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ANDREW LEE

Ryerson University DAS

B.Arch.Sci 2018


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POWER 1 CO-OP HOUSING

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SUMACH DUPLEX

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REIMAGINING O’KEEFE LANE

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PARLIAMENT MULTICULTURAL CENTER PHASE I & II

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AU TAU PUMPING STATION C’ARCH DESIGN

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69 WING LOK STREET OFFICE DEVELOPMENT JAMES LAW CYBERTECTURE INTERNATIONAL HOLDINGS LIMITED


01 POWER 1 COOP HOUSING 80A Power Street, Toronto, ON ASC401 Year II 2nd Semester Design Studio III Critic: Maria Denegri February 2016 Program Use: Revit 2016, Rhincero 6.0, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign

According to various research, some of the highest levels of air pollution in the city of Toronto occur along the major highways where many vehicles travel together along a concentrated route, all releasing emissions. One of the main emissions from vechicles is NOx, which transforms in the air to NO2, one of the common pollutants consistently linked to health impacts; high concentrations of NOx that occur along the City’s major highways including Highway 427, Highway 401, Highway 400, the Don Valley Parkway, and the Gardiner Expressway. Recent studies conducted in two Toronto neighbourhoods examined both ambient air pollution and related health risks arising from local levels of air pollution - and found both to be highest near major highways. Gas stations can also pose significant hazards to neighbors, especially children. Some of the perils include ground-level ozone caused in part by gasoline fumes, groundwater hazards from petroleum products leaking into the ground, and exposure hazards from other chemicals that might be used at the station if it’s also a repair shop. The given site for the proposed Co-op is located next to a Shell gas station and Don Valley Parkway which poses the air quality as a main concern for designing this project. It raises the question: how can this midrise possibly improve the air quality for the users? Instead of avoiding these negative aspect of the site, the midrise uses and transfer it by implementing greenery with the fact that plants take in CO2 and release fresh O2 . Another design intention of this midrise is to create an open community green space so that it can allow the users to engage more to the outside environment where they can have outdoor activities or host events, such as parties, meetings, outdoor yoga and reading.


Building Type 01

Building Type 02

ENGAGEMENT TO THE SURROUNDINGS

FORM FOR ATTRACTION

The characteristics of this building type is that there are shared balconies on the East and West facade which gives an opportunity for the users to interact with their neighbours.

The idea of this building type is that it has a “V” shape geometry which not only create a sense of attraction to the users or pedestrians, it also allow open public space for the community such as garden, playground, and sitting areas etc.

Building Type 03

MODERN CONDOMINIUM

The idea of this building type is that all the units are modular. The block facade is very simple and plain similar Le Corbusier’s idea of the “Radiant City”. Reading in a larger scale of the complex, these blocks are generally placed in pairs.

Building Type 04

OPEN TO ALL SIDES The idea of this building type is that balconies are located on all four sides; for all the users. This way it could allow users to capture the views they get depending which side their units are facing.


Following the characteristics of Toronto apartment buildings, a stacked-like building form is perceived According to Toronto Zoning By Law, if a lot abuts a lot in the O, ON, or OR zone or the Residential Zone category or Residential Apartment Zone category, every building on the lot in the CR zone may not penetrate a 45 degree angular plate projected. (i) over a shallow lot, along the entire required rear yard setback, starting at a height of 10.5 metres above the average elevation of the ground along the rear lot line.

Steel Trusses helped to support the 15 metres length steel cantilever structure.

RESPONSE Finally, the midrise was designed to not only obtain the characteristics of a co-op living style, it also applies to the “stacking� building style of Torontonian apartment that has been developing since early 1800. However, the Toronto Building By-Law must be followed which furthermore refurnishes the final form.


Exterior view of the co-op housing (top) Exterior view of the green wall (Bottom)


Property line with exception of landscape

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Farmer’s Market Plan Cafe Plan

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Interior view of the gym room at the cantilever (top) Interior view of the living room and kitchen (Bottom)


Property line with exception of landscape

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Typical Floor Plan

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Section AA Users viewing at the public green space

Placing greeneries outside the midrise can give views for the users and pedestrians, as well as the surrounding buildings and vehicles. This can also be used as an attraction to the people; which can be benefitical for the commercial area.

