums built especially for the function of exhibition. This progress in the growth of museums was caused by many factors: The broadening of public education and the rise of research. Things from abroad and from the past began to be appreciated. The birth of the first tourism form. The arousing of the enlightenment and encyclopedic spirit. This period witnesses a great step forward towards museums in their modern concept especially in Britain but with many restrictions on public access. Eleventh: Museums during the first half of 19th century : •After the great French revolution, rights were given to public citizens, making all neighboring countries to do the same all over Europe. •The private collections owned by the aristocratic classes were transported to museums and many of their palaces were turned into museums, making them accessible to the public. •Some of the famous museums of this period are: 1. Alters museum, Berlin 2. Sculpture museum, by Leo Van •During this time the Louvre palace was opened to public as a museum of the past royal family’s history and way of life. Sculpture museum, by Leo Van

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 14

1950 present


Museums during the first half of 19th century : Among the famous museums of this period are:

The Altes Museum, Berlin •The Altes Museum, Berlin: built between 1823 and 1830 and designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, was one of the most important works of Neoclassical architecture. •With its clearly ordered exterior and an interior structure designed with exacting precision in the ancient Greek style. •Schinkel pursued Humboldt's idea of opening the museum as an educational institution for the public. •The monumental order of the 18 fluted Ionic columns and the wide stretch of the atrium reference to the Pantheon in Rome as well as the grand staircase The building was severely damaged by fire in the last two years of the war. Reconstruction work lasted until 1966. Style: Neoclassical. Construction System : bearing masonry Notes : Classical colonnaded facade. A major landmark in the development of museum typologies. "The facade unity achieved in the Schinkel museum derives from the expression of the vertical elements as a freestanding colonnade set into a tight frame provided by end walls, base, and roof. Termination of the facade by walls instead of columns and the use of the classical device of narrowing the end spacing allow the colonnade to be perceived as an entity, like seeing the forest before the trees. Moreover, a row of columns set in front of a wall always constitutes a figureground relationship. While the columns play the more readily apparent part of figures, the spaces between them can be equally effective figures."

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 15

1950 present


Twelve: Museums between 1850-1950: Some famous museum of this period: 1-Museum of un limited growth, le corbusier: Focusing on the functional aspects in the design; he based his concept upon creating a strong functional relation between the Le Corbusier, Museum for Unlimited entrance hall, the circulation corridors and Growth (Philippeville, North Africa: 1939). showrooms.

2-Geggenheim museum, frank Lloyd wright, 1943: He developed Le Corbuier`s concept and applied it to the third dimension. He placed an atrium in the center of the vertical spiral continuous exhibition hall. Elevators were placed in the atrium to acts as a link between the floors, visual and functional (circulation) link.

• • • • • •

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, Frank Lloyd Wright 1943-1959

This period witnessed a great progress in the concept of museum design; in terms of construction techniques, researches and economic bloom due to: The continuous development of industry in European and U.S.A. The new discoveries taking place in science and technology. The rise of a new generation of pioneer architects (Llyod Wright- Le Corbosier) who introduced new architecture concepts. The great care given by the governments to nurture education and cultural facilities during that period. Extension of European and American colonization, economic and political to the whole world. Technology and analytical researches helped in the improvement of museums bit by bit, for it was the reason for introducing into the museums: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ancient Egyptian

New systems of artificial lighting. New systems of exhibiting. New vertical circulation. New building technologies affecting the structure and shape of buildings. New finishing materials. Due to the stressing on the importance of educational facilities, museums began to include the following items so that it could be both a cultural as well as an educational attraction: Library Lecture halls Temporary exhibitions restaurants Cafes Shops Educational labs

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 16

1950 present


Ancient Egyptian

Museums between 1850-1950: Famous buildings from that period:Guggenheim Museum

8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE

"...[Wright's] great swansong, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of New York, is a gift of pure architecture or rather of sculpture. It is a continuous spatial helix, a circular ramp that expands as it coils vertiginously around an unobstructed well of space capped by a flat-ribbed glass dome. A seamless construct, the building evoked for Wright 'the quiet unbroken wave.'...“ The Creator's Words "Entering into the spirit of this interior, you will discover the best possible atmosphere in which to show fine paintings or listen to music. It is this atmosphere that seems to me most lacking in our art galleries, museums, music halls and theaters. Style: Modern. Construction System : concrete. Notes : Unique spiral ramping gallery, sculptural massing. Faces across the street to Central Park. Parent institution of the Guggenheim Bilbao by Frank Gehry."

The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, Frank Lloyd Wright

The concept of the central atrium was later on used by many architects in their museums such as: atlanta museum, Richard Mayer. •In the 18th century, museums were built with respect to European prototypes. •In the 1850’s-1950’s period, there was no architectural prototype governed museum designs but architects began to use all the modern technologies available to shape new and interesting museum shapes and forms. •Architects of this period took notice of the functionality of the building, as well as to its form and technologies rather than its ornaments and decorations; causing them to disappear in the early 20th century. •This era was terminated by world war II (1939-1945) which caused great destruction to many European cities, including their museums and art treasures that were hidden or destroyed in the ruins.

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 17

1950 present


Thirteenth: Modern museums from 1950-present: 1. This period started by replacing the ruins and destruction caused by world war II all over the world, especially Europe. 2. Most of the museums in Europe had to be reconstructed or restored. 3. Efforts had to be done in order to reconstitute collections that had disappeared. 4. This period witnesses a great development in tourism in the Mediterranean countries; as a result governments took great care in making museums an institution to help attract tourists. 5. Many international and national organizations were founded for sponsoring and managing museums such as:  The international council of museums (ICOM)  The international institution for conservation (IIC)  The international center for the studying the preservation and restoration of cultural property in Rome. Those organizations used to regulate the co-operation of institutions and professionals, diffuse information and assist in exchanges and contacts. National organizations were also established in many countries playing similar roles.

Famous museums of that period:

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

1- Kimbell art museum-Louis I. Khan, 1972. Renaissance Italy 1400

Style: Modern. Construction System : reinforced concrete Notes : vaulted ceilings with integrated day lighting.

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

18th century

first half of 19th century ìwelded tubular steel construction hollow spaces on the ceiling for electrical lights

Exterior of the museum showing a new generation approach

1850-1950 18

STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: August E. Komendant

1950 present


Modern museums from 1950 - the present: This period witnessed a dramatic change in the external and internal features of museums. The role of museums changed from merely displaying precious objects or antiques and transformed into the following roles: • Delivering a cultural message, easily comprehended by the visitors to the museum. • Being a pleasant place of entertainment, where one can spend time joyfully. • Some evolved into research centers, as they recognized their new educational role. With that, attracting school trips to expose children to new means of receiving information.

2- Guggenheim museum, Bilbao, Frank Gerhy, 1997 The new Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry was probably the most often mentioned new building of 1998 and 1999 in architecture circles. The composition continues a curvaceous, free-form sculptural style that has become a Gehry signature. The abstract, free-form components of this style were present in the early Gehry House, and a similarly sleek curvaceous cladding was displayed in the some famous museums of that period: sculptural fish of the Fishdance Restaurant.

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

Style: Expressionist Modern Construction System : steel frame, titanium sheathing Notes : A free sculpture of curvaceous metal-clad forms.

1683 (The Ashmolean) Final Plans: site (top left), basement (centre left), ground floor (bottom left), first floor (top right), second floor (centre right), third floor (bottom right). Source: Frank Gehry 1991-1995, 1995.

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 Exterior of the museum showing a post modern architectural style

Final Sections: partial cross section through Form ,cross section through Temporary Exhibition Wing (right).

19

1950 present


Museums history timeline With the new approaches taken during that period, several elements were added to the elements already added in the 1850’s-1950’s period which includes:  cultural spaces: 1-Library. 2-temporary exhibition halls. 3-visible stores. Educational spaces: 1-lecture halls. lecture halls. 2-video halls. Entertainment spaces: 1-restaurant. 2-cafeteria. 3-shops. Preservation and restoration spaces: 1-Labs. 2-restoration workshops. Labs These space have become a standard functional requirement for most museums allover the world. This was a brief review of museums history through the ages tracing their progress until becoming one of the most important typological buildings allover the world in the present.

Ancient Egyptian 8,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE The middle age

300 BCE

500 CE

560 CE

Conclusion: The prototype of most museums built in the earliest centuries consisted of linear plan formations, presenting the displayed objects much like them being stored in a storage area. This is shown in the following diagrams.

Renaissance Italy 1400

1510 – 1539

1683 (The Ashmolean)

During the 19thand 20t century to our present day, the museums began to expand from the confinements of the previously set prototypes installed in the previous centuries. They experienced freedom in types of circulation as well as the masses organization as shown in the following example of Frank Gery’s museum.

18th century

first half of 19th century

1850-1950 20

1950 present


Introduction History

Theories Sustainability Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 21


Museum theories: Theory (1) : How the layout of space interacts with the layout of objects to release a specific effect and send a specific message (Kali Tzortzi ) This is shown in the application in the Jewish museum in the scarred elevation and the broken mass of the building to replicate the architectural interpretation of the suffering of Jewish people during the Nazi rule. Jewish museum- Daniel libsken

Theory (2) : ‘Special variability of display strategies’ For example : by being presented by learning in interactive science museums and technology centers, it was theorized that for effective learning and understanding visitors needed to participate in three areas of intellectual activity tackled in the following: •Hands-on (engaging physically) – interactive science and technology •Hand-waving (commonsense explanations) – galleries providing quiet rooms with scientific books and computers •Handle-turning (computation or research investigations)

Theory (3) : Education that is executed through the museum, people are being educated into learning a new fact s or a culture in a new way that will make them want to get into the museum further and learn more.

22


Theory (4) : ‘The nature of that initial contact has much to do with the public’s perception of the organization’(book designing places for people by C.M. Deasy, FAIA) This theory explains the importance of the elevation and how people relate to what is inside that building. This theory also explores further on how the initial contact with the elevation is apparent within the interior space in terms of organizing the spatial content or not. E.g. The Egyptian museum’s elevation attracts people but its spatial interior makes them lose interest.

Theory (5) : The play of natural and artificial light and form affects the feel of the place. Design of the Broad museum building

Theory (6) : Feher’s learning theory for interactive exhibits explores how visitors interacted in the museum and what they learned from the engagement; playing and exploring the exhibits and how interactive exhibits can be used to research visitors learning and enjoyments has been investigated and theorized by several researchers that covers four levels: •Experiencing •Exploring •Explaining •Expanding For example, the Science Museum in London is a very interesting and must visit museums in London. As visitors interact with the exhibits

Theory (7) : How to use the field of sustainability to the advantage of the museum, by making the building energy efficient. (i.e. before the 20th century, technology was not as enchansed as it

23


Introduction History

Theories Sustainability Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 24


General definition of sustainability From the verb to sustain meaning: to hold up; to bear; to support; to provide for; to maintain; to sanction; to keep going; to keep up; to prolong; to support the life of. (Chambers Concise Dictionary)

Definition of Sustainability in architecture The objective of sustainable architecture is to minimize negative emissions produced by buildings into the environment. This is achieved through the enhancement of efficiency and moderation in the usages of materials, energy, and development space.

General considerations How to differentiate between sustainable and renewable energy sources

Renewable energy Referred to the energy harvested from the environment and doesn’t pollute it during the energy’s consumption . (E.g. solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, tidal power, geothermal power and wave power)

The Sustainable energy Refers to the principle of conserving energy to be used for longer periods of time and to be able to sustain future generations. However renewable energy merely focused on the abundance and existence of energy. All Renewable energy sources are Sustainable energy sources BUT, all Sustainable energy sources cannot be termed as Renewable energy.

How is sustainability applied to the museum’s construction Museums area buildings and in order for buildings to function sustainably, there are several considerations that needs to be tackled, they are explained in the following page.

Site Analysis Considerations: It is better to create maps of the site’s important natural features, such as water courses, soils, vegetation and topography, then lay them to determine areas that are most sensitive and areas where development can reasonably occur. Due to the global warming, architects are trying to minimize the energy loses as well as minimizing their reliance on artificial lighting and ventilation types.

25


Water efficiency sustainable strategies •Potable water reduction •Low flow/ flush fixtures •Grey water reuse •Rainwater harvesting •On-site waste water treatment •Irrigation eliminated •Storm water retention

Materials + Resources sustainable strategies: •

Occupant recycling program

Material reuse

Local materials

Rapidly renewable materials(e.g. bamboo)

Sustainable sites strategies: •High albedeo roofing •Green roof •Native landscaping •Landscape preservation

Indoor air quality sustainable strategies: •Low emitting materials •Sensor controls •Natural daylight •Modular / flexible space systems •Operable windows.

Energy efficiency sustainable strategies: •Building orientation reflected in fabric •Natural ventilation •PV power •Solar hot water •Solar shading •Heat recovery •Fritted glazing •Under floor air system •CO2 emissions reduction •Energy efficient lighting

26


How to apply sustainability concepts in museums Sustainability is more than just the environmental aspects that is measured by organizations such as the LEED organizations and others that measure the amount of energy used and emitted by the buildings. As well as the degree of efficiency that the building is paying to the preservation of the surrounding environment, as mentioned in the previous points. When applying the sustainability to the museum institutions, the column of sustainability issues will be added to another two points besides the environmental aspects, they are the economic sustainability and social sustainability. Sustainability is connected to education, as referred to earlier in the theories, economy, business, travel, leisure and our communities.

To flourish sustainability in museums: 1) Value and protect natural and cultural environments and are sensitive to the impact of the museum and its visitors on them. 2 )Building a base of visitors and audiences and build a deep long-term relationships with them. 3)Acknowledge the legacy contributed by previous generations and pass on a better legacy of collections, information and knowledge to the next generation. 4) Make the best use of energy and other natural resources and minimize waste, setting targets and monitoring progress towards them. 5 )Consider the potential for demonstrating and encouraging sustainable development. 6 )Contribute responsibly to the social, cultural and economic vitality of the local area and wider world. 7 )Develop staff, offer satisfying and rewarding employment and learn from their experience and that of others. 8 )Respond to changing political, social, environmental and economic contexts and have a clear longterm purpose that reflects society’s expectations of museums. 9 )Plan long-term, take full account of sustainable development in all their activities and policies and work within available resources. 10) Join with other museums, and other organizations, in partnerships and mergers, where it is the best way of meeting their purpose in the long term.

Types of sustainability:

27


Economic sustainability : taking the long view In order for the museum to be sustainable financially sustainable, it has to have variable means to supply their source of income and not relay on only a single source. This is achieved through public and charitable funding which are mostly nongovernmental sources and institutions. Museums will have to do less but do it better, by saving on materials, energy and increasing durability of things in order to expand their life span usage and decrease the harmful emissions of things into the environment and withstand more than the only now present generation. Reducing energy use is not only good for the environment; it saves money that can be used for other things.

Environmental sustainability: going green The way to address climate change is to reduce energy consumption. This is achieved by managing to maintain the conditions for collection preservation without excessive dependence on the use of energy as well as regulating the heat and humidity by controlling natural ventilation and improve the insulation of museum buildings. (Reducing energy use by improving and better managing the building is generally better and cheaper than installing wind turbines or solar panels to generate more energy.) Reduction of the waste and its consideration of the environmental impact of other resources that they consume, such as exhibition and building materials, water and paper

Social sustainability: local and global communities Museums can increase their social sustainability by deepening and diversifying these relationships, aiming To reflect the diversity of society in all that they do. Museums need to have a long-term attitude to audiences, for example by valuing repeat visitors

28


Some Examples of Sustainable museums : Shiny Serpentine Jeongok Prehistory Museum in Korea The exterior of the museum is a perforated metal wall that includes double wall glazing and solar protections designed to protect the interior from the heat

Perforations allow natural day lighting in along with large floor to ceiling windows

Ningbo History Museum Ningbo History Museum is an inverted mountain built from materials that were left after disasters, and make use of available materials in an efficient way.

Passageway through the courtyards

Gaoligong Museum of Handcraft Paper •Vernacular building strategies • Public spaces •Renewable building materials • Recycling and reuse • Ecological building materials • Integrated planning process • Participation of users in planning process • Low cost design

29


Introduction History Theories Sustainability

Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 30


Circulation Circulation definition Communication among differentiated spaces and between the exterior Circulation’s architectural definition The interior may be achieved by openings alone in the simplest plans, but most buildings require distinct spaces allotted to horizontal and vertical circulation

Types of circulation in museum

Components of circulation function and design within museums

31


Circulation Elements of interior circulation design

Types of interior circulation

Design elements of interior vertical circulation system

Design elements of under horizontal circulation system

32


Circulation Circulation in museums: The circulation of visitors in museums has to be easy and direct; achieved by not confusing them by several turns in one node. In museums according to the items it exhibits, the circulation has to reflect the display’s emotional or educational message within the architectural spaces. If the message is important or controversial, the circulation pattern can be interpreted dramatically, or if the main idea of the museum is its simplicity, the circulation paths are well lighted and straightforward. Circulation patterns are not only perceived from the designer’s point of view, but also from the visitor’s points of interest and according to the type of displayed objects. The points of considerations are: what the visitors want to see, what they are searching for and what could take their attention.

The Hierarchy for Visitor turning at Choice Points 1) Goal-directed circulation: it depends on what do visitors have in there mind and there destination this will have the strongest effect on there choice at turning points. 2) Attraction of landmark objects/exhibits: visitors are attracted by another thing is also a powerful force influencing visitors, it appears to be the attraction of large objects ex: (landmarks). 3) Attraction to an open door. Melton (1933) found that an open door has its own attracting power over visitor circulation. A large proportion of visitors exit a gallery by the first open door thy encounter 4) In the absence of any of the above factors to attract visitors, people tend to walk in the same direction. 5) Finally, in the absence of any of the stronger forces described above, visitors tend to turn right when entering a gallery.

china comic and animation museum

OMA unveiled NATIONALMUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND EARTH

Guggenheim museum by frank gehry The architect uses a spiral/circular shape that made the circulation visible from in and outside the building.The use of the recessed entrance, under a low ceiling made the entrance clear for the visitors. The visitor had the option to skip floor by using the ramp around the elevator

33


Circulation Pedestrian definition: A person traveling on foot ,a walker. Pedestrian in architecture: Streets for the circulation of visitors and staff.

National Museum of Afghanistan Proposal / RMC Architects & Engineers

Parking definition: The act or practice of temporarily leaving a vehicle or maneuvering a vehicle into a certain location Parking in architecture: Streets for the circulation of vehicles and goods entrance

Information definition: Knowledge of specific events or situations that has been gathered or received by communication; intelligence or news Information in architecture: It’s the understanding of the projects through out the plans and key plans or you are here maps.

Vehicles definition : any means in or by which someone travels o r something is carried or conveyed; a means of conveyance or transport: a motor vehicle; space vehicles. Vehicles in architecture: Determining the points of accessibility

34


Circulation Material definition : the substance or substances of which a thing is made or composed: Stone is a durable material. Material in architecture : it’s the patterns in the ground help in introducing the circulation through the materials of the patterns

Circulation in open plan exhibition :

49% of the visitors passed only the right or the left wall

12% of the visitors passed the left or right wall ,the end wall and part of the other side wall

35

Only about 10 % of visitors made a complete circuit of the gallery


Image : Definition of Image: A physical likeness or representation of a person, animal, or thing, photographed, painted, sculptured, or otherwise made visible.

Architecture definition of Image: The definition of the image in architecture is that to connect a certain meaning or messages describe through image expressive describe this image and make the viewer to this building from the outside or from the inside to understand what is the meaning

Image in museums Jewish Museum of Berlin From the design of the museum the architect seceded to show the his image or view as to make people to know how the suffer in this era as he showed it in the sharp edges and the lots of angles , it reflects the image of the difficult and bad life they were living . And from inside the passes are narrow for the same concept which shows that he succeeded to make people to see his image.

Identity: Definition of identity : The condition of being oneself or itself, and not anoth er: He doubted his own identity. the state or fact of being the same one as described. Definition of identity in architecture: There are three main factors that can be an identity in architecture are characteristics of the place, events, individual and group meaning and the most effective ways is increasing presence of people in urban spaces. National Art Museum of China The design of the museums is affected by the identity of the Chinese style of building which is formed of pitched roofs and glass . The museum elevation is affected by the Chinese identity represented on the dragons 36


Message : Definition of Message written, or recorded communication sent to or left for a recipient Architectural definition: It is the ability of the architect to send a right meaning of what the project or the building represent of a certain culture , political view or philosophy

Museum of Science and Industry In the fig. w see that he succeeded to show his massage to the people as the high rise building and classical style heavy style that shows the powerful and the resourceful of the country

Symbolism : Definition of symbolism: The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities. Architectural definition: Architectures that utilizes symbol manipulations in a fixed manner to represent its processing.Common alternative to symbolism is to use analog representations and transformations.It can be defined according to their characteristics. Symbolism is mostly used in "great projects as museums, mosques, churches, etc" because the buildings themselves are physical representations and the focus of a common cultural agreement. "Architecture may be considered as a great stone book, in which every tribe and race has written its annals and recorded its faith" (James Fergusson, 1866)

Proportion : Definition of proportion: comparative relation between things or magnitudes a s to size, quantity, number, ratio, etc ;‌ Architectural definition: proper relation between things or parts: t o have tastes Way-out of proportion to one's financial means.

Hermitage Museum in Russia

Hierarchy

Hierarchy Definition: any system of persons or things ranked one above an other. Architectural definition: an organized body of ecclesiastical officials in success ive ranks or orders: the Roman Catholic hierarchy. 37


Visibility

Guggenheim museum new york by Frank Loyid Wright

Definition of visibility :

the state of being able to see or be seen Architecture definition it has 2 branches the visibility of the building from outside according to the surrounding and visibility inside the museums Visibility inside the museums visibility properties are correlated with three groups of space-use patterns: Visitors' movement paths stopping to view displays stopping to survey exhibitions and/or space. These patterns of space use are considered central to visitors' spatial experience, as they refer to navigation in galleries. It has been studied that the greater we limit the movement the more movement patterns are distributed according to the layout. the role of visibility in modulating visitor movement. Visitors tend to explore museum space to get an overall orientation to the space and to enjoy certain exhibit elements. The visual continuity in an open plan museum provides access to environmental information at a glance. Thus, it is proposed that this exploratory movement is influenced by visual access to environmental information.

In open plan exhibitions visibility in a building space, a three dimensional physical environment, is a more variable than accessibility . It can be seen that these exhibition elements are located in the regions which have high visibility (high integration values).

38


Visibility of form from outside: This is the way the museum is perceived from the street from afar. How the passersby on foot or by car see the museum and decides whether he wants to enter the building or not. The visibility of the museum can be either seen as a landmark to the surrounding area or an integrated by building within the community. I.M. Pei Museum of Islamic Art : The design of this museum from outside is for trying to make it invisible until the visitors are near it . Moreover the formation of the cubes rotating over each other help that the visitor see the museum every time with new formation

This figure show the layout and the concept of making the building on an island that doesn't appear from the road till a certain point of focus

This figure show the path to the main entrance showing that the building formation has changed and differs from time to time 39


Flexibility Dictionary definition The quality of bending easily without breaking , the ability to be easily modified and t willingness to change or compromise Architectural definition It is known that what is designed now may become unsuitable for future needs. Therefore flexibility will play as a balance factor between the changes in needs and the built environment, allowing modification and redesigning in the built environment. The Eckhart G. Grohmann Collection Man at Work Museum at Milwaukee School Of Engineering In the museum they use Hufcor movable wall panels which make the ability to string multiple panels to make large , flat , interconnected walls to create long corridors and large areas

Types of flexibility:

Adaptable •Adaptable structures feature repositionable partitions or are changeable per user/occupant. •The capacity of the built environment to support multiple functions without altering the architecture is called adaptability. •Different processes are accommodated through movable partitions, repositionable furniture and other aspects of the environment that are able to change to accommodate the user or occupant. •The changes do not result in a permanent change to the space, and therefore the space can flex between the start-state and end-state with ease. The function changes, but the container does not.

Universal: What typifies a universally flexible building is its ease of adaptation per use. Those buildings are often characterized by open floor plans and typology free design.

