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Buddhist impressions Ying har tang collection

佛教藝術 英霞堂收藏


Buddhist impressions Ying har tang collection

佛教藝術 英霞堂收藏

劉惠漢 Hon Lau 何杏根 Ellen Ho 劉俊揚 Andrew Lau

東寶齋 Hollywood Galleries Hong Kong


PREFACE

W

e are delighted to present these carefully selected Buddhist sculptures from a private collection— Ying Har Tang. These Buddhist artifacts from China, Tibet, India, Nepal and Mongolia represent the exquisite taste of two female collectors. Among the tremendous field of Chinese Art, they show their keen passion and appreciation of Buddhist Art since 1990’s.Their interest are triggered by the flow of Buddhist Art in 1980’s and 1990’s,which are passing through Hong Kong on their way to western markets, including museums and private collectors. Ying Har Tang collectors are participating in keeping part of these artworks in Hong Kong. We would like to thank our friends and family without whom this exhibition would not have been possible. They are, in no particular order - Dr. Pal, Tado, Loto, Mr. O’Neil, Gyan, Fusa & Robert, Benny, David, Karen, Tupten, Lala, Sonam, Ian, Lodo, Lama, L. Dorje, D. Dorje, Tsering, Kesang, Bhago, Terese, Choying, Rinpoche, Teresa, Dif & Sau-Ching, San-jay, Champa, Nawang, Tashi, Ulrich, Palmo, Dorje & Pemba, Arnold, John, Bob, Fabio, Alan, Francois, Tim, Sir Au, Mr. Chui, Allen, Mei-Li & William, Veronica & Y.P., Priscilla & William, Diana & Jonathan, May & Bill, Feng-Ling, Qian and Tung, Eddie, Sun, Kunga, Chung, Mr. Chan, Duan, the various Ma families, Sau-Ma, San-pai, SauMay, Mr. Chang, Mr. Jim, Mohan, Tultul, Nun Hung-fan, Christine, Raymond, Joe, Andy, Yixi, Michael, Mr. Zhao, Mem, Jeff, Judy, Peter, Diana & Georgiana, Carlo, Ramesh, Subhash, Donald, Dan, Carlton, Hugo, Tai, Chiu Gor and Pui Gor. Without their tremendous help, we would not have been able to gain the trust of the Ying Har Tang collectors. We thank them all from the very bottom of our hearts. Last but not least, we owe our greatest gratitude to the owners of Ying Har Tang. Without their trust and generous financial support, we will not be the keepers of these beautiful Buddhist works of art.

Hon Lau Ellen Ho Hanson Lau Andrew Lau May, 2011


前言

我們非常榮幸向大家展示英霞堂主人的收藏。這 展覽代表兩位女性收藏者對佛教文物的熱衷和獨具 慧眼。由上世紀九十年代開始,在茫茫中國藝術大 海中,她們表現對佛教藝術獨特的文化修養和淵博 的知識。英霞堂主人的興趣始於上世紀八十年代, 大量佛教藝術曾路經香港,轉折進入西方博物館和 衆多私人收藏家的路途上,這兩位收藏家讓她們喜 愛的佛教藝術品存留香港。在云云衆多香港收藏家 都鍾情於清三代官窯瓷器和其他中國文物的潮流 中,我們看到英霞堂主人別樹一幟的選擇。在她們 協助下,我們精選了這批來自中原、西藏、印度、 尼泊爾和蒙古的佛教文物。 我們非常感激在這漫長和艱辛學習與收藏的道路上 幫助過我們尊敬的老師、朋友和親人。下面排名不 分先後: 派爾教授、大都、樂徒、歐老師、甘、富 沙和羅拔、賓尼、大衛、嘉倫、拉拿、索南、伊 仁、盧道、龍布、戴仁丶切玲、既山、罷高、麗 斯、措仁、寧波車、賽麗斯、小青和迪夫、山機、 贊巴、那旺、大西、奧域、巴莫、多吉和賓巴、雅 努、約翰、博、法奧、亞倫、法哥、添、歐總、徐 董、鄧生、莉和良、萍和平、芳和民、戴安娜和 賢、美和比爾、鳳玲、茜和東、艾迪、孫大哥、貢 嘉、鍾、陳總、段、多個馬家庭、 小馬、三排、 小妹丶張老闆、詹老闆、莫漢、吐圖、宏勳師、珍 姐、雷文、祖、愛迪、一西、米高、趙總、萬、徐 總、朱迪,彼德、賢和青、卡路、華米、蘇巴、當 奴、丹、卡頓、希高、泰、超哥、培哥以及衆多的 朋友。沒有他們的分享知識和無私的幫助,包括金 錢和精神上的支持,我們不可能進入這個佛教藝術 的舞台上,參與這精彩的盛會,更得到英霞堂主人 的信賴。我們再次衷心感謝。 最後,我們要向尊貴的英霞堂主人致敬,沒有她們 的信賴和經濟上的支持和幫助,我們便不會成為這 批藝術品的管理員。

劉惠漢 何杏根 劉俊威 劉俊揚 二零一一年五月


YH-01 Milarepa

米勒日巴尊者

Gilt bronze

銅鎏金

Tibet

西藏

15thC

十五世紀

Height 12.5cm (5in.)

高 12.5公分

Milarepa is the only saint who attained

米勒日巴是藏傳佛教中唯一在其當世

buddhahood within one life time. He is the

成道的聖人。 他是繼承瑪爾巴再傳授

spiritual successor of Marpa and teacher

到干保巴的噶舉派重要橋樑。 右手擺

of Gampopa in the Kagyu Lineage. He is

在耳邊,坐式自在,線條優美自然,身穿

depicted with his right hand raised to his

薄紗。 眼和唇有彩,捲曲長髪亦有青

ear and seated in the pose of rajalilasana

金藍粉,替這小巧造像增添美感。

on a double lotus pedestal. He wears a sash across his shoulder incised with beads along the rim. Color pigments on lips and eyes and lapis pigment on curls of hair add credit to this finely cast statue.

Reference: 1.

Dinwiddie, Donald & Stoddard, Heather, Portraits of the Masters: Bronze Sculptures of

the Tibetan Buddhist Lineages, 2003, p.144

2.

Weldon, David & Singer, Jane Casey, 1999, The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist

Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, p.142, fig.60

3.

天津文物公司《金銅佛像》1999年, 頁32, 第37號

4.

夏景春《夏景春藏金銅佛像》2000年, 頁44-45, 第35, 36, 37號

5.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert A.F., Wisdom & Compassion: The Sacred Art of

Tibet, Expanded Edition, 1996, p.240 no.80

6.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, Vol. two, Tibet & China, 2001,

p.877, no.202E ; p.879 no.203C: show similar hair styles in Gyantse, Tibet


YH-02 Pagmodrupa Dorjie Gyalpo

上師

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibet

西藏

15thC

十五世紀

Height 17.8cm (7in.)

高 17.8公分

The renowned Kagyu Lama, Pagmodrupa

噶舉派早期上師—多杰嘉波(公元

(1110-1170) was regarded by his followers

1110-1170年) 傳為釋迦牟尼轉世,故

as the incarnation of Sakyamuni, hence he

其塑像多為成佛手印:右手觸地,呼喚

is often portrayed in the mudra of en-

大地為佛見證。上師身軀壯健,外著半

lightenment with left hand on his lap and

披肩袈裟, 內著袒右肩僧祇支,結跏

right hand touching the earth. He is clad

趺坐於覆蓮座上,有早期袈裟風格。鎏

in monastic robe lined with beaded seams

金塑像完美飽滿,面相莊嚴。蓮花座背

covering his bullet-shaped body. He is one

後有銘文。

多杰嘉波

of the three principal students of Gampopa, the founder of the Pagdru Kagyu School. Inscription is found on the back of the lotus pedestal.

Reference: 1.

Dinwiddie, Donald, Portraits of the Masters: Bronze Sculptures of the Tibetan Buddhist

Lineages, 2003, p.178, no.37.

2.

www.Himalayanart.org: Collection of Tibet House Museum, New Delhi, #71839


YH-03 Phags-pa

八思巴

Marble, red pigments

白石 紅礦石彩

West Tibet

西藏 西部

14thC

十四世紀

Height 20cm (7¾in.)

高 20公分

A rare statue of Phags-pa,the eminent

白石雕塑八思巴 (1235-1280年) 造

Sakya lama in marble with traces of red

像非常罕見,相似造像曾在2004年秋

pigments.