Having the advantage of the low adjacent building height allows direct Southern sunlight to shine directly toward the South side of midrise. Therefore, vegetaion is implemented on the Southern facade.

Having vertically growing vegetation on the railiings and around the building and its core (users) allows sufficient conversion from CO2 that is created from the Don Valley Parkway and the Shell gas station to O2.

Connection to the site is achieved by matching the building height of the existing buildings. The vegetated facades of the buildng juxtaposes itself from its surrounding context.

DECEIVABLE PUBLIC GREEN SPACE Having the public open green space not only allow users to have more views other than the Orphan’s Park, downtown Toronto and St. Paul’s Basilica. It also has the potential to improve the air quality for the users.


Section BB Users circulate along the balcony

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This is a wind-driven building. Measurments and experiments are needed in order to possibly design the most efficient ventilated building geometry so that the users can receive constant fresh air. Also it can reduce energy consumption for air conditioning and electrical fan.

OPEN SHARED BALCONY AS A GATHERING SPACE In order to allow users to engage more to the outside, an open shared balcony is used for them to circulate along the side of the building.


LANDSCAPE DESIGN

There is a sense of discontinuity between Orphan’s Green and the Toronto skyline condominium buildings. Therefore, applying green space as landscape architecture for the proposed midrise would connect these two elements.

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

NATURAL GEOMETRY

GREENERY

The landscape design seeks to be abstract and express the existing natural behavior of a plant cell.

The design of the landscape was influenced by plant cells when it is at it’s photosynthesis stage. The cell wall is the users path to the midrise.

The location of the green space will be located around the users’ path (cell wall).


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ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE The boundary of the green space is straightened in order to speak the same architectural language with the midrise.

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TREES Trees would be planted on the green space in order to provide shade for the users when circulating along the path.

BALCONY

Finally, vegetation is strategically placed on the railings of the balconies where the greenwall visually divides into long horizontal rings.


02 SUMACH DUPLEX 46 Sumach Street, Toronto, ON ASC401 Year II 2nd Semester Design Studio III Critic: Maria Denegri January 2016 Program Use: Revit 2016, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign

The duplex is situated near the intersection of Sumach St and King St West where there is a tremendous amount of historical Victorian style houses. A common mental image of a “Victorian” home looks much like a dollhouse with elaborate trim and bright colors. But the term “Victorian Architecture” actually refers to styles that emerged in the period between 1830 and 1910, during the reign of Queen Victoria. The Victorian era spawned several well-known styles, including Gothic revival, Italianate, Second Empire, Queen Anne, stick style, Romanesque style and shingle style. Architects took the ideas of Gothic architecture and added French, Italian, Tudor and even Egyptian details. Designers were free to combine the styles and create several different well-known styles and combine the styles as they saw fit. Ideas from the Gothic style may have started the Victorian styles, but a kick from the Industrial Revolution nationalized the trend. Stream-powered sawmills could create elaborate materials cheaper and faster. As a result late Victorian homes became increasingly ornate. This duplex aims to abstractively represent Victorian houses’ characteristics on the interior space while still maintaining a contemporary facade. To minimize the amount of changes or contrast to the site, this duplex follows the lifestyle of the neighbourhood. Through conducting numerious research, a conclusion was made that Victorian housing has these characteristics: two to three storeys, wood or stone as exterior cladding, complicated, asymmetrical shape, decorative trim, textured wall surfaces, steep, multi-faceted roof or Manstard roof, onestory porch, containing towers and vibrant have colors. Also with the problem regarding the low building height of the adjacent buildings, this proposed duplex implements passive solar strategy through the width of the balcony and the use of the curtain.


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A curvilinear feature stair is located in the centre creating a core and main hall where it is accessible to bedrooms, living room, dinning room, and loading room.

The victorian house is surrounded by outdoor decking where users can have easy access to the outdoor from programs such as dining room, garage, loading room etc.

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An outdoor deck is located on the west and south side of the victorian house where the entry is directly aligned with the central stairs, serving as a core. However, bedrooms are not accessible.

