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mastering the art of

FRENCH COOKING


MASTERING THE ART OF

FRENCH COOKING


MASTERING THE ART OF

FRENCH COOKING

SIMONE BECK / LOUISETTE BERTHOLLE / JUILA CHILD RANDOM HOUSE OF CANADA LIMITED 1961


L.C. catalog card number: 61-12313

THIS IS A BORZOI BOOK PULISED BY ALFRED A. KNOPF, INC.

Copyright 1961 by Afred A. Knopf, In. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote breif passages and reproduce not more than three illustrations in a review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper. Manufactured in the United States of America and distrubted by Random House, Inc. Published in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited.

PUBLISHED OCTOBER 1961 REPRINTED FOUR TIMES SIXTH PRINTING, MAY 196


TO:

La Belle France

Whose pasants, fisherman, housewives, and princes - not to mention her chefs - through generations of inventive concentration have created one of the world’s great arts.


CONTENTS

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

3

DEFINITIONS

11

INGREDIENTS

15

MEASURES

CHAPTER 4 - ENTREES &

139

LUNCHEON DISHES Pie Dough and Pastry Shells

139

Quiches, Tarts, & Gratins

146

20

Souffles & Timbales

157

TEMPERATURES

24

Pate a Choux, Puffs, Gnocchi, & Quenelles

175

CUTTING

26

Crepes

190

Cocktail Appetizers

196

WINES

31

CHAPTER 1 - SOUPS

37

CHAPTER 5 - FISH

207

CHAPTER 2 - SAUCES

54

Fish filets poached in white wine

208

White Sauces

55

Provence Recipes

218

Brown Sauces

66

Two Famous Lobster Dishes

220

Tomato Sauces

76

Mussles

226

The Hollandaise Family

79

List of Other Fish Dishes

232

The Mayonnaise Family

86

Vinaigrettes

94

CHAPTER 6 - POULTRY

234

Hot Butter Sauce

96

Roast Chicken

240

Cold Flavored Butters

99

Casserole-Roasted Chicken

249

List of Miscellaneous Sauces

105

Sauteed Chicken

254

Stocks and Aspics

106

Fricasseed Chicken

258

Broiled Chicken

265

Chicken Breasts

267

CHAPTER 3 - EGGS

116

Duck

272

Poached Eggs

116

Goose

282

Shirred Eggs

122

Eggs in Ramekins

123

Scrambled Eggs

125


CHAPTER 7 - MEAT

288

CHAPTER 9 - COLD BUFFET

536

Beef

288

Cold Vegetables

536

Lamb and Mutton

328

Aspics

544

Veal

350

Molded Mousses

558

Pork

375

Pates and Terrines

564

Ham

389

List of Other Cold Dishes

576

Cassoulet

399

Liver

405

579

Sweetbreads

CHAPTER 10 - DESSERTS & CAKES

309

Fundamentals

579

Sweet Sauces and Fillings

588

Custards, Mousses, and Molded Desserts

594

Brains

413

Kidneys

416

Sweet Souffles

613

CHAPTER 8 - VEGETABLES

421

623

Green Vegetables

Fruit Deserts

423

Tarts

632

Carrots, Onions, and Turnips

476

Crepes

648

Lettuce, Celery, Endive, and Leeks

489

655

The Cabbage Family

Clafoutis

496

658

Cucumbers

Babas and Savarins

499

Ladyfingers

665

Eggplant

501

Cakes

667

Tomatoes

505

Mushrooms

508

Chestnuts

517

Potatoes

520

Rice

528


MEASURES A pint’s a pound the world around except in England where a pint of water weights a pound and a quarter, and all measurements in this book are level. The following table is for those who wish to translate French measurements into the nearest convenient American equivalent and vice versa:

AMERICAN SPOONS / CUPS

FRENCH EQUIVALENTS

LIQUID OUNCES

LIDQUID GRAMS

1 tsp (teaspoon)

1 cuillere a cafe

1 Tb (tablespoon)

1 cuillere a soupe

1/6 1/2

5 15

8 16 ( 1 lb )

227 454

32 3 1/2

907 100

8 1/2 2.2 lb

100 1000 ( 1 kilo )

cuilere a bouche or verre a liqueur 1 cup (16 Tb)

1/4 litre less 2 TB

2 cups (1 pint)

1/2 litre less 1/2 decilitre

4 cups (1 quart)

9/10 litre

6 2/3 Tb

1 decilitre 1 demi verre

1 cup plus 1 Tb

1/4 litre

4 1/3 cups

1 litre

X


BRITISH MEASURES British dry measures for ounces and pounds, and linear measures for inches and feet, are the same as American measures. However, the British liquid ounce is 1.04 times the American ounce; the British point contains 20 British ounces; and the quart, 40 ounces. A gill is 5 ounces, or about 2.3 of an American cup.