北京嘉德拍賣出現。雙手置胸前成說

A similar style and media of work in the

教印。頭戴薩迦派班捷達帽,八思巴

China Guardian auction Beijing in autumn

受元世祖封為國師。

sale, 2004. His hands in dharmacakra mudra, turning the dharma wheel of doctrine. He wears a simple monastic robes and a pandita’s hat with long lappets falling over his shoulders. He is seated in virasana on a pedestal carved with intricate floral designs commonly seen in the early Tibetan paintings. The overall statue is in light red pigments. Phags-pa is important as he is the State Preceptor (guoshi) of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in 1260 and the Imperial Preceptor in 1270.

Reference: 1.

中國嘉德2004秋拍拍賣會,《尊崇之美—佛像藝術》, 2004年11月6日, 北京, 第35號

2.

Taipei Palace Museum, Tibet: Treasures from the Roof of the World, 2010, pp.168-169,

no. 075, 076


YH-04 Vajrapani

金剛手護法

Bronze, lapis, turquoise, crystal, glass

銅 鑲青金、松石、水晶和琉璃彩石

Tibet

西藏

14thC

十四世紀

Height 28cm (11in.)

高 28公分

The taut protective guardian, Vajrapani ,represents the

此塑像站姿呈戰鬥格,應手持金剛杵

energy of the enlightened mind; together with Avalok-

惜已失。印度新德里西藏博物館藏一

itesvara and Manjusri forms the trinity of Bodhisat-

相似造型。頭戴五葉冠,身戴鑲有多

tvas expressive of Buddha’s Power, Compassion and

種寶石首飾,上身赤裸,下身披有虎

Wisdom. He is in warrior pose (pratayalidha), carries

皮,身型飽滿,比例適宜,誠元代造

a wrathful expression and in Vitarka Mudra. A similar

像之精彩佳作。

form is found in the collection of Tibet House Museum, New Delhi as deviated from the common form holding a thunderbolt in the right hand. The 5- leaf tiara bejeweled with turquoise and the disc-shaped earrings, bangles on arms and ankles are decorated alike. Lapis are set on the necklace with the cross pendant in the center. Serpent knots, significant of Vajrapani, are distributed on neck, arms, wrists and ankles. Gnashing tiger head on his right knee forms the loin cloth covering the lower part of his body with a looped serpent jewelry across his naked half body. Consecration on the back of torso.

Reference: 1.

www.Himalayanart.org: Collection of Tibet House Museum, New Delhi, #71883

2.

Pal, P., Art of Tibet: a catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection,

1990, p. 210, no.522

3.

Weldon, David & Singer, Jane Casey, The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist Art in

the Nyingjei Lam Collection, 1999, pp. 58-59, no.23; pp.86-87, pl.10.

4.

夏景春 2006年, 頁89-90, 第83-84號

5.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet .Vol. 2, Tibet & China, 2001, p.728,

FigXII-2; p.843, Fig.XIII-14: the earliest example of Vajrapani with very different mudra

found in “On ke ru lha khang” , Central Tibet.


YH-05 Palden Lhamo

吉祥天母

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibet

西藏

15thC

十五世紀

Height 27.5cm (10¾in.)

高 27.5公分

The Sculpture is a heavy cast statue of

此塑像線條簡潔有力,表現十五世紀

Palden Lhamo on her mule. She is the pro-

晚期風格。吉祥天母是格魯派重要護

tector of the Dalai and Panchen lamas. She

法。身披人皮,頭戴五骷髏冠,手中托

is depicted in a wrathful expression, cross-

一髏骨法器,跨坐黃騾之背,面露威

ing the sea of blood on a mule covered

猛形相,黃騾强壯有力,站於血海之

with the flayed skin of her son. Her left

上,形象獨特。黃騾與血海座以整體

hand holds a kapala representing the de-

鑄造,顯示塑造者信心十足的功力。

struction of obstacles. She is the Tibetan form of the Indian goddess of Shridevi.

Reference: 1.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物:造像源流》 2006年, 頁202-203

2.

天津文物公司《金銅佛像》 1998年, 頁143, 第164號

3.

夏景春《佛光寶相》 2006年, 頁98,

4.

夏景春 《般若之光: 夏景春藏佛鑒賞》 2004年, 頁191-192, 195, 第170, 171, 174號

5.

羅文華《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》 2002年, 頁418-419, 第185號

6

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo Tibetan Bronzes, 1981, pp. 454-455, no.125G

第92號


YH-06 Simhavaktra

獅面空行母

Gilt Bronze, color pigments

銅鎏金 礦石彩

Tibet

西藏

16thC

十六世紀

Height 20cm (7¾in.)

高 20公分

Simhavaktra, the lion-faced dakini, is

獅面空行母是蓮花生大師主要空行母

regarded as the principal Dakini teacher

師尊。左手托嘎巴拉碗,右手持鉞

of Padmasambhava .She is depicted as

刀。頭戴三葉骷髏冠。呈單腳跳舞狀,

ferocious-looking, carries a skull bowl in

非常威猛生動,頭髮豎立擺動,繼承

her left hand and a vajra chopper in her

明代早期的風格。

right hand .She wears three-leaf human skull crown and a garland of human heads. She stands on one leg with the other leg pendent. She is bejeweled with disc design necklace, dangling stringed ornaments and flying ribbons over her shoulders. Her dancing posture and artistic silhouette and free flowing hair with red flames give amazing life and energy to the statue.

Reference: 1.

夏景春 《夏景春藏金銅佛像》 2002年, 頁125, 155號

2.

羅文華 《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》 2002年, 頁412-413, 第184號

3.

Ashencaen, Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, The Mirror of Mind: Art of Vajrayana Bud

dhism, 1995, p. 54-55, no. 35

4.

Ashencaen, Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, Tibetan Art at Spink, 1992, no. 19

5.

Pal. P., Desire & Devotion: Art from India, Nepal & Tibet, 2001, p. 310, no. 184


YH-07 Bodhisattva

菩薩

Zitan, traces of gilt

紫檀木

Tibet

西藏

16thC

十六世紀

Height 56cm (22in.)

高 56公分

Bodhisattva stands on a lotus pedestal

紫檀是珍貴進貢木材,在西藏地區尤

with right hand in virtaka mudra and left

為稀少,故此像難得。面容慈祥,表

hand holding an oval object, probably the

達菩薩普渡衆生的宏願。

泥金

fruit of knowledge or wish-fulfilling gem, the gesture of charity. She is bejeweled with floral earrings, necklace and bangles on the arms and wrists and atop with an elaborated tiara in fine lotus motifs. She is clad in a dhoti incised with tiny gold blossoms fastened with a belt. The pedestal is carved in a single row of rounded petals with swelling lobes.

Reference: 1.

Pal, P. , Art of Tibet: A catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection,

1990, pp. 202- 203, no. 514

2.

雍和宮佛像寳典編委會 《雍和宮佛像寳典》 2002年, 頁39, 第86號

3.

夏景春 《般若之光: 夏景春藏佛鑒賞》 2004年, 頁114-115, 第106號

4.

Schroeder, von Ulrich, Buddhist Art in Tibet. Vol.2, Tibet & China, 2001, pp.824- 825,

no. 196A, B, C, D; pp. 990-993, nos. 244A-245B: sandalwood examples.


YH-08 Avalokitesvara

觀音菩薩

Bronze, blue pigments, cold gold

銅 藍礦石彩 泥金

Tibet, Pala Style

西藏帕拉風格

12thC

十二世紀

Height 21cm (8¼in.)

高 21公分

The Avalokitesvara stands in the classical

菩薩站立雙層蓮花圓座。座下有束腰

upright position(Samabhanga) on a circu-

方台。背有火焰紋背光,右手拖無畏

lar, double lotus mounted on a rectangular,

印,左手持蓮花,戴五葉冠,冠上有

stepped pedestal. He is surrounded by an

細小阿彌陀佛像,具有濃厚帕拉風

aureole of flames with the three jewels

格,可能是印度造像大師在西藏塑

on top and crowned by a canopy with two

造。

looped ribbons beneath and topped with a flame. He wears a five-leaf tiara with the Amitabha Buddha in the middle. He is adorned with earrings and necklace and clad in a dhoti with an animal skin covering his left shoulder. His right hand raises in the gesture of fearlessness (abhayamudra) and his left hand holds the stem of the lotus blossom. Some traces of cold gold remain on the face and neck.

Reference: 1.

羅文華 《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》 2002年, 頁262-263, 第102號

2.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Art in Tibet. Vol.1, India & Nepal, 2001, pp.238-239,

nos. 72A, B; p. 242, no. 74A; p. 248, no. 77A


YH-09 Buddha Sakyamuni

釋迦牟尼佛

Bronze

Kashmir schools in Western Tibet

西藏西部 克什米爾風格

12th C

十二世紀

Height 13cm (5in.)