The outdoor deck is located all around the victorian house supported by numerous of columns.

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A spiral staircase is located near the core, creating a long continuous corridor, which is acccessible to bedrooms, kitchen, and balconies.

In a larger scale of a victorian house, the central stairs located in the core creates a long continuous corridor which connects the bedrooms, kitchen, and balconies.


EXTERIOR CONTEMPORARY DESIGN The facade of the duplex is composed of black aluminum panels and wood. The exterior design seeks to obtain the contemporary characteristics which is controlled by the proportion of squares and rectangles, while mantaining the Victorian interior style decor. The contemporary style is influenced by the future proposal of the adjacent developments; keeping the similar architectural language.

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02 Wooden floor tiles of a Victorian House. Since early 1800s, wood frame construction has been the standard housing construction method; builders used floor tiles because it connects well with wood joists.

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Front wooden deck of a Victorian House. The wooden deck not only serves as a waiting place before entering the building, it can also be a gathering place where users want host outdoor activities.

04 Interior corridors of a Victorian house. A main corridor connects all the program spaces together.

Bay windows in a Victorian house. With the bay windows located on the front facade, it allows users to capture the view of the exterior from the front facade. It also allow natural sunlight to brighten the interior space.

INFRASTRUCTURE OF VICTORIAN HOUSE The duplex keeps the infrastructure of wood frame construction of Victorian buildings, but with a more modernized facade showing the contrast between old and new. It can be shown in terms of materiality (use of aluminum cladding) as well as the amount of glazing; showing the advancement in technology.


Exterior view of the duplex (top) Interior view of the living room and kitchen(Bottom)


NOTE: STARBUCKS 94.62 sq.m STARBUCKS TEMP. STORAGE RM. 7.22 sq.m WASHROOM 5.17 sq.m

Cantilever above must not exceed the building code as well as the property line, this gives the result of 19000 x 6000

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This basement enables the users to store furnitures as well as goods, it also allows to store commercial goods such as food/ cleaning accessories.

Open shared parking lot with surrounding neighbourhoods with two allowable parking slots.

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Ground Floor Plan

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Perspection Section

VICTORIAN’S WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION East perspective section showing the details of the wood frame construction with black aluminum cladding panels. It also shows the activity of the cafe retail space below the units.

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A NOTE: LIVING RM. 21.47 sq.m DINNING RM. 25.50 sq.m WASHROOM 5.44 sq.m BEDROOM 01 10.2 sq.m BEDROOM 02 10.2 sq.m MASTER BEDROOM 22.03 sq.m WASHROOM 6.04 sq.m STORAGE RM. 3.18 sq.m ULTILITY RM. 3.83 sq.m OUTDOOR GARDEN 50.79 sq.m

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03 REIMAGINE O’KEEFE LANE 415 O’Keefe Lane, Toronto, ON Winter Design Competition Honourable Mention Team: Jason Glionna, Joanna Oon December 2016 Program Use: Rhinocero 6.0, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign, Lightroom

Built in 1963, Kerr Hall is the heart and soul of Ryerson University. It has developed a clear connection between the surrounding environment, Ryerson’s past, and Ryerson’s future. Marking the building’s main entrances are elegant arches, lined with heavy granite. Looking back to when these arches were first constructed, there lies the skeletal structural form. Through the extension of this form is where O’Keefe Lane can be reimagined. By using an easily manufactured standardized structure as the base of our form, versatility plays a huge role. Anything from lanterns, to ribbons, to greenery, to art installations can be hung from the structure at any time of the year. Panels of artwork, logos, or greenery can also be installed between the columns to introduce informal gathering spaces along with branding for Ryerson. It is in these details where aspects of Ryerson and the Toronto community are brought to life. In using a standardized structure, costs are also kept to a reduced amount. The use of steel means that the structure is durable and easily duplicated once the mold has been formed. Basic bolt and welded connections means that the assembly process is quick and simple. Our strategy to tie Ryerson’s history (Kerr Hall), with Ryerson’s future is through lighting and seating. The zig-zag pattern of lights strung along the top of the structure introduces an inviting atmosphere for the surrounding community. With our seating we have expanded on the integrated seating design in front of the Student Learning Centre by creating the most function using the least amount of materials. The Archway is able to establish a strong connection of past and future icons such as Kerr Hall and the Student Learning Centre that enables the rehabilitation of O’Keefe Lane.