CONVERSTION FORMULAS AMERICAN / BRITISH / METRIC To Convert

Multiply

By

Ounces to grams Grams to ounces Liters to US quarts Liters to British quarts US quarts to liters British quarts to liters Inches to centimeters Centimeters to inches

The ounces The grams The liters The liters The quarts The quarts The inches The centimeters

2.835 0.035 0.950 0.880 1.057 1.140 2.540 0.390

CUP-DECILITER EQUIVALENTS 1 DECILITER EQUALS 62/3 TABLESPOONS Cups

Deciliters

Cups

Deciliters

1/4 1/3 1/2 2/3 3/4 1

0.56 0.75 1.13 1.50 1.68 2.27

1 1/4 1 1/3 1 1/2 1 2/3 1 3/4 2

2.83 3.00 3.40 3.75 4.00 4.50

GRAM - OUNCE EQUIVALENTS Grams

Ounces

Grams

Ounces

Grams

Ounces

25 30 50

0.87 1.00 1.75

75 80 85

2.63 2.80 3.00

100 125 150

3.50 4.40 5.25

XI


TEMPERATURES FAHRENHEIT & CENTIGRADE

TO CONVERT FAHRENHEIT INTO CENTIGRADE, Subtract 32, multiply by 5, divide by 9 Example: 212 (Fahrenheit) minus 32 equals 180 180 multiplied by 5 equals 900 900 divided by 9 equals 100, or the temperature of boiling water in centigrade

TO CONVERT CENTIGRADE INTO FAHRENHEIT Multiply by 9, divide by 5, add 32 Example: 100 (centigrade) multiplied by 9 equals 900 900 divided by 5 equals 180 180 plus 32 equals 212, or the temperature of boiling water in Fahrenheit

XII


TEMPER ATURE CONVERSION TABLE AMERICAN / FRENCH / BRITISH

FAHRENHEIT DEGREES AMERICAN & BRITISH

CENTRIGRADE DEGREES

AMERUSICAN OVEN TEMP. TERMS

FRENCH OVEN TEMP. TERMS & STD. THERMOSTAT SETTINGS

BRITISH THERMOSTAT SETTINGS

#1

160 170

71 77

200 212 221

93 100 105

225 230 250 275

107 110 121 135

Very Slow

284 300 302 320 325

140 149 150 160 163

Slow

350 356 375 390 400

177 180 190 200 205

Moderate

410 425 428 437 450

210 218 220 225 232

Hot

475 500

246 260

Very Hot

525

274

#8

550

288

#9

Tres Doux; Etuve #2 Doux #3

#1/4 (241 F) #1/2 (266 F)

Moyem; Modere

#1 (291 F)

#4 #2 (313 F) #3 (336 F) Asses Chaud; Bon Four #4 (358 F) #5 #5 (379 F) #6 (403 F) Chaud #6

#7 (424 F)

#8 (446 F) Tres Chaud; Vif

#9 (469 F)

#7

XIII


MEATS VIANDES

Faced with the awesome problem of what to choose from among the wonderful store of French recipes for beef, lamb, pork, ham, sweetbreads, kidneys, liver, and brains, we have picked those which seemed to us especially French, or of particular interest to American cooks. We have not gone into roast beef or broiled chops as they are pratically the same everywhere. Besides numerous traditional dishes, we have inclued a number of French regional recipes for ragouts, stews, and daubes; their comparative economy and ease of execution, in addition to their robust flavors, make them most appealing.