高 13公分

Buddha sits in dhyanasana on a single row

釋迦佛身穿袒右袈裟。右手施無畏

lotus pedestal atop a two-tier stepped

印,左手施與願印。下承覆蓮座,座

base. He is clad in folded garment with

下為須彌座式束腰方台,是克什米爾

marked linear striations, a reflection

像座的流行式樣。

of the ancient mode used in Gandhara. His right hand in the gesture of charity (varada) and his right hand in fearlessness (abhayamudra). Both hands are depicted in a particularly large manner which could be the sculptor’s intention to emphasize the significance of the hand mudra. A similar Buddha in the Norton Simon Museum displays the same characteristics.

Reference: 1.

Pal, P., Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, Art from the Himalayas and China, 2003,

vol. 2, p.36, no.4

2.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Art in Tibet. Vol.1, India & Nepal, 2001, p.170, no. 49A:

a similar base


YH-10 Avalokitesvara Padmapani

觀音菩薩

Bronze, silver inlay

銅鑲銀

Tibet

西藏

India, Pala style

十二世紀

12thC

印度派拉風格

Height 36.5cm (14¼in.)

高 36.5公分

Padmapani stands on a round lotus base

菩薩站在蓮花,置於長方形多層座之

over a stepped pedestal with his left hand

上,座腳有獅一對。銀鑲嵌眼部,頭

holding the stalk of lotus bud and right

戴三葉冠,承托巨大背光,受派拉王

hand, palm outward, in the gesture of

朝風格的影響。左手持蓮花,右手掌

bestowing blessings. His face is round, sig-

向外現與願印。面頰圓滿,有異於傳

nificant of the region he is made with eyes

統的印度派拉造像,造像應在西藏鑄

highlight with silver. He wears a double-

造。背光繫黃布條,以墨彩書寫藏

tier 3-leaf pointed crown with ribbons on

文。

each side. He is clad in a light cloth tied around the hips by a belt of geometric patterns. The pedestal shows a pair of squatting lions and backed by an aureole encompassed by luminous rays, a makara with crawling snakes from the mouth positioned at the apex of the mandorla. A cloth bearing the inscription tied to the mandorla reads Chisteng Kroli: I Chenzing Chuchig Zhal. Reference: 1.

Schroeder, von Ulrich, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, Vol. one, India and Nepal,

2001. p.309, no.105D; p.310, no.106A.

2.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物:造像源流》2006年, 頁第79 、99號

3.

夏景春《般若之光:夏景春藏佛鑒賞》2004年, 頁162, 第147號

4.

羅文華《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年, 頁302, 第125號


YH-11 Lotus Mandala of Vajravarahi

金剛亥母壇城

Bronze

North-Eastern India, Pala Dynasty

東北印度 帕拉皇朝

12thC

十二世紀

Height 19cm (7½in.)

高 19公分

The mandala is intended as a shrine posi-

壇城造型特別,上部為蓮花形式,下

tioned at the altar within a monastery. It

部為蓮枝形式。蓮花共八瓣,可以開

takes the form of a lotus with eight mov-

合,是密宗觀想時心的象徵。此像中

able petals. The lotus flower symbolizes

央供奉的金剛亥母,為勝樂金剛明

the birth of Buddha and a metaphor for

妃,體態優美。蓮花原有蓋頂但已

purity. The nature of opening and closing

失。八瓣內,其中一瓣鑄有黃財神,

of the mandala signifies the endless cycle

其餘皆是寶瓶。此金剛亥母壇城代表

of life and death. Center of this mandala

了慈悲、智慧和財富。

reveals Vajravarahi with the sow head, the principal female deity of the Chakrasamvara Cycle of Tantras. One petal has an engraved Kubera on the inner surface and the remaining seven has a kalasa on the inside. The petals are supported by the stalk flanked with openwork in foliage scrolling patterns. The mandala symbolizes wisdom, compassion and wealth.

Reference: 1.

Zwalf, W., Buddhism Art and Faith,1985, The British Museum Press, London, p.115

no.153

2.

Taipei Palace Museum, Tibet Treasures from the Roof of the World, 2010, p.116, no.030

3.

羅文華《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年, 頁146-147, 第50號

4.

Rochell, Carlton C Jr. & Callanan, Jeanne de Guardiola, Divine Incarnations: Art from

India & Southeast Asia, 2005, No.16

5.

Pal, P., Art of the Himalayas: Treasures from Nepal & Tibet , 1999, p.110, no.52 : man

dala of Chakrasamvara


YH-12 Sarvabuddhadakini

金剛瑜珈母

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Nepal

尼泊爾

18thC

十八世紀

Height 72cm (28¼in.)

高 72公分

She is the Naropa transformation of Vajrayogini,

金剛瑜珈母的化身,少女相,呈舞姿

often depicts as a young female and in a dancing and

的空行母。擁有三眼智慧。這造像異

vivid body posture of a dakini. She has three eyes of

常巨碩罕有。頭戴五骷髏頭冠,手臂

wisdom identifying her three lives. The Dakini was

戴金剛杵飾物,非常突出,右手持鉞

unusually heavy cast and icons of vajra explicitly

刀,左手托嘎巴拉碗,身披頭骨項

and beautifully manifested in the 5-skull and 5-vajra

鏈,全身赤裸,肌肉豐潤,面帶微

crown; vajra design bangles on wrists and ankles; and

笑,體態曼妙多姿。背有入藏封口,

rare crossed dorjies ornaments on the upper arms.

另有兩半環勾掛背光或其他飾物,但

She wears a garland of fifty human skulls and a kapala

已不存。

in her left palm and a kartika in her right. She is nude, though covered with crossed-knitted ornaments across her heart and a dangling apron echoing her nature as a sky walker. Her back is not of the finest touch but the patch cabin of consecration and the two strong loops may suggest a halo missing.

Provenance: Christie’s Paris Asian Art sale, June 2008, Lot No.219 佳士得 亞洲藝術拍賣, 2008年6月, 巴黎, 第219號 Reference: 1.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物:造像源流》2006年, 頁66

2.

夏景春《般若之光:夏景春藏佛鑒賞》2004年, 頁182 , 第16號

3.

羅文華 《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年, 頁148-151; 頁400-401, 第178號; 頁

410-411, 第83號

4.

Ashencaen, Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, Body, Speech & Mind: Buddhist Art from Tibet, Nepal,

Mongolia & China, Spink Catalogue, 1998, pp. 30-31, no.16.

5.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert A.F., Wisdom & Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet. Expand

ed Edition, 1996, p.299, no. 114; p. 261, no.94.


YH-13 Avalokitesvara Padmapani

觀音菩薩

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Nepal

尼泊爾

12thC

十二世紀

Height 30.5cm (12in.)

高 30.5公分

Avalokiteshvara Padmapani stands grace-

菩薩呈三折枝狀,站姿優美,裙裳紋

fully in tribhanga with his right hand in

飾華麗,左手持蓮枝,右手成施願

varada mudra and left hand holding the

印。戴三葉冠,冠上有無量光佛,顯

stem of the lotus at the shoulder. He is

示無量光佛的化身。菩薩站立蓮座較

regarded as an emanation of the Buddha

後位置,而非傳統的正中央,顯出鑄

Amitabha who reigns over the Land of

造大師的匠心獨運,非常罕見。臂上

Bliss, thence his three-pointed floral tiara

裝飾物置較高位置,顯示早期風格。

has a small seated Amitabha Buddha in the middle. He stands further back on the open lotus base with lotus pod designs and a stalk of foliage rises from the side of the lotus. This adds aesthetic structure to the overall appearance of the statue. Padmapani wears a diaphanous dhoti incised with floral motif and fastened with a beaded belt. The armlets worn in a slightly higher position of arms indicates an earlier period of the bronze. Reference: 1.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物:造像源流》2006年,

2.

羅文華《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002 年,73頁, 見附圖; 頁264 , 第103

號; 頁298, 第123號

3.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, Vol. one, India & Nepal, 2001,p.480

no.151 A-B; p. 497 no.159C-E; pp. 500-501, no.161A-E

4.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, 1981, pp.318-319, no.81C, 81E

88頁


YH-14 Amitayus

無量壽佛

Gilt bronze, turquoise, lapis, red glass,

銅鎏金 松石 青金 紅琉璃 青金藍

blue pigments, red pigments

珊瑚紅 礦石彩

Nepal

尼泊爾

15thC

十五世紀

Height 24cm (9½in.)