40


Flexibility Movable: Movable flexible buildings consist of re-locatable or re-positional structures or buildings capable of being torn down and reassembled in another location.

Transformable: Characterized by modular design (capable of adding or removing units or components) transformable structures can also open and close, change form, or change color.

Responsive: responsive buildings can respond to a number of external stimuli, including, but not limited to, energy/environment, interaction, usage, or occupation.

Choice \variety: Describes the way in which decisions are influenced by how the choices are presented in order to influence the outcome. Different layouts of tables in cafeteria: at first, Left Figure, small cliques formed, then, Right Figure, these would interact with each other.

Expansion and contraction (e.g: Prado museum expansion) : Dictionary definition : The extent or amount by which something has expanded. The transition from expansion to contraction is termed a "peak" and the changeover from contraction to expansion is a trough. Architectural definition : Expansion: is the ability of expanding in space with flexibility for ex. in museums or galleries. Contraction: is the ability to contrast the space with flexibility.

The Eckhart G. Grohmann Collection Man at Work Museum at Milwaukee School Of Engineering In the museum they use Hufcor movable wall panels which make the ability to string multiple panels to make large , flat , interconnected walls to create long corridors and large areas .

41 Interior view of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam which reopened on Sept 23 after nine years of renovations.


Mood : Dictionary definition: a temporary state of mind or feeling Architectural Definition It is pervading tone of something that emits a certain feeling to the beholder.

It is how the occupants feel when they enter a building, some buildings you feel terrible in it while others u feel pleasure to be in; that’s according to the design of the building and the general feeling of the place. This is achieved when the architect reaches the occupant’s needs (emotional, physiological and otherwise,) and interprets it according to the general mood of the place he wants the perceiver to feel, be it a good mood or a bad mood that the perceiver feels. When a museum applied a comfortable, legible, convenient and visible architecture so that will achieve a good mood for the visitor . There is some main points that affect the mood of the visitor and they are : •Ceiling Height inside the building

The Agora Museum in the Stoa of Attalos

National Aviation Museum Ottawa, Canada

Seattle’s Museum of Flight flies high

•Building Views

Denver Art Museum

Royal Ontario Museum

Museum of Transport in Glasgow.

•Color of the walls and ceiling

Waterloo Regional Museum, Ontario

Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles

Brand horst Museum: we can se from the fig shown he used the color and height to affect the mood of the visitor in museum As he used white color which evokes a mode of cleanliness and calm (as long as it's kept clean!), and it’s a suitable height which lead to good mood and feeling comfort

National Museum of Australia

42


Mood : The Royal Ontario Museum

In these figurs we kan see how the architect uses a very tiny source of light to make the place dark to control there mood an make them feel bad and also we can see it in the sad faces on the floor that they are walking on. The Mood also controls another important points that has its effect on the visitor in the museum or in architecture overall …. Attitude , Emotional response , Spirit of the place

Attitude Dictionary definition: A position of the body or manner of carrying oneself, it is also defined as the way a person views something or tends to behave towards it, often in an evaluative way. Architectural definition Posture of the body appropriate to or expressive of an action, emotion by identifying and enhancing preexisting social objects in the collection, and by offering visitors tools to help them socialize, discuss and share around the objects. Social objects are transactional, facilitating exchanges among those who encounter them. Social objects are objects that encourage people to interact and have an attitude towards something. Social objects have a few common qualities such as: •Personal •Active •Provocative •Relational Personal Objects : Every object visitors see with a personal connection gives a directly told story. This can be a chemistry kit reminds the visitor of his very first one or a soup bowl that looks like grandma’s. But personal objects lead to natural, warm and sharing. Active Objects : The objects insert themselves by direct and physical way between strangers in the space, this can serve some discussion reference topics. You feel complicit with people who are similarly imposed to objects such as a passing ambulance or a splashing fountain.

Sisi Museum in Vienna

science museum in London

43


Mood : Provocative Objects : If an object is spectacle on its own way will never need to be physically inserted into a social environment to become an important point of discussion. The staff of the Science Museum of Minnesota frequently observed a lot of people gathering and discussing some of the objects on display when opened the exhibition Race: Are we so different in 2007. Coptic museum, Cairo Relational Objects : Interpersonal use is directly invited by the relational objects. Several people are required to be used in work and the design invites strangers to get involved.

Making Objects More Social :

science museum in London

Five main design techniques that can encourage positive attitude throughout the museum experience for the perceiver: 1. Ask visitors questions and let them share their reactions to objects in display. 2. Help visitors make a personal connection to artifacts by providing live interpretation or performance. 3. Use provocative presentation techniques that display objects in juxtaposition, conflict, or conversation with each other in designing exhibitions 4. Whether by a game or a guided experience give visitors a clear instructions on how to engage with each other around objects. 5. Offer visitors ways to share objects either physically or virtually by sending them to friends and family

Emotional response : Dictionary definition: A reaction to a particular intrapsychic feeling or feelings, accompanied by physiologic changes that may or may not be outwardly manifested but that motivate or precipitate some action or behavioral response. Architectural definition: Paul O'Neill was quoted "The purpose of art is to create an emotional response in the person that is exposed to that art. And there are three categories of art; bad art, good art and great art� designed space will give a good feeling you have had before, while a greatly executed space and very well designed will have the visitor It evokes no emotions at all, when a space is poorly designed , where a moderately experience a newly felt emotion. the Denver art museum emotional response that people recognize is that it has the dialogue between the boldness of construction and the romanticism of the landscape creates a unique place in the world. moreover, it has a open spaces which people feel that they are integrated with each other and experience a new technique including intellectual, emotional, and sensual

44


Convenient Dictionary definition Well fitting for person’s purpose or need, easy to use & accessible. Architectural definition Creating a place suitable for person or society’s needs, (socially, economically, culturally). What is convenient architecture in museums? Designing a museum suitable for the society’s environment, for example museums that increase the economy of the country, museums that exhibits something convenient to the culture of the society and traditions, also the design of museum suited the design of the urban context of the surrounding. Applying Smart Architecture: Interaction between man, architecture and the environment is a major manifestation of human civilization. During the Industrial Revolution appeared erroneous understanding of this relationship has human thought that he had to demonstrate its ability to conquer nature, using its tools and technical capabilities, not found his mistake only after the environmental crisis began to emerge. Did not destroy architecture only the environment but also destroyed cultural identity and personality of the place.

Design of the building suited the design of the surrounding environment

Harmonious design with nature

The Egyptian Museum , Cairo, Egypt As the design of the details of the building suited the design of the surrounding buildings, so it is convenient to the Egyptian culture and it respect the architecture style of this era.

Shanghai Museum of Glass 
Located in Shanghai’s Baoshan District, •The site of this museum was not located downtown or near convenient public transportation for easy access. •It’s too hard for people to spend two hours by car or bus to visit a museum for only an hour

surrounding buildings to the museum

The Egyptian Museum

Shanghai Museum of Glass

45


Comfort Physically &psychologically Dictionary definition Psychologically: It’s a feeling of satisfaction, relieve, delightful and free from worry. Physically: It’s a state of physical ease, relaxation and free from pain

Definition of comfort in architecture It is designing a comfortable space by using architectural elements to reach the human needs physically and psychologically.

Architectural analysis (physically): On designing museums we must serve the visitor not only the exhibits, by providing comfortable sitting areas, well designed bathrooms, places to eat and drink, way finding signs everywhere, good circulation and designing resilient floors. (psychologically): Providing psychological comfort for visitors in museum by using attractive way of lighting, materials and colors, also using delightful music in galleries, attractive views in surroundings Gemäldegalerie museum, berlin,German This museum contains galleries with art works, these galleries have comfortable sitting benches built into the museum space itself; therefore it doesn’t interfere with flow, and doesn’t compete with the art, giving you a chance to rest your feet, Also using good natural lighting (through the ceiling). Comfortable outside café zone.

46


Comfort Architectural comfort in museums Jewish Museum Berlin by Daniel Libeskind This museum didn’t accomplish human comfort, by using small openings (slashes) that allow angular slits of light. the visitor feel uncomfortable and disorientated by its odd angles, sloping floors and harsh lighting. Also the uncomfortable iron floor patterns (iron faces), and dark narrow corridors that make them feel as if they are in prison.

Legibility Dictionary definition: The clearness of a subject for being easily read or understood Architectural definition The ease with which one can comprehend the spatial configuration of an interior space, is a critical component in way finding. Regular geometric building shapes, distinctive interior markings and views of external environment enhance legibility in interiors. Legibility in orientation: People are constantly striving to make sense of their world, and have an innate curiosity to discover new information. They like to share their knowledge, and find it validating to be listened to as they share it. Moreover, “People hate being confused, disoriented, incompetent, and helpless� (Kaplan & Kaplan) (Avoiding the psychological impact of loss of place). Need for interventions to foster sense of place. Legibility in plan recognition: Legibility in sequence: The art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. Legibility in layering: (Clearness in vertical circulation) clearness of the layers of the multistory buildings is by the legibility of the 47 stairs, elevators, ramps used by people by making it easy and convenient to reach by putting them in the central passageways.


Legibility Architectural legibility in museums (layering) Museums, with their legible facades and logical form, relate directly to both the user and passers-by, Buildings such as these make legible the historic forces of the time: how they are constructed, their relationship with their context, and what they are used for, and in doing so, bring a new dimension to the way people interact with the built environment.

In layering Museum of Contemporary Art Bahrain by Zaha Hadid As the section of this museum didn’t accomplish the legibility in it’s layering, there isn’t clear zones, stairs, or ramps, or corridors.

BMW Museum by Atelier Bruckner The clearness of the layers, as the visitors can know easily the function of each floor, also the legibility of the stairs, ramps and courts.

48


Legibility Architecture legibility in museums (orientation) Study of the museums` plan in a way that allows the application of known theories which are summarized in the move around the main axis which start from a known point (MAIN ENTRANCE) the getting back to the same point without passing by the same exhibited products they already see, and they can exit and return back to it, and visiting every section Separately, if the visitor wanted to extended the visit several days.

Museum of Contemporary Art Bahrain by Zaha Hadid Architects The orientation of this plan didn’t help moving around easily, the spaces are not understandable

BMW Museum by Atelier Brucker

In this plan the orientation is clear enough, that moving around from certain point and coming back is clear and easy.

49


Legibility Architectural legibility in museums (plan recognition) The ability of an exhibit to communicate concepts to visitors was affected by the composition of the social interactions. Hence good exhibits should encourage more social and cultural group interaction and consequentially improve learning.

Good planning ensures that interpretive facilities, media, and programs work Together.

National museum of American Indian

Egyptian museum in Cairo It’s a linear, traditional plan, (grid plan) that didn’t express legibly the exhibits (Egyptian history)

Jewish museum by Daniel Libeskind As the ascending and descending and the uncomfortable of the internal floor and the tight corridors, makes the visitor legibly feel the violent history of this country (German)

Architectural legibility in museums (sequence) Awareness of or ability to use information involving finding and presenting skills, And avoiding the psychological impact of loss of place, linear sequence exhibitions are most appropriate 50 when the museum wishes to tell a story. (According to a date)


Legibility Architectural legibility in museums (sequence) Awareness of or ability to use information involving finding and presenting skills,And avoiding the psychological impact of loss of place, linear sequence exhibitions are most appropriate when the museum wishes to tell a story. (According to a date)

Shanghai museum of Glass It’s a museum that telling a story of glass in shanghai by sequential exhibitions.

Louvre museum in France

There is a legible sequence in exhibiting history according to every era and age

51


Security Dictionary Definition: The state of being free from danger or threat(the activity involved) oxford definition Architectural definition : Security in architecture is an organised design , according to certain requirements such as authorisation, cameras , sensors and so on. Security is a great issue that faces the architects specially in designing the museums. Since museums are the house of exhibiting stuff that may be priceless . Moreover the more security, the more it helps to keep the museum away of any vandalism attempts. "Protecting priceless objects is a particularly tough challenge for public museums and galleries. These institutions face the conflicting dilemma of keeping objects safe, yet allowing millions of visitors a chance to see them," says Ton Cremer’s, Security in museums are classified into 4 levels : •Low risk level •Medium risk level •High Risk level •Extremely high risk level

Security low risk level : Items are not considered to be of great value or are of such material or composition that damage or theft would be impractical. Other items might fill their void if lost.

Pictures showing the museums of low cost exhibits

Technical aspect to face vandalism

This level can act against the vandalism which is : action involving slow destruction of or damage to public or private property

52 Pictures showing the museums Vandalism


Security Security medium risk level : Items are of greater value (than Low Risk items) or are fragile and subject to damage. Alarm contacts may be added to detect case opening or removal of vitrine top. Light attics are alarmed if they provide access into the area where objects are displayed. Platform displayed objects may be designed to permit use of curtain type motion detectors with or without local sounders. Video recording should occur if equipment is in place at the facility

Pictures Alarm contacts on different objects

Pictures Monitring and shapes of camera

This elements can act against unauthorized access which is not having official permission or approval to approach or enter a place

Security high risk level :

Pictures of unauthorized access technical detection

Pictures Monitring and shapes of camera

Objects are of high intrinsic value, are cultural icons, or are irreplaceable . In addition to electronic protection, shock sensors should be provided to detect attempts at forcible entry

A higher level of case construction and locking would be sought. Locks would be rekeyed for each exhibit change to ensure key accountability. Video surveillance and recording would be in place. This precautions can act against Assault which is carry out a military attack on somewhere

53 Pictures of protecting cultural elements


Security Security extremely high risk level : Display is a newsworthy event and every practical means should be employed to protect the object on a 24-hour basis. Objects are of high intrinsic value, are cultural icons, or are irreplaceable. Protection is supplemented by the presence of security force personnel during public hours and either electronic space/area supplemental electronic measures after hours or 24-hour security officer coverage. Video surveillance and recording is in operation continuously this can act against robbery which is the action of robbing a person or place: take property unlawfully from (a person or place) by force or threat of force:

Safety Definition of safety: The state of being protected against harm, damage, danger and free from risk. Safety in architecture: Features of architecture used to prevent accidental injury among users of buildings. Safety in museums: Museums are one of the most important places that need safety, cause it’s the most places exposed to damage due to the valuable exhibits, and also due to the presence of a large number of visitors that might cause damage or steal exhibits. Problems that cause damage are: 1)Fire can destroy the museum collection in a matter of minutes. 2)Smoke and heat can cause damage for exposed objects. 3)Mechanical systems and over storage areas are few of conditions that can increase the threat of fire. 4)Improper handling techniques may lead to accidental damage to the object.

Rules for safety in museums: • Handle museum artifacts as little as possible. • Handling should be done only by properly trained staff. • Cleanliness is essential. • Do not smoke, drink or eat around objects. • Do not use pens or sharp objects around objects. • Using fire protection systems (ex. Fire fighting systems). • Designing exit escape doors or stairs.

54


Energy efficiency : Dictionary definition : An important strategy for reducing our dependence on fossil fuels is improving energy efficiency (that is, getting more use out of the electricity we already generate). Definition in architecture : Building orientation reflected in •Materials •Natural ventilation •Heat recovery •Solar shading •Fritted/Triple glazing •Energy efficient lighting Indoor air quality sustainable strategies: Low emitting materials Natural daylight Modular / flexible space systems Operable windows. Example of energy efficiency in material : Bamboo is a rapidly renewable resource. It is a grass that matures in less than six years Brand horst Museum: •As opposed to conventional mixed air ventilation, purified air is distributed at much lower rates, the system requires less power and approximately half the quantity of air. •Thermo-active building components enable lower ambient temperatures to be reached compared to conventionally heated museum spaces. •In this museum building, cleverly chosen external glazing outside the gallery spaces on the upper floor avoids not only direct sunlight but also prevents a rise in temperature in the rooms below. Energy efficiency: •The primary source of heat energy for the building is an up-to-date groundwater heat pump. •All galleries utilize natural daylight. The top floor, which houses the largest galleries, offers top light which is diffused through skylight and louver system. The systems allow the museum to use minimal artificial lighting. •On the ground floor, a system of reflectors direct light from the top through an asymmetrically arranged strip of windows into the galleries, providing uniform illumination.

55


Energy efficiency : Environmental impact Dictionary definition: It is any change -positive or negative- affecting land, ecosystems or human health.

Architectural definition: The process of taking the environmental surroundings into consideration before introducing man made building materials to the site. When regarding the buildings effect on the environment, the designer is affected by other points of consideration; vision, restoration, Aesthetics, conext and Vision definition : Visionary buildings, those with character or a ‘wow’ factor create jobs; are important in business location decisions; help recruit and retain staff and increase land or property prices in surrounding areas.

Isabelle gardner museum Restoration definition : Restoration of historic buildings or site scan. Engaging local communities as well as encouraging community interaction, which contribute to community unity and revival of civic pride.

Restoration Of The Palais Des Gouverneurs Museum /

Aesthetics

Buildings with aesthetic appeal and a high-quality of design which allow for exterior views fresh air, sunlight, spaciousness, tailor-made design layout which encourages interaction, use of color and visual art: • Increase property and land values; are important in business location decisions; increase rental income and improve the marketability of property. • Can help staff recruitment; provide inspiration and stimulation; heighten staff morale and satisfaction; improve effectiveness; reduce absenteeism; aid staff retention. • Enhance pupil and student motivation; reduce absenteeism and improve academic performance. • Contribute to improved patient recovery rates in hospitals. • Can provide less harmful environments for people to live, work and learn in by reducing exposure to 56 harmful pollutants.


Energy efficiency : Context in Architecture :

The context of buildings, particularly where they have natural views, is near to green spaces, trees and water features: • increases rental value of commercial and retail property and enhances worker satisfaction and retention, particularly where the context is contiguous to high quality mixed-use public space • has a positive effect on health and well-being of staff and residents • increases residential property prices particularly where the green spaces include parks and playgrounds.

Sustainability in Architecture : The use of sustainable design features including energy saving techniques reduces energy use and costs, both in construction and ongoing operation. This includes intelligent lighting; insulation; low temperature and automatically adjusting heating and glare systems and low emissivity glass. Socially, careful use of building materials can have health benefits by reducing exposure to harmful materials. Use of energy-saving techniques can reduce the number of households experiencing fuel poverty. Effective sound insulation can lessen noise problems in high-density accommodation.

Space in Architecture : The allocation and use of space has a significant impact on the effectiveness, efficiency, comfort and satisfaction in all sectors. In most cases, a variety of space affording different environments is beneficial. . Provision of creative flexible spaces can encourage creativity and inspiration.

57


Introduction History Theories Sustainability Design Issues

Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 58


Isabelle Stewart Gardner museum Basic information Date: 2010-2012 Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop in collaboration with Burt, Hill Location: Boston, Massachusetts USA

Background :

Entrance through green house

Opening in 2012, the $118 million steel, glass, and copper-clad expansion to Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum by Renzo Piano Building Workshop will more than double the size of the current facility. Included in the project are a new entrance, music hall, gallery space, and other amenities for an institution that has remained largely unaltered since opening in 1903. Rather than radically alter the museum experience, the design is intended to augment what is already there. Piano’s new four-story building will host visitor services, now in cramped quarters in the palace; a new 300 seat music hall, allowing the Gardner to stop holding concerts in its delicate and often overcrowded tapestry room; a triple-height gallery for temporary exhibitions; as well as new lobby space, offices, and conservation facilities. A second, smaller structure with a sloping glass roof will house a greenhouse and apartments for artists-in-residence. In total the wing will add 70,000 square feet to the museum’s current 60,000 square feet.

Concept The building itself is drawn, not just in its representation but in its conceptual construction. The building seems drawn from its institutional context, a remix of existing social experience fragments mended together into a something new but uncannily familiar. New extension

Old building

Green house

Glass connection

Conclusion

59 The designer achieved the concept by making his space more connected to the social society by using glass transparency and the green spaces that form relief to the visitors


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer respect the grid form of 90 degrees of the street connection and the surrounding building moreover he started to design a new entrance

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning The designer start to figure how to connect between the 2 buildings old museum and the new extension so he started to think of connecting it with a glass tube surrounded by the old landscape

Conclusion

The designer achieved a good point on respecting the surrounding building grid and the formation of the linkage between the 2 buildings

60


zoning The building includes a special exhibition gallery, education and visitor orientation spaces, ticketing and coat check areas, a cafĂŠ, a museum shop, a performance hall, conservation labs, exhibition preparation space, archival and collection storage, two apartments for artists-in-residence or scholars-in-residence, and space for horticultural activities.

Zoning for the layout

Conclusion

The zoning shows a comparison between the old museum and the new extension which reflect the capability of the designer to add an extension in form of a continuous plan

61


zoning

Section showing vertical zoning in the new extension

Circulation Ground Floor • The Ground floor has two entrances, one from the main entrance lobby and the second from the linked glass passage from the palace. Moreover It has two zones linked with each other. The first zone has living room, cafÊ, classroom, and shops. the second zone, is the green house that has plant classrooms, education office. Furthmore Its circulation is clear and simple that is easy to access.

62


Circulation First Floor The second floor has a double high clad wood hall, offices, and some special exhibitions.

Elevation analysis 1) Grid ,plain, curtain wall elevation. 2)With a recessed ground floor for shading. 3)Applying sustainability by entering excess of natural lighting. 4)Clear elevation ,with a distinct entrance. 5)eight geothermal wells, rainwater for plants, 28 percent reduction in energy use), which might mend some fences.

Showing grid of the glass on the Elevation

Elevation

Structure analysis Section show the different and development in construction between the old part and the new extension where the new part has new construction of large hall while the old one consist of no of floors and court in middle Conclusion

New building

Old building

The circulation through the new extension is direct and linear form with distribution of the 63 function through linear corridors . Grid formation an Clarence also appears on the elevation pattern of the glass .


Structure analysis Structure analysis The images show the construction materials and sections of the structure concert hall Skylight structure making natural lighting

Conclusion

64 The structure of the performance hall is made of thick concrete walls each are separated by a gap of 2 feet inches which decreases the sound transfer to the outside which is well designed


Landscape Analysis • The landscaping design is based on a modular grid of angles 90 degrees as to not impose on the building design. • He took into consideration the surrounding landscape of the surrounding buildings ( context) in the arrangement of the trees within his site. • He arranged the trees within his site by a fixed distance so that the glass elevation of the new extension would be visible to the passersby. • He used the trees to mark and enhance the building façade.

Old

new

Landscape and neighbor landscape The arrangement of the trees on the site is respecting the arrangement of the adjacent street trees so not to disturb the consistency of the view of the street with haphazard tree arrangement.

surrounding

New building

Conclusion

Landscape pattern is well designed respecting surrounding streets and the the building formation which help in forming well landscape design

65


Landscape In Elevation • In order to highlight the main entrance, the designer arranged the trees in the front of the building to mark the entrance. • The choose of the trees themselves where not without consideration to the elevation, for they were arranged at a distance from the elevation as well as their height did not clash with the building. • The trees are not green all year round, but rather changed through the season. • With the change of scenery of the trees in front of the elevation, it gives a different feeling to the building and makes the perceiver experience a different feeling when waking through the site. • Moreover, it has a sustainability aspect as that during the winter, with the leaves of the trees dropping, the sun is allowed to penetrate into the glass façade of the building, while during the summer, the sun is shaded by the existence of the leaves of the trees.

New building

Glass building

Deciduous plants in winter

Old building

Glass building

Deciduous plants in summer

Mass Study

Conclusion

66 Further more landscape is formed of deciduous trees that are seasonal in order to use it with sustainability and glass elevations


Masses and Geometry study

Sustainability Making large glass areas in the green house and the main concert hall and the exhibition hall that help in natural lighting and reduces the electricity consumption . Moreover natural ventilation

Glass house

Glass effect on the performance hall

Exhibition hall

Conclusion

The glass openings is well designed forming and making natural lighting and ventilation . Moreover in the exhibition halls making natural lighting with diffusion to avoid glare

67


Design Issues

Flexibility-Adaptation Rather than add on or manipulate the existing museum, Renzo Piano and his team designed a set of facilities that would complement the historic palace and be placed off to the side.

Conclusion : The designer added a well extension which is flexible in its plan and layout to be renewed and extended

Image Shows the relation between the new building with its transparency –glass and steel -reflecting the newness of the era it was built in- in relation to the authenticity of the older building -concrete and steelin terms of construction materials.