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Benches placed at a location for pedestrians to sit and have the view of the light fixtures, sculptures, events and markets as well as the surroundings

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Standard light fixtures are hung on the rubber rope to brighten the OKeefe lane

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Ramps for people with disability to get to the platform for sitting as well as markets location

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Standard light fixtures are hung on the rubber rope to brighten the OKeefe lane

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Benches placed at a location for pedestrians to sit and have the view of the light fixtures, sculptures, events and markets as well as the surroundings

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Pedestrian Lane Bike Lane

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PEDESTRIAN & BIKE LANE

SITTING AREA Lighting fixtures provided for the paintings

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SCULPTURE DISPLAY

STUDENTS’ ARTWORK DISPLAY


East Site Section

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LOADING

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04 PARLIAMENT MULTICULTURAL CENTER 271 Front Street East, Toronto, ON ASC520 Year III 1st Semester Integration Studio I Critic: Veronica Madonna, Mark Cichy September 2016 Program Use: Revit 2016, Rhinocero 6.0, Grasshopper, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign, 3D Studio Max

Architects always believe that buildings shouldn’t simply be a standalone object. The façade, the interior space, and the landscape of the building as a whole should response to the users, site, and culture. Easy as it seems, how can these buildings relate to the culture without understanding the heritage background and the origin of the site? It is important for architects to acknowledge that the current as well as future generations are parties to our history and every part of the design should correspond to what has already existed. 271 Front Street East located in Toronto is one of the site that holds a rich heritage background, but one that is not readily apparent because of Toronto’s affinity for urban renewal. Former uses of the site include Canada’s first and second parliament building, and a municipal jail. This resulted in possible remaining foundations of historic structures still hiding underneath the top soil. In designing a multicultural center, implementing social interaction is one of the key elements; one way this can be achieved is by creating grand opening and attractive spaces. As a result, people learn about other cultures through conversation and activities. However, this ignores the cultural aspect of where the building is standing on. Ultimately, this multicultural center uses the the reflection of heritage background of Toronto as the principle of the design. By inhabitants with different cultural background understanding the history as well as the culture of Toronto, it can enable them to reflect the similar or different cultural characteristics between them. This project will demonstrate that one of the design intention of the multicultural center is to use three devices: Materiality, Imagery, and Spatial Quality. By implementing the aspect of nature and rainwater and how it can affect the material and furthermore enhance the idea of the history. With the rainwater washing away the surface of the corten steel on the surface of the concrete overtime; the surfaces of the building gradually weather. By adding perforated steel panels with the image of the First Parliament Building, Second Parliament Building as well as scenes of the War of 1812, creates a easily discernable storyboard. Lastly, by forcing the circulation of the visitors with the image of the historical map of Toronto and the text presenting the history of it allow the visitors to understand the history of Toronto like a storyline.


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From mid 19th Century until late 20th Century, city development of Toronto were often followed as a grid system. During industrialization, many factories were built in order to help development Toronto fast. After the World War II and in between the mid 20th Century to early 21st Century when population were growing rapidly and immigration, houses were critcally in need. As a result, many factories were demolishd where new houses could be built.


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Until late 20 Century, people realized that architecture was lacking the aspect of sustainability that buildings were more focused on how it could helped the civilization rather than the planet. Therefore, new Toronto Zoning By Law was introduced that a courtyard or landscape architecture must be implemented within two blocks of houses as shown in the photographs from 1977-1983. th


The complex is composed two one and a half storey brick buildings 40’ x 24’ and located 75’ apart.

First Parliament Building First Parliament Building

Unidentified outbuildings

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Town Blockhouse

FIRST PARLIAMENT BUILDING

BLOCKHOUSE

Upper Canada’s first parliament building was constructed between 1795-1797 above the lake, just east of town of York.

A blockhouse was built in 1799 on top of the bluff to the South, to protect the town from Aboriginal incursion.