高 24公分

Amitayus, the Buddha of “infinite life” is

無量壽佛,白度母和尊勝佛母是藏傳

the variant form of Amitabha and to-

佛教寺院常一起接受供奉,為民間祈

gether with White Tara and Ushnishavijaya

求長壽健康。此像是尼泊爾十五世紀

form the three deities of long life. He is

造像典型,飄帶非常特別地向上流

characterized by the kalasa held in his

動,造型出色有力。 蓮花座後刻有蓮

hands over his lap which carries the elixir

枝圖案,令此尊造像與別不同。

of immortality. His gentle smile and downcast eyes give an expression of serenity. The elegantly modeled body is bejeweled with necklace, armlets, anklets inlaid with turquoise. The 5-leaf tiara with lapis, turquoise and red glass set on his head exposes a fringe of hair in blue pigments reflecting the worshipper to be Tibetan. Amitabha is seated in vajraparyankasana on a double lotus pedestal. Incised on the back of the pedestal are coiled foliage and lotus blossoms lavished in red pigments. Reference: 1.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, p.356-357, no.94C: a 14-15th example.

2.

Uhlig, Helmut, On the path to Enlightenment: The Berti Ashmann Foundation of Tibetan

Art at the Museum Rietberg, Zurich, 1995, p.61, no.21: the 14thC Vajradhara.

3.

Pal, P., Art of the Himalayans: Treasures from Nepal & Tibet, p.130, no.70: Vajrarsattva.


YH-15 Arhat Panthaka

半托迦羅漢

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibeto-Chinese

中土藏式

15thC

十五世紀

Height 17cm (6¾in.)

高 17公分

Panthaka is the tenth of the sixteen ar-

十六羅漢的第十位。手持經書表示滿

hats. He is often depicted holding a book

腹經論之得道高僧。造像所在長方座

representing his scholarly accomplishment

有雲式支柱,表達強烈中土風格。

and his devotion to the teaching of the Buddha’s Faith. Exceptionally well-modeled portrait of panthaka seated on a rectangular cushion above a fancy two-tier square pedestal incised with floral and coin motifs supported by cloud design triangular legs. His right hand in teaching gesture (vitarkamudra ) whilst his left hand holds a sutra(the pustaka).

Reference: 1.

Pal. P., Art of Tibet: A catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection,

1990, pp. 108 & 225, no. 536, plate 44

2.

雍和宮佛像寳典編委會 《雍和宮佛像寳典》2002年, 頁100

3.

羅文華 《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年, 頁238-239, 第93號:比較佛所

坐之雙層長方座底部風格。


YH-16 Buddha Sakyamuni

旃檀佛

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibeto-Chinese

中土藏式

18thC

十八世紀

Height 18cm ( 7in.)

高 18公分

Buddha Sakyamuni is portrayed in his royal

造像雙足立於蓮花座上,右手手心向

robe in folds and pleats resembling the

外,結無畏印,左手下垂,掌心向

ripples in the water. It is said that a pious

外,施與願印。身穿圓領通肩袈裟,

worshipper was so overwhelmed by the

紋褶在胸前分布如水波一般,突出

first encounter with Buddha that he dared

"曹衣出水"旃檀像的傳統。

not look at the almighty in his eyes. To get the glimpse of Buddha he looked into the river where he saw His reflection in the rippled water and the robe in this naturalistic form.Here Buddha takes a solemn upright pose on a round lotus pedestal, his two hands in the sacred mudras of abhayamudra and varada.

Reference 1.

天津文物公司《金銅佛像》1998年, 頁74, 第83號

2.

夏景春 《夏景春藏金銅佛像》 2000年, 頁33, 第19號

3.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, 1981, pp. 552-553, no.158E: a very similar

example in Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.


YH-17 Avalokitesvara

觀音菩薩

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

China

明朝

16thC

十六世紀

Height 34cm (13½in.)

高 34公分

Avalokitesvara is seated in a medita-

所戴寶冠中央有細小阿彌陀佛造像,

tive pose, with a chignon and a crown in

表示觀音是西方佛的化身。左手於胸

openwork with Buddha Amitabha in the

前持一寶瓶,右手作說法印。面容慈

center. His right hand raises with index fin-

悲,表達塑造者祈求觀音托福之心。

ger touching the thumb, in the mudra of Vitarka while his left hand holds a pot of pure water. A dharma wheel mark on each of the soles signifies his teachings. He is adorned in jewelry and a sash fastened to the robe incised with floral and foliage motifs on the borders. His facial expression is one of serenity and compassion.

Reference:

張力 《金銅佛像,中華文物詳鉴,上册》2004年,

頁43, 第57號


YH-18 Vaisravana

財寶天王

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibeto- Chinese

中土藏式

15thC

十五世紀

Height 16.5cm (6½in.)

高 16.5公分

Vaisravana is the guardian of the north-

財寶天王是北方的保護神,佛教四大

ern direction. He is depicted seated on a

天王之一。北方財寶天王坐於岩石

rock, symbolic of a strong foundation and

上,顯示與別不同的中土影響,此造

faith. The rock as pedestal is rarely seen

型罕見。身穿黃金鎧甲,衣式獨特,

in bronze Buddhist sculptures. His right

飄揚蓮花瓣點綴於臂彎和膝蓋,更顯

hand raised and his left hand holding the

天王氣勢。左手捧口吐珍寶的財寶

mongoose ejecting jewels from its mouth,

鼠,面容威武。鎏金深黃厚重,是十

a sign of generosity and wealth. He wears

五世紀的典型例子。天王所戴之帽

warrior armor ornamented with impres-

子,型似武將,屬元代風格。眾生可

sive folds and designs. The statue is heav-

藉財寳天王之加持,事業順利,財運

ily cast with thick gold gilding, the power

亨通。

of the guardian well-expressed.

Provenance:

The 2nd Beijing International China Cultural Artifacts Fair, Oct 2010, Beijing, pp. 132-

133

第二屈北京中國文物藝術品 國際博覽會, 2010年十月,北京, 頁132-133

Reference: 1.

Pal. P., Art of Tibet: A catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection,

1990, pp. 108 & 225, no. S36 , Plate 44,: a similar rock style base of Arhat Kalika

2.

夏景春 《夏景春藏金銅佛像》 2000年, 頁128, 第161號

3.

夏景春 《佛光寶相》2006年, 頁99-100, 9第3, 94號


YH-19 Vajrabhairava

大威德金剛

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibeto-Chinese

中土藏式

18thC

十八世紀

Height 10.5cm (4¼in.)

高 10.5公分

A finely cast Vajrabhairava in union with

大威德金剛雖體型細小但精巧,塑造

his prajna. He has nine heads, sixteen legs

難度特高。此像有九頭,十八足和三

and thirty four arms, each holding differ-

十四臂。文殊菩薩面置於八首之頂,

ent attributes. He has a buffalo face with

表示大威德為文殊菩薩的憤怒相,是

two sharp horns as his principal head,

藏傳佛教重要和具有超凡力量的護

at the summit is Manjusri, the only face

法。

which is placid; all others have a wrathful expression. His first pair of hands holds a curved knife and a kapala at his heart and the second and last grabbing on the outstretched hide of an elephant skin mounted on his back. His legs trample over the prostrate figures of gods, human and animal. He is the manifestation of Manjusri, the Buddha of wisdom and revered as one of the most powerful protector in Tibet.

Reference: 1.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物: 造像源流》 2006 年, 頁61

2.

夏景春《 夏景春藏金銅佛像》2000年, 頁71, 第79號

3.

夏景春

4.

韓永《佛造像卷上,北京文物精粹大系》1999年, 頁203, 第170號

5.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, 1981, p.546, no.155A

《般若之光: 夏景春藏佛鑒賞》2004年, 頁60-61, 第58, 59號


YH-20 Guhyasamaja

密集金剛

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Tibeto-Chinese

中土藏式

18thC

十八世紀

Height 25cm (10in.)

高 25公分

Guhyasamaja is portrayed in secret union

密集金剛和明妃雙修像。集密的意思

with his consort Sparshvajra. He is consid-

是“三時” 諸佛的身、語、意, 三

ered Lord of the Diamond Body, Speech

密聚集。本尊密集金剛,三頭六臂三

and Mind of the Tatagatas. He has a se-

目,表示化身、報身、法身三身和三

rene expression on his face. He has three

時如一, 中間二手交臂環抱佛母,二尊

faces and six arms. The original hands hold

頭帶五佛寶冠,身著天衣, 珠寶瓔珞。

a vajra and a ghanta representing wisdom

佛父佛母交抱以金剛跏趺的雙身姿態,

and compassion. The upper right and left

坐於蓮花月輪之上。鎏金厚重,造像

hands hold a chakra and flaming jewel

罕見。

respectively. The lower hands hold a lotus and sword of wisdom. The consort possesses the same attributes. Guhyyasamaja is also known as the “King of Tantras”, particularly popular in the Geluk order for the antiquity of his texts and his tantra was the first Sanskrit work translated into Tibetan in the 18th century.