Conclusion : The designer made a good using of modern materials to differentiate between old building and new building

Energy efficiencyEnvironmental impact sustainability features, like a geothermal well system, daylight harvesting, water efficient landscaping techniques, and the use of local and regional materials. Significant rehabilitation of the existing palace was also completed, including structural stability enhancements, a new high performance skylight over the courtyard and new advanced lighting Conclusion : the uses of the large glass areas help to make natural lighting but in summer it makes excessive heat inside the building which could increase the electicity consumption more than the reduction of it

Comfort Glass facades and skylights dominate the new facilities, which serve as a light and functional space compared to the heavy historic museum. The functions of the new extension is more activity like using of performance hall and gallery hall green house 68


Emotional response the Palace, which had been put to uses for which it was not equipped, can once again give visitors the experience Isabella Stewart Gardner intended: a personal confrontation with art,” said Anne Hawley Norma Jean Calderwood Director of the Museum.

Conclusion : the designer make good emotional response by making a simple new extention and opened that make the visitor able to relate the building to the arts

Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •How he preserved the identity of the place and made the extension interesting not imposing •The usage of glass to indicate openness and lightness •Usage of sustainability and energy efficient technology to make the building environmentally friendly •Integrating function with application techniques • the extension respected the earlier trademarks of the older building in terms of pan of floors and the use of natural lighting within the mass •An interesting choice of form yet it is integrated within the other building

concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

69


The new MAS | Museum aan de Stroom Basic information Date: 2006-2010 Architect: Neutelings Riedijk Architects Location: Hanzestedenplaats | 2000 Antwerp | Belgium Background : Programme: New Development | Museum for City History Antwerp, Museum, Restaurant, Party Room, Pavilions, Plaza Surface area: 20.000 m2 floor surface, 11.500 m2 outdoor construction Principal: City of Antwerp in cooperation with AG Vespa Design: International Competition | 1st Prize | April 2000 Start construction: October 2006 Realisation: February 2010 Construction costs: â‚Ź 33.409.000 (including construction of the pavilions and plaza, excluding design, scenography, VAT, fees and indexing) .

Concept MAS seeks to become a contemporary museum of, for and about the city and the world. Visitors will discover how Antwerp and the world have been indisputably linked with one another for hundreds of years. In it, they will recognize hand prints as the traces left by others among us, and vice versa, they will understand Antwerp’s imprint on the world..

Context Conclusion

The museum have a good visible point to the surrounding according to the the skyline of surrounding extents

70


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer respect the grid form of 90 degrees of the street connection and the surrounding building moreover he started to design a new entrance

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning The ground floor includes the entrance hall with the information counter, the cafeteria and the departments for logistics, storage and transport.

The children’s workshop is accommodated on an intermediate level above the ground floor.

Ground floor

Level 1

Conclusion

The site of the building with a good view over the city and he uses the same grid od surrounding building and streets

71


zoning In principle, levels 2 to 8 are identical storeys which can be subdivided completely flexible. The first storey is currently arranged for offices, the second as a depot and storeys 3 to 8 as exhibit halls.

Level from 2-8 floors

The ninth floor at the top is laid out for a restaurant, a party hall and a commercial kitchen. A large terrace next to the restaurant has a view on the Scheldt river.

Level 9

Circulation The museum square The museum square at the base of the tower is an integral part of the design. The square has been designed in the same red natural stone as the tower and is surrounded by pavilions and terraces as an urban area for events and open-air exhibits. The central part of the plaza is sunken and forms a framework for the large mosaic by Luc Tuymans. Ground floor plan circulation Secondry Entrance Main core

Main Entrance Conclusion

Ground floor plan circulation

72 The zoning of the plans shows the form of square with a central mini square core having all the function of the floor surrounding it


Circulation The museum halls Every museum hall consists of a continuous museum area with an identical layout; a large museum hall, a small museum hall and four smaller zones. The museum hall is a black box with no daylight in which all kinds of scenographic and audiovisual arrangements can be set-up. One walks into the halls from the gallery and takes the museum route around the core, ending up at the same point in the gallery. This is the slow route, where an extensive scenographic story can be told. Ground floor plan circulation Main core

The gallery An escalator route runs upwards through the gallery. This is the most important circulation route in the building. Large-scale objects that can also be seen from the city can be placed in the gallery. The escalator route leads upwards along light walls on which alternating images and texts can be displayed, and along display cases holding objects. This is the quick museum route, where visitors are offered a short scenographical story on their way up. Ground floor plan circulation Main core

The pavilion The pavilions are an integral component of the project. They form a division to the Willemdok, on the one hand to guide pedestrians on their route between the city centre and the Eilandje, on the other hand as a wall of the museum plaza. There are four pavilions, dedicated to information and commercial uses, such as the museum shop, immediately opposite from the entrance to the museum tower. Covered outside areas lie between the four pavilions, which can be used for all kinds of public events and to exhibit objects. Ground floor plan circulation Main core Conclusion

The circulation is divided through the path is not clear moving in different direction and doesn’t have any clear sequence in the space

73


Elevation analysis The core The central core of the building includes the logistics components, such as the lifts, two fire stairs curving in a double helix and the vertical technical shafts. An intermediate storey is included on every level in the core, provided with a technical area for the mechanical ventilation of the museum hall.

The spiral route A route of escalators leads the visitors up from the square up to the top of the tower. The story of the city, its harbour and inhabitants is told in the spiral tower. Visitors can enter a museum hall on every level and reflect on the history of the dead city, while on the way up breath-taking panoramas unfold above the living city. The top of the tower accommodates a restaurant, a party room and a panoramic terrace, where the present is celebrated and the future is planned.

Elevation analysis the elevation of the building is made of like continuous path line without feeling any separation between floors which give the feeling of continuity and the and closure .

Conclusion

The design of the vertical e circulation is clear by making 1 central core but in the other hand74 it doesn’t have any other emergency exists


Elevation analysis Natural stone facades The facades are covered with 100Ă—60 cm red sandstone panels from Agra in India. A random pattern with four shades of red has been made in order to break up the large facade surface areas, whereby no more than two panels of the same colour are adjacent to each other. Walls, floors and ceilings of the galleries are covered with the same red sandstone panels, which emphasises the sculptural nature of the volume. The plaza and pavilion are also constructed of the same stone, so that the complex forms one single unit. The red sandstone is hand carved and unpolished, creating a relief design on the visible side of the stone, thereby giving the building an accentuated tactile appearance.

The ornaments In order to soften the monumental tower volume, a pattern of metal ornaments has been attached to the facade as a veil. The ornaments have the shape of hands, the symbol of the City of Antwerp. This pattern is continued inside the building by means of metal medallions, cast according to a design by Tom Hautekiet with a text by Tom Lanoye.

Hands and medallions A metal ornament in the form of a hand is mounted on every third stone. The pattern of 3185 hands lies over the stone facades as an elegant veil. This pattern continues inside the building in the form of metal medallions incorporated in the panels.

Corrugated glass facades The monolithic nature of the building is softened by the corrugated glass curtain that enfolds the gallery. This transparent facade is made up of large glass sheets, 5.5 metres high and 1.80 metres wide. The sheets are curved into an S wave with a depth of 60 cm, which stabilises every glass sheet and makes it self-supporting, so the sheets can stand free on the floor without any window profiles. In this way, maximum transparency is accomplished without interrupting components. In the corners two glass panes support one another up to a height of 11 metres. A steel tube suspended from a heavy chain ensures horizontal transfer of the wind loads. Conclusion

The designer well achieved the concept and representing the arts by the ornaments where 75 Visitors will discover how Antwerp and the world have been indisputably linked with one another for hundreds of years.


Structure analysis Structure analysis Support structure with central core The 62-metre high MAS tower is supported by a 12Ă—12 metre central core of concrete poured on site. Steel frames are suspended from this core, extending 12 metres. The frames form a balance structure on either side of the core in accordance with the ‘milk maid’ principle. The frames are still partially visible in the exhibition halls as large V components that divide the areas of the halls. The outer walls are suspended from the outer ends of the frames, which in turn support the floor components. The floor components consist of 12-metre long prefabricated concrete TT girders. The typical main sculptural form of the building is created in this way without a single column, as a stack of cantilevered halls.

Corrugated glass facades The monolithic nature of the building is softened by the corrugated glass curtain that enfolds the gallery. This transparent facade is made up of large glass sheets, 5.5 metres high and 1.80 metres wide. The sheets are curved into an S wave with a depth of 60 cm, which stabilises every glass sheet and makes it self-supporting, so the sheets can stand free on the floor without any window profiles. In this way, maximum transparency is accomplished without interrupting components. In the corners two glass panes support one another up to a height of 11 metres. A steel tube suspended from a heavy chain ensures horizontal transfer of the wind loads. Conclusion

The structure of the floors is very well making wide spaces with 2 much columns . Further more the glass sheets on the s shape decreases the use of aluminum mullions and cutting the glass

76


Sustainability A stable climate in the museum halls A strict stable museum climate of 22 degrees Celsius and 55% relative humidity prevails in the museum halls. The halls are located in the closed building components that are best insulated without window displays, thus limiting loss of energy. This coincides with the basic assumption of the museum that the historic objects may not be exposed to daylight and that many exhibits will include multimedia presentations.

Variable semi-controlled climate in the gallery The character of the gallery is transparent due to the large glass displays that provide a maximum view on the city. Since no special museum requirements are imposed on this circulation area, a variable semi-controlled climate has been chosen; the indoor temperature fluctuates depending on the season. A temperature of about 12 degrees has been selected as the lower limit for the indoor temperature of the gallery in the winter, and an upper limit of about 30 degrees in the summer.

Energy balance between the museum halls and the gallery The balance between the museum halls with a high energy demand and the galleries with a lower one is utilised by exhausting the ventilation air from the museum halls via the galleries in the interim seasons, so that the residual heat from the halls heats up the gallery. Inversely, in the cold periods the gallery functions as a conservatory that captures the solar heat and preheats the ventilation air for the museum halls.

The gallery as energy buffer The gallery functions as an energy buffer, whereby the stone masses of the galleries are heated or cooled depending on the season and the hour of the day. The inertia of the stones regulates the buffering of the solar energy. A water-bearing system has been installed in the floor which can transport both warm and cold water. This system makes it possible to compensate for the differences in temperature between the north side and the south side of the building.

Cooling with dock water The MAS will be cooled by means of the dock water from the Bonapartedok, which always has a lower temperature than the air. The difference in temperature between the dock water and the outside air is utilised by means of pumps and heat exchangers to cool the ventilation air. In this way primary energy is collected from the immediate surroundings in a sustainable manner

De-centralised set-up The entire installation for heating, cooling and ventilation is set up de-centrally. A separate air conditioning unit is set up on every storey so that the climate for each museum hall can be regulated separately.

Conclusion

Good use of sustainability and issues which decreases the electric consumption

77


Design Issues

Flexibility-Adaptation The building shape and structure is not flexible to any addition but in the other hand the site around could have some future extension and connected to the bridge through the bridges

The building is flexible enough to add more extension around it

Image Shows reflect and image of continuity and the centralization of the core and rotation of the plan around it

the Image of the building Is good enough in showing the continuity

Energy efficiencyEnvironmental impact The building is very sufficent in reducing the electric consumption and cooling of the building through Variable semi-controlled climate in the gallery Energy balance between the museum halls and the gallery The gallery as energy buffer Cooling with dock water De-centralised set-up The building have high energy efficiency through glass

Circulation Circulation of the building is easily through the core and can

The circulation is unclear doesn’t have any clear path which reduces the comfort in the building 78


Visibility The building is visible from outside easily as all the skyline surrounding it is 2 short in compare to the building further more the building ornaments is different from surrounding building finishes in color and form from the surrounding

The building have a good visibility from outside and can easily be distinguished from outside further more the galleries have a good visulation to the surrounding context

Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •The designer wanted to use local materials in the exterior of the building. •The designer wanted to emphasis on the importance of natural light, resulting in the interesting form of the building with its irregular masses of solid and glass.

Concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

79


Imperial War Museum Basic information Date built: 1997-2002 Architect: Studio Libeskind Architects Location: Trafford Wharf Road, Salford Quays, nr Manchester, northwest England

Background : Imperial War Museum North, which opened to visitors on 5 July 2002, has fast become one of the most popular visitor attractions in the North West, already receiving over 1,700,000 visitors. It is on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal in Trafford, in a spectacular award-winning building designed by the internationally renowned architect, Daniel Libeskind.The Museum tells the story of how war has affected the lives of British and Commonwealth citizens since 1914. It is the 5th branch of the Imperial War Museum and the first outside the South East of England. Recently named one of the top 10 English buildings of the last 100 years in the 2008 Rough Guide and voted one of the top 3 Large Visitor Attractions in England (Silver Award at Visit Britain’s Excellence in England Awards 2007), other notable awards include a Special Commendation (second-only to First Prize) in the European Museum of the Year Awards 2004 and Large Visitor Attraction of the Year 2006 in the Greater Manchester Tourism Awards and the North West Tourism Awards. The Museum has also been a finalist in the prestigious RIBA Stirling Prize

Concept The design concept is that of a globe which has been shattered into fragments and then reassembled. The building’s form is the interlocking of three of these fragments which represent earth, air, and water. These three shards together concretize the Twentieth century conflicts which have never taken place on an abstract piece of paper, but rather have been fought by men and women by land, sky and sea.

Conclusion

The designer have made a concept couldn’t be read easily by the visitors

80


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer doesn’t respect any grid or the site surrounding building furthermore he tried to make his layout of the project in contrust with the surroundings

Context accessibility and circulation

Skyline of the building with the surrounding

zoning the Imperial War Museum delivered strategic plans informed by an ongoing modernisation and change agenda. Plans were implemented that responded to the challenges and opportunities faced by the Museum.

Conclusion

81 The designer achieved a good point on making his building in very contrast to the surrounding building which make his building distinguished from the others and through its skyline


zoning

First floor

Circulation • The ground level has 3 entrances, the main entrances, group entrances, and Quayside entrances .The circulation is direct and clear where at the ground level after the entrances the visitors are connected on 1 main spot then they have the service zones and the main cores

Ground Floor

Conclusion

Ground floor plan has 3 entrances which is to much that affect the security of the 82 museums.The circulation through the exhibits have a leak of partition through the exhibition this causes a leak in path way finding.


Circulation • A the level one story the circulation is perfect trying to make sequences in telling the stories and the history but also without making a lot of separating walls that will cause bad visual access and effect the human comfort inside the building he tries to make the building open space without sights disturbance

Structure analysis Structure is the made of steel beams forming triangular shapes. Disturbing angles abound as the building tries to reflect the shards of a broken globe showing how war has devastated our world. the structure shows the tubular construction

Conclusion

the first floor that had all the exhibits have only 1 entrance act as an entrance and exit . The 83 structure doesn’t have much steel in order to avoid any increase of payment just for the feature that makes the building distgnished


Landscape The building doesn’t have to much landscape in front of it just a form of path way in front of the river

Masses and Geometry study The building’s form is the interlocking of three of these fragments which represent earth, air, and water.

Conclusion

The circulation through the new extension is direct and linear form with distribution of the 84 function through linear corridors . Grid formation an Clarence also appears on the elevation pattern of the glass .


Design Issues Visibility The construction of the tower leaves viewers exposed to the elements and one reviewer considered that it reflected "the aerial perspective of modern warfare and the precariousness of the life below". The earth shard houses the museum's exhibition spaces, while the water shard accommodates а cafe with views of the canal

The designer have created a good visible museum from the outside that is distinguished from the surrounded urban

Message the museum explores the impact of modern conflicts on people and society.

Bad representing of the concept and the idea where the concept doesn’t reach the visitors

Symbolism the first branch of the Imperial War Museum to be located in the north of England. it occupies а site overlooking the Manchester Ship Canal in Trafford Park an area which during the Second World War was а key industrial centre and consequently heavily bombed during the Manchester Blitz in 1940. Libeskind envisaged a 'constellation composed of three interlocking shards' with each shard being а remnant of an imagined globe shattered by conflict

Emotional Response At the museum's opening, Libeskind said that he sought to "create а building ... which emotionally moved the soul of the visitor toward а sometimes unexpected realization"' A good reflect of the emotional effect by the using of the sound systems in the vedio halls and through out the lighting feature 85


Circulation The design form a pedestrian promenade and public realm area in front of Imperial War Museum which act as an activity space to the surrounding .but in the other hand the interior circulation of the museum doesn’t have a clear path the circulation doesn’t have a good path finding circulation which causes feeling un comfort

Identity The 55m high air shard, provides the museum's entranceway and а viewing balcony above the Manchester Ship Canal with views of the Manchester skyline. The designer have succeeded to make a new identity to the building in the city with his new curvilinear form

Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •Wanting people to share the experience of the sense of loss by choosing a bombed location in the history of the city •Representing the museum with three elements- shards - which are each water and air to represent the global community •.the scarred windows representing suffering in the building elevation

concluded from the project the elements of the project. Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through

86


The Museum of Islamic Art in Doha Basic information Date built: 1997-2002 Design: I.M.Pei Architect (New York) Location: Doha

Background : The Museum of Islamic Art is dedicated to reflecting the full vitality, complexity and diversity of the arts of the Islamic world. It is a world-class collecting institution, which preserves, studies and exhibits masterpieces spanning three continents and 13 centuries. As a centre for information, research and creativity, the Museum aims to reach a wide global audience and serve as a hub for dialogue and cultural exchange.

Entrance through green house

The Museum of Islamic Art is the flagship project of the Qatar Museums Authority, is transforming the State of Qatar into a cultural capital of the Middle East. Qatar Museums Authority was created in December 2005 to combine the resources of all museums in the State of Qatar. The QMA’s vision revolves around the provision of a comprehensive umbrella under which future plans will be drawn for the development of national museums and the establishment of an effective system for collecting, protecting, preserving and interpreting historic sites, monuments and artifacts.

Concept The Museum of Islamic Art is the result of a journey of discovery conducted by I.M. Pei, whose quest to understand the diversity of Islamic architecture led him on a world tour. During visits to the Grand Mosque in CĂłrdoba, Spain; Fatehpur Sikri, a Mughal capital in India; the Umayyad Great Mosque in Damascus, Syria; and the ribat fortresses at Monastir and Sousse in Tunisia, he found that influences of climate and culture led to many interpretations of Islamic architecture, but none evoked the true essence he sought.

Conclusion

87 The designer have succeeded to achieve a simple and significant form with a water feature respecting the most important concept of Islam which is the center of the world and diversity .


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer respect the grid form of 90 degrees of the street connection and the surrounding building moreover he started to design a new entrance

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning

Conclusion

The building have a good visibility point when visitors is about to reach its location . For the zoning of the ground floor plan good distribution of the plans function

88


zoning On the north side of the Museum a 45 meter tall glass curtain wall, the only major window, offers panoramic views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all five floors of the atrium. The Museum is composed of two cream colored limestone buildings, a five-story main building and a two-story Education Wing, connected across a central courtyard

Conclusion

The zoning shows the good distributing of the halls through the plans and making an clear path finding around the museum .furthermore good distributing of function in vertical plans

89


zoning • Section (A) shows the hierarchy of the masses of the building and the transition from a low rise building( containing educational facilities) passing through an open space with a water element within(recreational area) leading to the main building with its key feature ( the museum and galleries with the glass dome)

(A)

Circulation It is only in the galleries, which follow the perimeter of the first two floors above the entrance area, that satirical reactions. The cases and glazed insets are not overwhelmingly large, and the number of exhibits in any one room is relatively modest. Inside, the key public space is the atrium, and it manages to be both striking and droll. We experience them in malls and corporate offices, as well as hotels.

Conclusion

90 The circulation is very good through the functions and have a linear circulation just 2 entrances which makes privacy and allow entrance of the visitors through main entrance and staff


Circulation

Conclusion

Circulation of the floors from the 2nd to the 5th floor the path is easily to be found . 91 Furthermore the different function has entrances and exists and connected together through the hanged bridges over the atrium


Elevation analysis The elevation of the building shows the simplicity of the elevation with complexity of the form that reflect the diversity in islamic arts

Structure analysis The dome from inside is formed of huge number of glass triangles and hanged on large concrete triangles that helm to carry the dome with expanding the atrium beneath and make it more wider than making rectangle atrium beneath the dome

Large triangles under carrying the dome

Section show the structure of the dome

The bridges connecting both wings of the museum is made of steel trusses forming triangular shape cover from the top with glass pattern in order to doesn’t disturb the visual access of the atrium with the dome and skylight in which the dome give the feeling of the relaxation of the spirit . Moreover the bridges structure strong to hold visitors who want to view the sea through out the glass wall facing the atrium

Conclusion

The structure of the dome is hanged on triangular reinforced concrete inclined in its direction 92 which causes the expand of the atrium this is a good structural form to expand the atrium area . In addition to that a good suspended bridges over


Landscape Analysis The surrounding landscape is not imposing with its green grass and ponds and is at contrast with the building’s straight lines and geometrical shapes and the landscape’s curved paths. Giving the building maximizing the visibility of the building.

Palm trees The designer imported the 104 date palm trees from Saudi Arabia, known for their great height ,to be placed along the axis of the entrance of the museum to highlight the entrance and give a sense of grandness to the place.

Conclusion

Landscape surrounding the museum having different grid system formed on curvilinear form93 which form direct contrast with the museum . In the other hand the museum palm trees give a good visual access to the museum during the entrance


Masses and Geometry study Structure is the made of steel beams forming triangular shapes. The resulting structure is a powerful Cubist composition of square and octagonal blocks stacked atop one another and culminating in a central tower. Inside the museum, 41,000 square feet of galleries are organized around a towering atrium capped by a dome, with a narrow beam of light descending from its central oculus . this form help to keep the dome not exposed to the direct sun which will make excessive heat inside but it help to make natural lighting without increasing temperature

Sustainability Large glass area facing the bridges connecting the 2 sides of the museums with large glass areas forming wide screen which help to make natural ventilation all over the museum from inside and on the main atrium which decreases the consumption of electricity and moreover it help on sending right message

Making skylight formed of domes having small space entering light and moreover the triangles help in diffusion of light furthermore the cover of the dome is made of cube covering the dome with small light entrance also reduces heat gained through the roof

Conclusion

The form of the museum is a group of rotating museums over each other forming a complex shape but with a simple elevation

94


Sustainability The path entrance of the museum the main axis have a lake between the rows of the trees form cooling of air temperature and gives the feeling of comfort for the peoples moving through the passes

Conclusion

The form of the dome which make natural lighting without making excessive heat inside. 95 furthermore the museum has water features in the ground floor and during the entrance path leads to make cooling to the air surrounding these paths and the outdoor areas


Design Issues Image The architect wanted the museum to be a statement to the world that making a n Islamic museum doesn’t have to be all arches and old ornaments. He rather took the main elements (e.g. court) and abstracted the elevation as well as introducing curtain walls to diffuse the pre-set image the world has about Islamic architecture.

In viewing the items in a simple way, the architect made the visitors feel relaxed and tried to reflect the beauty of the Islamic culture.

Comfort •The choice of colors were of light and pastel to give a sense of serenity and relaxation for the visitor to be able to view the displayed items in comfort. •The availability of court yards for natural views as well as for natural lighting and ventilation.

The designer was able to make the natural lighting and the light palette of colors of the interior complement each other without making the visitor feel discomfort.

Exterior Visibility The designing of the museum’s mass was to try making it invisible until the visitors are near it . Moreover the formation of the cubes rotating over each other help that the visitor see the museum every time with a new perspective. The massing of the cubes helped the designer to stress on the visibility of the museum from afar..

96


Interior Visibility The existence of the curtain wall in the northern façade of the museum as well as the glass dome on the octagonal and cubic bases gave the museum an interior attraction. The glass doom refracts the light so that it doesn’t irritate the visitor. Same is applied on the curtain wall with its different sizes of window panels for better diffusion of light.

The addition of those elements helped in the accenting of the uniqueness of the museum and making it an attraction point.