Home District Gaol

Old Home District Gaol and Consumers’ Gas Coal & Coke Sheds

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HOME DISTRICT GAOL Around 1837-1840, the Home District Gaol (jail) is constructed on the site. A public garden along the shoreline named “Fair Green” is planted on the west of the site.

06 OLD HOME DISTRICT GAOL The gaol closes in 1860 and remains vacant until 1866. 1870, the south half of the site is leased to Toronto Nippissing railway co.


First Parliament Building

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Town Blockhouse

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WAR OF 1812

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April 27TH 1813, American forces attack York and burn parliament buildings and the blockhouse. The brick walls survive, and basic repairs are made.

1815-1818, the upper reveals of the buildings are used to house newly arrived immigrants. A central building is constructed. December 1824, the building is burned.

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Former Automotive Centre

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Trench 2 Car Wash

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CONSUMER’S GAS STATION 1879 consumers gas purchases the property and in 1881 a coal shed is added to the east of the abandoned gaol.

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FORMER AUTOMOTIVE CENTRE CAR WASH Composite overlay of the Parliament buildings envelope, archaeological potential zones, locations of 2000 excavations, and current structure.


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Existing Site Condition As it is shown in the site plan as well as an aerial photo of the site, Parliament Street and Front Street East is very densed with traffic. Since the proposed site is a lot larger than it is required to build a multicultural centre, therefore, it is practical that 38% of the site which is 35000W x 92000L is to be sold on the North side where high rise or mid rise buildings can be built.


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01. Feasibility

To be economically friendly, the propose multicultural center is situated on the cheapest site so that the site that is more expensive can be used for building highrise & midrise buildings.

02. Attraction

Creating interesting features so that it can draw attention to pedestrians from St Lawrence neighbourhood, Parliament neighbourhood as well as pedestrians at The Distillery District.

Future Development (+50000.00) Southern Light Exposure by picking the Southern end of the site for the multicultural center

Existing Parliament park (+0.00)

03. Separation

Like Daniel Libeskind explained for the building height intention for the 9.11 Memorial Museum and that the building needs to run horizontally in order to break the verticality of the surrounding buildings as well as future development away from the grade.

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04. Sustainability By choosing the Southern end of the site for the propose multicultural center allows the opportunity for implementing sustainability in that it enables direct natural Southern sunlight into the building.

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Proposed green space to enhance the quality of the circulation path, keeping the landscape architectural language the same.

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Existing Cirulcation Path Existing Parliament Park

05. Respond

Additional proposed green space for enhancing the human connection of both side, also keeping the same landscape architectural language on both side.

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06. Entrance

Understanding the traffic condition, the most suitable car entrance location would be on the South West end because of its low density which would not cause traffice jam.

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Feature stairs on the South West facade allows visitors to capture the view of e Distillery District.

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View of e Distillery District

A sculpture is placed at the center of the propose site to symbolize and emphasize of the First Parliament Building and the history of Toronto.

View of e Distillery District

07. Interior Emphasize

08. Views

Influenced by The Holocaust Memorial Museum in Berlin, a sculpture is placed in the center of the site to symbolize and emphazie the existence of The First Parliament Building and the heritage background of Toronto.

Influenced by Herzog & de Meuron’s Tate Modern Extension, the propose feature stairs is located at the South East corner of the building in order for the users to capture the view of The Distillery District.

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Having the image of the iconic event display on the facade tells the story of the timeline of the site to the pedestrians.

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Image of Second Parliament Building

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Image of First Parliament Building

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09. Exterior Emphasize

10. Building Height

Using Imagery & Narrative device, the facade of the multicultural center contains the image of the First Parliament Building, Second Parliament Building as well as the War of 1812. Similar to the function of picture of a book cover, it enables the pedestrians on the outdoor to understand the history of Toronto.

The building height of the multicultural center tries to follow the building height contour from the future development to the propose multicultural center and finally to the pedestrians walkway and the Parliament park.


Exterior view of the Parliament Multicultural Center (top & bottom)


GROUND FLOOR

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Through site analysis, it is shown that majority of the circulation of the site is located at the pathway in Parliament Park which influenced where the main entrance of the multicultural center should be located.