Reference: 1.

Rhie, Marylin & Thurman, Robert: Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet,

1996, p.277, no. 101: an earlier Tibeto-Chinese example

2.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物:造像源流》2006年, 頁56

3.

雍和宮《佛像寳典》 2002年, 頁20-21

4.

天津文物公司《金銅佛像》1998年, 頁55, 第62號

5.

夏景春 《夏景春藏金銅佛像》2000年, 頁72-73, 第80號

6.

羅文華 《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年, 頁140-141, 第47號


YH-21 Green Tara

綠度母

Gilt Bronze

銅 鎏金

Tibet

西藏

16thC

十六世紀

Height 18cm (7in.)

高 18公分

Green Tara is a goddess for all activities

綠度母,白度母和紅度母是二十一尊度

while white Tara for longevity and red

母中最受人擁戴,為觀世音菩薩之化

Tara for power. They are the most popular

身。頭戴五佛寳冠,身佩各種珠寳,

three among the 21 Taras. She is depicted

着天衣,下身重裙,以示莊嚴;半跏

in a posture of ease (lalitasana) signifying

趺坐於蓮蓮上。右手作施願印,持蓮

her readiness for actions. Her left hand

枝,左手置于胸前。造像非常精細,遺

clings to the stem of the lotus over her

留早期明朝永宣風格。

shoulder as a symbol of purity and her right hand in varada- the blessing mudra. She is adorned with multiple-stringed jewelry around her body and she wears an elaborate 5-leaf tiara. Her benign and affirmative face assured her believers her power to help overcome dangers and fears.

Reference: 1.

Weldon, David & Singer, Jane Casey, The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet Buddhist Art in

the Nyingjei Lam Collection, 1999, pp.110-111, pl.22

2.

天津文物公司《金銅佛像》1999年, 頁124-125, 第141,142號

3.

Ashencaen,Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, Tibetan Art at Spink , 1992, no.36, compare

the style in a thangka


YH-22 Citipati

屍林陀主雙身

Wood, mineral color pigments

木 礦石彩

Mongolia

蒙古

19thC

十九世紀

Height 36.5cm (14½in.)

高 36.5公分

An extremely fine and vivid presentation

精雕細琢的屍林陀主代表墓地之主。

of Citipati, the Lord of the Cemetery. The

塑像爲一男一女兩尊白骷髏體,頭頂

sculpture is portrayed as two skeletons,

圴戴五骷髏冠,男主右手持骷髏杖,

a male and a female with arms and legs

女主右手持寶瓶,兩尊系彩帶,束短

interlaced, dancing the Tsam dance which

裙,並各屈一足,以單足踏白螺,立

is symbolic of the endless cycle of life and

於蓮台上。男女骷髏左右雙扶,持跳

death. Wood used as the media of carv-

舞狀,表示生死不息。流線型飄帶增

ing enables minute and delicate details of

添多重動感。礦石色彩疑不同年代增

the figure. The polychrome colors though

添。底座蓮花為近代替品。

partially fading have added magical effect to the sacred sculpture. The lotus pedestal is a replacement.

Reference: 1.

Taipei Palace Museum, Tibet: Treasures from the Roof of the World ,2010,p.211 no.114: see

the iconography

2.

Ashencaen,Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, The Mirror of Mind: Art of Vajrayana Buddhism.

Spink Catalogue,1995, p.50, no.32: show a gilt bronze example

3.

Ashencaen,Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, Body, Speech & Mind: Buddhist Art from Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia & China, Spink Catalogue,1998, pp.78-79 ,compare the skulls and

skeletons

4.

Pal, P., Desire & Devotion: Art from India, Nepal and Tibet, 2001, pp.322-323 no.193: Citipati

painting on the cabinet in similar style

5.

Prats, Ramon N., Monasterios y lamas del Tibet, 2000, p.113, no.40: the skulls


YH-23

Tantric Curtain

密宗保護簾

Meteorite iron Tibet or Mongolia 17thC Height 115cm (45¼in.) Width 90cm (35½in.) 天鐵 西藏或蒙古 十七世紀 高115公分 闊90公分


YH-23

Tantric Curtain

除 ,

法面

譜,

conditioned set of meteorite iron pierced-through rit-

ual curtain. Elaborately designed with interlocking auspicious icons

of crossed vajras, scorpions, laughing skulls and moaning human faces, all in

the sacred count of four. Neatly linked with a total of 42 loops and 61 panels with mostly

達驅

modest chorten and enhanced in the core by the astounding naked linga with extremities restrained

stupa in bas relief and arranged in a highly symmetrical form. The whole entity summits with a

An extremely rare and well-

,護

的保

,十字鈴柱,蝎子

by chains. The origin may be Mongolian, as seen by the good number of ritual objects in meteorite iron

除惡

難得

像之外

located in Mongolia.(fig. 39-49, pp226-231,Beguin).The function of the iron frame serves as a protective shield

魔的

非常

作為

神 保護

密宗保護簾

believe that specific eminent statue might be commissioned for an important ritual ceremony and the statue was highly prohibited for access at most times. The centered linga represents the essence of evil spirits or the foe. In the tantric rituals, the linga takes the form of a god of an animal, modeled in clay or drawn on paper( p.72, Karmay). The ritual master officiates at the ceremony will usher all the energy of evil forces towards the linga.Such doing will effectively eliminate all vicious elements and at the same time ensure prosperity and add to the accumulation of merits to the worshippers.Another signicance of LINGA with its hands and feet chained, is for turning away invaders from the borderlands (mtha’i dmag-dpung).( p.125, plate 48, Karmay) .The motifs of skulls and human heads are very often employed in the rituals of subjugation and exorcism, for these symbols arouse the terror of the evil spirits which will be effectively suppressed and hence initiates protection to the worshippers. The motifs of SCORPION compose the destructive power of the deity,like the begtse but scorpions also possess the power of protection and guérisseur. (p.106, Karmay) . The crossed dorjes represent the stability of the physical world.It is also the emblem of Amoghshiddhi, the fifth Dhyani Buddha. The sumptuousness and artistic manifestation of the curtain lend the piece a specific secret charm.

決心。

for an specific, highly sacred statue placed inside a monastery or a special chamber. (p.61, Jisl).There is reason to


Reference: 1.

Béguin, Gilles,Trésors de Mongolie-XVIIe-XIXe siècles- Musée National des Arts Asiati

quet- Guimet, 1993, figs. 39-49, pp.226-231

2.

Jisl ,Lumir & Sis Vladimimir,Tibetan Art,1961,London,p.61

3.

Karmay, Samten,Rituels Tibétains-Visions secrétes du musée national des Arts asi

atiques- Guimet,1988,p.72

4.

Karmay,Samten,Secret Visions of the Fifth Dalai Lama,1988, p.125 ,plate 48.

5.

Pal, P., Desire & Devotion: Art from India, Nepal and China, 2001, p. 320-321, no. 192:

compare the tantric figure on one side of the Ritual Box.

6.

Schroeder, Ulrich von, Buddhist Art in Tibet. Vol.1, India & Nepal, 2001, p. 408, figs.

VI-4, VI-5: a simpler design


YH-24 Amitayus

無量壽佛

Gilt Bronze

銅鎏金

Mongolia, school of Zanabazar

蒙古 贊巴學浱

18thC

十八世紀

Height 21.5cm (8½in.)

高 21.5公分

This fine Amitayus is identified as a sculp-

這是蒙古贊巴學派影響下的塑像,鎏金

ture made in Mongolia under the school of

厚重,嘴唇厚,面容精細,體型比例勻

Zanabazar. The thick and heavy mercury

稱,胸前珠寶長鏈分列胸邊,蓮座式樣

gilding on the bronze; the exquisite facial

均是贊巴學派典型。

features with tiny but thick lips; the overall well-proportioned body form; the fine ornament with long jeweled chain falling over the two sides of the body; the distinctive flat spongy lotus petals and the two rows of beads on a comparatively high pedestal are features found in the sculptures made in the school of Zanabazar.

Reference: 1.

Taipei Palace Museum, Tibet: Treasures from the Roof of the World, 2010, p.200,

no.104: a similar Amitayus in the shrine

2.

夏景春《般若之光:夏景春藏佛鑒賞》2004年, 頁59-60, 第54,55號

3.