Safety For the safety of the displayed objects from the visitors, special attention is applied in the exhibition rooms in terms of lighting and casement technologies. The special treatment was not easily seen, it seems like an ordinary treatment of the displayed objects.

Conclusion Points tackled by the designer •Interpreting the Islamic architecture in a modern way using sustainable materials •Taking the environment of the place into consideration when choosing the materials and way of treatment of the building •Understanding the means of circulation from afar and near to best expose the building to the visitors bit by bit, to play with the visibility of the buildings •Taking Islamic concepts and treating it with new materials and make them serve a different function than its original purpose ( Glass doom acting as a skylight) •Treating the building so that the harsh sun of the natural light without irritating t occupants.

concluded from the project Through the elements previously Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project., by creating an interesting form while still preserving the essence of the Islamic architecture. mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

97


National Liverpool Museum Basic information Date built: 2005-11 Design: 3XN Kim Herforth Nielsen, Bo Boje Larsen, Kim Christiansen Location: liverpool united kingdom

Background The Museum of Liverpool Life opened in 1993 and featured three main galleries; Making a Living, Demanding a Voice and Mersey Culture. In July 2000 the display space more than doubled when three new galleries were added as part of the Into the Future project; City Lives, City Soldiers and the River Room with its limited floor space, could no longer accommodate the more than 300,000 visits a year it was receiving. To solve this Problem the old museum has been replaced with the larger purpose-built Museum of Liverpool. Location at the UNESCO World Heritage Site, between the Albert Dock and the Pier Head, and next to a row of prominent historic buildings dubbed “The Three Graces” the museum building is conceived as inclined or elevated platforms, gradually forming a sculptural structure.

Concept The Museum connects the city together on many levels - physically, socially and architecturally. The idea of creating a Museum as a nexus in both physical and symbolic expression has been central from the start. I am very satisfied to see that this ideal is carried out to the full in the completed structure.” Kim Herforth Nielsen, Principal

A : Three gracse

B : Albert Dock

Conclusion

The concept is well established by the architect or any viewer can that the building is connecting between the three gracse & albert dock.

98


Context study

Figure shows how the surrounding buildings are constructed with façade directed in perpendicular grid to the sea while Liverpool museum is constructed with incline angle to maximize the splendid view of the sea

Figures shows the main circulation around the museum and the museum is in a corner form facing the sea as well as facing the city

Architecture Analysis Zoning Ground floor: Contain the Great port , shop ,cafĂŠ , Global city , theatre and Education area

First floor: contains The Liverpool Overhead Railway as well as The City Soldiers gallery. Both tell the history of the area through the first electrical rail elevated electrical railway that was built there in the world as well as the story of the oldest regiments in Britain's history.

Conclusion

The building orientation is at a good angle connecting between the city and the sea. Further 99 more the designer tries to respect the surrounding grid. Zones of the museum have a well distribution of the function


Second floor: Zoning contains people’s republic gallery, Wondrous gallery and The skylight gallery. The galleries celebrate the history and the city’s creative personalities, with the skylight gallery linking both republic and wondrous galleries together.

Circulation Three storey building which is divided into a number of public access galleries and circulation spaces, and private back of house spaces. Public access to the building is available at both ground floor and first floor levels. The back of house spaces contain the staff accommodation, loading bay, storage and plant rooms

Ground floor plan showing the plan circulation from the entrance to the cores and different zones

First floor plan showing the plan circulation from the entrance to the cores and different zones

Second floor plan showing the plan circulation from the entrance to the cores and different zones

Conclusion

100 The circulation depends on one main core, having the function distributed around it, this leads to overcrowding around the core. In the other hand spaces are easily found from that core


Circulation staircases as a central social room. It’s my experience that stairs are the generator for social interaction. If the staircase is sculpturally executed and at the same time gives the user a beautiful overview, people will want to use it. The central staircase creates an animated central space in a building and ties together various rooms and floors in an organic way. It is also space optimizing in that people can avoid long corridors, which almost always contributes in a positive way to a building.

Downstairs view

Upstairs view

Skylight view

Vertical Circulation:

Elevation and Mass Study • The figure shows the relation between the museum building and the contextual area surrounding it. The designer chose to use a form that is dramatically different to standout when viewed for afar.

• All the buildings are based on a modular grid of angles 90, stressing on the verticality and classical features of the buildings while the designer took the opposite approach with the buildings inclined into each other and stressing on the horizontality rather than the verticality of it . Conclusion

The designer make the building in contrast with the surroundings sky light and with the 101 surrounding colors and this lead to visual comfort and make the museum appear than the surroundings.


Structure Analysis The design provides an integrated engineering approach, allowing the structure and the services design solutions to combine and produce an energy efficient, low carbon solution to meet the high aesthetic demands of the architecture.

Show the elevation from the river side

• Cross section shows change of the structure according to the required function as well as the hiding of the structure with false celling

• Figure shows steel frames inside the galleries and the change of the structure from level to level according to the needs of the space

• The main structural frames of the galleries are that of steel frames which then are gathered in a wide concrete column to be able to elevate the galleries to make an open space under the building for the visitors recreation. • The false ceilings in the galleries are supported by cables . Conclusion

102 Good covering of the gallery halls using steel frames and covering this frames with interior finishes in order to avoid visual disturbance.


Structure Analysis • Beneath its stone cladding is a complex steel frame which allows large column-free spaces. This is perfect for creating flexible displays within the galleries. •The museum's frame is constructed with 2,100 tones of steel equivalent to 270 double decker buses. •The 1,500 square meters of glazing offer striking views of the city, especially from the 8 meters high by 28 meters wide picture windows at each end of the building. •7,500 cubic meters of concrete and 20 tones of bolts have been used in the construction. •the stone panels are cut into a range of shapes, including elongated triangular shapes for much of the facade. Much of the stone cladding was installed in a system that allows panels to angle outward from the building - creating a three-dimensional pattern. •In addition to the triangular pieces, the stone panels at the base and around the large window openings were specified in a rectangular format.

Figure showing the arrangement of the cladding to give a three dimensional effect to the building.

Figure showing the complex steel work beneath the cladding

Conclusion

The designer successed in forming the shape to break the light .

103


Sustainability Large glass areas on the 2 facades of the museum help to enter the natural lighting inside the museums which decrease the electric consumption

Interior shot shows the large glass area from inside it allow natural lighting in the museum

Figure shows the main glass in the inclined form and the metal cladding at the sides show the sun rays angle and the sun breaker done by the glass forming large light intensity inside the museum through glass and avoid glare on the ground

Figures show skylight on the top of the main staircase and form natural lights on the main vertical circulation

Conclusion

104 Glass sky light in the galleries and staircase helps to reduce using electricity and allow natural lighting.


Design Issues Symbolism The enormous gabled windows open up towards the City and the Harbor, and therefore symbolically draw history into the Museum, while at the same time allow the curious to look in.

Conclusion: The form successed to send the symbolic message to the visitor.

Circulation •Fully accessible ,it will contribute to the public promenade flow along the Docks. Situated at the Pier Head, the museum will be visible from both the river and the city. •The building is conceived as inclined or elevated platforms, gradually forming a sculptural iconic structure. All surfaces will be accessible; giving way to the public promenade flow along the Docks. Conclusion: The circulation is clear and fully accessible .

Emotional response & comfort By creating the pattern into a relief, it gives the façade an element of variation, as the changing light and shadow affect the relief’s expression . Interview with Kim Herforth Nielsen Conclusion: The designer successed in in creating a emotional and comfort response through a relief pattern

Image The result is a dynamic low-rise structure which enters into a respectful dialogue with the harbor promenade’s taller historical buildings. This interaction facilitates a modern and lively urban space Conclusion: The designer successed to represent the image through respecting the surrounding buildings by 105 respecting their heights


Interaction •The central staircase creates an animated central space in a building and ties together various rooms and floors in an organic way. It is also space optimizing in that people can avoid long corridors, which almost always contributes in a positive way to a building.

Conclusion: The designer failed in doing interaction due to overcrowding around the main core.

Spirit of the place Buildings need to be more than just their function, creating identity and awareness. This creates a requirement for the architect to interpret the symbolic potential that lies within a culture and express this through physical form.

Conclusion Points tackled by the designer • The architect took into consideration what the locals want by interviewing them and actually listening •He chose the form for it to be sustainable by not wasting stone clad. •He wanted to link the city with the river and the harbors, thus creating the rising planes of the building, with one of its side facing the city and the other the river •Creates the building as a sculpture to attract people and encourage social interactions •The creation of wide windows at the river, facing the city and the platform to give the people a little peek of what is inside. •The creation of space before entering the museum for social gathering •The sculptured staircase inside the building to ease away the feelings of long corridors.

concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project succeeded in the creation of social interacting spaces

106


Bahrain Children's Museum `111 1 Basic information Date: 2009 Architect: Faris and Faris Architects, Amman, Jordan Location: Manamah, Bahrain

Background : Faris and Faris architects took on the design of the Bahrain Children’s Museum. The Firm was commissioned by Sheikha Mai al-Khalifa as well as in cooperation with the Ministry of Information and Culture and National Heritage in Bahrain. The firm set for the building to be the first of its kind in the Kingdom.

The museum will be an interactive and educational institution for children ranging between the ages of 1-14 years, to make them explore the arts, sciences, technology, and the Bahraini identity. The Museum’s total area is around 11,000m2, and includes functions such as the main exhibit hall, a library, planetarium, restaurant, and support services. The proposed external and internal finishes will include a range of different materials to simulate locality and keep up with the spirit of the area and the local architectural characteristics.

Concept The museum aim is that it will encourage the spirit of discovery and imagination through the creative use of interactive exhibits. The architectural design of the building was affected mainly by the following elements resulting in the design decisions adopted for the project. With the children being pure of heart, the designers chose to go with the simplicity of forms that can be manipulated into different volumes to give a sense of diversity and playfulness to the masses. •Paper: Due to its simplicity and easiness to be shaped into several shapes, it one of the interesting playing mediums a child can enjoy. With its endless potentials that can be folded, cut, modeled, and reshaped into any shape imaginable, and still retain the fragility and purity of the source.

Conclusion 107 The architects took into consideration the materials that the children like to shape and took its abstract form and applied it to the massing of the building.


•Paper: Due to its simplicity and easiness to be shaped into several shapes, it one of the interesting playing mediums a child can enjoy. With its endless potentials that can be folded, cut, modeled, and reshaped into any shape imaginable, and still retain the fragility and purity of the source.

•Purity: The understanding and interaction of the children with their surrounding reflects the purity of their spirit. The architects used the concept of their purity by reflecting it in the building forms, them platonic, simple, and pure, drawing strength from their purity, and yet not be overpowering or intimidating.

•Color: to attract the children, colors is one of the elements that attract the children’s eyes and make them interested in what it represents. Applying the same concept in the coloring of the masses, giving a glimpse of what is inside and igniting the imagination and stimulating the senses to discover what’s beyond these walls.

108


Context The museum is positioned next to the sea. With the close proximity of the buildings to the museum there is no place for landscaping.

Architectural analysis Zoning Ground floor •The museum has three points of entry to the children’s museum. •The exhibition is positioned on both sided of the museum .

First floor •Contains the occupations that are less frequently visited by the visitors.

Conclusion

The architects wanted to make the children feel a sense of adventure, so he took a plain mass and added 109 the irregular cuts in the mass to allow the penetration of light and play with the shade and shadows within building giving it a sense of mystery.The zoning is simple to make it easy for the children to find their way around the museum.


Circulation Ground Floor

First floor

110


Elevation analysis •A pierced multilayered exhibitions building signifies the characteristics of paper while granting the museum an interior animated by light. •The museum is sloped in a way that makes it seem as if it is pointing towards the sea as shown in the following section. •The paper like elevation structure is more apparent in the part of the mass suspended above the water.

Structure analysis Fiber Cement: is made into panels with different textures and shapes, used for cladding building surfaces, and creating the folded surfaces for the mass housing the exhibits. -Plaster & Paint: reminiscent of the local building techniques of the country, and will be used to produce a smooth, pure surface for the external walls. -Glass: employed to enhance the “play of light” idea, but in small contained areas and in the form of puncture holes to avoid sun exposure and overheating of the building. -Metal: used to create the skeleton which will carry the fiber cement panels

Conclusion

111 The designers used the sea view to their advantage by extending the museum into the water and the elevation grid to create a structure system that holds the mass within the water.


Landscape Analysis The Museum is directly stationed at the sea giving it maximum view. There is no landscaping in the project due to the small area given to the architects to build on.

Masses and Geometry study •The different textures in the elevations is reflected in the masses of the museum and their heights as shown in the previous section.

•The skin of the main circulation artery represents a recreation of a paper cut-out; this long rectangular core connects the exhibition halls with the rest of the building and allows ease of movement. The picture shows the structure that is holding the reset of the mass above the water. And the color is apparent in the elevation highlighting the folded mass that makes it easy for the sun to penetrate into the building. Conclusion

112 The museum was divided into two forms, one with a plain elevation and the other with glass slits to allow the penetration of light.


Design Issues

Circulation The Museum has a linear circulation with one core. The simplicity in the circulation helps the children to find their way easily.

With the exhibition halls on either side of the linear path, it is easily found and accessible.

Image The Museum’s elevation was based on the concept of the basic interaction of the children and their exploration to the objects. Bearing that in mind the architects took a simple object represented in a paper and manipulated it to form playful masses to take the children's interest as well as the implementation of colors within the building. The building consists of two intersecting forms with different volumes as well as the colors which makes the building as a whole catches the eye, making it look interesting.

Interaction Since the museum is built for children, there are a number of interactive installations for the children to enjoy.

The building consists of two intersecting forms with different volumes as well as the colors which makes the building as a whole catches the eye, making it look interesting.

Mood The entrance of the light through the mass gaps helps in giving the building a sense of mystery and provides sufficient amount of light without the light hurting the human comfort due to the harsh sunlight of the climate. The small openings in the mass allows the harsh sunlight to diffuse so that it doesn't affect the visitors comfort or make the experience unpleasant. 113


Visibility The Museum is visible from the sea as well as from the street, surrounded by numerous important buildings which make it easily accessible.

Including the mass into the water and inclining the roof for maximum visibility.

Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •The designers took a simple form and readjusted it to several volumes. •Simple circulation so that not to overwhelm the children and make them lose their way around. •Providing an interesting environment, achieved through the play of shade and shadow through the openings. •Web-like structure to the atrium to give the museum a sense of mysteriousness.

Concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

114


MARITIME MUSEUM, ABU DHABI Basic information Date: under construction Architect:TADAO ANDO Location:ABU DHABI

Background : “Within the ship-like interior of the volume, ramps and floating decks guide the visitors fluidly through the exhibition space, echoing the theme of the museum and creating a dynamic gallery experience. Dhows float over the voids of the interior space and help create an intense visual experience by relating objects to one another and to the museum architecture as a whole. Below ground, there is a second space - the reception hall with an enormous aquarium. A traditional dhow floats over the aquarium and is seen from different perspectives.” Just off the coast of Abu Dhabi City located on nearby Saadiyat Island the new Cultural District will be home to a group of museums and pavilions with Tadao Ando’s Maritime Museum being the first in a row of four mayor projects aligned on Saadiyat’s shoreline. Between the rapidly progressing new Saadiyat Bridge and Zaha Hadid’s Performing Arts Centre the main building will stand out as a calm and simple structure with exposed concrete finish a rather rare scene in the UAE.

Concept The concept is enthused by the natural surrounding of Abu Dhabi’s landscape and maritime traditions. The project to the shape of ship interior floating decks that will guide visitors through the exhibition space.

Conclusion

The designer achieved the concept by making his building look like the ship and be reflected on water

115


Context The rest of trees arranged on a dry square represents land, while a large pond evokes the sea. The "oasis" of trees provides a transition between the city and the museum, which visually links the two spaces, while a covered lateral circulation links them functionally.

Architectural analysis zoning The designer placed the services on the edges of the project. Even though the building is formally very impressive, there was a problem when dealing with internal spaces. This sculptural form leads to some functional problems leading to a large percentage of the area of ​the building is simply impractical.

Conclusion

The designer failed in the plan of the museum through the presence of a lot waste area that aren’t used by visitors

116


zoning Many spaces are not functional or left as multiple height areas. The architect focused on creating a stenographic architecture.

117


circulation The circulation is changeable due to the change of the escalators places as there are a lot of double height areas

Conclusion

118 The designer failed in circulation as the changeable the places of the escalators that make the visitors confused about walking in the museum


Structure analysis Structure analysis This image shows the construction that was used and it is a simple concrete that doesn’t have any additional materials.

Conclusion

119 The structure museum is made of thick concrete walls which decreases the sound transfer to the outside which is well designed without any additional material


Landscape and neighbor landscape Using only palm trees in grid way

Mass Study The mass of this project has a shape of ship’s wings that is illustrated on the elevation of the building

Conclusion

120 Not a lot of landscape are used as the architect depend on the view of the sea and used same type of tree (palm tree) to make it simple landscape


Design Issues Physiological comfort The museum didn’t achieve a complete comfort for the visitor because of the Acoustic wise, as whatever conversations you have will simply cause some disturbance across the twothree stories, Also the noise from the auditorium was disrupting too as it echoed up to the exhibition hall upstairs. physcological comfort: due to the form of the building, he was unable to treat the eco resulting from the concave form of the building.

Convenient It is not convenient as a museum ,visually, the museum was kind of interesting and beautiful in its design and structure but functionally, it doesn't seem to work well as a museum, the building seemed to take the attention away from the works. convenient: the designer didnt focus on the solution of the plans as much as he designed the points of wayfinding(water elements).

Image symbolism the practice of representing things by symbol or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character.a beginnings as a desert oasis.

symbolsim: The building symbolizes that of a craftsmen ship

Conclusion Points tackled by the designer •Usage of sustainability and energy efficient technology to make the building environmentally friendly •Integrating function with application techniques • The extension respected the earlier trademarks of the older building in terms of pan of floors and the use of natural lighting within the mass •An interesting choice of form yet it is integrated within the other building

concluded from the project 1.designer wanted to recreate the feeling of somethin floating in the form of the interior of the building. 2.he intrduced the water feature of the museum indoors to make it easy for the visitros to find the 121 way around(landmark). 3. he used palm trees as a landmark tb be visible for visitors


National Museum of Saudi Arabia Basic information Date: 1999-2001 Architect: Moriyama & Teshima Planners Ltd Location: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background : In 2001 the National Museum was awarded an Honorable Mention in the Ontario Association of Architects’ Good Design is Good Business Awards. The complex, built at a cost of 182 million U.S. dollars It has been a great success attracting visitors with Its sensible contemporary interpretation of local heritage. During its first two weeks, over 16,000 people visited the new cultural venue which was part of the government’s plan to widen its economic base and to expand opportunities for l eisure and cultural activities. Since then the Museum has become a popular location staging cultural events and official functions. The outdoor landscaped gardens are particularly busy after sunset when families venture out to enjoy the cool evening air.Surrounded by buildings transplanted from other cultures and other climates, the Saudis praise the way the Museum “seems to rise from Saudi soil.” Pride in Saudi achievements, fueled by enthusiasm for the Museum, has encouraged the Kingdom to open its doors to tourists for the first time. According to The Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf, the National Museum was a contributing factor in Riyadh’s designation by UNESCO as the cultural capital of the Arab World in 2000.

Concept The design approach drew inspiration from the local vernacular architectural tradition of simple adobe walls, restrained surface decoration, and simple devices to provide for human comfort where temperatures easily exceed 40 degrees C. The Museum’s central design feature is a curved west wall of local limestone that sweeps along Murabba Square and the Palace Garden in a broad welcoming gesture towards Mecca. At sunset, the wall glows with the red of the setting sun, then gradually subsides to welcome the cool of evening.

Conclusion

122 The designer achieved the concept by making his space more connected to the social society by using glass transparency and the green spaces that form relief to the visitors


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer respect the grid form of 90 degrees of the street connection and the surrounding building moreover he started to design a new entrance

N softscape Accessibility parking New building Old building Paths Link

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning The designer start to figure how to connect between the 2 buildings old museum and the new extension so he Contented himself of connecting it with only hard and soft patterns of landscape.

Conclusion

The designer achieved a good point on respecting the surrounding building grid and the formation of the linkage between the 2 buildings

123


zoning On the north side of the Museum a 45 meter tall glass curtain wall, the only major window, offers panoramic views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all five floors of the atrium.The Museum is composed of two cream colored limestone buildings, a five-story main building and a two-story Education Wing, connected across a central courtyard

Conclusion

The zoning shows a comparison between the old museum and the new extension which reflect the capability of the designer to add an extension in form of a continuous plan

124


zoning

Conclusion

The zoning shows a comparison between the old museum and the new extension which reflect the capability of the designer to add an extension in form of a continuous plan

125


Circulation

Old building

Ground Floor • The Ground floor has only one entrance, from the main entrance lobby. Moreover It has two zones linked with each other with a bridge. The first zone has exhibition halls, galleries and courtyard gardens and department of antiquities . the second zone, is the lounge, offices and the courtyard gardens. Furth more Its circulation is clear and simple that is easy to access.

New extension Ground Floor • The Ground floor has two entrances, both are from the main entrance lobby. Moreover It has two zones linked with each other. The first zone hasexhibition halls, offices and courtyard gardens. the second zone, is the green house that has plant classrooms, department of antiquities . Furth more Its circulation is clear and simple that is easy to access. Conclusion

The zoning shows a comparison between the old museum and the new extension 126 which reflect the capability of the designer to add an extension in form of a continuous plan . The designer failed in connecting between the old building and the new extension .


Circulation

stairs

First Floor The First floor has a double high halls, galleries, and some special exhibitions.

Elevation analysis 1) Grid ,plain, curtain wall elevation. 2)With a recessed ground floor for shading. 3)Applying sustainability by entering excess of natural lighting. 4)Clear elevation ,with a distinct entrance. 5)eight geothermal wells, rainwater for plants, 28 percent reduction in energy use), which might mend some fences.

Structure analysis Structure is made of local materials forming a 2 story museum made of thick walls and large stones these materials help to decrease the heat transfer through walls .

Conclusion

The circulation through the new extension is direct and linear form with distribution of the 127 function through linear corridors . Grid formation an Clarence also appears on the elevation pattern of the glass .


Landscape Analysis

Link

New extension

Old building

Landscape In Elevation Further more landscape is formed of forever green trees that are ever green in order to use it in shading all year long as the climate is always hot and sunny.

Conclusion

128 The arrangement of the trees on the site is not respecting the arrangement of the adjacent street trees ,disturb the consistency of the view of the street with haphazard tree arrangement.


Mass Study The design features expanded the old building with a new extension connected through out hard and soft landscape

Masses and Geometry study The designer respected the old building height while designing the new one, The concept for the museum is somewhat different to the traditional approach of the classic museums. As such it is sometimes difficult to identify certain specific pieces and even tell replicas from originals. The idea behind this is not to focus on individual pieces in their own right but rather use them as examples to highlight the general ideas or concepts they represent.

Conclusion

The designer respected the old building height while designing the new one connected through 129 out hard and soft landscape.


Sustainability Using of very thick walls decreases the heat transfer and help to decrease the temp inside which decreases the electric consumption . Further more the use of water features through out all the outside paths and green zones help to decrease the temp and make guestes feels pleasure during moving in the out door spaces

Conclusion

130 Further more landscape is formed of deciduous trees that are seasonal in order to use it with sustainability and glass elevations


Design Issues Comfort physically The design approach drew inspiration from the local vernacular architectural tradition of simple adobe walls, restrained surface decoration, and simple devices to provide for human comfort where temperatures easily exceed 40 degrees C. The Museum’s central design feature is a curved west wall of local limestone that sweeps along Murabba Square and the Palace Garden in a broad welcoming gesture towards Mecca. At sunset, the wall glows with the red of the setting sun, then gradually subsides to welcome the cool of evening Conclusion : The designer added a well extension which is flexible in its plan and layout to be renewed and extended Mood spirit of the place The Challenge:At the time Moriyama & Teshima won theinternational design competition for the new National Museum, the city of Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia, was carrying out an economic development program which aimed at widening its economic base and expanding opportunities for leisure and cultural activities. The new National Museum complex was meant to be akey strategy of the program. The task was to create a museum, including the building and exhibits, that would inspire national pride in Saudi culture and history and promote museum-going as a leisure activity, a fairly new concept in Saudi Arabia. The official opening of the Museum was scheduled to coincide with the centennial of Saudi unification resulting in an extremely tight schedule to meet the non-negotiable deadline Conclusion : The designer made a good using of modern materials to differentiate between old building and new building 131


Design Issues

Image identiy The architects’ research revealed the need for the Museum to express the enduring nature of Saudi culture and to assert the Kingdom’s position in a global economy. Moriyama & Teshima identified the building as an instrument to help Saudis define themselves for the rest of the world.