Exterior view of the main entrance (top) Interior view of the Heritage of Toronto Museum at the basement level (Bottom)


One of Jean Nouvel and Peter Eisemanns’ belief is that architecture should not simply be view as a solution or response to the surroundings, it should have the ability to obtain the cultural characteristics of the site. However, in order to obtain the cultural aspect, it is important for the architect to reflect back in time and understand the history of the site and how the culture develop throughout the time period. By encouraging the circulation of the multicultural center digging into the ground before entering the building.


Interior view of the temporary Heritage of Toronto Museum (top) Interior view of the main circulation space (Bottom)


Inspired by Herzog & de Meuron’s Tate Modern Extension, the feature stair is located on the South side of the building and with the openings on the South East side of the cantilever allows visitors to capture the view of The Distillery District as they circulate vertically. Also the temporary hertiage of Toronto Museum is placed on the South West end where visitors can capture the view of the old St Lawrence neighbourhood. Ultimately, by controlling views can help reflect the hertiage background of Toronto.


East Elevation

3F 12000

2F 8500

1F 5000

North Elevation

GF 0.00 (mm)

3F 12000

2F 8500

1F 5000

West Elevation

GF 0.00 (mm)

3F 12000

2F 8500

1F 5000

South Elevation

GF 0.00 (mm)

3F 12000

2F 8500

1F 5000

GF 0.00 (mm)

01. Building Facade

02. Perforated Facade

03. Unwanted Facade

04. Perforated Images

04. Perforation Density

NARRATIVE

After several site visits and analysis, it is concluded that majority of the circulation is located along Front St East and Parliament St, therefore, it is determined the images are displayed at the facing of these two major streets.The perforated steel design of the multicultural center uses the selected images of the First Parliament Building on the East facade which progress to the image of the War of 1812 on the North facade. Lastly, the west facade shows the image of the Second Parliament. Abstractively similar to the function of pictures in a story book, it allows pedestrians to understand the heritage background of the site from seeing these images of iconic buildings and events.


3rd Floor

2nd Floor

1st Floor


05 AU TAU PUMPING STATION Office: C’Arch Design Design and Drawings Completion Date: July 2015, Expected Completion Date: September 2018 Lead Architect: Mabel Liu Program Use: Rhinocero 6.0, Grasshopper, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign

Au Tau Sewage Pumping station is situated in Tseung Kwan O and Tuen Mun (Ka Loon Tsuen and Lung Kwu Tan) in Hong Kong, China. Hong Kong has a humid climate, where rainfall occurs very often especially because from the air pollution that are brought and created by factories from mainland China. Sewage pumping station can also be called as lift stations are used to move wastewater to higher elevations in order to allow tansport by gravity flow. Sewage is fed into and stored in a sealed underground pit. When the level rises to predetermined point, a pump will be started to lift the sewage upward through a pressurised pipe system from where it is discharged into a gravity manhole again. From here the cycle starts all over again until the sewage reaches its point of destination. The facade design was derived from the topography of Au Tau mountain to define the pattern of the artificial timber cladding.


Au Tau Pumping Station Elevation Drawings


06 69 WING LOK STREET OFFICE DEVELOPMENT Office: James Law Cybertecture International Limited Renderings and Boss Room Interior Planning Completion Date: August 2016, In Construction Phase Lead Architect: James Law, Jonathan Kong, Charles Chu Team: Ken Chiang, Kennith Chan Program Use: Sketchup 8.0, Autocad 2016, Adobe Photoshop

69 Wing Lok Street Office building is situated in downtown Hong Kong, China. Hong Kong is a fast developing city which has a lot of office buildings. However, developers, government and architects are mostly focusing on the gross floor area rather than the appearance of the office buildings and how users actually use these space. The idea behind 69 Wing Lok Street is to create continuous changing balconies with the use of fince on the main facade facing the main streeet. The change of these balconies can allow users to have more social interaction to the users below and above.


Thank you for your time.

Andrew Lee

Ryerson University B.Arch.Sci 2018 drew.lee14@hotmail.com



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