羅文華《圖像與風格:故宮藏傳佛教造像》2002年,

頁80-81, 第18號


YH-25

Sitasamvara and Consort

白勝樂金剛和明妃 Gilt Bronze, red pigments, blue pigments Mongolia 18-19thC Height 76cm (30in.) 銅鎏金 紅、藍礦石彩 蒙古 十八、十九世紀 高 76公分


YH-25 Sitasamvara and Consort 白勝樂金剛和明妃

Sitasamvara, the White Samvara is a form

白勝樂金剛和明妃的造像非常罕有。

of Samvara, one of the great yidams of

此塑像是薄鑄, 寶冠和飄帶錘鍱造成,

Tibetan-Mongolian Buddhism. A famous

體積壯大。本尊勝樂金剛, 二手交臂

example of Sitasamvara is the Zanabazar

環抱明妃, 雙手各托一長壽寶瓶; 明

Samvara at the Choijin-lama Temple Mu-

妃二手均持嘎巴拉碗, 頭戴五葉寶冠,

seum at Ulan Bator, Mongolia. Samvara is

身著天衣, 珠寶瓔珞,以金剛跏趺的雙

depicted seated on a double lotus pedes-

身姿態,坐於蓮花月輪之上。蒙古烏蘭

tal with his legs in the vajra position. His

巴托 塞淨喇嘛廟博物館內的大成就者

consort rests on his lap in embrace. His

手持寶瓶相似,可能同一大師鑄造。

two arms crossed, each holding an ambro-

布達拉宮亦收藏類似護法。

sial jar with amrita, the elixir of immortality while his consort holds a skull bowl filled with blood in each hand. The sculpture is lightly cast with their crowns, earrings and ribbon ornaments in hammered metal. Another sculpture of Mahasiddha at the Choijin-lama Temple finds a striking similar kapala in red pigments like the attributes of the consort.

Reference: 1.

Beijing Palace Museum , Iconography and Styles: Tibetan Statues in the Palace Museum,

2002, p.122, no. 37

2.

Béguin, Gilles &, Dashbaldan, Dorjin, Trésors de Mongolie XVIIe -XIXe siècles, 1993, p.167,

no.18; p.140, no.11

3.

雍和宮佛像寳典編委會 《雍和宮佛像寳典》2002年, 頁32-33, 可能同一鑄造工場。

4.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert A.F., Wisdom & Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet,

Expanded Edition, 1996,pp. 144-145, nos. 35, 36; pp. 68-69, no. 1: larger version

5.

李冀誠、丁明夷《佛教小百科- 密宗》大象出版社, 2005年, 北京, 頁83

6.

林建業、吳毓琦《 雍和宮 》亞洲藝術出版社 頁107:密集金剛


YH-26 Padmasambhava

蓮花生大師

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八世紀

57 X 42cm (22½in. X 16½in.)

長 57公分 闊 42公分

Padmasambhava is portrayed as the

蓮花生大師是藏傳佛教復興重要人物,

predominant central figure in the paint-

曾轉世為西藏高僧。蓮花生上師有八

ing. He represents one of his eight

大化身,畫中央為蓮花生大師,圍繞

manifestations. He is portrayed seated in

著其他七變相:蓮花海生金剛上師、

relaxed post, vajra in his right hand and

釋迦獅子上師、蓮花王上師、獅子吼

skull bowl in his left hand. He is clad in

蓮師、愛慧上師、蓮師曰光、蓮師忿

a red hat, and wears layers of garments

怒金剛。此畫非常幼細精緻,構圖嚴

adorned with floral and cloud motifs.

謹,各蓮花生化身和護法之間容許足

Surrounding the central compositions

夠空間,証明受中原風格影響。

are the other seven manifestations of Padmasambhava: Buddha Sakyamuni, Vajradhara of Udyana, King Padamavajra, King Loden Chogsay, Suryaprabha, Rdorje-gro-lod and Guru Drakpo. The painting is softly rendered with green landscape and intricate drawings.

Reference:

陳白忠《寂靜與忿怒:藏傳佛教文化藝術》2004年,頁98-101


YH-27 Geluk Order Refuge

格魯派上師供養圖

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八世紀

42 X 38cm (15in. X 16½in.)

長 42公分 闊 38公分

This painting depicts Tsongkapa in his refuge tree with

格魯派上師供養圖是信衆把上師視為

his disciples and other deities. The idea of the assem-

佛陀的代表和象徵,誠心參與拜佛。

bly is to help believers on their path of their spiritual

晝面主尊是宗喀巴大師,心中有一釋

development. All the personages gather around a tree

迦牟尼佛,團隊衆多。下方有祖師、

sprouts forth from the body of water. The tree is sym-

諸佛、緣覺、聲聞、護法等。樹底旁

bolic of having roots in the primal waters which rises

伴有四大天王:多聞天王、持國天

up and extends to the universe. Tsongapa, the spiri-

王、增長天王、廣目天王。構圖獨

tual guru, bears a small Buddha on his chest and above

特,衆多神佛,繁複中又是秩序井

his shoulders the attributes of sword and sutra show-

然。

ing his manifestation of Manjusri. On the foot of the tree are the four lokpalas, the guardians of the four directions. Above them are dharampalas, followed by dakinis. Rows of Buddhas and lamas form the core of the assembly. Depicted below the central figure of Tsongkhapa are the wrathful protectors of Yamantaka, Guhyasamaja, Chakrasamvara and Hevajra.At the bottom right corner of the painting is a monk who may represent the donor in the commission ceremony. Landscape and nature elements such as scrubs, grass, leaves, flowers and clouds provide space to the clusters of figures, giving it a well-balanced appeal to the overall presentation.

Reference: 1.

Rhie,Marylin M. & Thurman,Robert,A.F., Wisdom & Compassion: The Sacred Art of

Tibet Expanded Edition, 1996, p.372-373 No.154

2.

洛桑平措 和 劉海程《西藏唐卡大全》2005年, 頁79, 第122號

3.

Kreiger, Hugo E., Tibetan Painting: the Jucker Collection, 2005, p.82 no.26


YH-28 Avalokitesvara & Eight Buddhas

觀音菩薩和八佛陀

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Tibet

西藏

15thC

十五世紀

53.5 X 46cm (21in. X 18¼in.)

長 53.5公分 闊 46公分

A matrix of nine chambers in three rows

構圖特別,非常罕見。以九宮編排;

and columns displaying eight images of

左上角觀音菩薩開始,以四臂觀音現

Buddha Sakyamuni, Amoghasiddhi, Ratna-

身。八大佛陀有釋迦牟尼佛,不空成

sambhava, Maitreya,Bhaisajyaguru and

就佛(北方佛),寶生佛(南方佛)

an image of Avalokitesvara in the form of

,彌勒佛(未來佛)和藥師佛等。最

Sadakshari in the first chamber at the top.

頂層有金剛總持,伴有印度和西藏上

Each figure is flanked by two attendant

師。最下二層有護法和菩薩。畫背後

Bodhisattvas on the sides except for the

以墨彩繪畫佛塔和銘文。

Buddha at the bottom right corner where two disciples stand by His either side. The lineage in the top register is composed of Vajradharas, and a host of Indian and Tibetan monks.Two rows of deities and yogi occupies the bottom register. A stupa drawing with inscriptions are on the back of the thangka.

Reference:

Heller, Amy, Tibetan Art: Tracing the development of spiritual ideals and art in Tibet

600-2000A.D., 1999, p.88 no.74 : 14thC Avalokitesvara, wide mandorla and makaras on

top of two sides of the mandorla.


YH-29 Buddha Sakyamuni & His life story

釋迦牟尼佛生平故事

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Eastern Tibet

東藏

18thC

十八世紀

108 X 67cm (42½in. X 26½in.)

長 108公分 闊 67公分

Buddha Sakyamuni in the dharmacakra

畫中央有釋迦牟尼說法,背景釋迦生

mudra “turning the Wheel of Law” is por-

平故事,人物細小繁多,構圖特別,

trayed in the center of the painting. He is

反映東藏地區畫風。全畫有藏文解釋

surrounded with narrative of life scenes in

不同故事,異常精彩難得。

neat clusters, each elaborated with architectural and landscape elements. Inscriptions are drawn in gold, furnish details about the scenes. The painting is in Karma -gadri style with landscape elements and predominant colors of green, blue and red. The drawing is refined and delicate with Tibetan inscriptions.

Reference: 1.

陳白忠《寂靜與忿怒:藏傳佛教文化藝術》2004年,頁28-29

2.

Rhie, Marylin & Thurman, Robert: Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet,

1996, p.90-95


YH-30 Kalachakra

時輪金剛

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Eastern Tibet

東藏

18thC

十八紀

52 x 36cm (20½in. X 14¼in.)