Conclusion : The designer added a well extension which is flexible in its plan and layout to be renewed and extended

Image symbolism the practice of representing things by symbol or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character. The visual effect is of a canyon wall, a reminder of Riyadh’s beginnings as a desert oasis.

Conclusion : The designer made a good using of modern materials to differentiate between old building and new building

Message The facade The museum's signature image, the dune-shaped facade. The west facade along Murabba' Square resembles the soft contour of a sandune with its layout forming a crescent pointing towards Mecca.

Conclusion : The designer succeeded in delivering the message through-out the design of the facades

132


Design Issues Visibility from outside Wherever possible the Museum reaches out to the public, helping to overcome any feelings of exclusivity, enticing passers-by to have a look inside.

Conclusion : the designer make good emotional response by making a simple new extension and opened that make the visitor able to relate the building to the arts

Conclusion Points tackled by the designer the designer make good emotional response by making a simple new extension and opened that make the visitor able to relate the building to the arts .  The designer succeeded in delivering the message through-out the design of the facades.  The designer made a good using of modern materials to differentiate between old building and new building. The designer added a well extension which is flexible in its plan and layout to be renewed and extended. The use of local materials.

concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

133


Seoul National University Museum Basic information Date: 2004-2006 Architect Rem Koolhaas Location: seoul, Korea Background : The MoA is the first university art museum in Korea dedicated exclusively to modern and contemporary art History of the museum was that in 1995 Prof. Jong-Sang Lee proposes the establishment of the MoA , and the Samsung Cultural foundation promises to fund the creation of the museum. The Seoul National University Campus Planning Committee selects the location for the future museum.in1996 Officials from the Samsung Foundation of Culture and Rem Koolhaas conduct a field investigation of the building’s site.By 1997 Schematic Design Completed and from 2004 to 2005 The construction of the structure is completed. finally in 2006 the project was opened Project goal is attract a broad national and international audience its most important roles will be to contribute to the academic mission and life of the University through the teaching points underpinning its exhibitions the MoA will provide a stimulating environment to experience and learn about the visual arts.

Concept The design is driven by the relationship of the campus to the community and serve as a link between them. Also he respected the natural contours of the site.

Conclusion

Designer achieved the concept by respecting the natural contours.

134


Context • The museum is connected to the campus streets and the community main street by a new pedestrian traffic. • The museum is surrounded by green areas (trees ,mountains)

Main entrance of the seol university

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning There are four basic program areas: 1)Exhibition 2)Library 3) Operations 4)The educational spaces: the lecture hall and auditorium.

Conclusion

135 The design achieved a good point on linking between the building and the main road by landscape.


zoning The library inhabits the center and structural core of the building, The exhibition space, located at the top, is designed for expansion by allowing its invasion of the educational spaces. The educational spaces (the lecture hall and auditorium ) use the slope formed by the slice for their tiered seating.

Exhibition hall Conclusion

lecture hall

Auditorium

136 The designer achieved the open space plan which shows the visibility of the plan of museum.


Circulation • • • • •

Circulation through the building is a continuation of the defining slice. internally the path split and spirals inward. As one enters the building the circulation affords connections to the different programs. the circulation is clear, and easy to access. The central core with a square-spiral staircase connecting the various program areas: exhibition, education, library, and operations.

Both outside and inside, free-flowing circulation was key to the thinking behind the building.

Main entrance

Library entrance

The museum has one main vertical core with no sub cores . This main core is accessible from both entrances, the entrance that is directed to allow the students to enter the museum directly from campus and the other entrance visitors from the community enter that positioned for them outside the campus. Conclusion

Because the plan is open space, the circulation through it is not clear as the visitor feel bored and137 leave without watching all of the exhibits.


Traffic Circulation • There are a lot of traffic facilities around like subway, bus stop, pedestrian and vertical traffic roads passing through the museum site. • Those means of transportation provide different options of accessibility to the public to reach the site. • With the museum built by the campus and the subway is directly next to the site, it provide cheap means of transportation for the stuents to reach the campus as well as the museum.

New pedestrian traffic Vertical traffic Pedestrian traffic Bus stop zone Green zones Road Existing buildings

Structure analysis 1)This mass is a cantilevered structural steel shell bearing on a concrete core. 2)This structure creates the illusion that the massive cantilevered form is floating. 3) The museum's façade is translucent, revealing the structural steel truss work beneath. 4) materials vary, and include concrete flooring, plywood paneling, and translucent plastic paneling over fluorescent lighting

Figures show the structure material and techniques

Conclusion

138 The design achieved the visibility of the museum with the surrounding which make the facade transparent and structural steel trusses.


Structure analysis The section shown shows the relation between the main core and the rest of the building. Since the core is the only concrete structure within the entire building and the rest is an elevated zigzagged shape that replicates the slope of the site and is constructed with steel structure wit glass within to highlight the natural views surrounding the building.

Landscape Analysis The architect was influenced by the environment (the green mountains and trees) around the museum. As The monolithic volume of the museum confirms the specific site views around it. He frames the surrounding beauty of the environment by the form of the building.

Conclusion

139 from The architect respect the surrounding environment by creating the landscape with the elements taken the surrounding as green mountain and tree


Landscape Analysis

The museum is placed like a crack in a large landscape area

The museum structure is raised in order to allow visual accesses to the surrounding landscape

Conclusion

140 The designer allowed a good visual access for the project where the landscape gives attraction to the visitor.


Masses and Geometry study The building's form was conceived as a basic rectangular box, sliced diagonally by the incline of the hill

Sustainability Glass windows and sky lights in elevation help in making natural ventilation on the spaces at back which help to decrease the electric consumption • The designer respect the natural environment (contours). • the building is nearly all cantilever, extending up and down the hill, following the topography precisely and appearing to hover above it.

• The excess use of natural lighting, by using translucent glazing walls and skylights • using sustainable green elements and patterns in the floor, to give continuity to the surrounding environment with the building.

Conclusion

141 The designer succeeded in achieving the sustainability by respecting the contours and the usage of transparency in the facade which achieved the natural lighting .


Design Issues Physiological comfort The museum didn’t achieve a complete comfort for the visitor because of the Acoustic wise, as whatever conversations you have will simply cause some disturbance across the two-three stories, Also the noise from the auditorium was disrupting too as it echoed up to the exhibition hall upstairs. Conclusion : the designer has succeeded to make physiological comfort for the visitors

Physical comfort As the recessed concrete lower part of the museum allows a shading area for the activities at that place Ex: shading area for the cafeteria, for the library stairs ,and at the main entrance. Also providing comfort sitting areas. Conclusion : the designer has succeeded to make physical comfort for the visitors

Legibility in layering The clearness of the vertical circulation of the museums, as each floor shows clearly its function by using the main central core.

Conclusion : the museum has a clear vertical circulation

Convenient It is not convenient as a museum ,visually, the museum was kind of interesting and beautiful in its design and structure

Conclusion : functionally, it doesn't seem to work well as a museum, the building seemed to take the attention away from the works. 142


Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •He made an imposing building to the landscape respecting the contours •The usage of glass to indicate openness and lightness •Usage of sustainability and energy efficient technology to make the building environmentally friendly •Integrating function with application techniques •An interesting choice of form yet it is integrated within the landscape

concluded from the project This museum succeeded in it’s designing and structure process, but it didn’t provide all the requirements of a museum.

143


Museum of contemporary arts in Zagreb Basic information Project year: 1999 – 2009 Architects: Studio za arhitekturu d.o.o. Location: Zagreb, Croatia

Background : the largest publicly funded cultural project since Croatian independence in 1991—has finally opened its doors in December. The opening marked the culmination of a frustratingly drawnout process, with the decision to create a museum first being made in 1998. A new building, designed by Croatian architect Igor Franic, has been created to house the museum, which holds collections of Croatian and foreign works from the 1950s to the present. Despite the delay and budget cuts that accompanied building construction, the new museum is extensive, covering a total area of 15,000 sq. m. The ambitious project is the first museum to be built in Zagreb in 125 years.

Concept Referring to the tradition of functionalist architecture, Igor Franić planned a building that would stand on a major traffic route which is an important link between Zagreb’s historical centre and its new districts across the Sava River.

Conclusion

144 The museum doesn`t reflect its concept for the visitors due to the large number of recess in the form of the museum which doesn`t give the visitor the feeling of the link.


Context The context through out the site shows that the designer respect the grid form of 90 degrees of the street connection and the surrounding building moreover he started to design a new entrance

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning The ground level is entirely dedicated to various facilities for visitors, including rooms for workshops in the visual arts, a library with a reading room, a smaller exhibition room, a multimedia auditorium, a museum shop, and a restaurant. The exhibition rooms are located on three levels, and their variety promotes a flexible relationship between the permanent collection and the rooms for temporary exhibitions, offering various possibilities for realizing even the most demanding exhibition projects.

Conclusion

145 The museum respect the surroundings streets grid while the zoning of the museum is offers different facilities for the visitors.


zoning The museum is developing a series of linear stretch vertically with the side, sinuous profile of the structure. The building also shows the different heights and the relationship between flow and area under the porch or body building, as well as the changes in the relationship between “full” and ” invalid “,” positive “and” negative’ in the form.

Second Core

Main Core

Entrance

Ground Floor

Second floor

Third core

Third Floor

Circulation

Conclusion

Different exhibitions in different floors without connections between them causes breaking 146 the continuity between exhibits which transform the museum to exhibiting galleries. Too many cores (six cores) lead to non sequence in exhibits and lead to not understanding the circulation.


Circulation

147

Conclusion

Un clear circulation due to large number of cores and non sequence of exhibits.


Elevation analysis The elevation consists of right angle grid. He used a concept of addition and subtraction from the rectangular form trying to reflect the mass dynamic.

Structure analysis structure is characterized by qualities which are becoming ever more rare in contemporary architecture. Namely, its current “nudity” shows that which should be really important – the “flesh and bones” of the structure. Without a “hairdo”, without “modern” or “outdated” clothes, without “fine” or “rude manners”, and finally without everything this structure, its users, or even the author himself think it should represent at the opening day. Furthermore, thanks to its materiality, this building proves to be capable of being more than merely a concept.

Conclusion

The designer failed in the design of elevation as it seems to be messy elevation due to it148 can not be readied by the visitors. structure is characterized by qualities which are becoming ever more rare in contemporary architecture


Landscape Analysis Using steps in landscape , so many platforms and access plates parked in front of the building the symbolic capital of the museum as a means by which to win detachment built landscape neutrality in terms of meaning

Mass Study •The designer followed his initial idea of having the masses elevated from each other in the building and replicated it into the surrounding landscape. •The building itself is a rectangular shape that is subtracted from it resulting in the zigzagged form of the building, setting it apart from the surrounding context. •The entrances to the museum are elevated and reached through a series of stairs. •The building’s upper floors are supported by a series of columns coming from the underground floor of the museum while leaving the space between the zero level and the elevated floors open for recreational purposes. •The museum has several cores since not all of the floors is passed by the same core. Thus the reason behind the existence of sic cores within the museum for accessibility.

Conclusion

149 The designer succeed in landscape as it respects the form of the building. Further more the designer failed in the form of the museum as it don`t appear as it is museum many recess and many cantilevers.


Design Issues Visibility Exhibition spaces are not articulated either as a classical series of “white cubes” or as entirely open, fluid space, but rather as a series of relatively large halls of different configurations, divided into subspaces specifically adapted to micro-situations of the permanent display. Conclusion : the designer successed in the visibility of the building according to broken angles of the museum with the surroundings

Comfort the large glass wall, an informal “rest area” is set up. Behind a screen visitors can “detach” themselves from art and enjoy the view towards the Većeslav Holjevac Avenue Conclusion : the designer successed in making the visitors comfort through-out the design of walls

Energy efficiencyEnvironmental impact sustainability features, like a geothermal well system, daylight harvesting, water efficient landscaping techniques, and the use of local and regional materials. Significant rehabilitation of the existing palace was also completed, including structural stability enhancements

Conclusion : the designer successed in making an enviromental impact through some good sustainability features.

Legibility With the layering of the mass with its subtraction from the rectangular form and the replication of the elevation’s into the landscape with the layering of the same grid. Conclusion : the designer successed in vertical circulation through-out clear layring .

150


Interaction the building is elevated from the group to give space for recreational purposes.. Conclusion : the designer successed in doing interccation spaces cause of the landscape patterns outside the building

Circulation The existence of 6 cores within the building is not in favor of the building since it makes the visitor confused as to what core leads to which area.

Conclusion : the designer failed in the sequence of the exhibits according to many cores .

Flexbility The building with its subtracted form gives way for future expansion vertically..

Conclusion : the designer successed in vertical circulation through-out clear layring as it also could give future expansion .

Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer •The usage of glass to indicate openness and lightness •Integrating function with application techniques •The project is easy to be red by the visitors •The building interact with the outside through its landscape

concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

151


National Museum of American indian Basic information Date: 21septmber 2004, Architect: Ottawa architect Douglas Cardinal Location: Washington DC

Background : It should have been a recipe for kitsch: a museum r esembling a mesa carved by the wind, its flexes and curves of honey-colored, rough-cut limestone rising from an idealized Native American ecosystem. But the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened today, is a masterful abstraction and one of the more interesting buildings on Washington, D.C.’s National Mall since I.M. Pei’s East Building of 1978. The NMAI occupies that last museum location on the Mall and forms a new gateway to the Smithsonian Museums. It was designed and curated by Native Americans, showcases Indian history and culture from an upbeat Native perspective, and Native tribes contributed $33 million of the $219 million price tag.After winning the design commission in 1993, Ottawa architect Douglas Cardinal, of Native Canadian descent , created a scheme reflecting themes voiced by native artists, elders, and chiefs with whom the museum consulted in nearly 150 Native communities from the Arctic to the Galapagos. Cardinal was dismissed over a legal dispute in `98, but “by then the design was set,” says director W. Richard West, a Southern Cheyenne and Stanfordeducated Washington lawyer. Original team members Johnpaul Jones (Cherokee/Choctaw) Donna House (Navajo/Oneida), and Ramona Sakiestewa (Hopi) implemented Cardinal’s design. To quell questions of design authorship, West says the Smithsonian “is indebted to Douglas Cardinal for his work of genius.”

Concept structure reflects the relationship between humankind and the rest of nature, with references to the four cardinal directions and the four elements of the world – earth, air, water and fire.

Conclusion

the curves in the building reflects the concept of the natural elements, which are ever flowing and not 152 rigid. therefore the architects chose the curves to show its flexibility rather than sharp angles which could be seen as rigidity.


Context Context of the building are moving on a grid form parallel to the streets grid but the designer her try to change the grid of the building and use organic free form shapes

Context accessibility and circulation

Architectural analysis zoning

The structure contains six footprints, undulating perimeter walls, real boulders and constructed water features and a 45-meter entrance overhang reminiscent of age-old cliff dwellings.

Conclusion

Even when the designers where confided by the importance of respecting the street grid, they 153 arranged the building within the side in a way to be seen as overflowing and organic rather than a systematic replica of the street grid


zoning No two floors have the same geometric layout, and the design contains many compound curves and changing radii throughout the building. There are more than 500 work points, each of which represent the center of a circle and can generate multiple radii. Within the building, there are easily over 1,000 curves and little repetition. In addition, the structure features a roof that cantilevers above the entrance at the eastern end.

Conclusion

The designers replecated the nature concept even in the plan applied in the different spatial 154 organization of each floor. this was due to that nature is ever changing, therfore the plans was subjected to the same cycle.


Circulation

Structure analysis To undertake the challenge of constructing such a complex facility, Clark employed several different concrete forming systems including European formwork systems made by Conesco Doka. Because the foundation walls are curved with no repetitive radii, the Conesco Doka adjustable radius formwork system was used for its flexibility. The adjustable system is capable of forming concave or convex walls with radii as tight as ten feet. In addition, eight separate custom-made shear wall forms were used to form the curved vertical shafts that house mechanical risers and stairways within the structure. The form systems used on the project ultimately increased productivity and helped control quality by rigidly maintaining the varying concave or convex radii for the different geometric configurations once the forms were set into place. The museum is designed to resist seismic and wind loads, primarily by transferring loads to the shear walls of the stair and elevator cores placed throughout the building. Over 1,000 friction-resistant driven piles of epoxy-coated steel support the structure.

155


Landscape Analysis The National Museum of the American Indian recognizes the importance of indigenous peoples’ connection to the land; the grounds surrounding the building are considered an extension of the building and a vital part of the museum as a whole. By recalling the natural environment that existed prior to European contact, the museum’s landscape design embodies a theme that runs central to the NMAI—that of returning to a Native place. Four hundred years ago, the Chesapeake Bay region abounded in forests, wetlands, meadows, and Algonquian peoples’ croplands. The NMAI restores these environments and is home to more than 27,000 trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants representing 145 species.

Mass Study the five-story, 250,000-square-foot building faces east toward the rising sun, and the U.S. Capitol 500 yards away. An entrance with a sweeping overhang opens to a 120-foot wide rotunda, which is less architecturally convincing than the exterior, probably because it lacked Cardinal’s sure hand. The rotunda, soaring 120 feet to a skylight, opens to curving galleries and two circular theaters, a resource center, gift shop and food court.

Conclusion

156 the existence of 145 tree species, the building skylight and the oriantation of the building to the east to be greated by the rising sun further shows the designer's cometment to the nature concept


Design Issues

Flexibility-Adaptation Building is not flexible as it has a curvilinear plan and a form that is very difficult to add to it a future extension

in an effort to make the building organic, the designer disregarded the need for future expantion in the construction of the project

Image . The building’s special features – an entrance facing east toward the rising sun, a prism window and a 120-foot high entrance called the Potomac – were carefully designed in close consultation with the Native American community over a four-year period to reflect beliefs and meanings in Native American culture. the designer respected the native american's attatchment to nature and since the museum was about their culture, the designer featured elements that inhanced the idea of them connected to nature (e.g the entrance oriented to the east where the sun rises).

Visibility The project has a very good visible point where its distinguished from surrounding building by its form with cantilever and curvilinear form and also the materials of lime stone used on the building elevation

the designer with the use of natural inspired concepts (e.g the organic form of the building and the use of lime stones), insured that the building will be destinguished from its surrounding, giving it maximim visibility and exposure.

Circulation the circulation have a certain direct path that facilitate way finding inside the museum

the cirulation inside the spaces of the building is linearly organic, since the spaces are organically 157 arranged while the circulation withinthe space is straight forward (linear).


Conclusion

Points tackled by the designer 1) wanted to make a musuem that respected the native american's heratige 2) wanted the museum to be interesting with its organic form (landmark) 3) making the musuem a house of natural species (the existence of 145 tree/ shrubs in the museums landscap)

concluded from the project Through the elements previously mentioned, the designer succeeded in transmitting those considerations and through the elements of the project.

158


Stedelijk museum in Amsterdam Background information Client: City of Amsterdam: Architect: Benthem Crouwel Architekten Construction Manager: DHV Bouw en Industrie Building Contractor: Volker Wessels Engineers: Arup Technical Engineers: Imtech Interior Textile: Inside Outside, Petra Blaisse, Mission of the museum The Museum aims to provide a home for art, artists and a broad range of publics, where artistic production is actively fostered, presented, protected, reconsidered and renewed. Although the new building is unmistakably different in appearance from the original Stedelijk Museum designed by A.W. Weissman, it matches the scale of the 1895 building and has a direct connection to it on all floors. The two are fully integrated without either one being compromised. Story of the building the recent renovation to the stedelijk museum located in amsterdam. originally designed by a.w. weissman, the building is known for its palatial rooms, natural lighting and, in particular, the impressive staircase adorning the core of the space.

Concept the entry to the museum has been relocated to the open area of museum plaza filling a spacious translucent extension. the fluid white structure above the entrance is affectionately termed ‘the bathtub’ featuring a sleek organic aesthetic composed of reinforced fibre, complemented by a canopy audaciously extending out into the cityscape

159


Zoning The figure shows the relation of the outer seating area of the restaurant in relation to the museum and the street

The floor diagram shows the main zones and the main vertical circulation in both the old museum and the new museum extension.

Floor plan / level 0 3. coat rack 1. entrance 2. tickets 6. restaurant 7. exhibition old museum

4. bookshop

5. information center

160


Interior analysis The figure shows an interior of an exhibition hall in the upper floors of the new extension with the white walls and the glass roof to allow the entrance of natural light into the hall

The maximum possible natural light is maintained given the constraints of art conservation.

Floor plan / level 1 1. 2. hall 3. toilets auditori um

161


Spatial analysis

•Karel Appel, Mural (1956), in the former restaurant space of the Stedelijk Museum

•New exhibition hall in the new museums in the upper floors.

Floor plan / level 2 1. exhibition space new museum 2. exhibition space old museum 3. toilets

4. cafe 162


Spatial analysis •This figure shows the interior of the education showing the contrast of the old museum with the new installations of the building •The interior is based on simplicity in design with unnoticed artificial lighting that gives a feeling of openness and comfort with the white colored ceiling and open span structure system. .

1. study center 2. educational center Floor plan / level -1

163


Spatial analysis •The following image shows the halls positioned in the extension of the new museum in the underground floors. Lighting Due to its position underground there are no skylights for natural lighting but rather depends on the artificial lights for lighting the halls and the exposure o f the artifacts for the visitors.

1. exhibition space new museum

2. hal l

3. toilet s

164 Floor plan / level


Structure Analysis Structure is the made of steel beams forming triangular shaped which also acts as skylight emitting natural lighting into the museum.

•Facade Material •The smooth white surface of the facade is made up of 271 panels of a pioneering new composite material with Twaron® fiber as its key ingredient. The panels are attached to the steel structure by 1,100 aluminum brackets. •Twaron, a synthetic fiber, is extremely lightweight (27 kilograms per square meter, or less than half the weight of a normal curtain wall), is five times as strong as steel, maintains its shape and strength in varying weather conditions and does not melt in fire. •Because the composite with carbon fiber and Twaron can be molded, it permits the creation of a smooth, seamless surface of virtually any area. Twaron is ordinarily used for the hulls of motorboats and racing yachts, sailcloth, aerospace and industr components.

165


Circulation The entrance is situated in a transparent facade facing onto the open grassy expanse of Museum plaza.

Ground floor

Once they have gone past the entrance, visitors may freely choose whether to pass directly into the original building, or else take the stairs or elevator to the new building’s exhibition galleries. The lower level houses the largest free-span exhibition gallery in the Netherlands as well as a large black-box gallery/performance space. The other galleries are on the second floor. To allow visitors to enjoy exhibitions without distractions, an enclosed escalator runs directly between the lower level and second floor.

1st floor

166


3rd floor

The diagrams shows the circulation between the spaces and the entrance and exit points into the floor into t he required spaces.

4th floor

167


Key features in the project The stair case that links the floors of the new extension together as well as the escalators that are cocooned in a skin like tunnel right next to the main stair case

Section A showing the main feature of the escalators in the new museum extension

Section B showing the main feature of the old museum (staircase) as well as showing the underground facilities of the new museum extension.

168


Context

The museum is positioned at the front of a huge park and is surrounded by blocks of buildings all which have the same vertical height.

169


Mass analysis The new building extension‘s entrance is situated in a transparent facade facing onto the open grassy expanse of Museum plaza.

Although the new building is unmistakably different in appearance from the original structure, it matches the scale of the 1895 building and has a direct, seamless connection to it on all floors. The two are fully integrated without either one being compromised. According to architect Mels Crouwel, “The Stedelijk Museum of Willem Sandberg, the director who put the museum on the international map, was our starting point. He stripped the interior of decoration and had it painted white, creating a neutral background for art. Our plan for the exterior is based on retaining the 19th-century architecture, adding 21st-century technology and painting everything in Sandberg white.”