2


TRANCHES DE JAMBON EN PIPERADE HAM SLICES BAKED WITH TOMATOES, ONIONS, AND PEPPERS

INGREDIENTS: 2 1/2 to 3 lbs. of cooked ham, sliced 1/2 inch thick, and cut into serving pieces 3 tb rendered ham fat or olive oil. A large skillet A shallow baking dish large enough to hold ham in one layer 1 cup sliced yellow onions 1 cup sliced green bell peppers. 2 lbs. firm, ripe, red tomatoes, peeled, seeded, juiced, and sliced, page 505 (makes 3 cups of pulp) 2 cloves mashed garlic 1/2 tsp pepper Pinch of cayenne pepper 1/4 tsp sage or thyme

DIRECTIONS: This savory recipe for thick slices of smoked ham may be prepared for baking several hours before it is set in the oven. Sauteed potatoes, green beans, and a light red wine or a rose go well with it. For 6 people.

Trim off excess fat, and dry the ham slice or slices on paper towels. Heat the fat or olive oil in the skillet until it is almost smoking, then brown the ham lightly for a minute or two on each side. Remove skillet from heat and place the ham in the baking dish. Lower heat, and stir the onions into the fat in the skillet. Cover and cook slowly for 5 minutes. Stir in the peppers and cook 5 minutes more or until the vegetables are tender but not browned. Spread the tomato pulp over teh onions and pepers, add the garlic and seasonings. Cover and cook slowly for 5 minutes so the tomatoes will render their remaining juice. Then uncover and boil for several minutes, shaking the skillet, until the tomato juice has almost entirely evaporated. Cover the browned ham with the vegetables, (*) May be done in advance to this point Preheat oven to 350 degrees. About 20 to 30 minutes before serving time, cover the baking dish and place it in the middle level of the oven and bake until the ham is heated through the tender when pierced with a fork. Baste with the juices in the dish and correct seasoningm adding salt if necessary. Decorate with parsley and serve. 3


DESSERTS ENTREMETS

One or several of the following processes will be a part of almost any dessert or cake recipe you encounter. Some can be accomplished by machine, others are better performed by hand. None is difficult, but all contribute to the success of your dish and must be done precisely.

6


INGREDIENTS:

DIRECTIONS:

1/2 Tb softened butter 6 - cup mold, preferably 31/2 deep 11/3 Granulated sugar Wire whip 3 Tb sifted all-purpose flour 21/2 - quart enameled suace pan 3/4 cup milk 4 eggs Bowl for beating egg whites 2 Tb softened butter Rubber scraper Pinch of salt 2 Tb vanilla extract Powdered sugar in a shaker

All of the sweet souffles with the exception of chocolate may be made according to the following vanilla souffle formula. A fairly quick operator can make any of them ready for the oven in 20 minutes. For 4 people

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Measure out your ingredients. Butter the entire inner surface of the mold. Roll granulated sugar around in it to coat the sides and bottom evenly. Knock out excess sugar. Beat the flour in the saucepan with a bit of the milk until well blended. Beat in the rest of the milk, and the sugar. Stir over moderately high heat until mixture thickens and comes to the boil. Boil, stirring, for 30 seconds. Sauce will be very thick. Remove from heat and beat for 2 minutes to cool slightly. Seperate one egg, dropping the white into the bowl, and the yolk into the center of the sauce. At once beat the yolk into the sauce and the wire whip. Continue witht he rest of the eggs, one by one. Beat in half the butter. Clean suace off sides of pan with rubber scraper. Dot top of sauce with the rest of the butter to prevent a skin from forming on the surface. (*) If made in advance, beat over gentle heat only until sauce is barely warm to your finger, not hot. Then proceed with recipe. Beat the egg whites and salt together until soft peaks are formed. Sprinkle on the sugar and beat until stiff peaks are formed. ( Directions for beating egg whites are on page 159. )

SOUFFE A LA VANILLE VANILLA SOUFFLE

Turn the souffle mixture into the prepared mold, leaving a space at least 1 1/4 inches between teh top of the souffle and the rim of the mold. If the mold is too full, the souffle will spill over as it rises. (*) If souffle is not to be cooked immediately, set an empty kettle upside down over the mold. Filled mold can now wait for about an hour before baking. Place the mold in the middle level of the preheated oven, and immediately turn down to 375 degrees. In 20 minutes, when the souffle has begun to puff and brown, quickly sprinkle the top with powerdered sugar. After a total of 30 to 35 minutes of baking, the top of the souffle should be nicely browned, and a trussing needle, straw, or long, then knife, plunged into the souffle through the side of the puff, should come out clean. 7



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