長 52公分 闊 36公分

A powerful Kalachakra in Yab-yum is

強壯有力的 時輪金剛,四面二十四

displayed as the central large figure in the

臂,前兩臂擁抱明妃,手持金剛杵,

painting. He has four heads and twenty

其餘各手圴持法器。身驅紅丶藍、

four hands holding different attributes. He

白、黃,披虎皮。明妃有四面,生八

wears tiger skin and stands in alidhasana

臂,手持法器,通身金黃。唐卡下中

trampling under each foot a four-armed

央護法為時輪金剛的憤怒相。人物不

demon. He is depicted in blue, red and

多,簡單而隆重。左上角有一黃帽上

white and the Shakti in his embrace in

師,右上角一紅帽上師,可見時輪金

gold. He is flanked by a yellow hat lama

剛地位超然,紅派黃派均非常重視。

on the top left corner and a red hat lama on the right, both with a gold stupa by his side. At the bottom center stands the Vajravega, the fierce form of Kalachakra. The painting is composed of vibrant colors and the ample use of gold render a special visual perception to the worshippers.

Reference: 1.

洛桑平措 和 劉海程《西藏唐卡大全》2005年, 頁114 , 第157號

2.

王家鵬《藏傳佛教唐卡:故宮博物院藏文物珍品大系》2003年, 頁40-42, 第34-36號

3.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman,Robert, A.F. , Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wis

dom & Compassion, 1999, p.372 no.137


YH-31 Yamantaka

大威德金剛

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八紀

64 X 42cm (25¼in. X 16½in.)

長 64公分 闊 42公分

The Yamantaka painting is an example of “nakthang”,

黑底描金非常罕見。 大威德金剛呈

figures are drawn in gold against a black background.

九面三十四臂十六足、頭上兩角,抱

The style probably derives from the mode of writing on

明妃雙修。畫功精緻,表現文殊菩薩

black paper in gold ink, resembling some of the imperial

憤怒之相。左上角格魯派祖師宗喀巴

Buddhist’s scripts. The Yamantaka is depicted in yab-

大師,右上角一修行者可能是大成就

yum. He has a buffalo face with two sharp horns as his

尊者。左下角有財寶天王騎獅,右下

principal head, topped with Manjusri with a benign face,

角有閻魔雙修,中間為護法六臂大黑

while all others have a wrathful expression. His first pair

天。

of hands holds a curved knife and a kapala at his heart. His legs trample upon gods, human, animal and birds. He is the manifestation of Manjusri, the Buddha of wisdom, one of the most powerful protectors in Tibet. At the top register on the left is Tsongapha with his attributes of sword and the sutra, on the left is a yogi holding a kapala and a thunderbolt. At the low register stands a 6-armed Mahakala, flanked by Vaishravana on his left and Yamaraja on his right. The painting is drawn in vigorous gold fine lines .The presentation is dynamic and well- executed.

Reference: 1.

Kreiger, Hugo E., Tibetan Painting:the Jucker Collection, 2005, p.146, no.57: Kamukhamahakala;

p.148, no.58: Seikhrabtsan; p.150, no.59: Mahavajrabhairava; p.154, no. 61: Maningnakpo

2.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert, A.F. , Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wisdom

& Compassion, 1999, p.268, no.74: Vajrakila Father- Mother; p.269, no.75: Four-armed Mahakala

Father-Mother; p.276, no.80: Mahakala Gonpo Bernagjen; p.278, no.81: the protector, perhaps

Pehar; p.301, no.93: Hevajra & Nairatmya Father-Mother; p.342, no.119: Mahakala; p.374, no.

138: Yamantaka Vajrabhairava Father-Mother


YH-32 Amitayus

無量壽佛

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八紀

67 X 45.5cm (26½in. X 18in.)

長 67公分 闊 45.5公分

This red thangka composes of all Amitayus, god

紅卡中央主尊為無量壽佛,又稱無量

of infinite life, with a predominant one depicted

光佛。頭戴五葉冠,胸前佩戴項鏈及

enthroned in the center on a white pericap, a

瓔珞,並飾有手釧、臂釧和足釧,肩

representation of moon, above the fresh spongy

搭松綠帔帛,半身花紋輕紗,體態端

pedestal of lotus. He is bejeweled in fine gold

莊。雙手禪定印,托寶瓶,結跏趺坐

earrings, necklace, armlets, bangles and anklets

于白色蓮台之上。背後有藍、白雙層

over his luminous body. His two hands hold the

背光。背景紅色、共有102尊描金無

vase of immortality. He is clad in bright-colored

量壽佛,華麗簡撲互相揮影,實是佳

garment adorned with flower motifs. Surrounding

作。

him are 102 clones bearing the same iconography except they are delineated only in gold with red complexion. This “tsalthang”, the thangka in red background with a myriad of Amitayus symbolizes infinity. By commissioning a myriad thangka where the images are repeated in a significant number, the donors will receive merit in many folds.

Reference: 1.

Pal, P., Art of Tibet, 1990, p.279 no.55

2.

Pal,P., Art of the Himalayans: Treasures from Nepal & Tibet, 1991,pp.177-178,no.108

3.

Kreijer, Hugo E., Tibetan Painting: Jucker Collection, 2001, pp.38-39, no.5: Bhaisajyaguru with

similar style; pp.46-47, no.9:Buddha Akshobhya

4.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert, A.F., Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wisdom

& Compassion, 1999, pp.244-245, no.59: Padmasambhava; pp.255-256, no. 66: Nyingma Lama; p.306, no.96: Kurukulla; p.359, no.129: The Fifth Dalai Lama & His Reincarnation

Lineage; p.412, no.159: Vajravidarana with the Five Guardian Goddesses

5.

王家鵬《藏傳佛教唐卡:故宮博物院藏文物珍品大系》2003年, 頁145, 第134號

6.

韓永《佛造像卷下 北京文物精粹大糸》1999 年, 頁218, 第176號, 參看紅卡長壽 佛像


YH-33 Amitayus Father-Mother

無量壽佛雙修

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八世紀

67 X 44cm (26½in. X 17½in.)

長 67公分

Amitayus Father-Mother is enthroned on

紅身無量壽佛抱明妃,此造型絕不常

a lotus pedestal with hands holding the

見。綠色背景描繪108尊細小、祥和的

ambrosia vase. The consort in his embrace

四臂觀音,襯托著坐於淡紅蓮花座上

holds a kapala in her left hand and a chop-

的無量壽佛雙修像,尤其突出。構圖平

per in her right. The radiating light from

淡中見精彩,令觀賞者易於專注,祈求

the mandorla forms a beatific arc sur-

賜予長壽和健康。

rounded by a myriad of 108 Sadaksari in arrays. Each Sadaksari has a white complexion, clad in colorful garment. The thangka is exceptional proportional which renders extra merit for meditation purpose.

闊 44公分


YH-34 White Kubera

白財神

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

Mongolia

蒙古

18thC

十八世紀

55 X 39cm (21¾in. X 15½in.)

長 55公分 闊 39公分

A very rare painting of White Jambhala

此畫題材罕見,白財神騎龍坐於當

riding his dragon presented in the middle

中,伴隨有黃財神、紅財神、黑財神

of the thangka. He is accompanied by

和其他護法,最頂層有一黑帽上師,

the yellow Jambhala, black Jambhala and

是噶舉派大寶法王。

even rarer, the red Jambhala. On the top register sits in the middle is the black-hat Karmapa.

Reference: 1.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert, A.F., Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of Wis

dom & Compassion, 1999, p.279, no.82

2.

王家鵬《藏傳佛教唐卡:故宮博物院藏文物珍品大系》2003年, 頁280-281, 第258號


YH-35 Palden Lhamo

吉祥天母

Distemper on cloth

棉布彩繪

East Tibet/Mongolia

東藏/ 蒙古

18thC

十八世紀

62 X 43.5cm (24½in. X 17¼in.)

長 62公分 闊 43.5公分

Palden Lhamo is the dominating central

佛教護法神,身披人皮,頭戴五骷髏

figure in the painting. He rides a mule in

冠。手中托一盛滿血和心的髏骨法

the middle of the wild sea of blood and

器,右手持三股叉。側身跨坐黃騾之

fat. She is dark blue color with left hand

背,凌空飛行於血海之上,雷光閃

holds a skull filled with blood and a heart

爍,其侍從空行母伴隨左右。最頂層

organ, his right hand a trident adorned

宗喀巴大師和其弟子達賴,證明這是

with a vajra handle. He wears a 5-skull

格魯派重要護法。四季佛母在第二層

tiara, atop a crescent with peacock feath-

上,其餘十二財寶女神各騎珍狩,令

ers above his flaming hair. He is flanked by

全畫生動有趣,精彩萬分。

two animal-headed deities, Simhavaktra and Makaravatra. Tsongapa sits in the center of the top register with other lamas of the Gelukpa sect. Above his head are the four goddesses of the seasons, each riding on her own animal. The bottom register of the painting are twelve jewel goddesses, each vividly depicted riding on exotic animal. Reference: 1.