Roof and Outdoor Plaza The roof of the new building matches the height of the original building’s cornice line. The roof’s overhang creates a sheltered outdoor plaza at ground level, where programmed activities can be staged and where visitors will be protected from the elements.

170


Mass Study analysis Exterior Form The Stedelijk’s new building appears from the outside to be an entirely smooth white volume, oblong in shape and canted upward at one end, which is supported on white columns. Already known by some in Amsterdam by the nickname “the bathtub,” this floating form, which spreads outward at the top into a broad, flat roof, is actually the envelope for the second-floor galleries, auditorium and offices above. It is entirely encased in glass at the transparent ground-floor level, which houses the main entrance and lobby, museum shop and restaurant.

Interior analysis The interior of the new extension doesn’t differ from the old museum so that the visitor doesn’t feel the distinct difference in space when moving from the galleries lying within the old museum and the new museum extension. The designer chose the interior to be white colored to match with the old exterior of the old museum and not to make the visitor feel the difference or a sudden change in the interior.

171


THE BUILDING During a short period at the end of the 19th century, three great cultural buildings arose around today’s Museumplein, then an empty meadow: the Rijksmuseum (1885), the Concertgebouw (1888) and the Stedelijk Museum (1895). A. W. Weissman, Amsterdam’s city architect, designed the Stedelijk. With its gable end and small tower, the exterior, built in red brick with stone dressings, refers to 16th-century Dutch Renaissance architecture.

THE INTERIOR Over the years the interior has been regularly modernized and adapted for the demands of the times. In 1938 Sandberg had the hall literally whitewashed, erasing memories of the past.

The Stedelijk Museum in the 60s. Photo: Archive Total Design

SANDBERG

After 1945 Sandberg continued his modernization. In the 1950s the auditorium (with a café called the Appel Bar next to it), the restaurant, the library and reading room, the museum shop and the print cabinet all came into being. There were not only renovations, but also extensions. In 1954 the New Wing, as conceived by Sandberg, arose along the Van Baerlestraat. Openness was his motto; the last traces of 19thcentury exclusivity disappeared with the replacement of the heavy front door with a glass entry.

OUTDATED Over a century after it opened, Weissman’s building still offers comfortable galleries with splendid natural lighting. However, inadequate maintenance and lack of climate control has allowed the building to become sadly outdated. Building Program The historic building of the Stedelijk is thoroughly renovated to house the first comprehensive installation of the museum’s renowned permanent collection of modern and contemporary art and design. At the same time, a boldly contemporary new building designed by Dutch bureau Benthem Crouwel Architects is constructed to house the museum’s influential temporary exhibitions and a range of public amenities. The new 10,000 square meter structure (98,400 square feet) reorient the entire Museum to face onto the great public lawn of Amsterdam’s Museumplein (Museum172 Plaza), creating an active common ground for the first time among the Stedelijk and its neighbors, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum and the Concertgebouw.


Design Issues Circulation •The site is accessible by two main streets and is positioned next to known buildings making it easier for visitors to locate it. •Circulation within the building is easy with the stairs acting as its main feature and having one main core and other sub cores.

Convenience •The building was built as an extension to the old museum and to revive it since time was not kind to the old museum, making its halls not fit, with its drafts and lack of maintenance, to be fit to exhibit rare artwork. That was the reason behind the new extension of the museum so that the new halls are better equipped and to add more exhibit halls to host the art works.

Flexibility •The building is rigid and is not meant to be altered, but rather be a landmark

Image •The designer wanted to show the contrast of the designing era of each of the museums while respecting to an extent the older elevation palate when choosing the new museum’s exterior color if not the mass of it. •He respected the interior of the older museum and abided his own new extension to the previous choice of palate.

Interaction •The designer made the new entrance to the extension of the museum to be completely of glass to give a sense of openness and for it to look directly at the museum plaza •The designer made the roof of the new building cantilevered to provide a shaded area for the museum plaza for people to interact with each other comfortably.

Visibility •The building is spotted on the spot due to it’s likeness to a bath tube for its smooth surface. •It is located beside a huge park which shows off the masses glass entrance, giving the people inside a nice view of the park.

173


ANALYTICAL STUDY Classification criteria museums: According to cognitive patterns of interaction for visitors

Narrative space

PERFORMATIVE SPACE

Simulated

AETHETIC

THEMATIC

DISCOVERY

INTERACTIVE

weak relation ship

COMBINED

Strong relation ship

According to design entrance

Art museums

According to Subject

Historical museums Maritime museums Military museums

Natural History Museums

Science Museums

Characteristics of art museums as a case study

By the type of visitor path deterministi

probabilistic

Museum Design according to the spatial organization

Direct sequence of space

Matrix-like arrangement Open plans Isolated pavilions

Spatial interpentration

174


Classification criteria museums: There are several rankings to museums as a qualitative building, The most prominent which depends on the nature of Multi Display, and there other Categories charges more specialists in the design of museums, including the classification by the view, or according to the way of Displaying , or according to the entrance design, or by the nature of the configuration vacuum of the museum, it was found that it is possible to find a relationship between these classifications and each other. As a start will be a total of three basic categories:

1-According to Subject : Rosenblatt introduce Classification of museums according to Subject : 1- Art museums:its theme as it is clearly of direct relationship of displaying all kinds of art works, and especially what belong to the era of modern art, which began influential movement to what follows until the beginning of the seventies of the last century. And art museums themselves are classified as to varieties other subsidiary: it may be museums permanent display of art works and especially those belonging to the era of modern art, either museums of contemporary art usually be museums variable exhibits, and there are also artist museums per offering for his works in different age stages. National Art Gallery 2-Historical museums:History museums cover the knowledge of history and its relevance to the present and future. Some cover specialized curatorial aspects of history or a particular locality; others are more general. Such museums contain a wide range of objects, including documents, artifacts of all kinds, art, archaeological objects. One of the largest and most celebrated museums in the world, American Museum of Natural History is located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City, United states. Established in 1869, its collection contains over 32 million specimens. 3-Maritime museums :are museums that specialize in the presentation of maritime history, culture or archaeology. They explore the relationship between societies and certain bodies of water. These museums focus on the interpretation and preservation of shipwrecks and other artifacts recovered from a maritime setting. The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom and may be the largest museum of its kind in the world. It has the world’s largest maritime historical reference library (100,000 volumes) including books dating back to the 15th century.

The American Museum of Natural History, Manhattan, New York, USA.

National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England, UK. 175


1-According to Subject : 4-Military museums :specialize in military histories; they are often organized from a national point of view and they typically include displays of weapons and other military equipment, uniforms, wartime propaganda and exhibits on civilian life during wartime, and decorations, among others. The Heeresgeschichtliches Museum is a military history museum located in Vienna, Austria. It claims to be the oldest and largest purpose-built military history museum in the world. Its collection includes one of the world’s largest collections of bronze cannons and focuses on Austrian military history from the 16th century to 1945. 5-Natural History Museums:Museums of natural history and natural science typically exhibit work of the natural world. The focus lies on nature and culture. Exhibitions educate the public on natural history, dinosaurs, zoology, oceanography, anthropology and more. Evolution, environmental issues, and biodiversity are major areas in natural science museums. The Natural History Museum, London, is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 70 million items within five main collections: Botany, Entomology, Mineralogy, Paleontology and Zoology. The museum is particularly famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons. 6-Science Museums:Science museums and technology centers revolve around scientific achievements, and marvels and their history. To explain complicated inventions, a combination of demonstrations, interactive programs and thought-provoking media are used. The Museum of Science and Industry is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA in Jackson Park, in the Hyde Park neighborhood adjacent to Lake Michigan. Among its diverse and expansive exhibits, the Museum features a working coal mine, a German submarine, the first diesel-powered streamlined stainless-steel passenger train (Pioneer Zephyr), and the Apollo 8 spacecraft which flew the first humans to the Moon.

Natural History Museum, London, England. UK.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

London science museum

176


Classification criteria museums: 2-According to cognitive patterns of interaction for visitors: Where There are several types of cognitive interaction between the visitor and museum exhibits, however it can be presented under four main headings: 1)Contemplation: Lord:`` Although the apparent negative character of visitor physical interaction but emotional interaction and mental with exhibits be active to the maximum.`` 2)comprehension: Predominant form in the museums of science and natural history where the exhibits in the context of the organization interstitial appropriate to the subject, so that visitor experience depends on understanding the relationship between the exhibits and each other.

video-systems that were designed to generate interaction between people

3)Discovery: Based on exhibits related to each other in a total of glass display cases, so that the visitor experience similar to the discovery store experience is transparent barriers motivated by innate love of discovery.

The educational mission of the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardensis

4)Interactive: At this part of the exhibits or presentation is in receiver hand, so the visitor can interact with sensory directly, such as virtual reality theaters And Lord summed up these patterns in the table below: Interaction pattern

The nature of the interaction

The nature of the relevant museums

Properties

Contemplation

Aesthetic

Art museums

Individual recognize for a particular work

comprehension

Contextual or thematic

Historical and science museums

Associative perception between a trace of the work displayed in the appropriate context

Discovery

Out of curiosity

Natural history museums

Exploration process belong to a one collection group

Interactive

Through a live show and the use of multimedia

Historical and science museums

Kinaesthetic response to 177 stimulus


Classification criteria museums: 3-According to entrance design: And that’s what dernie approaches as follows:

1) Narrative space: that's where the exhibits regularly form interstitial sequentially, reflecting the importance and value of the exhibits. 2) Per formative space: And the view is based on direct sensory interaction of visitors with exhibits, and it is absent in entrance Design of Science and children Museums. 3) Simulated experience: The view of the subject idea through multimedia technologies and virtual reality rooms.

Interaction pattern for visitors

Narrative space

Per formative space

Simulated experience

Contemplation

Discovery

Interactive

weak relation ship

comprehension

Strong relation ship

entrance design

Art museums

Historical museums Science Museums Industrial Museums

Museums Characteristics as a study: The current section will display the possible types of spatial configuration in museums depending on the classification of Naredi Rainer with surrounding relationship to visitor traffic pattern in museums, and that is usually one of two alternatives: A. The first alternative: to be linear path of visit and deterministic. B. The second alternative: to be interconnected with each and then a kind of probabilistic.

The Museums spatial configuration: 1. Direct sequence of space: sequential galleries in a clear linear visual level, Kinetic and then overcome the inevitable on the pattern of movement of the visit 2. Matrix –like arrangement: Museum plans is a collection of contiguous spaces and that is accessed through each other, such as Tate famous in London, and this quality of museums are that path of the visit be more likely, and at the same time is able to manage the museum transformed into inevitable path by adjusting some entrances. 3. Open plans: open plans without any specific vertical partitions . 4. Isolated pavilions: offer projected motion paths distinguishable from other places, and in this kind of the visit as the probability or deterministic and at the same time. Spatial interpenetration: it is close to the concept of open plans, but with an increase in the proportion of vertical and horizontal movement partitions makes a complex both visual and kinetic 178 impact on the projections and often the visitor movement Features with probability.


Introduction

History Theories Sustainability Design Issues Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 179


Cairo Downtown EL-MOkatem Maadi Portsaid West Port Port-Foad East Port Aswan Nuba

180


First Location: Cairo 3 Sites: 1. 2. 3.

Mokttam site Dahab island site Downtown site

181


Cairo , The city that never sleep

182


Historical background Subsequently, massive industrial and housing projects were undertaken by the new government, particularly in the Cairo zone. New districts appeared in the northern, southern, and western parts of the city. The Cairo metropolitan area emerged, with a population of 5 million in 1970 (El Shakhs, 1971; Moselhi, 1988). After the 1973 war, the policy of the government moved from a socialist, centrally planned, and public-sector-dominated economy to the so-called " open-door" policy. The latter aimed at encouraging the private sector and attracting international and Arab investment. A large part of such investment was directed to Cairo and its region, fostering further rapid urban development. By 1980 the population of Greater Cairo was 8 million. Informal and illegal housing appeared in this period in many areas on the outskirts of the city and in the City of the Dead. Such trends continued in the 1980s and 1990s. It is estimated that in 1994 more than 4 million people were living in illegal settlements in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR). The efforts of the government to control the growth of the city have not been sufficient and it kept growing in most directions, particularly to the west and north, to reach an estimated population of over 12 million in 1994.

History Of Cairo Since the dawn of civilization, the capital of Egypt has been located in the Cairo metropolitan region for long periods, in areas such as Manf, Lecht, Ono, and Babylon . Few traces of these cities remain today. It was not until the year A.D. 641 that the existing city of Cairo was founded by Amr Ibn-Elass in El Fostat, east of the Nile River. Its location represented the centre of gravity of the whole country in terms of cultivated area, population, wealth, and power. The proximity of the fortress of Babylon (formerly the headquarters of the Roman and Greek armies in Egypt) Influenced the choice of this particular site (Moselhi, 1988). Historically, Old Cairo expanded north-east of El Fostat, when the Abbacies built El Askar in A.D. 751 (fig. 4.2). Then Ibn Tolon added a third settlement - El Katae. After A.D. 870 Cairo El Moez (Fatimid Cairo) was built by Gawhar El Sikili along the Nile borders northeast of the previous settlements (Selem, 1983). These four towns primarily performed the role of military settlements. A major mosque and sometimes palace were located in the centre of each settlement 183


S.W.O.T ANALYSIS 1. 2. 3.

Mokttam site Dahab island site Downtown site

184


185


Strength It is an interesting place to visit, and a great location to scope out Cairo from atop of the mokatam mountain.

With the location of the Saint Simon a top of the mountain and the significance of the church, it is considered a culturally important site to be visited

The area has fresh air.

The Mokattam Corniche similar to the Nile Corniche in Cairo. It is a unique place to walk and sit as one can see a very large part of Cairo and all about

Weakness It include more than 17,000 garbage collectors or zabbaleen, who live in dusty squatter settlements of teeming, narrow dirt lanes. There they sort and recycle the garbage produced by Cairo's burgeoning population

Obviously there is an odor about the village, and sometimes an almost overwhelming one. One must keep in mind that Cairo has some 18 million people, and just about all their trash ends up here City of the Dead is a slum at the base of Mokattam Hill on the eastern outskirts of Cairo, the capital of Egypt.

Mokattam Rockslide

186


Strength the proximity of restaurants to the location

Weakness Accessibility through el-nasr road and salah salem road and both are highly traffic

Lies near Manshiyyet Nasser, a mega-slum of almost 1 million people. Known as Cairo’s “Garbage City”, the majority of Manshiyyet Nasser’s residents find limited employment in picking up Cairo’s garbage and bringing it back for sorting and recycling Driving through Curved roads to reach the site

Weak security as most of the population either unemployed or garbage collectors

187


Opportunities

Threats

List of different types of limestone could be used in construction Mokattam Limestone, Great Pyramid core stones and head of the Great Sphinx are of the "Member III" stratum

This district is named Zabaleen (Garbage collectors in Arabic), so literally, this is Garbage city

It contain some historic and religious places

Mokattam Rockslide

there is even a small industry of women who have become something of a cultural phenomenon because of some of their handicrafts using discarded material.

Sandstorms because of the mountain

Such a place often gets the name, "Lookout Point"

Weak security as most of the population either unemployed or garbage collectors

188


Strength Fresh air

Weakness Bad smell

Good view of the Nile

Bad transportation as accessibility to the site will be difficult.

Museum visibility will be high

Pollution of the bank of the river

Water pollution

189


Opportunities Good view

Using water as cooling feature

Threats Ability of flooding at any time

Soil settlement

Cooling by vaporizations by Using water

190


191


192


193


Conclusion : The downtown area is a place that is lively and always in motion , whether it is for people to finish official documents or for recreational purposes . With that people are bound to pass by the area and will be intrigued to explore the museum building. With the climate being moderate and sunny. It will help in creation of outdoor spaces and semi shaded areas as well as using it to generate an amount of clean energy: small or big.

194


City in State :

Location in City

Site In Location

195


Site Analysis of site in downtown Boundaries & Site Area Site Area = 2.5 Ares (Feddan)

The site is located at a proximity from el tahrir square as well as the Egyptian museum

The site consists of two vacant lands separated by the passing of the Nile street which is one of the Nile street which is one of the main axis of circulation of through out downtown.

196


Road and Accessibility

197


Building heights Building heights in the area ranges between 6 to 8 floors

2 Floors or less from 4 to 6 floors 6 to 8 floors

Solid and Voids Map

This figure shows the relation between the building masses and the void of represented by the streets.

198


Downtown in History : 1800 the old medieval city with the Fatimid core was the city center for many centuries

1869 under khedive Ismail the modernization of Cairo with a new master plan began , Paris Haussmann's plan was a example for this modern Cairo (streets were planned in straight lines and right angles and 13 new squares ,the area known as Ismailia square was meant to inhabit rich Nobel people and serve as a city center

1930s Cairo's belle Époque year and glorious time , the city in the colonial times of French occupation has rapidly increased in its population

199


1950s Dispersed city After the revolution and with a new president Gamal Abd Al Nasser , downtown witness a big turning point in social culture as the wealthy families start to leave downtown as many of shopping and buildings have been taken over by the governmental forces

Nowadays after 25 Jan . downtown witnessing the trend of commercial, political and economic decentralization , as it has tahrir square which become a main attraction point for Egypt

Changing in Building stock through history

200


URBAN PATTERN The following grids show the difference between the radial ,grid and organic road networks , in the pervious figures how the street different networks exist within the same urban fabric and how they are intersected with each other

Radial structure

Grid Structure

Organic Structure

201


Transportation Types The Major Transport axis passing along Downtown Crowded Streets , traffic jams and lack of parking space all of this problems that downtown suffer it during transportation

202


Public Buildings The building, positioned at the tahrir square, attracts thousands of people all over the country on a daily basis and has about 1900 employees . It has many governmental administrative. This building and many other public buildings in downtown are secured by police and armed forces.

Mogamma el tahrir

Educational Building

Public and administrative

203 Medical Building


Tourism and Entertainment Downtown is filled with a variety of restaurants, bars, shops, cinemas and other attractions that are in favor of both local visitors and tourists. One of the famous touristic and entertainment highlight are the museums, e.g the Egyptian museum.

cinemas , Theaters and Galleries

Commercial uses

Museums

Major 204 Hotels


Religious Buildings

Since the downtown area is more of a governmental institutional and recreational space, there aren’t much of religious buildings around the area. With that said, the residents found a way around that handicap by arranging these “informal” prayer space existing in-between the spaces and they are area not permanent. Apparent only at the time of prayer.

Mosques

Churches

synagogue

205


Building Age

After 1950 1941-1950 1931-1940 1921 - 1930 1911 - 1920 1900 -1910

Unknown values

206


207


208


Sun &wind orientation

209


From airport to site takes 1 hours. In the following table showing the travel distance between Governorates and the site

210


211


Architectural Features

Windows

212


Surroundings and Views

Downtown: Climatic case & its strategy: Climatic case

strategy

Design tools

High increase in temperature at day, and increase at night

Activate thermal loss by radiation to the sky

Finishing and building materials of high emission factors.

Temperature out> 21 c most of the day

Protection of direct solar radiation

Sun breaks Design of building form Irregular plan shape projection & recess in elevation

Hot dry Low relative humidity

Cooling by evaporation

Water elements Green area and courtyards 213


Cairo Downtown EL-MOkatem Maadi

Portsaid Port-Foad West Port East Port Aswan Nuba 214


S.W.O.T ANALYSIS 1.

PortSaid

215


216


Portsaid in History :

217


Strength

Weakness

218


Strength

Weakness

219


Opportunities

Threats

220


Opportunities

Threats

221


City in State :

Location in City

Site In Location

222


Site Analysis of site in portfoad Boundaries & Site Area the site is located on the suez canal having a sea front on the water Site Area = 3 Feddan The site consist of a vacant land that lies on the Suez canal having a side of recessed part of the canal . The site is located near the ferry boats side which is a main connection between portsaid and portfoad .

Harbor for building ships

Main Harbor

Suez canal

Project land

Ferry boat

223


URBAN PATTERN The surrounding road network has a combination of radial, grid and organic structure. This is apparent in the following structure. The unplanned intersections of the 3 structures resulted in the haphazard division of the lands with bizarre angle ends.

Radial structure

Grid Structure

Organic Structure

224


Transportation Types

The main accessibility to Port Foad is through Port Said ferry boat. While on the other hand, Port Said can be accessible through the airport, train station, port and street networks accessible by cars and buses.

Distances time by car Map showing the locations of the ports

225


Public Buildings

There aren't many public buildings in the Port Foad region, which therefore gives the court building the markings of a landmark. Not only is it the only governmental building found there, but also it’s attractive Islamic style and high clock tower that is seen from afar helps in the attraction of visitors and locals alike.

Educational Building

Public and administrative

226 Medical Building


Tourism and Entertainment

cinemas , Theaters and Galleries

Commercial uses

Museums

Major 227 Hotels


Religious buildings

Mosques

Churches

Architectural features Importance of using the old port said style in architecture of wooden faรงades which help decrease the humidity in the place and keep the building durable for long time

228


Building ages The site is surrounded by harbours and vaccant lands that could be used for future extension

Views from inside

229


Roads and accessibility

230


231


Climatic effects

The low rise buildings help in the wind movement and ventilation techniques, while the new high rise buildings doesn’t help the wind to reach the wind to the lower buildings.

Summer temperature percentage Wind rose

Winter rain

232


Site orientation

Choosen site is in portfoad The site chosen is in portfoad because the is have direct view on the Suez canal site also surrounded by vacant lands that could be used for future extensions . Further more its near by the ferry boats that is the main accessible point for portfoad

233


Cairo Downtown EL-MOkatem Maadi

Portsaid Port-Foad West Port East Port Aswan Nuba

234


City in State :

Location in City

Site In Location

235


Site Analysis of site in portfoad Boundaries & Site Area the site is located on the suez canal having a sea front on the water Site Area = 3 Feddan The site consist of a vacant land that lies behind the main harbour near the train station in a slums area .

Suez canal Ferry boat

Project land Main Harbor

Harbor for building ships

236


c

237


238


239


240


241


242


243


244


245


Cairo DOwntown EL-MOkatem Maadi Portsaid West Port Aswan Nuba 246


Strength 1.

Transportation

a) Transportation from and to Aswan: •Rail way station : it takes from Cairo to Aswan 14 hr •Airport : it takes from Cairo to Aswan 2 hr and from Aswan to Cairo 2 hr

•There are many ports Nile in Aswan as u can travel to aswan by ship

Weakness 1.

Transportation:

The time of travelling from Cairo to Aswan by train is too long it takes 14 hr

Also travelling by car is too long it takes 12 hr

Travelling by ships takes from 12 to 14 days

•High way that links between Cairo to Aswan : it takes 10 hr from Cairo to Aswan Aswan railway station

2) Architecture building style: •In Aswan the architecture style has been neglected.

b)

Transportation in Aswan:

All kind of transportation is available in Aswan.

Characterized Aswan Nile exploit internal transport means.