洛桑平措 和 劉海程《西藏唐卡大全》2005年, 101頁 144號

2.

Kreijer, Hugo E., Tibetan Painting: Jucker Collection ,2001, p.94, no.32

3.

Rhie, Marylin M. & Thurman, Robert, A.F., Worlds of Transformation: Tibetan Art of

Wisdom & Compassion, 1999, p.387, no.146; p.147, no.147

4.

王家鵬《藏傳佛教唐卡:故宮博物院藏文物珍品大系》2003年, 頁162-163, 第150

號; 頁152,第141號


YH-36 Phurpa Dagger

金剛橛

Bronze

Tibet

西藏

12-13thC

十二至十三世紀

Length 47cm (19in.)

高 47公分

The three-faced phurpa is the embodi-

金剛橛,於壇上等結界設之,意使道

ment of the fierce Buddha deity-Vajrakila.

場之地,堅固如金剛,諸障不能惱

Each face has 3 fierce eyes symbolizing

害。法器呈三面憤怒護法相,表現普

complete knowledge of relative, abso-

巴金剛,又稱橛金剛,是寧瑪派非常

lute and non dual realities. The flaming

重要法器。法器外型巨碩,護法面容威

eyebrows, bulging eyes and curved fangs

猛,當是重要藏傳寺院藏品。

accelerate the energy of the force. The three sections in the middle represent the endless knots and the lotus of enlightenment. The triple-edged blade emerges from the mouth of the makara from which snakes are emerged.

Reference: 1.

Weldon, David & Thurman, Robert A.F., Sacred Symbols, 1999, pp.146-147, no.67: a 14thC example

2.

Pal, P., Art of Tibet: a catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection,1990, p.294,

no.R23

3.

Taipei Museum, Tibet Treasures from the Roof of the World, 2010, p.189, no.094

4.

Ashencaen, Deborah & Leonov, Gennady, The Mirror of Mind :Art of Vajrayana Buddhism, Spink

Catalogue,1995, p.74, no.45

5.

Speelman, A & J, An Exhibition of Buddhist Works of Art, 1998, pp.48-49 no.22; p.74 nos.38,39

6.

Pal, P., Desire & Devotion: Art from India, Nepal and Tibet, 2001, p.315, no.188

7.

Prats, Ramon N., Monasterios y lamas del Tibet, 2000, pp.102-103 nos.17-24: a variety of phurbas


YH-37 Kapala Drum

嘎巴拉鼓

Ivory, skin membrane, gold,

象牙, 羊 皮, 金,松石,青金,琉璃

turquoise, lapis, glass

西藏

Tibet

十八世紀

18thC

長 10公分 闊 8公分 高 7.5公分

Length 10cm (4in.) Width 8cm (3¼in.) Height 7.5cm (3in.) Ivory Kapala with gold are rare and mostly

象牙加純金嘎巴拉鼓非常罕見,可能

offered by high lamas to the imperial

是藏傳佛教上師進貢宮庭名貴的法

court. During ritual ceremony, the lama

器。上師多用嘎巴拉鼓迎接空行母,

initiates the sound using the drum and

作為祈褔法事的重要法器。以松石,

summons the Dakinis from the pure land

青金石,紅玻璃鑲嵌,形成腰帶束兩節

to bless the practitioners. The gold filigree

鼓, 羊皮覆蓋鼓面,中土絲綢裝飾長

inlaid with turquoise, lapis, and red glass

條,增添此法器的美觀和重要性。

forms the band tying the two sections of the drum. A tassel of silk and embroidery is attached to the drum. Tinted green skin membrane covers the drums with a crack on one side.

Reference: 1.

Weldon, David & Thurman, Robert A.F., The Sacred Symbols: The Ritual Art of Tibet,

1999, pp. 48-49, no.19

2.

Pal, P., Art of Tibet: a catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collec

tion,1990, pp. 301-2, no.R31


YH-38 Amulet Box

寶盒

Gold, pearls, turquoise, glass,

黄金,珍珠,松石,琉璃,寶石

green stones

西藏

Tibet

十八世紀

18th C

長 13公分 闊 14公分 厚 3公分

Length 13cm (5¼in.) Width 14cm (6in.) Height 3cm (1¼in.) Amulet boxes are ornaments worn by

純金打造寶盒是貴族飾物,此寶盒可

the Tibetan woman as pendants; some

能是藏族上師向清宮廷進貢物品之

are attached to the garments for decora-

一。拉薩大昭寺中殿內供奉的釋迦牟

tions. They are also seen in large Bud-

尼十二歲等身像,是文成公主成婚時

dhist statues in elaborate ornaments in

帶到西藏的重要神像,其佛身裝飾著

gold, gems and zi-beads. A similar orna-

各種罕有的珠寶,其中寶盒與此展品

ment is found on the royal dress of the

類似。

important 12-year-old Sakyamuni Buddha statue bought by Princess Wenchen from China to Lhasa. It is now displayed in the Jokhang Temple at the Potala Palace. The design of the current gold box is one of symmetry and nature beauty implementing the icons of cloud motifs in gold filigree, floral and leaf motifs set in turquoise highlighted by diamond cut glass stones and array of pearls. Reference: 1.

布達拉宮《西藏珍貴文物: 造像源流》 2006 年, 頁20

2.

Singer, Jane Casey, Gold Jewelry from Tibet and Nepal, 1996,pp.130-132,nos.54-56

3.

Weldon, David & Thurman, Robert A. F., Sacred Symbols: the Ritual Art of Tibet, 1999,

pp. 72-73, no. 31


YH-39 Pair of Deer

雙鹿

Bronze

Tibet

西藏

18th C

十八世紀

Height 53cm (21in.) Length 66cm (26in.)

高 53公分 長 66公分

When Buddha gave his first preaching in

佛陀說法之始,有兩鹿出現。自始藏

the Deer Park, nobody came to listen,

傳寺院建築多設雙鹿和法輪於寺頂,

only two deer appeared and stayed there

代表見證佛法的標誌。這對鹿是鎚鍱

quietly listening. This pair of deer in

而成,身形飽滿,其一有角代表雄

repoussé together with the Dharma Wheel

性,另一代表雌性,應是原裝配對。

is symbolic of Buddhist laws and are commonly found in most monasteries in Tibet.

Reference: 1.

Weldon, David & Thurman, Robert A. F., Sacred Symbols: the Ritual Art of Tibet, 1999,

pp. 12-13, no. 1

2.

Rochell, Carlton C. Jr. & Callanan, Jeanne de Guardiola, Realm of the Gods: Art from

India & Southeast Asia, 2006, no. 34: a similar standing pair.

3.

Christie’s, Indian & Southeast Asian Art, New York, March 21, 2007, no. 341


YH-40 Qing Feng Pagoda

青峰塔園景

Ivory

象牙

China

中國

1970’s

1970年代

Height 85cm (33 ½in.) Width 48cm (19in.)

高85公分 闊48公分 深39公分

Depth 39cm (15½in.) An exquisite Chinese Buddhist architecture

青峰塔和園景構圖精彩,工藝細緻,

carved in ivory with landscape scenery, creating

可謂巧奪天工。庭園佈局對稱,表現

a harmonious integration between the temple

傳統中國建造園林風水和自然融合。

buildings and the environment. A panel incised

九層塔更是畫龍點睛之作。

with “Qing Feng”, centered in the curved roof tiles of the triple gates marks the name of the temple. It could be modeled on the famous “Qing Feng Ta” built in the early Tang period. After entering the gates led by staircases is the courtyard. Located in the front area are two grand incense burners intricately carved with pierced openwork at the apex .A plum blossom tree and banyan tree stood high on the two sides. Birds rested quietly among the trees add a strong contrast to the busy interactions among the worshippers and visitors in the area. The principal part of the temple is the 9-storey pagoda enhanced by two Bodhisattvas engraved on the frontal plates of the entrance. Charming bells hung on the eaves of each level of the pagoda, dangle in the air and fill the atmosphere with pleasing sound and blessings. Auspicious Chinese symbols are generously employed in the architectural group. Among them are the eight immortal emblems on the pillars of the triple gates, the dragon head and three-legged toad on the slope of the staircase, the dancing dragons on the roof tops, the dragon fish by their sides and the Chinese lions supporting the incense burners .Impressive is the count of over a hundred minute figures, each engaging in his activity, blended harmoniously with the scene. The wire attached to the base of the structure indicates the amazing matrix of luminous threads installed in the lanterns and the apex of the incense burners. To light it up will be a challenging feat.


Buddhist Impressions— Ying Har Tang Collection  

Hollywood Galleries- We are delighted to present these carefully selected Buddhist sculptures from a private collection— Ying Har Tang. T...

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