247


Strength 2) Touristic attraction: •Characterized Aswan as the headquarters of tourism attracts tourists to it all year round

Weakness

•Philae Temple

3) climate: In Aswan High temperature most of the year and mild winter But all places overlooking the Nile has a beautiful atmosphere

•Coptic Orthodox Cathedral

4) Culture in Aswan : In down town in Aswan the culture has been neglected they don’t practice their culture as in Nubian village

•It has a lot of museums •Tourists also enjoys a trip in the Nile as they can see a lot of temples on the side of the Nile like •Philae Temple •Coptic Orthodox Cathedral •Mausoleum of the Aga Khan •Tombs of the Nobles

3) Self sufficient city: As they depend on their own products from .Agriculture .fishing .handmade products . various industries and trade

4) People social aspects: The people in Aswan are helpful as they offer to help u without asking simplicity in their life style

248


Strength 5) Land marks : There are a lot of land marks in Aswan which makes it easy for the tourist to know where he is ex: •Nubian museum •Temple of Philae •Monastery of saint •Sound and light show Philae • Nubian village •Unfinished obelisk •High dam •Mausoleum of Aga Khan

Weakness

•Monastery of saint

•Mausoleum of •Aga Khan

•High dam

Nubian village

•Unfinished obelisk

•Temple of Philae

249


History of Aswan •The area now known as Nubia extends along the Nile from south of Aswan to Dabba near the 4th Cataract. Nubia's name is first mentioned in Strabo's Geographia. He was a Greek who is thought to have visited Egypt in 29 BC. The name Nubia's origin is not certain but many agree that it originates from the Ancient Egyptian word nbu, meaning Gold - Nubia had many gold mines which Egypt depended on for it's wealth. However the name does not appear in any Ancient Egyptian text, which refers to Nubia as Ta-Seti, meaning "Land of the Bow." •Ancient Egyptians always distinguished Lower Nubia between the 1st and 2nd cataracts (which they named wawat) from the area south of the 2nd cataract which they named Kush. The Nubians settled and lived along the Nile and were distinct from the semi-nomadic tribes who lived in the eastern dessert (between the Nile and the Red Sea). •Owing to it's unique location Nubia was a major trade route through which exotic African goods reached Egypt. These included ebony, ivory, ostrich feathers and eggs and people. Nubia is rich in gold, copper and semi-precious stones such as carnelian, jasper and amethyst. •"Mother" Nile is Egypt's main highway. Boats can either float or row north with the current, or sail south- using the predominant north winds. Aswan was considered the southern frontier of Egypt, since navigation was blocked by cataracts to its the south. From garrisons situated in Aswan, military missions could be launched to subdue the Nubians. Trading missions into central Africa left from and returned to this point, sending their trade goods by ship downriver to Memphis or Thebes.

250


City in State : Location in City

Site In Location

251


Transportation Types •The means of transportation inside the Nubian village itself is either by foot, camels and – seldom seen- by car. •Transportation time: from the main city in Aswan to the Nubian village from the train station takes about 15 minutes by boat. •If taking the same route by car from the train station, it takes about an hour – an hour and a half. the cause of the enormous time difference is due to the car roads travels around the dame to reach the Nubian village.

The Major Transport axis passing along the Nile

252


Tourism and security •The Nubian village is selfsufficient village, with its crafts and spices they are an attraction for tourists, as well as being a means of living for the locals. •Even with the lack of police stations, people are secure enough to leave their shops open to go pray and come back after they are done.

Religious Buildings •There are a total of four religious buildings, all within a building cluster.

Boundaries & Site Area

253


Buildings along the Nile •All the buildings are not built on the same level (elevated) to give all houses full view access to the Nile •All the lands could be converted easily into green areas, due to its close proximity to the Nile •The main street looking at the Nile is the only one that is covered with asphalt while the other interior roads are not as well constructed (covered in dirt) •The buildings facing the Nile are the only ones colorful, to be a touristic attraction, where as the buildings further within the village is not as colorful and well maintained.

254


•These pictures show the proximity of the buildings from each other. •The paths between the buildings are shaded •The buildings not facing the Nile are not as decorated as the buildings directly facing the Nile.

Solid and Voids Map

255


Marketplace’s location along the street

These images show the marketplace imbedded within the village’s fabric . The marketplace is only the facades facing the main street. The facades are elevated by steps in order to separate them from the main road.

Picture showing a way the Nubian present their goods.

256


Architectural features of the Nubian village The following shows the architectural features of the Nubian village, with its dooms, ornaments, vaults and colorful elevations.

257


Surrounding Views of the Nubian village

Mosque School Water treatment facility Marketplace building House exhibiting a live alligator. House exhibiting a live alligator.

Interior of the House

258


Recreational and touristic attraction

School Harbor Zone This image shows the Nubian harbor, which the Nubians use for most of their daily travels, lying directly in front of the marketplace. The marketplace starts from the harbor leading all the way through to the school. The marketplace serves as both a touristic attraction with its bazaars and handmade goods, as well as serving as a means for the locals to sell their goods in it for the tourists and provide for themselves.

259


Sun & Wind Orientation

260


Introduction History

Theories Sustainability

Design Issues

Case studies Site Analysis Design Program 261


Design program & space requirements: Main Components

First Component : Entrance : That's where the exhibits regularly form interstitial sequentially, reflecting the importance and value of the exhibits. •Parking (underground) • Ticket/admission • Security Lobby • Main Feature (Landmark)

Lobby /Reception :

Predominant form in the museums of science and natural history where the exhibits in the context of the organization interstitial appropriate to the subject, so that visitor experience depends on understanding the relationship between the exhibits and each other. •Information desk • Main Atrium (Foyer) •Main Core ( WCs , Stairs , Elevators) •Lounge •Stores /Shops (gifts)

Administrative : should have secure staff separate entrance

•Staff Entrance •Offices •Managing •Security •Core •Lounges •Meeting room •Archives •Registration

Second Component : Exhibition Hall /Activity :  Exhibition room with folding screens allows great variety of room arrangements

•Foyer ( Core) •Interaction hall •Static / Permanent Hall •Temporary Hall •Digital Hall •Sculpture court

262


Design program & space requirements: Main Components

Third Component : Documentation : Should be in their suitable orientation and have natural ventilation •Library •Archives •Reading hall •Video hall •Computer laps •Digital Archives

Forth Component : Multi propose (MPU) •Entrance •Foyer ( Core) •VIP Entrance •VIP Foyer •Café •Technical Room •Conference Hall •Backstage

Fifth Component : Workshops : Should be in their suitable orientation and have natural ventilation and natural lighting and far from documentation area as it produce noise •Foyer ( Core) •Different workshops •Lecture Hall •Storage •Café •Restoration Room •Loading and Packing Deck

Sixth Component : Out Doors /Landscape : creating a creational place reflects the museum message

•Outdoor cafes •Outdoor Exhibits •Outdoor theatre •Outdoor kids area

263


Design program & space requirements: Tolerances for crowding vary with cultures. In a very crowded timed exhibition, visitors would probably put up with 20 ft2 (1.8 m2) per person (including space for exhibit), and for a short time or in which audience members are continually moving along; the density might go as high as 10ft2 (0.9 m2) per person, but this would allow very little display and vista space. More usual visitor densities for museum exhibitions range from 30 to 50 ft2 (2.8-4.6) per person for discovery and contextual and aesthetic exhibitions. Thus, a 2,000 ft2 (186m2) art gallery may feel just right with 20 visitors (a density of 50 ft2 (4.6m2) per person), or on opening night may manage to squeeze in over a hundred party-goers. In this example of space requirements, the list is divided into two parts representing space with significantly different construction costs.

1-Entrance : ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

1.0

Entry, Lobby, Admission, Store

1.1

Entry Vestibule

1

35.7person*4.2 m2 =

150 m2

1.2

Lobby/ Orientation

1

47.6person*4.2 m2 =

200 m2

1.3

Admissions/Tickets

1

12person*4.2 m2 =

50 m2

1.4

Museum Store

1

100person*4.2 m2 =

420 m2

1.5

Back Storage for Museum Store

1

19person*4.2 m2 =

80 m2

2- Administration and Finance: ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

3.0

Reception/Waiting

1

35.7person*2.8 m2 =

100 m2

3.1

Executive Director

1

14.2person*2.8 m2 =

40 m2

3.2

Admin Off.

1

14.2person*2.8 m2 =

40 m2

3.3

Executive Toilet

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

3.4

Associate Director of Administration

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

3.5

Office Manager

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

3.6

Store Manager

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

3.7

Director of External Affairs

1

12.5person*2.8 m2 =

35 m2

3.8

Small Meeting/Planning Area

2

35.7person*2.8 m2 =

100 m2

3.9

Copy/Work Room

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

3.10

Staff room

2

14.2person*2.8 m2 =

40 m2

3.11

Technical room

2

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2 264


Design program & space requirements: 3- Administration and programs: ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

4.0

Operations Associate

1

14.2person*2.8 m2 =

40 m2

4.1

Museum Educator

1

14.2person*2.8 m2 =

40 m2

4.2

Floor Managers

1

7person*2.8 m2 =

20 m2

4.3

Museum Artist

1

17.8person*2.8 m2 =

50 m2

4.4

Break Area/Planning/Meeting

1

17.8person*2.8 m2 =

50 m2

4.5

Personal Storage

1

17.8person*2.8m2 =

50 m2

4-Activity/Program Areas: ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

2.0

Exhibit halls

3

107.5 person*9.3 m2 =

1000 m2

2.1

Art Space

1

10.7 person*9.3 m2

100m2

2.2

Multi-Purpose hall

1

21.5person*9.3 m2 =

200m2

2.3

Toddler Area

1

5.37 person*9.3 m2 =

50 m2

2.4

Video room

2

10.7 person*9.3 m2

100 m2

=

=

5- Exhibit Shop & Warehouse: ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

5.0

Exhibit Shop

4

17.3person*4.2 m2 =

80 m2

5.1

Design Area

1

6.5person*4.2 m2 =

30 m2

5.2

Warehouse

1

6.5person*4.2 m2 =

30 m2

5.3

Facilities Manager

1

6.5person*4.2 m2 =

30 m2

5.4

Near Exhibit Floor Supply Storage

1

4.3person*4.2 m2 =

20 m2

6-kids Activity/Program Areas: ID No.

Space/Activity

No. of Spaces

Minimum no. of people using the space*space required per person

Square Meter Required

6.0

Classroom

3

21.7 person*4.6 m2 =

100 m2

6.1

Kids' Shop

1

4.3person*4.6 m2 =

20 m2

6.2

Storage for Kid's Shop

1

3.2 person*4.6 m2 =

15 m2

6.3

Kids video room

1

4.3person*4.6 m2 =

20 m2

Total Net area

3420 m2

Total Gross area

4000 m2

265


Design program & space requirements: Video room

Bubble diagram and spaces

Media Gallery

Lecture hall workshops Exhibits

ADMINISTRATION

KIDS ACTIVITY ZONE

EXHIBIT SHOPS

Offices

Rest rooms

WARE HOUSE

Reception Theatre

ACTIVITY/ PROGRAM AREA

Lobby

Recept ion

Gift shop

Art gallery Must have Should have Nice to have Rest rooms

Garage

cafe

Restaurant

Bar

Storage

kitchen 266


Design program & space requirements:

Zoning Circulation & relation between spaces

267


Design program & space requirements:

Zoning Circulation & relation between spaces

268


Design program & space requirements:

Showing relation between public space and private space

269


Design program & space requirements:

Type of Space Layout :

Open Space

Core + satellites

Linear procession

Complex

Loop

Lapyyrinth

270


Lighting : Natural Lighting :

Artificial Lighting :

271


Design program & space requirements:

Dimensions for offices :

272


Design program & space requirements:

Dimensions for library :

Microfiche reading workstation

Minimum distance between tables

Individual study booths

Minimum free space in reading area

273 When books are moved between seats and standing rows


Design program & space requirements:

Dimensions for library :

Dual row WCs, doors opening out words

274


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project: Portsaid panoramic Museum Portfoad Site

Main Harb or

Sue z can Proje al ct land Fer ry boa t

Present to :

Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Andrew Shahir

ID: 091411

Harbo r for buildi ng ships


PORTSAID PANORAMIC MUSEUM ( P.P.M Museum ) ( mystery of struggle) Problem Definition After the revolution of the 25th January our economy and tourism have been going through a great decline . this declining affected the life of Egyptians throughout Egypt . focusing on Portsaid and the Suez canal. I found that the trading and industry have been minimized . On the other hand , the Suez canal must take great consideration from us to try and magnify the advantage of this vital place. In spite of thousands of tourists passing through this city, they have never been introduced to the culture of those cities . In order to solve those problems, I decided to make a museum expressing the culture of Portsaid ,their lifestyle and their history in resisting conquerors . The reflecting of these culture is represented in 3 main issues their history , arts and crafts .where history is represented in there struggle against the different wars passed by egypt. Arts is represented in their music ,drawings and architecture features . Further more their crafts is represented mainly in ships building and formation of ship needs such as ropes , nets ,boxes,…etc. To benefit from ships crossing the channel , the project will take place at Port foad. where it has a great look on the suez canal . Moreover , the project will contain a marina for ships that will provide the ships with their needs during the visit of their passenger to the museum. By this way , the citizen of the canal and Egypt will benefit from the project and will have income coming from visiting the museum and supplying the ship with their needs . In addition to that, the project will introduce an important part of the culture of Egypt which will encourage the increase of tourism in Portsaid . It will be likely as a brochure for the foreigners about portsaid introducing all the main features of it to the tourists in order to make them curious to come and enjoy visiting a great city like Portsaid . Furthermore, citizens of port said will sell their products , souvenirs and other goods which will provide many job opportunities for youth and will overcome unemployment . Theme : It’s a cultural museum that targets sending a great message about an important city in Egypt by exhibiting history ,arts and crafts of Portsaid to be like a brochure to the whole world . Mission : The project will introduce a great part of the Egyptian culture to the world resembled in history of Portsaid , their arts and crafts where Portsaid has a unique location as main entrance for Suez canal and its unique culture Derived from the region of the canal cities .In addition to that, starting a new income filed there as tourism which will increase the national income throughout increasing the foreign currency. Also it will solve the problem of unemployment. objectives : • Introduce culture of portsaid to the foreigners • Send an important message to our children ,citizens and visitors of portsaid about the important of this city from different point culturally ,economically and socially • increase the culture of the citizens due to interaction between them and passengers from all over the world • the museum will clarify the story of struggle of the citizens in conquering enemies which will make them fell they are no more ignored • providing job opportunities • increasing the individual income of the people • opening a new market for trading slogan :journey across portsaid


Cultural Gateway Concept As portsaid is a gate to connect between different countries in trading also it has its a lot of culture through this trading . The museum is the perfect match for starting to send this culture for others and gain culture from others. Therefore the museum will act as a great gate for the culture entering and existing from it First by determining the main points of portsaid representing Suez canal authority building history,arts and crafts which are: • Main trading harbor Heart of • Ships building harbor portsaid • Suez canal authority building Heart of • Heart of portsaid portfoad • Heard of portfoad Main trading • Project land harbor By connecting the main points Harbor of and form welcoming gates we get building ships Project land

Gate toward the future ships marina and extensions

Gate toward the city

Section show that the gate have the form of sloped roof that show the hierarchy in culture 3D show that the gate have the form of opened gate that will be seen by the ships in the canal as an open gate for every one to benefit from the culture

Gate toward the ships entering the canal


Waves Breaking Culture Stegnancy According to studies the museums of portsaid doesn’t have a good role in cultural life . Due to that the museum will act as a waves breaking the stagnancy in the cultural life for portsaid citizens. When the ships is not moving the sea is in stagnancy form but when it starts to move this start to break the stagnancy bit by bit forming waves as shown in the drawing By tracing the beginning of waves it will be from building the ships through sound waves

As the harbor of building ships is the main sound source forming waves . Furthermore building ships that is main source of forming sea waves

Harbor of building ships

Project land

The 3d shows the formation of the waves in 3d forming circulation paths and galleries The section shows the way of putting the exhibits and forming paths around it this will allow the view of a lot of people to the same exhibit at the same time without having same circulation

The layout shows the curves of the waves come from the harbor


3rd concept One of the main important elements found with harbor is the beacon form. The beacon act as a source of light that guide ships in dark and fog . The museum also can act as a beacon for the culture that guide people to new information and culture . Furthmore introducing portsaid culture to other countries through main 3 beacons : • History • culture • crafts Beacon to the crafts

Beacon to the history

Beacon to the culture

Suez canal authority building

Heart of portfoad

Harbor of building ships Project land

Beacon to the future

The elevation shows that every part of the building on the 2 sides will act as beacon The steel structure will have a real source of light that act as a beacon for the ships The 3d show that the beacon will be orinted to guide the ships as beacon of culture

The section show that the real beacon is a form of steel structure


Sea waves generating electricity The first technological study is generating electricity through sea waves found in Suez canal due to ship movement . This instrument help to generate electricity through generators an hydraulic pistons that help in the motion of the generator . Figures show the mechanism of this instruments

Pave Green This technology is depend to produce electricity from footsteps . Footsteps is forming kinetic energy that is changed after that to electrical energy . Furthermore the energy produced could be stored in batteries to be used after that in lighting and electrical uses . The mechanism of footstep technology is done by putting a certain patterns on the finishing of the floor that when people visting the museum start to pass over it will generate electricity


Louvre generating electricity by sea waves This technology depend on moving louvers that move up and down due to waves motion . During this movement there is thrust wheel that move up and down forming heat energy that is changed after that to electrical energy through generators . The energy is stored then and used for lighting and electrical needs .

Artificial trees This technology it is like forming artificial trees in the outdoor landscape .where this trees used to absorb co2 from the air like trees, collect rains through rain collectors ,have photovoltaic cells that changes sun energy to electrical energy. Furthermore providing shades for the people , also it have lighting system by LED lighting. A In addition to that it could be used for charging electric cars B

I H

C D E G

A-oxygen and water jets B-2 sets of LED lights C-2 access boxes with USB sockets for information retrieval about status of the aquaria and the overall integrated systems D-4-indeperdent aquaria for algae production E -rainwater collector F-2 access boxes for electric vehicles to recharge batteries G-main structure H-upper structure with water air piping system I-photovoltaic flexible panels

F Cooling by sea water This technology is depending on cooling air through cooling by sea water where cooled water from the sea pumped through pipes to titanium cold exchanger room .the hot air is collected and pumped to the same room .where it loses heat to cold sea water . After that cooled air returns back to the building and hot sea water is pumped back to the sea . This technology is forming loop that remain going and cooling the building and reduces the uses of Air Conditioning


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project: Nubian Museum Aswan,Nuba

Present to : Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Mahmoud Tarek Mohamed ID : 091599


Nubian Museum Nubian culture and history Problem: With the technology spreading globally, even the small villages are bound to be slightly affected with the worldwide use of the internet. With the addition of their young leaving the villages to get their degrees in the capitals of the cities, the heritage of their village culture is slowly lost in the process. The new generations of the Nubian villages are a live example of the previously mentioned taking place, they are more influenced by the global culture than their own culture and the Nubian heritage is at risk to be a lost art. In that light, I propose to build a museum that revives the Nubian culture and makes the new generations interest rekindled and interested to learn more about it.

Objective:

To preserve the Nubian arts for future generations. To make the newer generations of the Nubian villagers interested to learn about their culture. To be a means of touristic and local attraction alike.

Mission: •Increase the rate of tourism in Egypt •increasing income •For the dissemination of Nubian culture

Theme: Nubian culture through workshops to work and people interact with employees and by displaying the history of this culture and this by the Nubia Museum was to assist with education of Nubian culture generations


Slogan: Culture of the nation express their identity, if lost culture lost identity

Title: Nubian Museum Nubian culture an history


concepts Concept one :

Using these geometric shapes used by Nubians to decorate their homes and also are used in ventilation

The Nile River for the Nubians is the wellspring of life they can not live without it, the Nubian villages meaning are villages that exist next to the Nile


Concept two:

The Nubian villages based on the extent of the Nile and have no income but depth is on the shore of the Nile and the inability to dispense with the Nile and also the villages on a different level on the ground so you can all see houses Nile from there is the contours in the project

Using these geometric shapes used by Nubians to decorate their homes and also are used in ventilation


Technological studies 1. Water weal :

water weal used to generate energy from water

2. Under groud ducts / earth cooling The series of underground channels of the building comes from the inside to the acquiring cold air by creating a story convection underground where it enters the building from the underground


2. Ground – source heat pump

By the Use of latent heat under the ground to control the heat pump to help in heating or cooling the place.


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project: Museum Cairo, Downtown

Present to : Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Mirhan Sarhan

ID:092717


Egyptian Media Museum ‘Free ur mind .. The only way to go ‘ Problem definition : We nowadays live in a time of the most difficult times experienced by the human in terms of economic, political and media areas. However, most of the Egyptian problems concerning the media increased after the revolution. A lot of people in the media switched sides and were for and optimistic by the 25th January revolution and end the dark historical era in Egypt's history ,turning it for the better, thanks to this revolution, hailed by the whole world. Paid by the blood of the young heroes who overcame injustice and tyrants, they paved the road to correcting the path of the nation. After the path have been established, shockingly instead of unity within the people in power, their lines divided and conflicts emerged between political forces and the Authority. Media ethics are lost to the anchors presenting the news to the public. The idea of re-issuing a previously said statement and changing the words to suite the presenter is not unheard of. The clarity and credibility of the media integrity is on the low. My museum will address the media’s conflict of switching sides when the need arises whether to create uproar or make the people feel a sense of false security. It will make the people not take what is said by the media as the uttermost fact, but will make them search to find what is written between the lines.


Theme : Media Museum is a place where helps how to develop its visitors’ thinking and how not to believe without thinking … Mission: Museum mission is to develop the way of thinking of people as media is one of the most important means of modern nation-building or demolition , as it is double-edged weapon and we have to be warned in receive information from media sources, even if they are reputable sources and famous and high reliability As media museum help the country economical , political and society development . Objectives : • Learn how to communicate with people • How to accept other opinions • Develop Democracy Slogan : ‘Free ur mind .. The only way to go ‘

Title: Egyptian Media Museum


Concept (1): Ideas go through man’s mind (brain) “Whoever controls the media, controls the mind.” Jim Morrison

•Process of complexity of ideas

•Using this complexity in circulation of the museum such like a maze


Concept (2) : Illusion


Concept (3) : Connect pieces to the puzzle ……

Pixels used to create an image


Technical studies

•Vaulted concrete ceilings


•Solar window Generate 300% More Energy Than Solar Panels

•Movable louvers change its angle with the move of the sun

•Used in elevation so can benefit by the energy of the sun and the natural lighting and ventilation

•In ceiling helps in natural lighting without glare


•Glass Louvers in Elevation

Adjustable glass louvers allow the sun’s heat to be trapped during winter for a warm environment In summer , louvers are opened for maximum ventilation

•The power tower technology

How the system works :


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project: Children Museum Cairo , Downtown

Present to : Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Muhammed Ahmed

091815


Children’s Museums

‫ﻡﺹﺭ‬- Egypt Play. Explore. Learn

Problem definition : Egyptian children talents and skills development are totally neglected, nowadays children can’t find a suitable environment to practice their skills or to develop their talents. There is no places are qualified to support and offer kids developing skills. They are using bypassed commentary and illustration traditional teaching methods for today, and almost no practical side, and clubbing libraries or even a contact with outside environment because we have lack of open spaces gardens and social clubs. This leads to corrupt dissipated energies in the most important periods, and the most active and energetic in kid’s life. A child is born with innate talent and motivation to learn new things through exploration. Accordingly, we have to assist and offer to them a suitable environment in order to recognize and develop this talent from the beginning. At this age, playing plays an important role in discovering kind dexterities and skills. Gives experience by physical interaction with others and things surrounding then in the environment, allows children to learn and practice new skills in a safe environment, helps them to express their needs and also teach them a lot of social ethics. And by Practical experience child learns in his daily life a lot of aspects, that we have to recognize, support this skills and how to be developed according to what the kid exposed during his day. Developing and watching the kid’s talents, skills and what grab their attention, should be considered during their play time, they develop social skills, solving problems skills and personal skills as well.


Theme :

Children’s museum a place where the children can learn through play and exploration in environment designed just for them.

Mission: Increasing the cultural consciousness. To develop the scientific awareness and the cultural diversity between the children. Supporting our children with knowledge, different type of skills and principles, that enables them to face the high global acceleration. Also attract the tourists to show different cultural traditions to their kids and they can find a suitable place for their kids to spend a joyful time.

Objectives : - To develop their scientific skills by encouraging them to question and experimentation, monitoring and inventing theories not only to increase their knowledge and expand their knowledge, but also to develop their skills and learning abilities. exploring interactive exhibits at their own pace in a safe environment Increase the imagination ability. create playful, interactive learning experiences. general rule is Please Touch! Promoting individuality and creativity

Slogan : Play. Learn. Explore

Title: Children’s Museums Site :

Down Town

‘’‫ ﻡﺹﺭ‬- Egypt’’


Concept one : The main focus was on the basic elements of play, present in almost every child’s toy box in one form or another, being the colored blocks. Their simple shape and basic colors attract the children’s attention, and formed the main elements of the design.


Concept two : The simplicity of the material makes one of the interesting playing medium a child can enjoy . how can I use the simplicity of the forms to create a building can serve a children .

Simple paper doll Simple form


Concept three : Solid and void and how we can use it in the plan and layout to create an open spaces for the kids and creat courts for natural ventilation .


Double skin facades: Double skin facades is like an envelope structure constructed with more than one skin glazed as an additional envelop in front or back of the existing faรงade, allows the movement of air through interior and exterior facades, the cavity or the space between skins can be used as insulation for sound, temperature and used as shading device also. So there are three main components that we have: exterior skin usually is fully glazed, interior skin glazing and the cavity between them. Double Skin Facades can reduced the use of energy and improve indoor environment together in the same time even if the building is fully occupied. The aim of using double skin faรงade is the practical need of improving the indoor environment.

Also can be used in acoustic methods because it can act as insulation of sound in projects that surrounded by noise areas. Due to its ability in controlling solar thermal energy we can reach a comfort temperature for children at any time in the year. Avoid glaring on building surface which gives a thermal comfort. Cavity between skins enables the presence of natural ventilation instead of using mechanical or any artificial ventilation systems. And to make it more sustainable faรงade we can use an ultra violet ray filter.


Energy from every foot step: Pavegen systems figured out a new system for creating energy from every foot step. This energy is created from converting the kinetic energy came from foot compression into electricity. - We can use it in places that is crowded with kids foot Step. - The type of tiles used is not expensive it can be manufactured From recycled materials.

Low-Emissivity glass: This type of glass has the ability to reflect and absorb the heat that increases the energy efficiency. Low emissivity glass is treated by very thin invisible virtually transparent coating on the surface. Low E glass can: Enable solar energy through the building with large quantity. Allow the control of solar heat energy in order to achieve thermal comfort for building. Decrease the amount of ultra violet rays entering the building. Gives visual comfort due to its transparently appearance. Reduce the usage of artificial lighting and mechanical systems. Which is more healthier for kids.

•


Low-emitting materials: Low emitting materials are a type of materials that do not release harmful contaminant into the enclosed or indoor surrounding environment. These materials contain almost zero and low volatile organic compounds (VOC). VOCs are organic chemicals the majority of them are produced by plants. These materials help in determining the indoor environmental quality. Also it preserves the sufficient air quality for the ventilation requirements in any building. Reductions of health correlated Illnesses and propose a healthier environment for building occupants. These materials, such as: Wood flooring , ceramic tiles , Carpets and Paints.

Paints

Recycled carpet


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project:

Harbor for building ships

Main Harbor Suez canal

Museum for ships and crafts in Portsaid Present to : Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Nada Matar

090133

Project land

Ferry boat


Museum for ships crafting “Crafts and hidden treasures Problem definition :

Portsaid is known for being the stop of ships and those seeking entertainment. It houses two museums, the National Museum and the Military Museum, making them a hot spot for tourists to visit as well as the luxury of passing the time simply watching ships pass in and out of the harbor, giving them a relaxing feeling. Not only is it an attraction for foreign tourists but also an attraction to locals alike. The attraction for the foreigners is for its weather and entertainment where as for the locals its attraction lies in it being a duty free zone. People of Portsaid feel an attachment to the sea, it being their main livelihood for a longtime. With the profession of sailing handed over from generation to generation, surviving the test of time until recently, this profession started to become a dying art were only few can understand its significance. With the availability of technologies, building ships became an industrial work rather than a handicraft. My main concern for Portsaid was the fading of a big part of its history that is found in the crafting of ships. On that notice, I decided to build a museum to revive the forgotten art of ships and in doing so it will make the people remember better times than the ones of the Portsaid stadium after the 25th of January revolution. Theme :Exhibiting and upgrading shipping crafts and viewing its history. Mission: Taking care of the society’s concerns to encourage local tourism. Raising in the society the meaning of ecological awareness, the implementing renewable energy technologies, having a manual skills and workshops, and attraction for upper class for economical base. Taking the advantage of the Waterfront is an opportunity to add back history that’s been missing from the waterfront for too long.

Objectives :

Exhibiting the history of crafts that reflect the culture. Observing community center for interaction. Education facility for crafts. At morning, education facility can be used for crafts while at night it can be turned into cultural facility having a bazaar and trading zone. • Community house were locals can meet, exchange knowledge and skills Slogan : “Crafts and hidden treasures” • • • •


• 1st concept: Making the project more static space in front of the water for people getting together is something objective. In addition to that, making it more active is done by linking the earth to sea by Art Walkway that people walk through it and rest and watch the exhibits. The idea is to have a margin between water and land and that blends them with water from river to the site. moreover, choosing this place is one of a kind because waterfront is one of the best out product in this project. It can Offer the facility which facilitates the creative thinking and application of crafts due to the nature of people's activity.

SE

3D SHOT

ART WALKWAY

LAND

WIND TURBINE


2nd concept The form is based on the city grid. Before portsaid football incident, people use to be civil with one another. but now people are easily irritated for still waiting to get their right. They even forget the usage of how to revive and regain there good attitude for being going down to hill. So, the idea of having the grid of portsaid is to remind people of their originals and the good attitude that they used to be before. There are 3 main grid that has been configured:

by integrating the three grid, it came out with the following image representing the explained above and adding water features .

Water feature

Wooden platform


•

3rd concept

This concept illustrates the pattern and movement of ships and how they intersect with each other. Taking those pattern idea, the form combines both the pattern and the intersections in which the main part will have the curve pattern with glass and the rest of the masses will reveal in its crossing lines .

Conceptual sketch showing form, structure and movement.

Diagram showing an abstract image of elevation.


Technological studies Turning the tide into energy: the energy of the sea can be used to generate electrical energy on a huge scale. The clean and renewable energy produced from the ocean current can meet the global demand for electricity.

Aquamarine power: It is a hingedďťżflap attached to the seabed at depths of about 10 to 15 meters. The hinged flap pitches backwards and forwards in the near shore waves. The movement of the flap drives two hydraulic pistons which push high pressure water onshore (via subsea pipeline) to drive a hydroelectric turbine.


•Industrial waste recycle the problem with industries is that most of them do not have a good plan for dumping their wastes in a suitable manner. They simply load trucks with wastes to either sell them or in fact just simply dump them in some fields or some empty space.

Searaser As the sea swells, it moves the SeaRaser’s two buoys up and down. They in turn pump seawater through a pipe to an onshore turbine. Its advantage is that the system is simple, cheap and clean

.


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project: Architecture treasures museum Cairo,Downtown

Present to :

Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Nada Rizk

ID: 090133


Graduation project I Museum project Problem definition: After 25th Jan. revolution we faced a serious problem in tourism, which caused a great drop in our national income. Besides, we miss in Egypt Culture of museums, which is one of the important tools that attract tourists. Also there is a lake of architecture culture due to the desire of collecting money rather than caring of art of architecture. To overcome this problem, designing a museum for unique buildings of famous architect around the world, containing various blocks, each for different architect and his famous designs, with a park containing models (scale 1:25), and halls for events, that’s will be a convenient solution.

Theme:

Tourism revival after 25th January revolution by reviving the unique architecture buildings through a museum

Mission: This project aims to increase the national income by attracting tourists and developing the architectural level in Egypt.

Objectives:

Spreading culture of architecture through Egyptians. It is a good reference for students allover the world.

Slogan:

Architectural tour around the world

Title:

(Architecture treasures museum)


Concepts I’m influenced by the secret life of ant as it is one of the first creature define the world of architecture

First :Concept Using ants lighting techniques to focus on the exhibits in museum


Second: concept Underground museum to make visitors feel about ants suffer and also to be away from noise. As ants works in silent and that what we need inside museum halls


Third: concept ďƒ Grid concept ďƒ psychology of ants

Suffering

Organized

Hard working

Loyal

Serious

Cooperative

suffering Organized


Technological studies 1) SOLATUBE SKYLIGHT:

Natural light is so important for human physical and mental health and decreasing artificial electricity costs. That's why skylights are used in buildings' design. But it is sometimes difficult to use skylights because it needs much space, suitable angle of the sun and no clouds in the sky. So SOLATUBE is used instead by applying refracting, reflecting and concentrating solar light into a small tube using mirrors and lenses.


2) Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES): It is a system for generating electricity by pressing air into a storage container under ground using electricity at off-peak times, when it is cheaper. Then the compressed air is passed to natural gas powered turbine generators to create electricity at peak times.

3) Monodraught (the future wind catchers) In western countries they started to care about application of natural ventilation like wind catchers. They invented a modern version of it called Monodraught. Monodraughts are fully automatic and programmable with different types of sensors, for air temperature, CO2, noise, and humidity. These sensors cause the ceiling ventilator open or close according to the needs of the spaces inside the building.


MSA University Faculty of Engineering Architecture Department

Grad 1 Project:

Museum of convections perspective Cairo,Downtown

Present to :

Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed

Presented By : Naiera Yehia

ID: 094831


Title: Museum of convections perspective Slogan: A nation for all Problem definition: Sectarian strife Strife between Muslims and Christians back as early as the seventh century. When Arab Muslims armies invaded mainly Christian lands. Later, from the eleventh century onward. Followers or two religions battled for the ownership of the holy land. The first Christian battle started when byzantine emperor Alexios I appealed to pop Urban II for armed force to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of byzantine kingdom. Pope urban II in turn urged all Saints Church criminal events Christians to take up weapons and capture Jerusalem. For numerous years war and violence were committed Claimed the lives of many innocent, not only in the name of their religion but was also incidents crimes by some businessmen criminals and Politian to ignite sedition and to distract citizens from their political affairs to rob the country money, to distract from discovering their betrayer to their country to the innocent people who voted for them thinking that they will improve their standard of living and health,‌‌etc. May be the perpetrator of these events a person motivated by external which is very likely, especially since there is an unknown group claimed responsibility for those events which point certainly tried to destabilize. To date, And after the great Egyptian revolution, and after the overthrow of the most corrupt regime, there is still roots of these corrupt and whenever our political life goes to stability, ending lawlessness, we find ourselves in front of difficult economic challenge, requires the state action, according to specific plans , to pull the country from the economic crisis, which some Egyptian opponents at home and abroad, that the deepening of the crisis and ridden system based.

Theme: Exhibiting Islamic and Coptic beginnings each in a way, as the message from their religion is almost the same.

Mission: 1- The Economic challenge end, the wheel of production will rotate and the national economy will advance. Endless battles and conflicts, experienced by Egypt after the revolution of January 25, has left the demonstrations and protests, and the absence of political stability and security, as well as strikes and workers sit-ins unions, economic conditions very difficult after the decline rates of work and production, and the decline of state resources from taxes and tourism .. And others, in exchange for increasing the burdens on them, under those circumstances, which escalated categorical demands, of all classes of people, but by the end of racial discrimination and violence this will be the first step towards the Renaissance of this country. 2- Living peacefully , lawlessness End and Overcome the current crisis.


Title: Museum of convections perspective Slogan: A nation for all Sectarian strife

Objective: The Objective is that each visitor while going out of the museum will believe that We all Egyptians worship one God whether Muslims or Copts, I hope that the day will come raise it all the slogan "Long live the crescent with the cross" while We really believe in this slogan, which does not have any room for hypocrisy or lying while using it in the face of this terrorists.

Way of exhibiting the problem: Actually the museum will be divided into two parts, the first one is a timeline of large exhibiting halls presenting all prophets mission, Islamic and Coptic beginnings each in a way then all meet in one big hall presenting the commons in both religions , making the visitors starting from one point and ending in one point will make them feel that the mission is one, the message from their religion is almost the same, and that non of the religions approve of these criminal acts that are contrary to all human values ​in which they believe. The second part is also will be divided into two parts , the first one a timeline of large exhibiting halls presenting the sectarian strife problem showing all the crimes that happens, all the innocent who have passed away as a result of that kind of violence and the economic crisis Egypt passed by resulting from those events the importance of this part is raising the awareness of the seriousness of what is happening from the sectarian violence and polarization on the future of the nation and Solidarity with the victims of violence. The second part will words of events that met both Muslims and Christians together, without distinction, they both protected each other and jumped together for the renaissance of this country, and this part will be the most important as it will be the witness in front of everyone eyes of what the cohesion between Egyptians lines can do. No to sectarian‌No religious discrimination Yes to equality .... Yes to freedom of belief


Concepts: 1-Main concept

Main axis passes by the whole project connecting all the project , the centre of the main loop , is on a line ends up at the centre of eltahrir square which witness some of the best tolerance relations between Muslims and Christians.


Concepts: 2- prism Prism receive light and distribute it around White light is the base of all colors. Here the white light represent the principles of each religion as the principles is almost the same •Radial design


Concepts:

3

Each loop represent a religion(way of thinking),but each connected in many ways as the source and the principles is one


Technological studies: 1. Grey Water Wall with system Water Wall : a cooling storage wall system consisting of water filled containers positioned behind a south facing glazing.  Standard gypsum wallboard with vacuum space to cool the water and to as a time lag is used inside the water wall to give a uncomplicated, clean, and usual appearance to the interior, and also to slow down the rate of heat transfer into interior. This gypsum board has about the same confrontation to heat flow as the glass on the outside.  The temperature difference between the water wall and outside is way different than between the water wall and inside (as the temperature outside will be much greater than the inside).  Without the vacuum, most of the heat will be stored in the water wall will enter gradually the interior. Also It is well known that electricity can be generated from fast moving water. `

2. EARTH AIR TUNNELS •Daily and annual temperature fluctuations decrease with the increase in depth below the ground surface. •At a depth of about 4 m below ground, the temperature inside the earth remains nearly stable round the year and is nearly equal to the yearly average temperature of the place. •A tunnel in the form of a pipe or otherwise embedded at a depth of about 4 m below the ground will acquire the same temperature as the neighboring earth at its surface. •Therefore, the ambient air ventilated through this tunnel will be cooled in summer and warmed in winter and this air can be used for cooling in summer and heating in winter.

3. Thermal chimney A thermal chimney or a alike effect created with venting windows can also help to shift out hot daytime air. The key is creating convective cooling. Cool air is pulled in from the ground and hot air is pressed out from a towering point of the building. A vented sunroom, thermal chimney, or high windows on open stairwells can all achieve this. A builder can make use of the appropriate passive cooling and heating techniques to make a building that uses very low energy. The thermal chimney is used to produce updrafts and remove heated air. It is built on the sunny face of the building. A black metal heat absorbing sheet is used to create even more heated air that will naturally rise. This pulls the air up and out.


Technological studies: 4. EVAPORATIVE COOLING

• Evaporative cooling decreases indoor air temperature by evaporating water. • It is effective in hot and dry climate where the atmospheric humidity is almost don`t exist. • In evaporative cooling, the levelheaded heat of air is used to evaporate water, thereby cooling the air, which, in turn, cools the living space of the building. • Increase in contact between water and air increases the speed of evaporation. • The existence of a water body such as a pond, lake, and sea near the building or a fountain in a courtyard can provide a cooling effect.

A TYPICAL SECTION SHOWING PASSIVE SOLAR FEATURES OF WALMI BUILDING,BHOPAL

Note: Cannot be used in exhibiting halls as the evaporation could damage the exhibits.

5. Double skin facades The Double-skin facade is a system of building consisting of two skins placed in such a way that air flows in the middle cavity. The ventilation of the cavity can be normal, fan supported or mechanical. Apart from the type of the ventilation inside the vacuum, the origin and destination of the air can differ depending generally on climatic conditions, the use, the location, the occupational hours of the building and the HVAC approach. The glass skins can be double or single glazing units with a distance apart from 20 cm up to 2 meters. Often, for protection and heat extraction reasons during the cooling time, solar shading devices are placed inside the cavity.


MSA University-Architecture department

Graffiti- Freedom of speech, expression and opinion museum Presented to: Dr. Omar Fawzi Dr. Sameh El Feki Dr. Bedour Ahmed Presented By:

Yomna Ahmed Bahgat

090297


The chosen site is the downtown area. Problem: "So long as we can't talk freely in this country, we still need walls to paint and songs to write" –said an eighteen year old Amr, a revolutionary young man believing in the magnitude of the 25th of January up rise. The 25th of January revolution was filled with sacrifice and determination of the Egyptian people who wanted to reclaim their country, their rights and their freedom. The chanting of ‘bread, freedom, and social democracy’ was one of the most chanted during and after the revolution. Events during and after the revolution left scares in the fabric of the Egyptian essence that it had to be told, documented and retold again. So, within the streets that witnessed the events, the documentation was executed on the walls that resided there, documented through the art called Graffiti.

There are mixed reviews about this type of documentation of our revolution. Some people say it is the way street art is and others say that it is vandalism of property. Some people say it is freedom of speech and others say it is law breaking actions. Graffiti is standing at two opposite ends, over magnificent art work documenting our history, our thoughts and our concerns. So not to see the art documenting method be painted and painted at over after its finished, I decided to construct a graffiti museum that will give free range to the artists to speak their mind. By doing that it will ease up the tension of the people who are saying graffiti is vandalism; they will see that it is a way of telling a story of what happened from a new perspective, will make people more tolerate of each other’s opinions and will be a way of learning how to apply this art in most presentable way possible. It will also be a way of documenting the graffiti that were painted over in the streets, so that the artists will have their works preserved, whether it is a photograph or the actual graffiti painted on a ‘street like wall’ acting as the base of the painting.


Objectives: •To give people a space through which they can all communicate and relate with each other. •Create a kind of sanctuary for those not heard. •Those who paint on the walls of the buildings must understand not to paint on historical buildings, for graffiti is an art not a vandalism tool. •Attract the lower class criteria to listen and see the reasons behind the art works.

Mission:

When the museum is built it will be an attraction for tourists and locals alike, which will contribute to the economic status of the country and preserve its history in a new way. It will also be a way of raising issues that needs to be considered by the population and by doing so it will raise the cultural awareness of the people. The change in issues will be represented in the availability of clear walls which will be painted upon by the people, once the walls are full, the images will be photographed and archived in a photo gallery within the museum, leaving room once again for the now clear walls to accommodate the new issues raised by the people and the cycle continues.

Theme:

The development of the idea into a touristic attraction, both locally and internationally, giving the people a place to fully express themselves where they know their work will not be over painted or overlooked in a street-like environment, as well as raising cultural awareness through these paintings. This will be the main attraction with the graffiti wall that is renewed when new issues arises, it will be like a diary that holds all the memories.

Slogan:

The story continues.

Title:

Graffiti -freedom of speech, expression and opinion museum.


The 25th of January revolution had simple demands; bread, freedom and social equality. I took those demands and broke them down into my three main concepts: •Change •Unity •Freedom With the Graffiti as the theme with its photographic displays, the museum will have open spaces to accommodate walls for people to express themselves.

1st concept: Change •Demanding change during the revolution was not an easy task, it had its ups and downs and many casualties. When the revolution succeeded, time showed that change is not an easy thing to be achieved. It is a complex process with many different outcomes. •Bearing that in mind, the following diagrams shows how that there are many decisions are to be made and when choosing one path will lead to an outcome completely different from the path next to it.

•Plans showing different path circulations

•According to your perspective, change is heading for the better or for the worst in your interpretation of the stairs in the mass building.


2st concept: Unity •People from all social classes and ages came together in search for a common goal. In that goal all were united in the Tahrir square. Taking the circular shape of the square, I replicated the same circular grid on the site location and linking the two lands with three bridges representing the different social classes united in one place for the same purpose.

Bridges linking both lands Grid abstraction

Different elevation and open space treatment to represent the different classes, genders and age ranges that were present in the square during the 25th of January revolution.

3D showing the connections between the different levels of masses to make them connected ( different levels for the different classes)


3st concept: Freedom It was one of the main reasons for the 25th of January revolution. For that concept I chose an organic path passing through both lands. The separated part is linked by an organic bridge and the end of the paths end with a green node. Along this path is a continues wall in an open space giving it a street-like feel for the visitors to paint on and act as a live gallery exhibition, with links to the masses of the museums exhibiting the more permanent works as shown in the conceptual layout.

•The diagrams shows the reflection of the elevation massing, starting as a skin with voids, then it starts to break into a structural system and finally the restrictions represented by the shin is removed as an act of freedom, leaving the masses bear.

Stage(1)

Stage(2)

•Gathering places and circulation diagrams.

Stage(3)


Technological studies 1. Electricity Generation from Cars Speeding on Highways •The designer Fang-Chun Tsai came up with an application for the kinetic energy usage: he suggested using the kinetic energy from speeding cars on magnetic highways to change a magnetic field to generating electricity. •This technology can be used in the street cutting the two lands in the downtown site together.

2.Bioelectricity Making electricity from biomass, such as switch grass, is made by burning the plants to make steam to turn an electricity turbine. That electricity could be used to charge up a plugin electric car.


3.Wind Tunnel uses whooshing of subway trains to generate clean electricity •Korean designers Sinhyung Cho, Hong Sun Hye and Ryu Chan Hyeon have designed a concept underground tunnel for mega cities of the future that can produce clean energy using the wind energy generated by passing subway trains. Named the wind tunnel,the system generates renewable electricity, which can be used to power several public facilities on the ground. •This technology can be used in the downtown site since it is close to metro stations.


References • • • • • • • •

New Museum Theory and Practice Edited by Janet Marstine PHD of Dr.Noha Nashat Top Architects ,Europe Journal of interior design (article volume 23 no 3 Kali tzortzi,museum building design and exhibition layout:patterns of interaction David g regel brugge,cih,csp director ,enviromental health & safety boetter associates .inc PORT SAID WATER AND WASTEWATER FACILITIES MASTER PLAN Final Report Volume 2 -Water Facilities XIHAZEN AND SAWYER in association with ECGENGINEERING CONSULTANTS GROUP • Official website of Port Said Governorate.Ipek Kaynar University of Michigan, USA Vlad I. Morariu, V. Shiv Naga Prasad, and Larry S. Davis Computer Vision Laboratory University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 • http://www.historyofinformation.com/index.php?category=Museums • http://www.greatbuildings.com.html • http://www.britannica.com/search?query=museums+between+1850-1950 • The history of museums-Geoffrey Lewis • http://www.cruxbite.com/knowledge-desk/major-types-of-museums-with-their-bestexamples • http://desmena.com/?p=2102 • http://dreamofacity.com/2011/12/15/art-and-the-city-the-museum-of-islamic-art-doha%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%86%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%86-%D9%85%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84/ • http://housevariety.blogspot.com/2011/02/museum-of-islamic-art-by-impei.html#.UHsoU8XMjlc • http ://www.sustainability .dpc.wa.gov.au/docs/draft_strategy.htm • http://www.royalsaskmuseum.ca/research/publications/life_sciences.shtml#cwls • http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com/2012/09/tadao-ando-maritime-museum-abudhabi.html • http://www.e-architect.co.uk/architects/tadao_ando.htm http://www.worldbuildingsdirectory.com/project.cfm?id=1655 •• General Relations Administration & Center of Information and Decision making support (2003). Port• • • • • • • • •

Said: Egypt Jewel-World crossways, El-Rashidi printing shop, Port-Said. Ghallab, H. (1999). Egypt; the Future-Crossing Centuries Projects. General Egyptian Authority for Book, p. 85-98, 105-110, 127-140, 141-149. Holloway, C. (1985). Business of Tourism. Plymouth, p. 254-257. Ibrahim, K. (2001). Tourism of Maldives. Maldives, From the world Wide Web: http://www.parahol.com/maldives/tourism.htm Tourism Development. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Tourism Development Authority (TDA) (2000). Study on Tourism Development Projects in Arab Republic of Egypt, Final Report, V. 1, pp 16. http://hakaek-misr.com/showthread.php?8256%E3%DC%ED%DC%DC%DC%DC%E4%DC%DC%DC%DC%DC%C7%C1%C8%DC%DC%E6%D1%D3%DC%DC%DA%DC%DC%DC%ED%DC%DC%CF • http://portsaidhistory.com/topic/%D9%86%D8%B4%D8%A3%D8%A9%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%AF-10%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%83%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%84

Research Museum Graduation Project  
Research Museum Graduation Project  
Advertisement